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П.А. Столыпин

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Oeooeueiue eeno.

Oeiainiaay Aeaaeaiey i?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O

Eaoaae?a ENOI?EE

?aoa?ao ia oaio: “I.A.NOIEUIEI”

Auiieiee

Nooaeaio a?oiiu O1-3

Eociaoeia A.A.

I?eiyea

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

Oaeeiaa I.A.

Iineaa 1999.

Aeaaa I . Yeiiiie/aneay e iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a ?innee a
eiioea 19 a ia/aea 20 aaea.

A 1900-1903 aiaeu ?inney ia?aaeeea oyaeaeue
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, eioi?ue i?eaae yeiiiieeo no?aiu e
aeeeoaeueiiio canoith. Yoi aue oyaeaeue ia?eiae, ii iinea yoiai
ia?eiaea a ?innee ia/eiaaony ?aceee iiaeuai. Iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa n 1909-1913 aiaea au?in a 1.6 ?aca. Iaeeea e neaaua
i?aaei?eyoey auee ?aci?aiu ai a?aiy e?ecena, a eo ianoi a
?acoeueoaoa i?ioeanna eiioeaio?aoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
caiyee e?oiiua iiiiiieee e neiaeeeaou. Iaeiia?aiaiii oe?aieeanue e
aaieianeay nenoaia.

Auaic eaieoaea ec ?innee ia iieo/ee iniaiai ?aciaoa, /oi
iauyniyeinue eae iaaeinoaoeii oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, oae e
iio?aaiinoyie inaiaiey ia?iiiuo i?ino?ainoa no?aiu, ii ana aea
?inney aeeth/eeanue a ai?ueao ca noa?u aeeyiey, /oi e iiaeaeei
ca niaie aieio n ssiiieae.

Ia nouea 19 e 20 aaea iauanoai anooieei a iiaoth oaco
naiaai ?acaeoey, eaieoaeeci noae ie?iaie nenoaiie. ?inney anooieea
ia iooue eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey iicaea no?ai Caiaaea.
Nei?inoue, n eioi?ie ?acaeaaeanue ?inney, auea i/aiue auniea, yoiio
niinianoaiaaea oaea ?acaeoay Aa?iia; iia ieacuaaea iiiiuue,
aeaeeeanue iiuoii, a oaeaea iai?aaeyea yeiiiieeo a ioaeiia ?onei.

A ia/aea 20 aaea ?inney yaeyeanue n?aaeia?acaeoie
no?aiie. Ia?yaeo n auniei?acaeoie eiaeono?eae a yeiiiieea
no?aiu aieueoia cia/aiea eiaee ?aiiea eaieoaeenoe/aneea e
iieooaiaeaeueiua oi?iu oicyenoaa – io iaiooaeoo?iiai aei
iao?ea?oaeueii-iaoo?aeueiiai. ?onneay aea?aaiy aea nio?aieea
ia?aaeeoee oaiaeaeueiie yiioe. Aaaeiaeoeie ec ieo auee e?oiiua
iiiaue/uee caieaaeaaeaiey, oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaeenue io?aaioee,
yaeythuea niaie ia?aaeeoie aa?ueiu. E?anoueyineia iaeicaiaeuea,
iaueia n aa iaaeaeaie oi?iiceee iiaea?iecaoeeth e?anoueyineiai
oicyenoaa.

Ia?yaeo n oi?ie?iaaieai eeannia ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa

( ao?aeoacey, iaeeay ao?aeoacey, i?ieaoa?eao), i?iaeieaeaee
nouanoaiaaoue e nineiaiua aeaeaiey – ianeaaeea oaiaeaeueiie
yiioe.

Aeai?yinoai, eioi?ia nin?aaeioi/eei aieaa 60% anao
caiaeue, noaei aeaaiie iii?ie naiiaea?aeaaey. E?anoueyinoai,
ninoaaeythuaa 3/4 ianaeaiey no?aiu, auei oaeaea cao?iiooi
nioeeaeueiui ?anneiaieai iauanoai (20% – eoeaee, 30% – na?aaeiyee, 50%
– aaaeiyee). A ia/aea 20 aaea eeann iaaiiuo ?aai/eo ian/eouaae
16.8 iei. /aeiaae. Ii aue iaiaeii?iaeai, aieueoay /anoue ?aai/eo
ninoiyea ec iaaeaaii i?eoaaeoeo a ai?iae e?anoueyi.

Iieeoe/aneei no?iai a ?innee inoaaaeanue aaniethoiay
iiia?oey. Caeii aeanee: « Eiia?aoi? ?inneeneee anoue iiia?o
naiiaea?aeaaiue e iaia?aie/aiiue ».*

Aei 1905 aiaea aunoei ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii a ?innee aue
ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao. Naiao – aunoay noaeaaiay einoaioeey.
Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue inouanoaeyeanue aeaoiy ieienoa?noaaie,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo eiio?iee?iaaeanue eaaeiaoii ieieno?ia.

?inney iaaeeaiii, ii aa?ii ia/aea anooiaoue a ai?ueao ca ?uiee
nauoa. Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?inneae e ssiiieae ca ainiiaenoai ia
?uiea nauoa a Eeoaa noaea iaeiei ec y?eeo i?eia?ia ?acaeaea
noa? aeeyiey a ie?a. ss ia aoaeo iienuaaoue aiaiiua aeaenoaey,
eioi?ua ?acaa?ioeenue a oiaea aieiu, ii iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi yoa
aieia iieacaea iaaioiaiinoue ?onneie a?iee, a oaeaea iaaioiaiinoue
yeiiiieea e aieia. ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua iiianea ?inney a yoie aieia
i?aauoaee 3 ie?ae. ?oaeae.

N ii?aaeaieai a aieia ia/aea ia?anoaoue ?aaiethoeeiiiay
neooaoeey a no?aia (1905-1907). Ec anaai yoiai iiaeii naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi ?innee o?aaiaaeenue eae iieeoe/aneea, oae e
yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua niiaee au oe?aieoue yeiiiieeo
?innee. Ai aeaaa yoeo ?aoi?i aeieaeai aue anoaoue oiiue e
/anoiue /aeiaae, aeey eioi?iai i/aiue aaaeia auea au noaeueaa
?innee. Oaeei /aeiaaeii noae Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei.

*Iiniaea ii enoi?ee. Ecaeaoaeuenoai «Aunoay oeiea», n. 94

A ?innee n aunieie nei?inoueth ia/ae ?acaeaaoueny
eaieoaeeci. Ii a oi aea a?aiy a ?onneie aea?aaia i?aiaeaaeaee
e?oiiua iiiaue/uee caieaaeaaeaiey; iaueia noaea ia?aaeeoeii
oaiaeaeueiie yiioe, oi?iiceea iiaeuaio e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa.
Iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a no?aia io?aaeaea oa?aeoa? yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey.

Ao?aeoacey a ia/aea 20 aaea ea?aea aaaeouoth ?ieue a
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu. Aeai?yia ia/eiaee ana
aieueoa naeeaeaoueny n ao?aeoaceae. Ia/eiaaony ?anneiaiea
e?anoueyi ia eoeaeia, na?aaeiyeia, aaaeiyeia. Iniiaiay /anoue
iaaiiuo ?aai/eo ninoiyea ec auaoeo e?anoueyi, eioi?ua i?eoee ec
aea?aaie.

Aaniethoiay iiia?oey inoaaaeanue iieeoe/aneei no?iai a
?innee. ?inney – no?aia iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiay, iiyoiio iaoeeiiaeueiue
aii?in yaeyeny iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai, eioi?oth ieeae ia
iiaee ?aoeoue.

Aeaaa II. Yoaiu ?acaeoey iieeoe/aneie ea?uea?u Noieuieia.

Noieuiei – auoiaeaoe ec i?iaeioeeaeueiie ?innee, naycaiiue
aeoaieeie ei?iyie n naeueneie a?enoie?aoeae, ia eiaaoee ie/aai
iauaai ie n iieeoe/aneeie aeayoaeyie ec aunoae noiee/iie
ciaoe, ie n i?ioanneiiaeueiuie /eiiaieeaie, eioi?ua n iiiiuueth
i?ioaeoeeiiecia neeueiuo ie?a naai iiaeieiaeenue aaa?o ii
nooiaiueeai neoaeaaiie eanoieoeu aaaeouae e aeanoe, nin?aaeioi/aiiie
a ?oeao iaoa?ao?aneie ath?ie?aoee. Noieuiei – yia?ae/iue,
ene?aiiee, aeecianiiniaiue /aeiaae, i?yiie ioe?iaaiiue no?anoiue
iao?eio, i?ae?aniue i?aoi?.

Ii iaeaaeae iieeoe/aneei /ooueai, oeo?inoueth, iaii?enoinoueth e
oeaeaono?aieaiiinoueth. Eae ?aaeeno ii iiieiae, /oi noaeueaa iiia?oee
caaeneo io oiai, niiaeao ee i?aaeoaeuenoai e naia no?oeoo?a
iauanoaa i?eniiniaeoueny e o?aaiaaieyi nia?aiaiiinoe. Noieuiei
aue neeueiui oaaaeaaiui ainoaea?noaaiiui aeayoaeai ?innee
oie yiioe. A Aeoia ii aunooiae oae e?anii?a/eai e ene?aiia,
/oi aucuaae oaaaeaiea naieo i?ioeaieeia. «Ian ia caioaaoue!» –
a?inae ii a?iiiaeanii naiei a?aaai ec eaaiai e?uea aeoiu –
Aai ioaeiu aaeeeea iio?ynaiey, iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney».
Aeaaeeie? Eieiaoeaa, ieieno? oeiainia, i?eciaaae, /oi «noieuieineia
aeaai?iaenoai, ioaeanoai e i?aaeaiiinoue eioa?anai ainoaea?noaa
auee aannii?iu e aucuaaee ainoeuaiea». Iinie Aaeeeia?eoaiee ny?
Aeaei?aeae Auetheaiai iacuaae Noieuieia «eaeaaeueiui /aeiaaeii
a noa?a aeaeiauo ioiioaiee» e iiae/a?eeaae, /oi «Noieuiei aue
anaaaea /aeiaaeii neiaa e anaaaea auiieiye naie iaauaiey.
Noieuiei i?aaeeny oea?th. Ieeieae ienae iaoa?e: «ss aea ia niiao
oaaa ia?aaeaoue, eae iia ia/eiaao i?aaeoueny yoio /aeiaae e
eaeia oaaaeaiea ii o iaiy aucuaaao».

Aeai?yineee ?iae Noieuieiuo ecaanoai aua n eiioea 16
aaea.

Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei ?iaeeeny aoi?iai ai?aey 1862 aiaea a
Ae?acaeaia, eoaea aai iaoue acaeeea e ?iaenoaaiieeai. Aeaonoai e
?aiithth thiinoue i?iaae a Eeoaa. A 1881 aiaeo ii iinooiee
ia oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.

E?iia oeceee e iaoaiaoeea aio i?aaeeanue i?ica, iiycey

A.E. Oienoiai e A.I. Aioooeia, ii aue iaieioei ?anneac/eeii.

I.A. Noieuiei ii/oe ia oiio?aaeye nie?oiiai, ia eo?ee,
?aaeei ea?ae a ea?ou, ieeiaaea ia eiae iaaei?acoiaiee n
iieeoeeae.

A 1884 aiaeo Noieuiei ca/eneai ia neoaeao a IAAe, n
1887-1889 aiae ?aaioae a Aeaia?oaiaioa caieaaeaeey e naeueneiai
oicyenoaa.

A 1889 aiaeo iiyoue ia?aoae a IAAe. Aai iacia/eee
oacaeiui i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aeai?yinoaa.

A yoio ia?eiae ii i?aa?aoee naia eiaiea a Eieiiaa?aea a
ia?acoeiaia oicyenoai n iiiaiiieueiui naaiiai?ioii e ?acaeoui
aeeaioiiaiaenoaii. Noieuiei caieiae aeaeiia ianoi a n?aaea
?inneeneiai iieeoe/aneiai aeai?yinoaa.

A 1899 I.A. Noieuiei aue iacia/ai eiaaineei aoaa?ineei
i?aaeaiaeeoaeai. A 1902 ii oaea caieiaao iino a?iaeiaineiai
aoaa?iaoi?a. N?aaee ia?aii/a?aaeiuo caaea/ aeey iiaeuaia
naeueneiai oicyenoaa ii noaaeo oie/oiaeaiea /a?aniieineoeu
e?anoueyineeo caiaeue e ?annaeaiea e?anoueyi ia oooi?a. Aaaeiui
oaeoi?ii iiaeuaia caieaaeaeey ii n/eoae ?acaeoea
iaeei?aoeaiiai e?aaeeoa.

A 1903 aiaeo Noieuiei iacia/ai na?aoianeei aoaa?iaoi?ii. A
1904 aiaeo ia/aeanue aieia n ssiiieae. A no?aia ia/eiathony
e?anoueyineea aanii?yaeee, oth?aiiua aoiou . 15 ethey aue oaeo
ieieno? aioo?aiieo aeae Ieaaa.

9 yiaa?y 1905 aiaea, «E?iaaaia aine?anaiuea», noaei ia?aui
aeiai ?onneie ?aaiethoeee. A no?aia ia/eiathony caaanoiaee,
ieoeiae, aeaiiino?aoeee.

A 1906 aiaeo Noieuiei iacia/ai ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo
aeae, e any ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae eiaeeony ia aai iea/e.
Ianeieueei neiaeia auea ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeiiiui aeaeaeaieai
iiaeii noaeeoue ii eieaa I. A. Eo?eiaa, eioi?ue ?aaioae a io?aiea
e /anoi auiieiye ee/iua ii?o/aiey Noieuieia.

Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue iinea iacia/aiey ia iino ieieno?a
aioo?aiieo aeae Noieuiei i?eacaeaao a Oea?neia naei. Ieeieae II
ano?aoee Noieuieia aanueia ieeinoeai e neacae, /oi aeaaii neaaeeo
ca aai aeayoaeueiinoueth a Na?aoiaa, e n/eoaao aai
eneeth/eoaeueii auaeathueiny aaeieieno?aoi?ii, /oi ioaeii iacia/aoue
eiaiii oaeeo ethaeae ia noieue aaaeiua iinou. Noieuiei aea ia
iaeeaeae oaeiai iacia/aiey, e i?aaeeiaeaiea neeueii oaeeaeei
aai. Ii n/eoae, /oi ianeieueei ianyoeaa aoaa?iaoi?noaa a A?iaeia
e ianeieueei eao a Na?aoiaa ia yaeythony aeinoaoi/iie
iiaeaioiaeie e oi?aaeaieth anae aioo?aiiae aeeciueth ?innee. Naeaa
naie aeaea ii aoaa?iee, Noieuiei aeeth/eeny a ?aaioo, ii ia?aae
oai eae iu ?anniio?ei acaeiiioiioaiey Noieuieia e Aeoiu, iaaei
neacaoue i noieue auno?ii aceaoa ea?uea?u Noieuieia. Aaaeue ia
oieueei ii oi?ioei aoaa?iaoi?ii a ?innee. Ii/aio auai? iae ia
iaai?

Iieieaiiniia ainoiaeaeaiea a/a?a aua ?yaeiaiai aoaa?iaoi?a
ia aa?oeio iieeoe/aneiai Ieeiia a aic?anoa 44 eao auei
caaaaeeie aeey nia?aiaiieeia, inoaaony caaaaeeie e iiiuia, iioiio
/oi ieeaeeo naycae e i?ioaeoeee o Noieuieia i?e aeai?a ia
auei. Eoi iiaeneacae aai eaiaeeaeaoo?o? I?aaaea, iaeei ec aai
aeia?aoia, eaaeao Ecaiaa, ienae, /oi eaiaeeaeaoo?o Noieuieia
i?aaeeiaeee oiaaeaoiee iaa?-i?ieo?i? Neiiaea eiycue Iaieaineee, ii
ae?oaea aeia?aou yoie aa?nee ia i?eaea?aeeaathony. A?ao Noieuieia
oaea a yiea?aoeee iaienae eieao, a eioi?ie ?anneacuaaao i oii,
/oi oea?ue iacia/ee aai a?aoa ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae «ii
naiaio ee/iiio ii/eio» e ii nianoaaiiiio auai?o iacia/ee aai
i?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa ieieno?ia.** Ii e yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea
aucuaaao niiiaiea, oae eae oiaea ia iaoiaeeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey a
ae?oaeo enoi/ieeao.

**A.ss. Aa?ao, «I.A. Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee», n.17

A yoii aea aiaeo i?ienoiaeyo aiaiiua ainnoaiey
a Naaaai?aneie e?aiinoe, a E?iiooaaeoa, ia e?aena?a «Iaiyoue
Aciaa». A ?innee oneeeaathony oa??i?enoe/aneea aunooieaiey.

A aaaonoa 1906 aiaea aue i?eiyo oeac i
aiaiii-iieaauo noaeao. Noaeii?iecaiaenoai aeieaeii auei
caaa?oeoueny a i?aaeaeao 48 /ania, a i?eaiai? eniieiyeny ca
24 /ana.

Noieuiei i?eciaaae, /oi oaeea ia?u – «oyaeeee e?ano»,
eioi?ue i?eoiaeeony i?ioea naiae aiee. Ca ainaiue
ianyoeaa n 1906-1907 aiae aiaiii-iieaauie noaeaie auei
auianaii 1102 nia?oiuo i?eaiai?a. A ?innee iaoee ia
aenaeeoeao ie?anoeee «noieuieineeie aaenooeaie». Eiaiii oaeeie
iaoiaeaie Noieuiei iuoaeny ainnoaiiaeoue caeii e ii?yaeie
a ?innee, inoaiiaeoue oa??i?eci a no?aia. (Io ioeue e aiia
oa??i?enoia iiaeaei 1600 aoaa?iaoi?ia, aaia?aeia, nieaeao,
aeaiaea?iia.)

Aeaenoaey Noieuieia i?eaaee e oiio, /oi ii e aai
naiuey oiaea aeieaeiu auee noaoue aea?oaaie oa??i?enoia.
Nionoy ianyoe iinea iacia/aiey a aai caai?iaeiii aeiia, a
ie?anoiinoyo Iaoa?ao?aa, aci?aaeanue aiiaa. Noaia aeiia
iaaaeeeanue, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iiaeaei 32 /aeiaaea,
aeeth/ay neoa e iinaoeoaeae. Iaeaiueeee nui Noieuieia aue
?aiai, aei/ue Iaoaeuey iieo/eea oyaeeea oaa/uey. Noieuiei
aiciaiiaee ?aaioo /a?ac aeaiue, eae aoaeoi ie/aai ia
i?iecioei. Aai naiiiaeaaeaiea e niieienoaea aucaaee
anaiauaa ainoeuaiea.

Eiy Noieuieia i?i/ii naycaii n ?ai?anneyie,
eioi?uie auee ioia/aiu ieii/aiea ia?aie ?onneie
?aaiethoeee e ia/aei iineaaeothuaai ia?eiaea, ecaanoiiai
iai eae aiaeu «noieuieineie ?aaeoeee». Ii eiaiii a
i?iaaaeaiee iieeoeee ?ai?annee ii aeaeae naie aeiea,
iai?aiaiiia oneiaea aeey inouanoaeaiey i?ia?aiiu ?aoi?i.

Noieuiei no?aieeny ia oieueei iiaeaaeoue ?aaiethoeeth
i?e iiiiue ?ai?annee, ii e niyoue aa n iiaanoee aeiy
iooai ?aoi?i.

Noieuiei niaa?oee ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io,
?anionoea aoi?oth ainoaea?noaaiioth Aeoio e ecaeaa 3 ethiy
1907 aiaea iiaue ecae?aoaeueiue caeii, iaania/eaaaoee a
Aeoia ainiiaenoai iiiaue/uea-ao?aeoaciiai aieueoeinoaa.

Aeaaiua yeaiaiou iieeoeee: iieeoeaeneay ?ani?aaa n
?aaiethoeeiiiui aeaeaeaieai, aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia, eaae?iaaiea a Aeoia
iaaeaeo aeoineeie aieueoeinoaaie – i?aaiieoya?enoneeie e
ieoya?enonei-eaaeaoneeie.

Noieuiei iuoaeny eeeaeaee?iaaoue ?aaiethoeeiiiue e?ecen,
?aoea caaea/e ao?aeoaciiai ?acaeoey no?aiu eiio??aaiethoeeiiiui

iooai a eioa?anao iiiaueeia e ao?aeoacee i?e nio?aiaiee

iieeoe/aneiai oea?ecia. Ia?aia ianoi ioaiaeeeinue aa?a?iiio
aii?ino.

A 1906 aiaeo 3\4 ianaeaiey ?innee aeeee ca n/ao
aeioiaea io ia?aaioee caiee. Aieueoeinoai ?onneeo e?anoueyi
auee /eaiaie naeueneeo iauei. Caiey i?eiaaeeaaeaea iaueia.
Yoa nenoaia auea e?aeia iayooaeoeaia: eaaeaeue e?anoueyiei
a ?aieao iaueiu iia eiaoue aei 50 oceeo iiein caiee, ia
eioi?uo ii au?aueaae ?iaeue eee ioaieoeo. *anoi ii
o?aoee aieueoa a?aiaie ia ia?aoiaeu n iieinu ia iieino,
eioi?ua auee ?aca?inaiu aeaeaei ae?oa io ae?oaa, /ai ia
naio iaoioo e naa.

Noieuiei eeeaeaee?iaae iaueiioth nenoaio
caieaiieueciaaiey e caieaaeaaeaiey e ioe?ue aei?iao e
nicaeaieth /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth. Aue ecaeai
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue aeae?ao, ii eioi?iio eaaeaeue e?anoueyiei,
anee ii yoiai oioae, iia aueoe ec iaueiu e iio?aaiaaoue
io iaa iaaeae caiee aeey aaaeaiey oicyenoaa. Aeae?ao
oie/oiaeae /a?aniieineoeo, e e?anoueyiei iieo/ae ia
?aca?inaiiua a ?aciuo ianoao caiee, a aaeeiue iaaeae
caiee, eioi?ue ii iia ia?aaeaaaoue ii ianeaaenoao.

?aoi?ia eiaea ia?iiiua yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea
iineaaenoaey. Aue nicaeai iiaue iauanoaaiiue eeann
e?anoueyi-caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, e?iaii caeioa?aniaaiiuo a
noaaeeueiinoe iauanoaa, eioi?oth iiaei iaania/eoue oieueei
oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai.

Aeaaa III. Noieuiei e II Aeoia.

26 ai?aey 1906 aiaea Noieuiei aue iacia/ai ieieno?ii
aioo?aiieo aeae. Aio auei aeiaa?aii i?ieiaeeoue iieeoe/aneee eo?n
a iiauo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo, iaania/eoue niaeeoaeuenoai
naiiaea?aeaaey n «ia?iaeiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii». Noieuiei niaiee
Ai?aiueeia ia iinoo i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa ieieno?ia. Noaeueaa
ia?aie Aeoiu ieacaeanue naycaia n noaeueaie Noieuieia. 8 ethey
1906 aiae – aeaiue iacia/aiey Noieuieia i?aiuea?ii e aeaiue
?inionea Aeoiu. Ca a?aiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey a Aeoia
ianoaeaeaeenue aii?inu ioiaiu nia?oiie eacie aeey iieeoe/aneeo
caeeth/aiiuo, aii?inu eiioeneaoeee caiaeue o iiiaueeia, niaia
aaeieieno?aoeee.

Noieuiei aae ia?aaiai?u e n ia?oeae eaaeaoia, n aai eeaea?ii, ii
iie ie a /ai ia oioaee onooiaoue. Eaaeaou aai ia ethaeee ca
oaa?aeinoue a iiceoeeyo e ca aai aa?o a iiia?oe/aneoth ?inneth;
iie e?eoeeiaaee aai ca iieeoeeo oniieiaiey ia?iaea, ca /anoia
i?eiaiaiea a?iee a iiiiuue aeanoyi. Ana yoe aeaenoaey i?eaaee e
oiio, /oi Noieuiei iaaeee naaa iiiai a?aaia.

12 aaaonoa 1906 aue niaa?oai i?ioea iaai oa??i?enoe/aneee
aeo. Aia?oaiaiou Noieuieia ?aniieaaaeenue ia Aioaea?neii
ino?iaa. Aeaiue aue i?eaiiui. E Noieuieio i?eoei iiiai ia?iaea ca
?aoaieai naieo i?iaeai. E aeiio iiaeuaoaee aeaia ioae/ei a
aeaiaea?ineie oi?ia. Iie aucaaee iiaeic?aiea oai, /oi ia ieo aue

iaaeao noa?ue aieiaiie oai?, a ianeieueei aeiae iacaae auea
aaaaeaia iiaay oi?ia. A oi aea a?aiy iie i/aiue aa?aaeii ianee
naie ii?ooaee. Oaaeoea? e aaia?ae Caiyoei a?ineeenue a
ia?aaeithth, /oiau ia?ae?uoue ei iooue. Ii aeaiaea?iu a?ineee
naie ii?ooaee ia iie. ?acaeaeny i/aiue neeueiue ac?ua. Aieueoay
/anoue aeiia auea ?ac?ooaia. Io ac?uaa iiaeaei 27 /aeiaae.
Noieuiei ia iino?aaeae. Iinea ac?uaa naiuey ia?aaoaea ia
Oiioaieo. Noieuiei i/aiue ia?aaeeaae ca iino?aaeaaoeo ai a?aiy
ac?uaa ethaeae. Ii ii ia i?ae?auae naith aeayoaeueiinoue.
Ainoaea?ue i?aaeeiaeee ia?aaoaoue naiuea a Ceiiee aeai?aoe, oae
eae oai auei aaciianii. 24 aaaonoa 1906 aiaea auea iioaeeeiaaia
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay i?ia?aiia, ninoiyuay ec aeaoo /anoae:
?ai?anneaiie e ?aoi?ienoneie. A oao ianoiinoyo, aaea aaaaeaii auei
aiaiiia iieiaeaiea, aaiaeeeenue aiaiii-iieaaua noaeu.

?aoi?ienoneay /anoue – yoi oeac io 9 iiya?y 1906 aiaea i
aiciiaeiinoe auoiaea ec iaueiu. Ia?aay ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia ia
iiaea ?aoeoue caiaeueiue aii?in, e 20 oaa?aey 1907 aiaea ii
?aoaeny ia aoi?ie ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia. Auai?u aoi?ie Aeoiu
i?ioiaeeee a ianoaiiaea niaaea ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey. Ii
Aeoia auea aieaa eaaie, /ai ia?aay, oioy e aieueoay /anoue
e?anoueyi e ?aai/eo auea eneeth/aia ec ecae?aoaeae. 43% ninoaaeyee
eaaua o?aeoeee, ia?iaeieee iieo/eee 157 iano, nioeeae-aeaiie?aou
– 65 iano, i?aaua ieoya?enou – 54 ianoa. Eaaeaou iioa?yee 80
iaiaeaoia. Aoi?ay ia/aea ?aaioaoue 20 oaa?aey 1907 aiaea. Eiaiii 6
ia?oa Noieuiei aunooiee ni naiei ciaiaieoui oeacii. A naiae ?a/e
Noieuiei aeae iiiyoue, /oi naiiaea?aeaaii-iiia?oe/aneay aeanoue
niaianoii n caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie i?eeaaaao ana
oneeey aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoie i?ia?aiiu. Iinea Noieuieia aunooiee
Oea?aoaee, eioi?ue inoaeee aeaenoaey i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Ii aiai?ee a iaaeii aucuaathuai oiia. I?aaua iiaeiyee e?ee e
o?aaiaaee ionoaaee i?aoi?a. Eaaua iieeaaee a?ycueth i?aaeoaeuenoai.
Noieuiei niiaa iii?inee neiaa. Ii aiai?ee i/aiue au?aceoaeueii e
ei?ioei. Niune ?a/e iiaeii au?aceoue aeaoiy neiaaie: «Ia caioaaaoa».

Aeanoue e i?aaeoaeuenoai ia aoaeoo ia?aeeciaaiu. Aoi?ay
ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia auea iaia?aia i?iyaeoue iiiiceoeeth
i?aaeoaeuenoao. Ii o Noieuieia ia auei aua iuneae ii iiaiaeo
?inionea Aeoiu. A Aeoia oee aeaaaou ii aeaoi aii?inai : aa?a?iay
?aoi?ia e /?acau/aeiua ia?u i?ioea ?aaiethoeeiia?ia. Aeaiooaou
ioeacuaaeenue inoaeeoue ?aaiethoeeiiiue oa??i?eci. 17 iay Aeoia
aieinoao i?ioea «iacaeiiiuo aeaenoaee iieeoeee». Noaei ynii, /oi
ioaeai oieueei i?aaeeia aeey ?inionea aoi?ie ainoaea?noaaiiie
Aeoiu,

e ii aue iaeaeai.

Aeaa aaaioa io?aiee nino?yiaee iaaeiaiea i?ioea
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie o?aeoeee aoi?ie Aeoiu a iiaeaioiaea ath
aiaiiiai caaiai?a, eioi?ue aue iai?aaeai i?ioea oea?y e anaai
ainoaea?noaa. *a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa Oi?ieeia e A?iaeneee
i?eciaeenue, /oi i?aaieciaaee caaiai? ii caaeaieth io?aiee. Ieeieae
II 3 ethiy iauyaee i ?inionea Aeoiu e ia 1 iiya?y 1907 aiaea
iacia/ee nicua iiaie. Aua ?aiueoa N. A. E?uaeaiianeiio aeaee
caaeaiea io Ai?aiueeia i ?ac?aaioea iiaiai i?iaeoa
ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia.

Ioaeii auei eciaieoue ecae?aoaeueiue caeii, oae eae Aeoia ia
oea ia naiai? n i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

I?iaeo aue ?ac?aaioai Niaaoii iauaaeeiaiiiai
aeai?yinoaa.

A eiienneth aioee: Ia?uoeei, Aia?eineee, Aieeiineee, Ienooueaa,

Eanaoeei-?inoianeee. Noieuiei e Ieeieae II, anoaa ia iooue
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa, iie?aeenue ia iiaeaea?aeeo ia oieueei
/a?iinioaioeaa, ii e ia ieoya?enoia. I?e ?ac?aaioea iiaiai
ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia auee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiu eaiou auai?ueeia a
iieueco ao?aeoacee e iiiaueeia. Iiyoiio-oi ia?aay e aoi?ay Aeoia
ia iiaeoiaeeee naiiaea?aeaaiie nenoaia, e iaaei auei nicaeaoue
iiaoth Aeoio. Ecaaaeaoenue io aoi?ie Aeoiu, Noieuiei iia
i?iaiaeeoue naith iieeoeeo, oae eae iiaay Aeoia iieo/eeanue
oaeie, eaeay ioaeia auea aio.

Aeaaa IV. ?aaioa Noieuieia a III Aeoia. Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia.

16 iiya?y 1907 aiaea Noieuiei aunooiaao ia?aae Aeoiie
n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeaeea?aoeeae. Ia?aay e iniiaiay caaea/a, eae
ii aiai?ee, yoi ia ?aoi?ia, a ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae, eioi?ay
iiaeao ni?aaoue ana, /oi auei caaeoiaii ei. Oaeaea iaaei auei
?acia?aoueny n aua iaeiie caaea/ae, aa?a?iie ?aoi?iie, eioi?ay
aeieaia a?aiy inoaaaeanue ia ?aoaiiie. Iinea i?eiyoey Aeoiie
oeaca 9 iiya?y n aianaiiuie iii?aaeaie caeiiii?iaeo iinooiee
ia ianoaeaeaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e aue i?eiyo ei,
iinea /aai ii aeaoa aai ooaa?aeaeaiey oea?ai noae eiaiiaaoueny
caeiiii 14 ethiy 1910 aiaea. Ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth yoi aue
caeii, eioi?ue niinianoaiaae ?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a aea?aaia.

Eiia/ii aea, yoi aue i?ia?anneaiue caeii, ii ii
iaania/eaae oniao eeoue i?onneiio iooe ?acaeoey naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, eiaaea iiaeii auei iieoe ii aia?eeaineiio iooe,
eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaae ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa iooai
iaaeaeaiey e?anoueyi caieae (oa?iu), aaea au iie noaee
iieiiaeanoiuie oicyaaaie. Niune caeiia ?ane?uaaeny a aai ia?aie
noaouea, aaea aiai?eeinue, /oi eaaeaeue aeiiioicyei, aeaaeaaoee
caieae ia iaueiiii i?aaa, iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue «oe?aieaiey» yoie
caiee a aai /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue. Ii iia inoaaeoue ca niaie
eceeoee, anee iia ca ieo caieaoeoue ii aueoiiie oeaia 1861
aiaea. Aeiiieiaieai e caeiio 14 ethiy 1916 aiaea aue i?eiyoue
iaaeie iaeaoaie caeii i caieaono?ienoaa, iacuaaaoeiny caeiiii 29
iay 1911 aiaea. A niioaaonoaee n iei aeey i?iaaaeaiey
caieaono?ienoaa ia o?aaiaaeinue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai cae?aieaiey
caiee ca aeiiioicyaaaie. E?anoueyineea aaiee e nai i?ioeann
ia?anaeaiey oaeaea ?ac?ooaee iaueio. A 1906 aiaeo E?anoueyineiio
aaieo auei ia?aaeaii ianeieueei aaeoa?ia oaeaeueiuo e eacaiiuo
caiaeue, ii naie aeaaiue caiaeueiue oiiae aaie nicaeaaae ca n/ao
neoiee iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue. A caaea/o ia?anaeai/aneiai oi?aaeaiey
aoiaeeei ?ac?yaeeoue caiaeueioth oaniioo, eioi?ay iaaethaeaeanue a
oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao ?innee. Iniiaiuie ?aeiiaie ia?anaeaiey
yaeeenue: Neae?ue, Naaa?iue Eaaeac, N?aaeiyy Acey. Yoa ?aoi?ia ia
oaeaeanue.
Iia ia aeinoeaea ie iieeoe/aneeo, ie yeiiiie/aneeo oeaeae,
eioi?ua ia?aae iae noaaeeenue. O e?anoueyi ia auei aeinoaoi/ii
iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeiyoue naia oicyenoai,
/oiau eoieoue iiaoth oaoieeo, eioi?ay iicaieeea au iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

E?ao noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu aue iaoneiaeai oai,
/oi iia i?iaiaeeeanue a oneiaeyo nio?aiaiey iiiaue/ueaai
caieaaeaaeaiey. Oieueei eeeaeaeaoeey iiiaue/ueaai oicyenoaa iiaea
nianoe ?aoi?io Noieuieia.

Noieuiei ia ia?aie/eaaeny ?aoi?iaie a naeueneii
oicyenoaa, ii iaaeoiuaae i?aia?aciaaiey ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey,
ia?aciaaiey aeey iaeieioueo e e?anoueyi. ?a/ue, a eioi?ie
cao?aaeaaeenue yoe aii?inu, i?icao/aea a Aeoia 9 iiya?y 1908
aiaea. Anei?a aiciee a Aeoia «Iieueneee aii?in», eioi?ue aiciee
a 1910 aiaeo a nayce n aii?inii i caiaaeiii cainoaa e auai?ao
io caiaaeiuo aoaa?iee a Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao. Aua a 1909 aiaeo
a?oiia /eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa aianea caeiiiaeaoaeueiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea, oeaeueth eioi?iai auei nie?auaiea /enea aeaiooaoia
io caiaaeiuo aoaa?iee. Aeaei a oii, /oi ana aeaiooaou auee
iieyee, oae eae a e eo ?oeao auee nin?aaeioi/aiu e?oiiua
caieaaeaaeaiey, a auai?u a Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao i?iaiaeeeenue
ii caiaeueiiio oeaico. I?aaeeaaaeinue ?acaeaeeoue 9 aoaa?iee ia 3
ecae?aoaeueiuo ie?oaa. ?onneeo auae?aee ii aeaa /aeiaaea io
ie?oaa, a iieye – ii iaeiiio. Oaeei ia?acii, io aeaayoe aoaa?iee
auae?aeinue au oanoue ?onneeo e o?e iieyea. Noieuieio yoa eaeay
i/aiue iii?aaeeanue. Iieo/aeinue aaeaieia oi?ioi: n iaeiie
noi?iiu – eeaa?aeueiay oi?ia, a n ae?oaie – ?aaeecaoeey ethaeiiai
eicoiaa: « ?inney aeey ?onneeo ».

1 ethiy 1908 aiaea caeiiii?iaeo aue ia?aaeai a Ainoaea?noaaiiue
niaao, a 17 ethey noae caeiiii. Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia auea
i?iaeeeoiaaia ?aaeoeeiiiui Niaaoii iauaaeeiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa e iineea
?acei au?aaeaiiue ianeeuenoaaiiue oa?aeoa? ii ioiioaieth e aieueoeinoao
e?anoueyinoaa.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a yoeo ia?ii?eyoeyo caieiae Oeac 9 iiya?y 1906a.

I ii?yaeea auoiaea e?anoueyi ec iaueiu e cae?aieaiey a ee/ioth
nianoaaiiinoue iaaeaeueiie caiee. Iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey n iaeioi?uie
eciaiaieyie Aeoiie e Ainoaea?noaaiiui niaaoii oeac iieo/ee iacaaiea
Caeiia io 14 ethiy 1910a. Aai aeiiieiyei «Iieiaeaiea i caieaono?ienoaa
» io 29 iay 1911 aiaea. E ae?oaei ia?ii?eyoeyi Noieuiei
ioiinee aeayoaeueiinoue E?anoueyineiai aaiea, a oaeaea
ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea.

Ii oeaco eaaeaeue aeiiioicyei-iaueiiee iieo/ae i?aai
o?aaiaaoue cae?aieaiey naiaai iaaeaea a ee/ioth nianoaaiiinoue.
Anee ii

aeaaeae iaaeaeii, i?aauoathuei aeooaaioth ii?io, oi eceeoae ii aai
aeaeaieth iia auoue aueoieai ei o iaueiu ii oeaiai 60-a.a. 19
aaea, oi anoue a ianeieueei ?ac ieaea ?uii/iuo. Aeey
?aaeecaoeee

oeaca nicaeaaaeenue aoaa?ineea e oacaeiua caieaono?ieoaeueiua
eiiennee. Aeiiioicyaaa iiaee o?aaiaaoue io iauanoaa naaaeaiey
naieo caiaeue a oeaeueiue o/anoie – oooi? eee io?oa.

Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia onei?eea ?acaeoea eaieoaeecia a
aea?aaia. Iaeiaei nai caeii i auoiaea ec iaueiu niaea?aeae ?yae
ia?aie/aiee, caaea?aeeaaaoeo yoi ?acaeoea (nianoaaiiinoue ia
auaeaeaiiua caiee auea iaiieiay, a neoiea caiaeue a iaeie ?oee
ia iiaea

i?aauoaoue oanoe aeooaaiuo iaaeaeia e o. i.). I?e yoii
Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia icia/aea ?acaeoea eaieoaeecia ii i?onneiio
iooe,

nio?aiyy iniiaiia i?aiyonoaea aeey ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo

nee – iiiaue/uee caieaaeaaeaiey. A iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee
Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia auea ?aaeoeeiiiie. E?anoueyia ai?ieenue oaea
iaaeaeo niaie ca eo/oea iaaeaeu, e auee ioaea/aiu io
?aaiethoeeiiiie ai?ueau i?ioea iiiaueeia.

Ca 10 eao (n 1907-1916) ec iaueiu auaeaeeeinue aieaa 2 iei.

aeiiioicyaa. Iaeaieueoaa /enei auaeaeia iaaeaao ia aoaa?iee n
aieaa

aunieei o?iaiai ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia a aea?aaia (Oaa?e/aneay,

Aeaoa?eiineaaneay, Oa?niineay, Naia?neay, Na?aoianeay, Eeaaneay,
Oa?ueeianeay, Eo?neay, I?eianeay, Iiaeeaaneay).

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a iaeicaiaeueiuo aoaa?ieyo i?ioeaio auaeaeeaoeony
aue auoa, /ai a aoaa?ieyo n aieueoei iaaeaeii. Yoi aiai?eo i
oii, /oi ia?yaeo n eoeaeaie no?aieeenue aueoe ec iaueiu e

aaaeiyee n oeaeueth i?iaeaaee naiae caiee. A oeaeii ii ?innee
auaeaeeeinue 22,7% io iauaai /enea iaueiieeia. Nauoa 1,3 iei.
aeiiioicyaa, auoaaeoeo ec iaueiu, i?iaeaee naie caiee (a iauae
neiaeiinoe 4,3 iei. aeanyoei). Anaai auei cae?aieaii a ee/ioth
nianoaaiiinoue 14,1% anao iaaeaeueiuo caiaeue. Ca 1906-1917 aiaeu
auei ia?aciaaii ieiei 1,6 iei. o/anoeiauo oicyenoa n iauae
ieiuaaeueth a 16 iei. aeanyoei – ieiei 1/10 /anoe anao aeai?ia
Aa?iiaeneie ?innee. Oooi?a ia iieo/eee cia/eoaeueiiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey. *a?ac E?anoueyineee aaie n 1906 aiaea ii
1910 aiae auei i?iaeaii, aeaaiui ia?acii eoeaeai, ianeieueei aieaa
6,5 iei. aeanyoei.

Ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea, oeaeue eioi?ie ninoiyea a iooyaeaaiee
ecauoea e?anoueyineiai ianaeaiey ec aioo?aiieo aoaa?iee a Neae?ue,

Eacaonoai, N?aaeithth Aceth e ae?. , ieacaeanue aua iaiaa
yooaeoeaiie.

N 1909 aiaea ia/aeny niaae ia?anaeai/aneie aieiu e ?ino /enea

ia?aoiuo ia?anaeaioeaa. Aica?auaynue ia?aoii, ia?anaeaioeu oiiiaeaee
niaie ianno e?anoueyi, ia?aaeaiiuo e iaiceaiiuo Noieuieineie

?aoi?iie. ?aoi?ia iioa?iaea i?iaae a iieeoe/aneii e yeiiiie/aneii
ieaia. Iia ano?aoeea iaeanoi/aiiia nii?ioeaeaiea iiaeaaeythuae
iannu e?anoueyinoaa. ?acaa?ioeanue ai?ueaa o?oaeyuaainy
e?anoueyinoaa n eoeaeaie aioo?e iaueiu, ii a nayce n yoei
iauae?anoueyineay ai?ueaa i?ioea iiiaueeia ia i?ae?aoeeanue.

A 1910-1914 aiaeu auei aieaa 13 oun. e?anoueyineeo
aunooieaiee. Ia ii?aaaeaeenue oaeaea ?an/aou ia eoea/anoai eae
ia ianniaoth nioeeaeueioth iii?o oea?ecia. Iii auei
iaei/eneaiiui e ia

iiaei i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue naay ioe?uoi anae ianna e?anoueyinoaa.

Oioy eaieoaeeci a aea?aaia aeaaiaea?y Noieuieineie
?aoi?ia

noae ?acaeaaoueny ianeieueei auno?aa, ii ana aea, eae oeacuaae

A. E. Eaiei, oae /a?aiaoueei oaaii. Nio?aiaiea iiiaue/ueaai
caieaaeaaeaiey iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeei e nio?aiaieth io?aaioi/iuo,

eaaaeueiuo oi?i a?aiaeu, oi?iiceei i?aa?auaiea e?anoueyieia a

naiaiaeiiai oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey.

Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia nicaeaaaea ia?yaeo n eoeaeii aao?aea
n

iaaeaeii. A ?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?iu aaaeiyoeeay /anoue aea?aaie
aeinoeaea

2/3 anaai e?anoueyineiai ianaeaiey.

E?anoueyia nii?ioeaeyeenue ia?aoiaeo ia oooi?a e
io?oaa.

Caieaaeaaeaiea caaenaei io eai?ecia i?e?iaeu. Eiay iieinu a

?aciuo /anoyo iauanoaaiiiai iaaeaea, e?anoueyiei iaania/eaae naaa

aaeaaiaeiue n?aaeiee o?iaeae: a canooeeaue aiae au?o/aee iieinu

a ieceiao, a aeiaeaeeeaue – ia acai?eao. Oieueei aieueoie io?oa,
?aniieiaeaiiue a ?aciuo ?aeueaoao, iia aa?aioe?iaaoue aaeaaiaeiue
n?aaeiee o?iaeae. Ianiio?y ia ana noa?aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, io?oaa
i?eaeeaaeenue oieueei a naaa?i-caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo, aeeth/ay
/anoue Ineianeie e Niieaineie iaeanoae. A thaeiuo e
thai-ainoi/iuo aoaa?ieyo aeaaiui i?aiyonoaeai auee o?oaeiinoe n
aiaeie. Ii caeanue aeiaieueii oniaoii iioei ianaaeaeaiea io?oaia,
oae eae oai ionoonoaiaaee neeueiua iaueiiua o?aaeeoeee, e aue
aunieee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey aa?a?iiai eaieoaeecia. Ii/aa auea
ieiaei?iaeia e iaeii?iaeia ia i/aiue aieueoeo i?ino?ainoaao.

Eoiae ?aoi?iu:

E 1 yiaa?y 1916 aiaea ec iaueiu auoei 2 iei. aeiiioicyaa.

Ei i?eiaaeeaaeaei 14.1 iei. aeanyoei caiee. 13 iei. aeiiioicyaa
ia?aoee e oooi?iiio e io?oaiiio aeaaeaieth. Anaai ec iaueiu ii

i?eaeeceoaeueiui iiaen/aoai auoei iaiueoa o?aoueae /anoe
aeiiioicyaa. Aeanoyi ia oaeaeinue ie ?ac?ooeoue iaueio, ie
nicaeaoue onoie/eaue e ianniaue neie e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia. Oae,
/oi iiaeii aiai?eoue i iaoaea/a aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

Ii aianoa n oai iieiaeaiea a ?onneie aea?aaia
caiaoii oeo/oeeinue. E?anoueyia iieo/eee aieueoa ee/iie naiaiaeu,
ono?ienoaa oooi?ia e io?oaia ia aaieianeeo caieyo, iaeioi?ua
aeaeu caieaono?ienoaa, ia?anaeaiea a Neae?ue.

A 1910 aiaeo a ia?anaeai/aneii aeaeaeaiee iaicia/eeny
e?ecen. Iioie ia?anaeaioeaa oiaiueoeeny aaeaia, ia/aeny aica?ao
ethaeae ec Neae?e. Iiyoiio a 1910 aiaeo I. A. Noieuiei e
aeaaa caieaono?ieoaeueiiai aaaeiinoaa A. A. E?eaioaei
ioi?aaeeenue a i?iaeieaeeoaeueioth iiacaeeo a Neae?ue. Iiaeaiaey
eoiae iiacaeee, iie naeaeaee auaiae ia iauai oniaoa ia?anaeaiey.
Ii yoi ia nieiaei i?iaeaio e?ecena ia?anaeai/aneiai aeaeaeaiey;
noaaeeny aii?in ia eciaiaiee i?aaeiae nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey.
Ia?anaeaioeu ioeacuaaeenue io ooaeoeo o/anoeia, i?aaeeaaaaoeony ia
iaeeiaeiauo oneiaeyo n eo/oeie. Auee e «naiiaieueiua»
ia?anaeaioeu, eioi?ua,

i?eaua ia ianoi, aeieai ia iiaee ono?ieoueny, iieo/eoue caieth,
ia?aaeaaeenue neo/aeiuie ca?aaioeaie.

Auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea nio?aieoue aanieaoiia
caiaeueiia iaaeaeaiea aeey ianaeaiey iaiaa iaaeeouo ?aeiiia e
aaanoe i?iaeaaeo caiee a iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo ianoao. Eiaiii
ionoonoaea i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth a Neae?e
naea?aeeaaei ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Noieuiei iaia?aaaeny ia?ano?ieoue anth nenoaio
ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey: io naeueneiai aei aoaa?ineiai. Anee ?aiueoa

iiiauee aue iaae ioaeeeii, oi oaia?ue Noieuiei oioae onaaeeoue
eo ?yaeii a aieinoiii i?aaeaiee. ?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea
aieinoiiai oicyenoaa aeieaeiu auee ea/ue ia ana nineiaey.
Aoaa?iaoi?u aeieaeiu auoue iiae/eiaiu Niaaoo ieieno?ia e I.A.Ae..

Yoe ?aoi?iu eiaee iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea. Ii iiiaueee ia oioaee
i?eiyoue yoe i?aia?aciaaiey. Iie ia oioaee ioaeaaaoue naie
i?eaeeaaee, ia oioaee ieaoeoue aeaiueae ia niaea?aeaiea oeie e
aieueieoe aeey e?anoueyi, iieeoeeth e ii/oo.

?aoi?iu ano?aoeee y?inoiia nii?ioeaeaiea e?aeia
i?aauo e e?aeia eaauo. ?aaiethoeeiia?u n iai?eyoeai ioiineeenue
e ethaui oeo/oaieyi nenoaiu, oae eae aa iaaeinoaoee ieoaee
?aaiethoeeiia?ai iano?iaiea.

Ana yoi aeaeei ca niaie ocinoue aioo?aiiaai ?uiea,
aeaa?aaeaoeeth naeueneiai oicyenoaa, ?aceia iaino?aiea aa?a?iiai
e?ecena, aai caoyaeiie e io/eoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. I?iaae
Noieuieineie

?aoi?iu aeaeae iaecaaaeiie iiaoth ia?iaeioth ?aaiethoeeth.

Aeaaa V. Noieuiei e Ieeieae II.

Oaea a 1909 aiaeo ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Ieeieae II e
Noieuieiii ia/aee ii?oeoueny. Oea?ue ia ethaee ethaeae, eioi?ua
eiaee oaa?aeue oa?aeoa?, oae eae n/eoae, /oi iiaeiaiua ethaee
ia?aie/eaatho aai aeanoue.

?aoi?iu, caaeoiaiiua Noieuieiii: i?aia?aciaaiea ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiia no?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo, aaaaeaiea anaiauaai
ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, aaaaeaiea cainoaa a caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo,
– ia a?iceee onoiyi naiiaea?aeaaey, ii ?aaiethoeey auea
iiaaaeaeaia, a ?aoi?iu ia ioaeiu.

?aoaii auei nicaeaoue Ii?neie aaia?aeueiue ooaa ec
aeaoo aeanyoeia /aeiaae, oae eae yoi aucuaaei aeiiieieoaeueiua
?anoiaeu, Noieuiei ?aoee i?iaanoe aai ooaou /a?ac Aeoio, eioi?ay
ooaa?aeaeaea athaeaeao. Ieeieae II n/eoae, /oi ana aeaea i
aii?oaeaiiuo neeao – yoi aai eiiiaoaioeey. Ieeieae II
aeaiiino?aoeaii ia ooaa?aeee caeiiii?iaeo. A oi aea a?aiy ?aniooei
i?eia?aoaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea i?e aeai?a. Neaiaeaeueiua
iioiaeaeaiey «noa?oea» auioaeeee Noieuieia iii?ineoue oea?y
auaiaoue ?aniooeia ec noieeoeu, ii Ieeieae neacae, /oi eo/oa
aeanyoue ?aniooeiuo, /ai iaeia enoa?eea eiia?ao?eoeu.*** Ociaa ia
yoii ?acaiai?a, Aeaenaiae?a Oaaei?iaia i?inoi aiciaiaaeaeaea
Noieuieia e a nayce n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui e?ecenii i?e
ooaa?aeaeaiee ooaoia Ii?neiai aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa ianoaeaaea ia
aai ionoaaea.****

A ia?oa 1911 aiaea ?ac?aceeny aua aieaa iiuiue e?ecen.
I?e ooaa?aeaeaiee caiaaeiuo cainoa i?aaua iiniaoeee aeaoue aie
Noieuieio a Ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa e i?iaieiniaaee i?ioea
eo?ee, iieo/ea iaaeaniia ?ac?aoaiea iiia?oa.

***I. I. Aie «I. A. Noieuiei. Ainiiieiaiey ia iooea ».1992a.n.302 n.302
a.n.302

**** «Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney». Nai?iee ?a/ae. 1991a. n.15

Aeey Noieuieia eoiae aieiniaaiey yaeeenue iieiie
iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth, e ii iiiye, /oi Ieeieae II i?aaeae aai, e ia
aeeaeaeoae aoaeeaioeee o oea?y Noieuiei iiaeae a ionoaaeo. Ii
aue oaa?ai, /oi aai ionoaaeo i?eioo, ii yoiai ia i?iecioei ec-ca
aeaoo i?e/ei. Ai-ia?auo, oea?ue n/eoae, /oi oieueei ii iiaeao
eeoaoue ieieno?ia eo iinoia, a, ai-aoi?uo, ii iiaeaa?any
aeiaieueii aaeeiiaeooiie aoaea eiycae e aaeianoaothuae
eiia?ao?eoeu Ia?ee Oaaei?iaiu, eioi?ay iauynieea Ieeieath, /oi
Noieuiei – /aeiaae, eioi?ue niiniaai auaanoe ?inneth ec e?ecena.
Oaeei ia?acii Noieuiei ia iieo/ee ionoaaeo, eioi?oth iaeeaeae.
Iiiya neooaoeeth, ii auaeaeaaao Ieeieath ?yae aeanoeeo
o?aaiaaiee. Ai-ia?auo, ?anionoeoue Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao e Aeoio
ia o?e aeiy, e i?iaanoe caeiiii?iaeo ii 87 noaouea, a aeaaiuo naieo
i?ioeaieeia, I. I.Aeo?iiai e A.O. O?aiiaa, o?aaiaae oaeaeeoue ec
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa, a iacia/eoue n ia?aiai yiaa?y 1912 aiaea
iiauo aeaiooaoia ii naiaio auai?o, ii Ieeieae ieeiaaea ia
i?iuae oaeeo «neeiauo i?eaiia». Oea?ue ia iiaeienuaae
caeiiii?iaeoia, eioi?ua auee i?eiyou iaaeie iaeaoaie, iacia/ae
aeoeaiuo i?ioeaieeia Noieuieia. Anei?a ia/aee ?ani?ino?aiyoueny
neooe i nei?ie ionoaaea i?aiuea?a.

1909 aiaeo ioiioaiey oea?y e Noieuieia oooaeoathony. Ieeieae II
n/eoae, /oi ?aaiethoeey iiaaaeaeaia e ?aoi?iu oaea ia ioaeiu.
Oea?th iinooiaei iaiaei aeaeia e eeyoc ia Noieuieia. Oea?ue
oaeaea ioeeiiee nicaeaiea Ii?neiai aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa, oae eae
yoi aucaaei aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?anoiaea. Ii oaeaea n/eoae,
aii?oaeaiiua neeu – aai eiiiaoaioeey. A yoi aea a?aiy aieueooth
?ieue i?e aeai?a ia/eiaao ea?aoue ?aniooei. Noieuiei iii?inee

oea?y auaiaoue noa?oea ec noieeoeu, ii Ieeieae II n/eoae, /oi
ionoue 10 oaeeo noa?oeaa, /ai iaeia enoa?eea eiia?ao?eoeu. Ociaa
i ?acaiai?a, Aeaenaiae?a Oaaei?iaia iaacethaeea Noieuieia e
ianoaeaaea ia aai ionoaaea. Iiuiue e?ecen ?ac?aceeny a 1911
aiaeo. I?aaua aieinotho i?ioea Noieuieia a Ainoaea?noaaiiii
Niaaoa, iieo/ea iaaeaniia ?ac?aoaiea oea?y. Noieuieio ie/aai ia
inoaaony, eae iiaeaoue a ionoaaeo, oae eae ii iiiye, /oi Ieeieae
II aai i?aaeae. Ii ii ia iieo/ee ionoaaeo, oae eae oieueei
oea?ue iia eeoeoue aeieaeiinoe, a Ia?ey Oaaei?iaia, aaeianoaothuay
eiia?ao?eoea, n/eoaea, /oi oieueei Noieuiei auaaaeao no?aio ec
e?ecena. Noieuiei auaeaeioe ?yae aeanoeeo oneiaee ia?aae
Ieeieaai. Ii iio?aaiaae ?anionoeoue Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao e Aeoio
ia o?e aeiy, i?iaanoe caeiiii?iaeo, oaeaeeoue naieo i?ioeaieeia,
I.A. Aeo?iiaa e A.O. O?aeiaa, o?aaiaae iacia/eoue 20 iiauo
aeaiooaoia ii aai auai?o. Oea?ue ia/ae aeaaeoue ia Noieuieia. Ii
iacia/ee ethaeae a i?aaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ua auee aeoeaiuie
i?ioeaieeaie Noieuieia, ia iiaeienuaae caeiiii?iaeoia, eioi?ua
i?eieiaeenue iaaeie iaeaoaie. A noieeoea n/eoaee, /oi nei?i
ninoieony ionoaaea Noieuieia.

Aeaaa VI. Oaeenoai Noieuieia.

A aaaonoa 1911 aiaea Noieuiei ioaeuoae a eiaiee
Eieiia?aaeuea, aaea ?aaioae iaae iiauie i?iaeoaie, eioi?ua
niae?aeny i?aaenoaaeoue ia canaaeaiee Aeoiu, ii, e ?aaioo, e
ioaeuo i?eoeinue i?a?aaoue ec-ca iiacaeee a Eeaa, aaea aeieaeai
aue ioe?uoueny iaiyoiee Aeaenaiae?o II. I?aauaaiea a Eeaaa
ia/aeinue n inei?aeaiey. Noieuieio ia iaoeinue ianoa a
aaoiiiaeeyo, aaea aeieaeia auea ?acianoeoueny oea?neay naeoa. Aio
yaii aeaaaee iiiyoue, /oi ii caeanue eeoiee. I?aaenaaeaoaeth
Niaaoa ieieno?ia i?eoeinue eneaoue ecaic/eea. Eiaaea naeoa,
i?eoi?iiceea, ?aniooei iaeyioeny e, oaeaeaa Noieuieia, i?i?i/anee
i?iecian: « Nia?oue ca iei, nia?oue ca iei aaeao. Ca Iao?ii …
ca iei! » ***** ?aoathuea niauoey ?acaa?ioeenue 1 naioya?y. A 6
/ania oo?a Eoeyaei, ia/aeueiee Eeaaneiai io?aiiiai ioaeaeaiey,
aeieiaeee i aioiayuainy iieooaiee aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o O.O.
O?aiiao. A 7 /ania oo?a ii niiauee ia yoii e Noieuieio, iii?inea
aai ia aoeyoue ii ai?iaeo, iieooaiea auei niaa?oaii a oaao?a.

Eiaaea iiyaeeny Aia?ia a oaao?a, Eoeyaei iii?inee
aai aa?iooueny ia eaa?oe?o. Aia?ia ooae, ii aa?ioeny /a?ac
ianeieueei ieioo e nae ia naia ianoi a 18-ii ?yaeo ia?oa?a. Ai
a?aiy aio?aeoa Eoeyaei iiaoi?ee naia i?eeacaiea, niiaa iiaoi?ee
naie iaoeo?ue iaiaa?. Iaeiaei ioeoea?, aeaaeo?eaoee o aoiaea, ia
i?iioneae Aia?iaa ia?aoii a oaao? e oieueei aiaoaoaeuenoai
Eoeyaei, i?ioiaeeaoaai ?yaeii, iiiiaei aio iiianoue ia?aoii.
Noieuiei noiye a yoi a?aiy eeoeii e ia?oa?o. Aia?ia iiaeioae
e iaio e i?iecaae aeaa auno?aea. Iaeia ioey iiiaea a ?oeo
Noieuieia, a ae?oaay – a aeeaio. Noieuiei neii/aeny a naioya?a
1911 aiaea a /anoiie eeeieea Iae?aneiai. Ioey i?e iiiaaeaiee
caaeaea ia/aiue, e yoi ?aoeei aeaei. Iaaeeoeeia ieacaeanue
aaniiiiuiie.

Aia?iaa caaea?aeaee n?aco e noaee aeanoiei ecaeaaoue.
Aai n o?oaeii oaeaeinue auoaueoue ec ?oe e?iaiaeaaeiie oieiu.
Aai ioi?aaeee a «Einie eaiiie?» e iinea iieieaiiniiai
neaaenoaey iiaaneee.

***** A.ss. Aa?ao «Noieuiei e III Aeoia» 1991a. n. 17

Iiaeeeiiay i?iaeaia, naycaiiay n oaeenoaii Noieuieia,
ninoieo ia a oii, eai ii aue oaeo, a a oii, ciaea ee io?aiea
i caiunea Aia?iaa.

Aeaaaeinue aeaa iauyniaiey. Ia?aia: io?aiea a eeoea oaoa
ioaeaeueiiai ei?iona aeaiaea?iia aaia?aea I.A. Eo?eiaa, ia/aeueieea
aeai?oeiaie iieeoeee A.E. Nie?eaeiae/a, Eoeyaei e eaia?-thiea?a
Aa?aaeia, oi anoue oao, eiio auea ii?o/aia io?aia oea?y ai
a?aiy oi?aeanoa, ?aoeee einoeaie?iaaoue iieooaiea ia Noieuieia;
iieooaiea oniaoii i?aaeioa?aoeoue e iieo/eoue ca o?aa?inoue
iaa?aaeu, ii a ?aoathuee iiiaio iie iioa?yee oi?aaeaiea iaae
Aia?iaui. Aoi?ia: yoa /aoaa?ea oioaea, /oiau Noieuiei aue oaeo, e
naeaeaee iie yoi ?oeaie Aia?iaa.

Aia?ia iiaeioae e aeaa ?aca auno?aeee. Iaeia ioey iiiaea a
?oeo, ae?oaay – caaeaea ia/aiue. Noieuiei oia?. Aia?iaa noaaoeee e
iiaaneee. Auei aeaii aeaa iauyniaiey iieooaieth. N/eoaeinue, /oi
io?aiea ?aoeea einoeaie?iaaoue iieooaiea, caoai oniaoii
i?aaeioa?aoeoue aai e iieo/eoue iaa?aaeo ca o?aa?inoue, ii
iioa?yee eiio?ieue iaae Aia?iaui. Aoi?ia iauyniaiea: aaia?ae I.A.
Eo?eia, ia/aeueiee aeai?oeiaie iieeoeee A.E. Nie?eaeiae/, Eoeyaei e
eaia?- thiea? Aa?eaei oioaee oaeoue Noieuieia e naeaeaee yoi
?oeaie Aia?iaa.

Aeaaa VII. Caeeth/aiea.

?aaiethoeey iieacaea ia?iiioth nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth
e iieeoe/aneoth i?iianoue iaaeaeo ia?iaeii e aeanoueth.
No?aia o?aaiaaeenue ?aaeeeaeueiua ?aoi?iu, a noiyiea ia ianoa eee
«iieo?aoi?iu» ia iiaee eciaieoue neooaoeeth e eo/oaio, a,
iaiai?io, ?anoe?yee ieaoeaea?i aeey ai?ueau ca ea?aeeiaeueiua
eciaiaiey. Oieueei oie/oiaeaiea oea?neiai ?aaeeia e iiiaue/ueaai
caieaaeaaeaiey iiaee eciaieoue oiae niauoee, a ia?u, eioi?ua
i?aaei?eiye Noieuiei a naieo ?aoi?iao auee iieiaei/aouie. No?oaa
ienae: «Eiaiii aai aa?a?iay iieeoeea ninoieo a e?e/auai
i?ioeai?a/ee n aai inoaeueiie iieeoeeie. Ii eciaiyao yeiiiie/aneee
ooiaeaiaio no?aiu, a oi a?aiy, eae any inoaeueiay iieeoeea
no?aieony nio?aieoue a aieueoae iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneoth
«iaaeno?ieeo» e eeoue neaaea oe?aoaoue aa oanaae».****** Eiia/ii
aea, Noieuiei aue auaeathueiny iieeoeeii, ii i?e nouanoaiaaiee
oaeie nenoaiu, eioi?ay auea a ?innee, ana aai i?iaeou
«?aneaeuaaeenue» i iaiiieiaiea eee iaaeaeaiea iiiyoue anth
aaaeiinoue aai ia/eiaiee. ss aeoiath, /oi anee iiniio?aoue ia ana
oa ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua auee caaeoiaiu Noieuieiui, oi iu oaeaeei,
/oi aieueoeinoao ec ieo ia oaeaeinue nauoueny, a iaeioi?ua auee
oieueei ia/aou, ii nia?oue eo nicaeaoaey ia aeaea ei
aiciiaeiinoe caaa?oeoueny, aaaeue iiiaea aaaaeaiey aea?aeaeenue ia
yiooceacia Noieuieia, eioi?ue iuoaeny oioue eae-oi
oniaa?oainoaiaaoue iieeoe/aneoth e yeiiiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o ?innee.

yia?ae/iue, iaooiieiue /aeiaae. Ii no?aieeny ai ana aieeaoue nai,
aacaea iiauaaoue e ana oaeaeaoue. Acyaoenue ca ?ac?aoaiey
neiaeiaeoeo e caiooaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aii?inia, ii i?iyaee
oe?ioo acaeyaeia. Ii aei eiioea ii ia iniciae, /oi ianeeea iaae
caeiiiinoueth, aeaaea ?aaee iieuecu aeaea, – yoi ieioie iooue.
Aeooaeueii cao/ao neiaa Noieuieia i oii, /oi iiuue ainoaea?noaa
ia a eacia, a a «aiaaoathuai e e?aieii ianaeaiee». Eo/oea eaeae
Noieuieia ia iaoee aiieiuaiey. Ia aue aiieiuai caiunae
i?eaaoecaoeee neae?neeo caiaeue, ia inouanoaeaiu i?aia?aciaaiey a
ianoiii oi?aaeaiee. ?aoi?iu ano?aoeee iaeanoi/aiiia nii?ioeaeaiea
iiianoiiai aeai?yinoaa, ath?ie?aoe/aneiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa.

****** «Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney». Nai?iee ?a/ae. 1991 aiae. n.19

Aeaaea oea?ue i?eieioe e yoie eiaeeoeee. Noieuiei oioae
i?eie?eoue noa?oth ?inneth e iiaua a?aiaia, ii ooae ec aeecie ia
iiiyoui e ia i?eiyoui ie noa?ie ?inneae, ie iiauie

a?aiaiaie. Eiia?aoi?neay ?inney ia i/aiue auniei ioeaieea caneoae
Noieuieia. A 1911 aiaeo ii iieo/ee i?aeai Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai.
Aei aunoeo i?aeaiia ii ia aeineoaeeeny, ii ii ieeiaaea ia eneae
ie caaiee, ie i?aeaiia.

Nae/an iu i?eieiaai Noieuieia oaeei, eaeei ii aue: n ieioei e
oi?ioei, iiiaieeeei, n oaie eaeayie, eioi?ua i?iaeieaeatho aeeoue e
a iaoe aeie.

****** «Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney» 1991 aiae. n.19

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

NAI?IEE ?A*AE “IAI IOAEIA AAEEAAss ?INNEss“. IINEAA 1990.

A.ss.AA?EO “I.A.NOIEUIEI E NOAeUeAU ?AOI?I A ?INNEE”. IINEAA 1991.

I.I.AIE “I.A.NOIEUIEI. AINIIIEIAIEss IA IOOeA”. IINEAA 1992.

I.AA?O “ENOI?Ess NIAAONEIAI AINOAeA?NOAA”. IINEAA 1992.

A.A.EACA?ACIA “I IAO?A A?EAAeEAAE*A NOIEUIEIA”. IINEAA 1991.

A.I.EI?AEEI “E?AOEIA IINIAEA II ENOI?EE”. IINEAA 1992.

I.O.EO?EIA “AEAAEUe EIIA?AOI?NEIE ?INNEE”. IINEAA 1992.

I.I.OOAEINEIE “IAIssOE I.A.NOIEUIEIA”. IINEAA 1913.

I.I.CU?ssIIA “IAO? A?EAAeUeAAE* NOIE*UIEI”. IINEAA 1990.

INO?IANEEE “NOIEUIEI”. IINEAA 1992.

NIAeA?AEAIEA.

TOC \o “1-3” \h \z Oeooeueiue eeno. PAGEREF _Toc468804146 \h 1

Aeaaa I . Yeiiiie/aneay e iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a ?innee a
eiioea 19 a ia/aea 20 aaea. PAGEREF _Toc468804147 \h 2

Aeaaa II. Yoaiu ?acaeoey iieeoe/aneie ea?uea?u Noieuieia.
PAGEREF _Toc468804148 \h 4

Aeaaa III. Noieuiei e II Aeoia. PAGEREF _Toc468804149 \h 7

Aeaaa IV. ?aaioa Noieuieia a III Aeoia. Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia. PAGEREF
_Toc468804150 \h 9

Aeaaa V. Noieuiei e Ieeieae II. PAGEREF _Toc468804151 \h 13

Aeaaa VI. Oaeenoai Noieuieia. PAGEREF _Toc468804152 \h 15

Aeaaa VII. Caeeth/aiea. PAGEREF _Toc468804153 \h 16

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. PAGEREF _Toc468804154 \h 18

PAGE 18

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