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От убийства Кирова к Большому Террору

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Niaea?aeaiea

no?.

1. Aaaaeaiea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .1-3

2. «Io oaeenoaa Ee?iaa e Aieueoiio Oa??i?o»

a. Oaeenoai N.I. Ee?iaa e aa?nee i?anooieaiey. . . . . . . . . . . .
3-5

a. Iieeoe/aneea iineaaenoaey oaeenoaa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 5-7

a. «Ee?ianeee iioie»; Noaeueaa nnueueiiai ei??aniiiaeaioa A.A.
Ee?eeeiaa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .7-12

a. Iieeoe/aneea ?ai?annee 36-38aa.: «Aieueoie Oa??i?». . . . . . 12-20

3. Caeeth/aiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 20-21

4. I?eeiaeaiey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 23-35

– 1 –

Aaaaeaiea

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?iaeaia «Aieueoiai Oa??i?a» i?eaeaeaao an?
aieueoaa aieiaiea iauanoaaiiinoe. Aei neo ii? ia i?ae?auathony nii?u ii
iiaiaeo oaeenoaa Na?aay Ie?iiiae/a Ee?iaa e iineaaeiaaaoeie ca yoei
?ai?anneyie, ii?aceaoeie aanue ie? naiae ianniainoueth e aeanoieinoueth.
A yoie nayce auneacuaathony naiua ?aciua noaeaeaiey: iaeie n/eoatho
iaiaoiaeeiui cai?aoeoue aiaeec «Ee?ianeiai Iioiea» e iineaaeiaaaoeo ca
ieie iiiai/eneaiiuo noaeeineeo ?ai?annee, o.e. yeiau yoa oaia io?uaaao
ian io ?aoaiey ae?oaeo aeooaeueiuo e iaiaeiaaaeiuo i?iaeai. Ae?oaea,
eioi?ua oaa?aiu a iaiaoiaeeiinoe aieaa aeoaieiai eco/aiey yoiai io?acea
a?aiaie, eae iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo ai anae enoi?ee Niaaoneiai ia?eiaea,
ieooo iiiai/eneaiiua noaouee e auioneatho a ia/aoue an? iiaua e iiaua
aa?nee oaeenoaa. Iao niiiaiey, /oi aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo iaaaoeaiuo
yaeaiee ooiaeyo naieie ei?iyie a i?ioeia. Iiyoiio, ia eco/ea iaoo
enoi?eth, iu ia niiaeai i?aaeioa?auaoue ioeaee, iiaenoa?aaathuea ian a
aoaeouai.

ss aeoiath, /oi aiieia iiiyoai iie eioa?an e aeaiiie o?aaaaeee e e
a? iineaaenoaeyi, cao?iioaoei ieeeeiiu noaeaa. Ii/oe a eaaeaeie naiuea
auee ?iaeiua e aeeceea ethaee iacaeiiii e aeanoiei ?ai?anne?iaaiiua e
iioa?yaoea eo/oea aiaeu aeecie a oth?aiiuo eaaa?yo, ieeeeiiu aacaeiii
eaci?iiuo aeanoieie nenoaiie noaeeineeo ?ai?annee. Ia iaioea yoa aaaea e
iaoo naiueth: ai a?aaeeoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia n?ua
eieoiciiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee a naea Eaaeua,
aue i?eaiai??i e ?anno?aeo aeaaeooea iiaai iooea: Nie?iia O?aei?
Eaaiiae/. *aeiaae, /anoii ai?iaoeeny n aania/aie a A?aaeaeaineoth aieio
e iinayoeaoee naith aeeciue ia?oeeiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Any aeeciue auea
eneaea/aia iiae i?aaaaooea: Nie?iiaie Ieia Ieeieaaaia. A? iuoaeenue
inoaeeoue, eae aeaio a?aaeeoaey e caaiai?ueea a Eaaeua, ii iia aaaeaea
ec naea e auea auioaeaeaia i?iaanoe ianeieueei eao a aaaao. O ian aeiia
o?aieony ienueii i iinia?oiie ?aaaeeeoaoeee O?aei?a Eaaiiae/a e
aica?auaiee aio e /eaiai aai naiuee eo /anoiuo ei?i.

A oa aiaeu aieiaie ?ai?annee auee oie/oiaeaiu oaeaioeeaaeoea ethaee
iaoae no?aiu: a?a/e e o/aiua, o/eoaey e eiaeaia?u, ienaoaee e ?aai/ea.
Eae iiiai iie iiaee aeaoue iai anai naiaai oia, eoeueoo?u, eaeea o ieo
iiaee auoue oaeaioeeaua o/aieee e eae an? yoi iiaei oeo/oeoue anth iaoo
aeaeueiaeooth aeeciue. Oaeiai no?aoiie enoi?ee e oaeie oaeaniie
oaeenoaaiiie oe?aiee iaeiiai /aeiaaea iao e ia auei ie o eaeiai ae?oaiai
ia?iaea ie?a.

– 2 –

A yoii ?aoa?aoa y iiiuoathnue i?iaiaeece?iaaoue iineaaenoaey
oaeenoaa Na?aay Ie?iiiae/a Ee?iaa, au?aceaoeany a oaeanoi/aiee
noaeeineeo ?ai?annee. Ia i?eia?a ?ai?anne?iaaiiiai e iacaeiiii
inoaeae?iiiai ?aii?o??a Ee?eeeiaa A.A. y niae?athnue iieacaoue aanue
oaean, anth aan/aeiaa/iinoue e iani?aaaaeeeainoue noaeeineiai oa??i?a,
a ia?eiae eioi?iai no?aia iioa?yea ouny/e oiiaeoeo ethaeae. Oaeenoai
iaeiiai /aeiaaea ?eeioaoii io?aceeinue ia noaeueaao ieeeeiiia ethaeae.
Nioie ouny/ eeoeeenue aeeciae, ieeeeiiu – ?iaeiuo e aeeceeo.

Oae eae nia?oue Ee?iaa iineoaeeea iiaiaeii aeey ia?auo a?anoia, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioe?uea iooue aeey inouanoaeaiey oa??i?a, oae
iaiaoiaeeiiai Noaeeio aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey no?aiu a iieiii iiae/eiaiee,
oi eiaiii n aeaau ia oaeenoaa y n/ae iaiaoiaeeiui ia/aoue aeaiiue
?aoa?ao. Caeanue aoaeoo io?aaeaiu iaeioi?ua oaeou, naycaiiua n
i?anooieaieai, a oaeaea ianeieueei aa?nee e iauyniaiee yoiai oaeenoaa.

Aeaeaa ?a/ue iieaeao i iieeoe/aneeo iineaaenoaeyo oaeenoaa Na?aay
Ie?iiiae/a Ee?iaa. A aeaaa «Iieeoe/aneea iineaaenoaey» aoaeoo
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aaaeiaeoea noaeaaiua oeacu auiouaiiua anei?a iinea
oaeenoaa e nua?aaoea iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee
noaeeineeo ?ai?annee, oeacu, io eioi?uo caaenaee noaeueau anao
inoaeae?iiuo e noaeueau eo naiae. Neaaeothuay /anoue iiae iacaaieai
«Ee?ianeee Iioie» iinayuaia naiie ia?aie aieia a?anoia, i?ioaaeoeo ii
no?aia a o?eaeoeaoue iyoii aiaeo e iciaiaiiaaaoeo niaie ia/aei oa??i?a e
ianeeey i?inouanoaiaaaoeo aieioue aei iyoueaeanyo o?aoueaai aiaea.
Caeanue y niae?athnue iieacaoue ninoaa caeeth/aiiuo, eaoaai?ee
?ai?anne?iaaiiuo ai a?aiy «Ee?ianeiai iioiea». Caeanue aea ?anneacaii i
noaeueaa auoaoiiiyiooiai nnueueiiai ei??aniiiaeaioa Aeaenay Ee?eeeiaa.
Iniiaiay /anoue ?aaiou – «Aieueoie Oa??i?». Yoa aeaaa ?anneacuaaao i
ianniauo a?anoao a o?eaeoeaoue naaeueiii e o?eaeoeaoue ainueiii aiaeao.

Oioy oaia «Aieueoiai Oa??i?a» ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy e i?eia?aoaao an?
aieueoaa cia/aiea e i?eaeaeaao an? aieueoea aieiaiea ni noi?iiu
enoi?eeia, an? aea iia inoa?ony oaiie iaeienneaaeiaaiiie. I?e iaienaiee
yoie ?aaiou y eniieueciaae enoi?e/aneoth eeoa?aoo?o ii yoie i?iaeaia,
aeiaaieee nia?aiaiieeia e iaeioi?ua aeieoiaiou, o?aiyueany a oiiaeao
iocay Iieeoe/aneie Enoi?ee ?innee. Iniaia ianoi a eeoa?aoo?a iinayuaiiie
noaeeineei ?ai?anneyi caieiaao Nieaeaieoeui ni naiei i?iecaaaeaieai
«A?OEIAEAA AOEAA», eieaa «I Noaeeia e noaeeiecia» ?iy Iaaeaaaeaaa, e
i?iecaaaeaiea ?iaa?oa Eiieaanoa «Aieueoie Oa??i?». AEeciue a
eni?aaeoaeueii-o?oaeiauo eaaa?yo oiai a?aiaie, eoaea iai?aaeyee
iieeoe/aneeo caeeth/aiiuo,

– 3 –

iienuaaaony a eieaa Aaaaiee Aeicao?a «E?ooie Ia?o?oo», a oaeaea ai
iiiaeo iuia iioaeeeiaaiiuo aeiaaieeiauo caieneao e iaioa?ao
?ai?anne?iaaiiuo a oa no?aoiua aiaeu.

«Io Oaeenoaa Ee?iaa e Aieueoiio oa??i?o»

1.Oaeenoai N.I. Ee?iaa e aa?nee i?anooieaiey.

1 aeaeaa?y 1934 aiaea a 16 /ania 30 ieioo, o naiaai eaaeiaoa a
Niieueiii, auno?aeii a caoueie aue oaeo Ia?aue Nae?aoa?ue
Eaieia?aaeneiai Iaeiia AEI(a), Na?aae Ie?iiiae/ Ee?ia. Yoi oaeenoai
iiaeii iacaaoue i?anooieaieai aaea. Iii iineoaeeei eaoaeecaoi?ii
Noaeeineeo ?ai?annee e iiiaeo ae?oaeo aaae ia?ooeaoeony ia iaoo no?aio a
oa/aiea aeaoo neaaeothueo aeanyoeeaoee. Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai a?aaeaeai e
iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae auei ?anno?aeyii, eae nio/anoieeia a i?aaiecaoeee
i?anooieaiey, a eoi aue ianoiyuei i?aaiecaoi?ii eee caeac/eeii oaeenoaa
aei neo ii? ia auyniaii e ,iaaa?iia, ?acaaaeea yoie oaeiu iaanaaaea
iioa?yia aeey ian. Iiiaea iuoaeenue iaeoe ioaao ia aieiaieiieo, ii eo
noa?aiey eeoue niinianoaiaaee ia?aciaaieth an? iiauo e iiauo aeiaaaeie e
aa?nee, eioi?ua an? au? inoathony iaaeieacaiiuie e ia
iiaeoaa?aeae?iiuie. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi yoe aa?nee ia/aee aicieeaoue
n?aco aea iinea niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey e ia i?ae?auatho iiyaeyoueny e
ii nae aeaiue. Iiiaea oaeou inoaeenue ne?uouie io enoi?eeia: oaeeoea
Ieeieaaa aue noaa/ai ia ianoa i?anooieaiey e ?anno?aeyi ,aoeaaeueii, ia
neaaeothuee aeaiue, a noae i?ioiaeee ca cae?uouie aeaa?yie, ia
ioaeeeiaaeenue oae aea e ?acoeueoaou neaaenoaey. No?aiii auei e oi, /oi
a iiiaio i?anooieaiey ?yaeii nianai ia auei ieeiai ec io?aiieeia.
Oneuoaa auno?ae, a yoio ei?eaei? naaaeaeenue iiiaea ia?oeeiua ?aaioieee
e auee e?aeia oaeeaeaiu iieiui ionoonoaeai io?aiu. Oai ia auei aeaaea
aeaaiiai oaeio?aieoaey Na?aay Ie?iiiae/a, Ai?eniaa, eioi?ue, niaeanii
eino?oeoeeyi, aeieaeai aue anaaaea iaoiaeeoueny ?yaeii n ia?aui
nae?aoa??i iaeiia.

An? yoi iaaiaeeei ia iuneue, /oi i?aaiecaoi? oaeenoaa – Noaeei. A
nayce n yoei noaeaeaieai eiaeenue iaeioi?ua iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea oeeee.
Ai-ia?auo n?aco iinea o?aaaaeee ana eiii?iiaoe?othuea naeaeaoaee eeai
auee n?aco ?anno?aeyiu, eae niiauieee a i?aaiecaoeee i?anooieaiey, eeai
i?inoi en/acee a aeaeueiaeoai. Ai-aoi?uo iaaeaeo Noaeeiui e Ee?iaui a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy aicieeaei an? aieueoa ?aciiaeanee. Ee?ia noaiiaeeny an?
aieaa iiioey?iui a ia?oee e a ia?iaea, ii aue i/aiue oaaaeeoaeueiui
i?aoi?ii, noaeeineoth iieeoeeo eieeaeoeaecaoeee e eiaeono?eaeecaoeee ii
i?iaiaeee iaoeeiiii, ii, aac oiai iooaiea ceiaiinoe, eioi?ue aue
oa?aeoa?ai Noaeeio e aai aeeaeaeoei ni?aoieeai, Ee?ia aue aaniiuaaeai,

– 4 –

ii ii ia aue ie ceiaeaai ie ?aaieaiiui eniieieoaeai /oaeie aiee. Oaeea
ethaee, eae ii auee i?aiyonoaeai ia iooe «Aieueoiai Oa??i?a», iie
niae?aeenue ineaaeoue aeeeoaoo?o e iaeoe niinia i?eie?eoueny n
iiiiceoeeae. Noaeei ociaa ia yoeo ieaiao, oaeaeae a ieo ?aoeoaeueiia
i?aiyonoaea a ?anoe?aiee nianoaaiiie aeanoe e aeaeueiaeoaio
onoaiiaeaieth «Eoeueoa ee/iinoe».

*a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea oaeenoaa auee oie/oiaeaiu ae?oaea /eaiu
iieeoe/aneiai ath?i, ioe?uoi aic?aaeaaoea Noaeeio. Anei?a aue a?anoiaai
Aaaeue Aioeeaeca, eioi?iai canoaaeee aunooieoue n naiiiaaeiaieyie e
iaienaoue a «I?aaaea» noaoueth, aaea ii iauyaeye, /oi niaa?oee iiiai
iieeoe/aneeo ioeaie. N?aco iinea Aioeeaeca oia? Eoeauoaa, ii iioii
iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi ii i?ioiaeee eo?n iai?aaeeueiiai ea/aiey ii i?eeaco
ssaiaeu. Io na?aea/iiai i?enooia neii/aeny I?aeaeiieeeaeca, ii
auynieeinue, /oi yoi auei i/a?aaeiia «iaaeeoeeineia oaeenoai».

Aei neo ii? ia ynii, eae i?aaeoaeuenoai niiaei i?aaeaeaeaoue yoo
o?aaaaeeth, aaaeue oeac ia onei?aiiii aaaeaiee anao noaeaaiuo aeae aac
aaeaieaoia, ca cae?uouie aeaa?ueie e aac ?anniio?aiey aiaeeyoeee auee
ecaeaiu aoeaaeueii a oio aea aeaiue. I?aeoe/anee n?aco iinea ?anno?aea
Ieeieaaaa auee iaia?oaeaiu e a?anoiaaiu ia?aua a?oiiu caaiai?ueeia e
i?aaiecaoi?ia.

A iineaaenoaee yoa aa?ney iieo/eea oiaeaeaiea ca a?aieoeae,
aeaaiaea?y iieacaieyi iiiaeo aaaeaaoeo ca ?oaaae ioeoea?ia, ii e iia ia
i?eieiaeanue ana?ueac aei oao ii?, iiea a? ia iiaeoaa?aeee i?ic?a/iuie
iai?eaie a naieo aunooieaieyo Ieeeoa O?ouaa. Ee/ii ii aue oaaaeae?i, /oi
aa?ney aa?iay, ii e ii ia niia i?eaanoe iniiaaoaeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa a
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea naieo iiaeic?aiee, oioy e ?anii?yaeeeny i?iaanoe
niaoeeaeueiia ?anneaaeiaaiea, ii iii, e niaeaeaieth, caeii/eeinue oae e
ia ia/aaoenue.

Ia?yaeo n iaioeoeeaeueiuie aa?neyie, iiyaeyeenue e aa?nee
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua, i?aaaea ana iie ia auee iainiiaaiu a aeinoaoi/iie
ia?a, auee i/aiue i?ioeai?a/eau ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao e
niaiyeenue n iaaiia?aceiie auno?ioie, /oi aeaeaei eo a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a
iai?aaaeiiiaeiaiuie. Ia i?iaa?eo yoeo aa?nee ii/oe ia inoaeinue
iaaeaaeaeu, oae eae any eioi?iaoeey i o?aaaaeee o?aieeanue a
no?iaeaeoai nae?aoa, a noaeu e neaaenoaey i?ioiaeeee ca cae?uouie
aeaa?ueie e ia iioaeeeiauaaeenue, a a i?anno a ia?iiiii eiee/anoaa
ioneaee noaouee i ?ane?uoee i/a?aaeiiai caaiai?a eee i au? iaeiii
?anno?aeyiiii «a?aaa ia?iaea». *oi eanaaony oaeeoeu Ieeieaaaa, eioi?ue
aue ?anno?aeyi n?aco aea iinea niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, oi ec iaoa?eaeia
oiai a?aiaie neaaeiaaei, /oi ii aeaenoaiaae ii nianoaaiiiio oiuneo, ii
an?

– 5 –

aea n/eoaaony, /oi, aiciiaeii, ii auiieiye i?eeac naiiai Noaeeia. Iia
i?aaenoaaeyaony i/aiue ni?aaaaeeeaui noaeaeaiea Aeaeocaiia Aiooa i oii,
/oi «Aue ee Noaeei caiaoai a yoii

aeaea eee ia aue, ii ii ainiieueciaaeny oaeenoaii Ee?iaa e nicaeaiiie
yoei iauae aoiinoa?u o?aaiae, aeey oiai /oiau iai?aaeoue a auaiaeiia
aeey naay ?onei ?acaeoea oie ne?uoiie io iaaii?oaeaiiiai aeaca
iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau, eioi?ay ?acaa?ioeanue ia ?oaaaea 1933-1934aa. E
iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo oeao? eioi?ie aue Na?aae Ie?iiiae/ Ee?ia».

2.Iieeoe/aneea iineaaenoaey oaeenoaa.

Oaeenoai Na?aay Ie?iiiae/a Ee?iaa iiaeaeei ca niaie iiiaeanoai
iieeoe/aneeo iineaaenoaee, a ia?iiiie noaiaie iiaeeyei ia aeaeueiaeooth
aeeciue anaai NNN?, a oae aea eneaea/eei iiiaeanoai noaeaa e iiaoaeei
ia?iiiia eiee/anoai aeeciae. Yoa aaaea noaea eaoaeecaoi?ii aeey i?eoiaea
au? aieueoae aaaeu – noaeeineiai oa??i?a. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo eao
aieiu ?ai?annee iauaaeii iionoioaee ai?iaea e n?ea iaoae no?aiu,
oie/oiaeaee aanue oeaao ?onneie eioaeeeaaioeee: oaeaioeeaaeoea a?a/e,
o/aiua e eiaeaia?u auee oie/oiaeaiu a oi no?aoiia a?aiy.

An? ia/aeinue, aoeaaeueii, n?aco iinea oaeenoaa Ee?iaa e auianaiey
i?eaiai?a ia?aui a?anoiaaiiui ii iaaeiaieth a i?aaiecaoeee e
inouanoaeaieth yoiai oa??i?enoe/aneiai aeoa. Ia/aee auoiaeeoue oeacu,
oaeanoi/athuea niaaoneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, aiinyuea eciaiaiey a
noaeaaiua caeiiu, ioiinyueany e iieeoe/aneei i?anooieaieyi. Naiui ia?aui
auoei Iinoaiiaeaiea OeEE NNN? io 1 aeaeaa?y 1934 aiaea «I ii?yaeea
aaaeaiey aeae i iiaeaioiaea eee niaa?oaieth oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoia». Yoi
iinoaiiaeaiea onoaiaaeeaaei nei?ioa/iinoue aaaeaiey anao aeae ii
?anniio?aieth eeoe, iaaei?iiuo a iiaeaioiaea eee niaa?oaieth
oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoia. Iinoaiiaeaiea aeeth/aei a naay ianeieueei
ioieoia, aeaaiay caaea/a eioi?uo, ianeieueei aiciiaeii onei?eoue
i?ioaeaiea anao aeae, eanathueony anao «a?aaia ia?iaea» e ia aeaoue
aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaaeaoueny. Nooue aeaiiiai aeieoiaioa ninoiyeanue a
neaaeothuai:

Neaaenoaea ii yoei aeaeai caeai/eaaeinue a n?ie ia aieaa aeanyoe aeiae.

Iaaeieoaeueiia caeeth/aiea iieaaaeinue a?o/aoue iaaeiyaiiio ia aieaa /ai
ca iaeie nooee aei ?anniio?aiey aeae a noaea.

Aeaea neooaeenue aac o/anoey noi?ii.

– 6 –

Ia aeiioneaoue eannaoeeiiiiai iaaeaeiaaiey i?eaiai?ia, eae e iiaea/e
oiaeaoaenoa i iiieeiaaiee.

I?eaiai? e aunoae ia?a iaeacaiey i?eaiaeeoue a eniieiaiea iaiaaeeaiii ii
auianaieth i?eaiai?ia.

Anei?a iinea iioaeeeiaaiey iinoaiiaeaiey io 1 aeaeaa?y 1934 aiaea
ia/aeinue aeaeueiaeoaa oaeanoi/aiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Auee aaaaeaiu
caeiiu, eanathueany ia oieueei naieo «Eciaiieeia ?iaeeiu», ii e eo naiae
e ae?oaeo ?iaenoaaiieeia.

30 ia?oa 1935 aiaea aue ecaeai caeii i Iaeacaiee /eaiia naiae
eciaiieeia ?iaeeiu (ana aeeaeaeoea ?iaenoaaiieee eciaiieeia ?iaeeiu
aeieaeiu auee auoue auneaiu a ioaeae?iiua ?aeiiu no?aiu, aeaaea anee iie
ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e niaa?oaiiiio i?anooieaieth ia eiaee).

Aeey oaeanoi/aiey iaeacaiey naiae eciaiieeia ?iaeeiu, 7 ai?aey 1935
aiaea aue ecaeai oeac, ?ac?aoathuee i?eaeaeaoue e oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeaoae noa?oa 12 eao. Oae aea ia ieo iiaee
?ani?ino?aiyoueny ana aeaeu oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, aieioue aei
nia?oiie eacie.

I/aiue iiiai oeacia auei ecaeaii ii aeaeai oae iacuaaaiuo «auaoeo
ethaeae»: auaoeo eoeaeia, auaoeo oea?neeo i?eaeai?iuo e o.ae.
Aieueoeinoao ec ieo auea oaioiaeaia o/anoue auoue nineaiiui a
eaeea-ieaoaeue ioaeae?iiua oaieee no?aiu e aeiaeeaaoue oai a oaeaniie
ieuaoa naie iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie. A Eaieia?aaea auei nineaii aieueoa
ieeeeiia /aeiaae ec «auaoeo ethaeae» e oi, oieueei ca ia?aua aeaa aiaea
?ai?annee.

Ni a?aiaiai ?ai?annee i?eia?aoaee an? aieueoee ?aciao e o?aaiaaee
iaycaoaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey iiauo aianoaeaaiuo i?aaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
(o?ieee e aeaieee).

27 iay 1935 aiaea ii i?eeaco IEAAe NNN? a IEAAe ?anioaeee, e?a?a e
iaeanoae Nithca Niaaoneeo Nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?anioaeee auee ia?aciaaiu
o?ieee IEAAe – OIEAAe, ia eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiyeenue ana i?aaa Iniaiai
Niaauaiey. A ninoaa o?iae aoiaeeee: ia/aeueiee OIEAAe, ia/aeueiee
ioaeaea ieeeoeee e i?ieo?i? iaeanoe. A iieiiii/ey o?ieee aoiaeeei
auianaiea, ?anniio?aiea e auianaiea i?eaiai?a aac aaaeiia noaea.

30 ethiy 1937 aiaea ia?yaeo n oaea aeaenoaothueie aianoaeaaiuie
i?aaiaie auee nicaeaiu ?anioaeeeaineea, e?aaaua e iaeanoiua o?ieee.
Aeaaiie caaea/ae yoeo o?iae auei ?anniio?aiea aeae ii /anoe «auaoeo
ethaeae»: auaoeo eoeaeia,

/eaiia aioeniaaoneie ia?oee, auaoeo aaeiaaa?aeaeoeaa, aeaiaea?iia e
/eiiaieeia oea?neie ?innee.

– 7 –

A ninoaa o?ieee aoiaeeee: nae?aoa?ue iaeiia AEI(a), i?ieo?i? iaeanoe
e ia/aeueiee oi?aaeaiey IEAAe.

*a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea aaaaeaiey o?iae, 4 aaaonoa 1937 aiaea
auee aaaaeaiu aeaieee, a ninoaaa eioi?uo aue

i?ieo?i? NNN? e ia?eii aioo?aiieo aeae no?aiu. Aeaieee e o?ieee ioaa/aee
anai o?aaiaaieyi Noaeeia ii aaaeaieth noaeaaiuo aeae iieeoe/aneeo
i?anooiieeia, «a?aaia ia?iaea» e auaoeo ethaeae. Eae e auei oeacaii ana
neaaenoaey ii aeaeai caeai/eaaeenue a oa/aiee 10 aeiae, a iiiaea i?inoi
e ia ia/eiaeenue, aieueoia eiee/anoai i?eaiai?ia aeaaea iacia/aeinue ia
o?ieeaie e aeaieeaie, a i?inoi i?eoiaeeei io i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i ieeaeeo
oiaeaoaenoaao i iiieeiaaiee, anoanoaaiii, ia iiaei auoue e ?a/e.

A 1935 aiaeo i?iaeieaeaeanue, ia/aaoayny a 1933 aiaeo oae iacuaaaiay
«/enoea ia?oee». Iaeaieueoaa /enei /eaiia ia?oee auei eneeth/aii a
iineaaeiea aiaeu «/enoee». Anao ia?oeeiuo ?aaioieeia no?iai iaeacuaaee
ii ionoyeiaui, a eiiaaea e ii auiuoeaiiui i?e/eiai. I/aiue no?iaia
iaeacaiea aeaeaei ca «naycue n a?aaeaeaaiuie yeaiaioaie» eee i?inoi ca
«iaaeinoaoie aaeeoaeueiinoe».

?ai?annee eiaee ia?iiiaeoee ?aciao e iiiaea i?inoi ia?anoaaaee
aa?eoue a aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey oaeiai iaia?aiiai eiee/anoaa
«a?aaia ia?iaea» e ia/eiaee caaeoiuaaoueny iaae yoei aii?inii. *oiau
ii?aaaeaoue noaeeineee oa??i? au? a 1928 aiaeo aue auaeaeioo oacen: ii
ia?a oniaoia nioeeaeenoe/aneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa nii?ioeaeaiea eeanniaiai
a?aaa aoaeao oneeeaaoueny, a eeanniaay ai?ueaa – iaino?youeny.

3. «Ee?ianeee iioie»

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, oaeenoai Na?aay Ie?iiiae/a Ee?iaa iiaeaeei ca
niaie iiiaeanoai oaeaniuo e e?iaaauo niauoee io?aceaoeony ia noaeueaao
ieeeeiiia a?aaeaeai Niaaoneiai Nithca. An? ia/aeinue n a?anoia
iaaieueoiai /enea iiaeic?aaaaiuo a niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey, nei?ioa/iiai
noaea e eacie. N?aco aea iinea caaa?oaiey aeae ia?auo a?anoiaaiiuo e
iinea eo ?anno?aea, ia/aeenue ianniaua ?ai?annee iai?aaeaiiua ia
oie/oiaeaiea anao iiaeic?aaaaiuo a eciaia ioa/anoao. «Ee?ianeee iioie» –
yoi ia?aay aieia ianniauo a?anoia, i?ieaoeaoeony ii no?aia ceiie e
aaniie 1935 aiaea. Naiui ia?aui a?anoai auee iiaeaa?aeaiu iiiaea
ee/iinoe, ?aaioaaoea a ie?oaeaiee N. I. Ee?iaa e oa, eoi eae-eeai aue
naycai n iei. Aiiaieyi iiaeaa?aaeenue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeeoaee
Eaieia?aaea e iaeanoe. Eiaiii ai a?aiy «Ee?ianeiai iioiea» ia/aeenue
?anniao?eaaoueny aeaea «auaoeo ethaeae». Iiiaea ec yoeo ia a /ai ia
iiaeiiuo ethaeae auee auioaeaeaiu auaoaoue ca i?aaeaeu Eaieia?aaea eee
Iineau a aeooea aea?aaie –

– 8 –

aaea-ieaoaeue ia ie?aeia no?aiu. Ii iiaen/aoai, ec Eaieia?aaea auei
auneaii ianeieueei aeanyoeia ouny/ /aeiaae e aieueoeinoai ec ieo oae e
ia niiaei aa?iooueny a naie ?iaeiua ianoa. Eiaiii ai a?aiy «Ee?ianeiai
iioiea» auee iaianaiu ia?aua oaea?u ii ?onneie eioaeeeaaioeee. Ia/aoua a
yoo ii?o aiiaiey ia eioaeeeaaioeeth i?iaeieaeaeenue au? ii/oe iyoue eao
e caeii/eeenue oieueei e ni?ieiaui aiaeai. Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?ai?anneyie a
ia?iaea ia/aeanue caiaia eiiaiaeiaaiey aiaiii-ii?neeo nee no?aiu,
i?iaeieaeaeanue e oae iacuaaaiay «/enoea» ia?oee. Eiaiii «ee?ianeee
iioie» noae ia/aeii anaai oiai

oaeana oai?eaoaainy a no?aia a oa/aiee iiiaeo iineaaeothueo eao e
ieii/aoaeueii caeii/eaoaainy eeoue ni nia?oueth Noaeeia.

Aanniuneaiii aiai?eoue i anao aea?oaao Noaeeia e aai oaeaniiai
oa??i?a, oae eae /enei yoeo aea?oa iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue e
nin/eoaoue. Eiee/anoai ethaeae, iiaoaeaiiuo aeanoieie noaeeineie
aeeeoaoo?ie an? au? inoa?ony iaecaanoiui e, aiciiaeii, ioaao ia yoio
aii?in aacaica?aoii ooae a i?ioeia, oae e inoaaea /aeiaa/anoai a
iaaaaeaiee.

A yoie aeaaa y iinoa?athnue aieaa eee iaiaa iiae?iaii iienaoue
o?aae/aneoth noaeueao ?aii?o??a Aeaenay Ee?eeeiaa, eioi?ue aue iacaeiiii
inoaeaeai e auneai ni anae naiae naiueae a iaaieueoie ai?iaeie
Eaca/eine, E?aniiy?neiai e?ay. Ai a?aiy nnueee a Eaca/einea ii a?e
aeiaaiee, a eioi?ii iienuaae eaaeaeue aeaiue naiaai i?aauaaiey a yoii
ai?iaeea. Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi yoo aeaao naiae ?aaiou y ienae a iniiaiii
eniieuecoy eiaiii iaoa?eaeu ec aeiaaieea Aeaenay Ee?eeeiaa, o?aiyuaainy
a oiiaeao iocay Iieeoe/aneie Enoi?ee ?innee.

Aeaenae Ee?eeeia ii i?ioannee ei??aniiiaeaio, ?aaioae ?aaeaeoi?ii
ioaeaea ia/aoe eaieia?aaeneie aacaou «Niaia». Ii/oe n?aco iinea oaeenoaa
Na?aay Ie?iiiae/a Ee?iaa aieueoae /anoe nio?oaeieeia ioaeaea, a eioi?ii
?aaioae Ee?eeeia, aue ioaeai i?eeac i n?i/iii iouacaea ec Eaieia?aaea.
Aeaei a oii, /oi yoa ia/aoiay i?aaiecaoeey iaiin?aaenoaaiii
nii?eeanaeanue a ?aaioa n Ia?aui Nae?aoa??i eaieia?aaeneiai Iaeiia, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii ianea iaeioi?oth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nia?oue Ee?iaa.
Ienueii i aunaeaiee naiuee ?aii?o??a ec Eaieia?aaea i?eoei, eiaaea ii
iaoiaeeeny a eiiaiaee?iaea a E?aniiy?nea. Ecaanoea ia oaeenoaa Na?aay
Ie?iiiae/a neeueii iio?ynei ei??aniiiaeaioa, ii au? aieueoa aai iio?yn e
aiciooee oio oaeo, /oi ii e ii/oe ana aai eieeaae iiaeic?aaathony a
i?e/anoiinoe e yoiio i?anooieaieth. Ec E?aniiy?nea ii oioae auneaoue
ienueii n ii?aaaeaieai naiaio ae?oao Aeoeeoeeio, aaea ii ienae:
«Oyaeaeue oaea?, ia?ooeaoeeny ia ia?oeth ao?ieia oyaeae aeey iaiy. Ai –
ia?auo y iiiai nii?eeanaeny a ?aaioa n Na?aaai Ie?iiiae/ai e ia iiao aac
oaeana aeoiaoue i neo/eaoeiny. Ai – aoi?uo y ?aaioae a eaieia?aaeneie
i?aaiecaoeee, iano uae

– 9 –

iaiin?aaenoaaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nia?oue Na?aay Ie?iiiae/a. A –
o?aoueeo iie eaeaeiua eieaaaiey a iiiaio 14 nuacaea ia?oee, noaayo iaiy
a ?yaeu ethaeae iniai ioaa/athueo ca aeaenoaea aioniie aaiaeu oaeeoe».
Ii ienueii ii oae e ia ioi?aaee, nouaeii noaei… ia caoioaeinue
ii?aaaeuaaoueny ca ia niaa?oaiiua ei iinooiee. Aiciiaeii, a iineaaenoaea
?aoaiea ia iinueaoue aeaiiia ienueii io?aceeinue ia aeaeueiaeoae
noaeueaa ei??aniiiaeaioa e aai naiuee.

Anei?a iinea i?eoiaea aanoe ia oaeenoaa Ee?iaa e i aunaeaiee
Ee?eeeiaa e aai naiuee ec Eaieia?aaea, i?eoea iiaay oaeaa?aiia n
i?eeacii i iaiaaeeaiiii iouacaea ?aii?o??a a Eaca/eine, aac i?aaa ia
auacae a Eaieia?aae, /oiau

iiaeaeaoueny n naiue?e. A oaeaa?aiia oaa?yee, /oi aai aeaia a nei?ii
a?aiaie i?eaoaeao ia i?iaeeaaiea a Eaca/eine.

A Eaca/einea ?aii?o??a ono?ieee ia ?aaioo, ii ia ia ?aaioo a ianoiii
aeo?iaea eee aacaoa, a i?inoi canoaaeyee caieiaoueny /enoi iaoaie/anee
o?oaeii, oeia ia?aienuaaiey ?aciiai ni?oa aoiaa e aeieoiaioia.
Aiciouaiiue oaeei ioiioaieai e iaaeiaa?eai Ee?eeeia ieoao i/a?aaeiia
ienueii ec Eaca/einea, aae?aniaaiiia A.E. Noaoeeiio, n i?inueaie i
caiaia ?aaiou ia ae?oaoth, aieaa iiaeoiaeyuoth e aai i?ioannee e,
anoanoaaiii, iieo/aao iieiia niaieaciiaaiee ienueii, a eioi?ii
?acuyniyaony iaaiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey aai i?inueau. Aoi?iai ia?oa
?aii?o?? iinueaao ienueii naiae aeaia Ethaeieea, a eioi?ii ?anneacuaaao
i aeecie a ai?iaeea. A yoi aea a?aiy ii ia/eiaao ciaeiieoueny n ianoiuie
e auneacuaaao i?aaenaaeaoaeth Uoeeio ianeieueei naieo i?aaeeiaeaiee ii
iiaiaeo iiaeaioiaea ai?iaea e aania, a iauai, aoiaeeo a aeiaa?ea e
ai?iaeaiai. AEeay a Eaca/einea, Ee?eeeia an? aea ia aue iieiinoueth
io?acai io ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. Aio auei ?ac?aoaii auienuaaoue iaeioi?ua
aacaou e ii, iieuecoynue yoie aiciiaeiinoueth, an? a?aiy iia ociaaaoue
iineaaeiea iiainoe e anaaaea auoue a eo?na i?ienoiaeyueo niauoee. Eiaaea
i?eoei ienueii io aeaiu n niiauaieai: «Iyoua nooee aaeai», ?aaeinoe aai
ia auei i?aaeaea. Ii anei?a aai aeaeaei ?aci/a?iaaiea. Ethaeieea,
iaoiaeynue a E?aniiy?nea, ia niiaea auaoaoue io ooaea: ianiio?y ia ana
noa?aiey, ano?aoeoueny n ioaeai ae oae e ia oaeaeinue. N yoiai iiiaioa
ia/aeanue ianoiyuay o?aaey anaai naiaenoaa ei??aniiiaeaioa. Iaaei
neacaoue, /oi iio?aoea ieiei ianyoea ia iiiuoee aui?ineoue o ia/aeuenoaa
e?aoein?i/iue ioione, Ee?eeeiao an?-oaee oaeaeinue oaeaeaoueny ni naiae
aeaiie. Ii neieueei a?aiaie e nee aio iio?aaiaaeinue, /oiau ia
ianeieueei aeiae auaoaoue a ninaaeiee ai?iae! O Ethaeieeu iiea /oi
aeaea neeaaeuaaeenue oaea/iae, /ai o a? ioaea, ii yoi i?iaeieaeaeinue
iaaeieai. Oo?ii 24 ai?aey ii aeieaeai aue auaoaoue a naei A?ciaeo ia
i?iaa?eo iinaaa, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iieo/ea oaeaa?aiio, /oi Ethaeieea
aeiaieueia naiae ?aaioie a

– 10 –

ianoiie oeiea e /oi caiyoa ath ii ai?ei. Aae?oa, iaiaeeaeaiii, ia?aae
naiui iouacaeii, i?eoiaeeo iineaiea

ec E?aniiy?nea: «Iaiy aacia?acii ieeaaaoaee. I?eacaeii ia/aeueieea,
iaaeathnue, an? auynieony».

Aeaaaeoeaoiai iay, eae ieoao ?aii?o??, i?iecioei ia/oi oaeaniia. Aio
caienue ec aeiaaieea Ee?eeeiaa: «AEaia i?eia?aea aeey ia?oeaaeiaoa
Iieeoioaeaea eieae aeey nicaeaiey aeaeeioaee. ?aaioaea iii n oaea/aieai,
ai?y/i, e aeaei i?iaeaeaaeinue, oioy eiea a eieaeiii iaaaceia ia auei, e
i?eoiaeeeinue eo i?eia?aoaoue o aoeeienoa eee a eiienneiiiii iaaaceia,
aaea e auei eoieaii iieiia nia?aiea ni/eiaiee A.E. Eaieia 1-ai
ecaeaiey. I?e auaea/a iaeiiai ec oiiia Eaieia iiiiieeoo aeey aai
iiaeaioiaee e i/a?aaeiiio iieeocaiyoeth, eioi?uie auei ii?o/aii
?oeiaiaeeoue Ethnueea, ec eieae auiaea noa?ay, iiaeaeoaaoay io a?aiaie
eenoiaea i i?ionithciie aeeneonnee ca iiaeienueth O?ioeeiai.

Ethaeieea ia?aoeeanue ca niaaoii e caiia/aeueieeo Iieeoioaeaea Oaeeo:
/oi aeaeaoue n yoei aeieoiaioii? Oaee ioaaoee: «Aeaaae iia, y ni?y/o aai
a noie, iiae eeth/».

Eiaaea ia ae?oaie aeaiue Ee?eeeiaa i?iaiaeeee i/a?aaeiia iieeocaiyoea
n iiiiieeoaie, aaea eae ?ac i?i?aaaouaaeanue oaia «I?ionithciua
aeeneonnee», Oaee auioe ec noiea eenoiaeo e iieacae a? anai
i?enoonoaothuei. Yoi e iineoaeeei, eae aeaeii, iiaiaeii e oiio, /oi a
I?aath?i auei iiaeaii io iiiiieeoia e Oaeea cayaeaiea, /oi Ee?eeeiaa
«?ani?ino?aiyao o?ioeeenoneea eenoiaee».

A ionoonoaea ia/aeueieea Iieeoioaeaea *a?eaniaa, eioi?ue eae ?ac a
yoe aeie iaoiaeeeny a eiiaiaee?iaea a Iineaa, nai Oaee iinoaaee ia
ia?oeeiii nia?aiee iieeoioaeaeueoeaa iaeaioia 1 Iay aii?in ia
eneeth/aiee Ee?eeeiaie ec ia?oee «ca ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiiai o?ioeeecia».

Iai iia ia nia?aiee aiai?eee, /oi y ianeieueei ?ac eneeth/aeny ec
ia?oee (yoi yaiay eiaeue!), /oi nae/an y a nnueea e oiio iiaeiaioth
/ooue. A Ethnueeo ie?anoeee «eiio??aaiethoeeiia?eie» e auianee ?aoaiea
ia a? eneeth/aiee ec ia?oee…»

Ethaeieea, iaaeiaiiie a «?ani?ino?aiaiee eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo
eenoiaie», ?ani?ino?aiyoue eioi?ua iia aeaaea e ia aeoiaea (enoaoe, a
1-i ecaeaiee i?iecaaaeaiee Eaieia oaeno yoie naiie eenoiaee iaia/aoai a
eiioea oiia a aeaea i?eeiaeaiey) ie/aai ia inoaaaeinue, eae oa?iaoue yoo
eeaaaoo e naeaoue naie ia?oeeiue aeeao. Aeey ia? e aeaoae ianoaee /a?iua
a?aiaia. Aeaoe iieeoioaeaeueoeaa e?e/aee ei a ieii: «au oaeee Ee?iaa!».
?acaeee ieiiiia noaeei, a?inay a iaai eaiie, noa?aiueeoth iaoue
?aii?o??a e aai nuia-oeieueieea ii aei?iaa a oeieo oiaea caa?anuaaee
eaiiyie. Ia iiiiaei e ia?auaiea ca

– 11 –

iiiiuueth a ianoiia oi?aaeaiea AIO, oai a? auneooaee a iieiie
?anoa?yiiinoe e ie/aai ia neacaee.

Ee?eeeia aeee anth inoaaoothny ceio an? a?aiy aieioynue ca noaeueao
aeaiu e aeaoae. 1 yiaa?y 1936 aiaea i?iecioae iaeei nianai iaiaeeaeaiiue
e iiaa?ioaoee aeeciue ?aii?o??a a ae?oaia ?onei neo/ae, aio aa?ioee aai
ia?oaeeao, ii aeaia aica?auaoue eaoaai?e/anee ioeacaeenue. *a?ac
iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea aica?auaiey ia?oaeeaoa, Ee?eeeiaa ono?ieee ia
iiaoth ?aaioo – aee?aeoi?a oeieu.

Anth aanio 1936 aiaea ?aii?o?? ?aaioae a oeiea e, iaeiia?aiaiii, ia
ia?anoaaae caieiaoueny eieoiciui oicyenoaii. Aeiaaiee ?aii?o??a Aeaenay
Ee?eeeiaa ia?uaaaony caienueth io 19 ai?aey 1936 aiaea. Ia ana eaoiea
ianyoeu ii aue iineai Eaca/eineei ?aeeiiii oiieiiii/aiiui ii iinaaiie, a
caoai e oai?i/iie eiiiaiee a naei ?iaeaeanoaaineia – e?oiiaeoee
eieoiciue ?aeii iaeanoe. Oaea naii yoi iacia/aiea auei aini?eiyoi
Aeaenaai, eae ciae ?anoouaai e iaio aeiaa?ey ia?oeeiie i?aaiecaoeee
Eaca/einea. Yoei aea eaoii Aeaenae iaeiei ec ia?auo a ?aeiia i?ioae
iaiai ia?oeeiuie aeieoiaioaie, ii «ioiaaeaaaoueny» io eneeth/aiiie ec
ia?oee aeaiu iaio?ac ioeacaeny. A aaaonoa ii eieoeeaoeaa Ee?eeeiaa aue
i?aaei?eiyo iaaieueoie aaieiae/aneee iioiae ii Aienath n oeaeueth
?acaaaeee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo.

An? oei i/aiue oi?ioi, Ee?eeeiau aeaeaee niiauaiey i aiciiaeiinoe
ia?aacaea ia?aoii a Eaieia?aae e ieeoi aeaaea ia iia i?aaenoaaeoue naaa,
eaeie eioia? iaeeaeaao eo a aoaeouai.

Eae oi ?ac iicaeii aa/a?ii, Ethaeieea iiaeioea e naiaio aeiieeo a
Eaca/einea e oaeaeaea iiaeuacaeaaooth e iei oaeaao n ia/aeueieeii
Eaca/eineiai IEAAe, Noaiaiii I?ieiiueaae/ai Aeaieae/eeii e au? iaeiei
iaciaeiiui /aeiaaeii, eioi?ue ia/ae a aeiia iaune. Aeaenae aue oaea
aeiia. Auee eiioeneiaaiu e oaacaiu ana eieae, iaoiaeeaoeany a ecaa,
inoaeueiua aaue eo ia eioa?aniaaee. Eiaaea oaeaaa oaoaea, Aeaenae
neacae, /oi aai eneeth/eee ec ia?oee, iaaeiea a ?ani?ino?aiaiee a naea
?iaeaeanoaaineii o?ioeeenoneie eeoa?aoo?u, eiea, eioi?ua aai iii?ineee
auienaoue ec E?aniiy?neie aeaeeioaee n oeaeueth i?inaauaiey iaeioi?uo
naeue/ai («Iiaeiyoay oeaeeia» Oieioiaa, iaeiioiiiee Iooeeia, «Yia?aey»
Aeaaeeiaa e «Eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio» Niaieaaa). Anao ii?aceea e ioaeiieea
aeeeay e /oaeiaeuiay iaeaieoea yoiai iaaeiaiey, aaaeue, a nouiinoe, n
Aeaenaai i?iecioei oi aea naiia, /oi e n aai aeaiie a 1935 aiaeo.

Ia ae?oaie aeaiue, iinea iaunea, Ethaeieea iioea ia ?aaioo a oeieo,
eoaea a? Aeaenae ono?iee, eae o/eoaeueieoeo, e canaea ca i?iaa?eo
ni/eiaiee, eioi?ua auei iaiaoiaeeii aa?iooue aaoi?ai aac caaea?aeee.
Caiyoay ?aaioie, iia nianai ioaeaeeanue io niauoey i?ioeiai aeiy e
iiyoiio ia i?eaeaea iniaiai cia/aiey i?inueaa Aeaenay i?iaoeyoueny n iei
a Oaeao. Ii iioae ooaea a iaeeii/anoaa. Eiaiii ai a?aiy yoie iaeeiieie
i?iaoeee ieii/aoaeueii nic?aei o Aeaenay ?aoaiea, nianoe

– 12 –

naiueth oeaiie naiae aeaaee. I?iuaeueiia ienueii oaea auei iaienaii e
eaaeaei o iaai a ea?iaia.

Ia ae?oaie aeaiue Ee?eeeiaa iiyoue iioea ia ?aaioo. A o/eoaeueneie a?
caaea?aeeaaao caao/ – aea?o i?i/anoue i?eeac ii oeiea: «Ca
iaiaaeaaiae/aneia ioiioaiea e o/aieeai (anoue ethaei/eee), ca aeaaaiea
aooa?a?iaea i?e aoiaea a eeann, ca oi, /oi ia ioiaoeea ?ieue
aieueoaaeeia a Ioaa/aaneii ainnoaiee – n/eoaoue Ethaeieeo Aeaenaiae?iaio
Ee?eeeiao oaieaiiie ec oeieu n 6 ieoya?y 1936 aiaea». Caao/ yoio /anoi
iiyaeyeny a oeiea a iao?acaii aeaea, a neaey eae-oi ia o?iea, eiaaea oei
/oaiea «Eaieoaineie aei/ee» ethaacii caiaoee iinea caiiea: «ss e aai
o/eoueny i?eoiaeo».

N?aco aea iinea oeieu iia iioea a ?aeci e ioaeo, /oiau niiaueoue au?
iaeio ia/aeueioth iiainoue, neacaoue i a? oaieueiaiee e i oii aeeeii
i?eeaca ii oeiea.

Ca ?acaiai?ii ?aoeee, /oi iaaei iieoe a Eaca/eineia ioaeaeaiea IEAAe
e ia/aeueieeo Noaiaio Aeaieae/eeo e io eiaie anae naiuee iii?ineoue:
anee n/eoatho a?aaaie – ionoue noaeyo, a anee iao – ionoue iaeiiaoe
i?ae?aoeoueny o?aaey, eioi?ie eo iiaeaa?aatho e eiioea eioi?ie ia
aeaeaoue.

Aa/a?ii Ethaeieea iioea a oi?aaeaiea IEAAe, a Aeaenae acya ?oaeuea e
niaaeo iioae a oaeao. Ethaeieea ia ciaea, /oi aeeaui aeaeeo ioaea
iineaaeiee ?ac a aeecie. Aa/a?ii Ee?eeeia cano?aeeeny ia aa?aao Aienay.
Nae?aoa?ue ?aeeiia, eioi?ue noi?ioee?iaae oi /oaeiaeuiia iaaeiaiea a
o?ioeeecia «aeieiiaaoaa» ?aii?o??a, ociaa ia yoii, oaieeeny e oaoae ec
E?aniiy?neiai e?ay. A iocaa Iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee ?innee aei neo ii?
o?aieony i?aaenia?oiay caienea A.A. Ee?eeeiaa.

Ei??aniiiaeaio Ee?eeeia yaeyaony anaai eeoue iaeiie ec
iiiai/eneaiiuo aea?oa «Ee?ianeiai iioiea» e aieueoeinoao ec eioi?uo,
iiaeiaii aio i?eoiaeeeinue niineoue ana inei?aeaiey e iaii?aaaeaiiua
iaaeiaiey io ai?y/i ethaeiie Niaaoneie Aeanoe.

«Aieueoie oa??i?»

«Aieueoie oa??i?» eee, eae aai au? iacuaaee «Aaeiaueia», yaeyeny
i?iaeieaeaieai «Ee?ianeiai iioiea», eioi?ue i?ioiaeee a no?aia n 1934
aiaea. «Ee?ianeee iioie» aue eeoue ia?aui oaaii Noaeeia aeey
onoaiiaeaiey naiae aeeeoaoo?u, a ai a?aiy «Aieueoiai oa??i?a» ?ai?annee
i?eia?aee iaeaieueoee ?aciao. Ia aeaea, «Aaeiaueia» auea eniieiaieai
i?eeaca Ia?eiia aioo?aiieo aeae ?00445 e i?ioiaeeea n 5 aaaonoa 1937
aiaea ii 16 iiya?y 1938 aiaea. Iaeiaei, ii aeaoai «Aieueoiai oa??i?a»
nouanoaotho n?aaee enoi?eeia nouanoaotho iaeioi?ua ?aciiaeaney. Iaeie
n/eoatho, /oi an? ia/aeinue a ethia 1936 aiaea, a ae?oaea oaa?aiu, /oi
«Aieueoie oa??i?» ia/aeny inaiueth

– 13 –

o?eaeoeaoue naaeueiiai aiaea. Ca yoi a?aiy auei ?anno?aeyii aieaa ni?iea
ouny/ /aeiaae. Aieueoa anaai no?aaeae Eaieia?aae e Iineaa, a eioi?ie
iiae aunooth ia?o iaeacaiey iiiaei aieaa aeaaaeoeaoe iyoe ouny/ /aeiaae.
A yoio ia?eiae iino?aaeaee ana neie ianaeaiey NNN?, a oaeaea aiaiiua,
/eiiaieee e eioaeeeaaioeey. A 1936 aiaeo ia/aeenue ia?aua «ioe?uoua
i?ioeannu», eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeyee ec naay a?aiaeeiciua, oi?ioi
nieaie?iaaiiua niaeoaeee, ia eiaaoea iiae niaie ieeaeie iniiau. Ana yoe
i?ioeannu auee eaeeau, ii oae oi?ioi nieaie?iaaiu, /oi ieeoi a ia?iaea
ia aeiaaaeuaaeny i oii, /oi noaeyo aiana ia a?aaia ia?iaea. O?e naiuo
y?eeo i?ioeanna i?ioee a Iineaa, a caoai ia/aee i?iaiaeeoueny
iiiai/eneaiiua iaeeea i?ioeannu a e?ayo e iaeanoyo NNN?.

19 aaaonoa 1936 aiaea a Iineaa a Ieoya?ueneii Caea Aeiia Nithcia
ia/aeny ia?aue /oaeiaeuiue niaeoaeeue – oae iacuaaaiue «ioe?uoue
i?ioeann» iaae eeaea?aie iiiiceoeee. Ia neaiuea iiaenoaeeiuo neaeaee
aeaaiui ia?acii auaoea eeaea?u «iiaie» iiiiceoeee – A.A. Ceiiaueaa, E.A.
Eaiaiaa, A.A. Aaaeieeiia, E.I. Nie?iia, E.I. Aaeaaa, N. I?a/eianeee,
A.A. Oa? Aaaaiyi e ae?oaea, i?e/ai iiiaea ec ieo oaea ai aoi?ie ?ac ca
aeaa aiaea ieacaeenue ia yoie neaiuea. Anaai a a?oiia iaaeiyaiuo auei
oanoiaaeoeaoue /aeiaae, eo a iaaeieoaeueiii caeeth/aiee iacaaee
«o?ioeeenonei-ceiiaueaaneei oa??i?enoe/aneei oeaio?ii».

«Noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai aeeeeinue aei 24 aaaonoa e e aai eiioeo
iaaeiyaiua oaea nianai ia «ioie?aeenue». Ceiiaueaa aiai?ee: «Iie
oua?aiue aieueoaaeci i?aa?aoeeny a aioeaieueoaaeci, a aeaaiaea?y
o?ioeeecio y aeioae aei oaoecia… Iu caiyee ianoi aieueoaaeeia, yna?ia,
iaiueoaaeeia e aaeiaaa?aeaeoeaa, eioi?ua ia iiaee ioe?uoi aunooiaoue a
iaoae no?aia».

Ana iaaeiyaiua «ioioii» ?anneacuaaee i naiae ?iee a oaeenoaa Na?aay
Ie?iiiae/a Ee?iaa e i ieaiao oaeenoaa oaeeo e?oiiuo iieeoe/aneeo
aeayoaeae, eae Noaeei, Iieioia, Eaaaiiae/, *oaa?ue, Yeoa. Eaiaiaa
?anneacuaae, /oi oaeenoai Noaeeia ieaie?iaaeinue inouanoaeoue ai a?aiy
VII eiia?anna Eiieioa?ia e /oi yoio aeo aeieaeai aue aucaaoue
caiaoaoaeuenoai a ia?oee e i?eaanoe e iiuiiio aeaeaeaieth ca aica?auaiea
e aeanoe O?ioeeiai, Eaiaiaaa e Ceiiaueaaa. Eeoue iaeei I.E. Nie?iia
iuoaeny ioaa?aiooue aieueooth /anoue i?aaeuyaeaiiuo aio iaaeiaiee, ii e
o iaai ie/aai ia auoei, oae eae ii aue «oee/ai» iieacaieyie ae?oaeo
iiaenoaeeiuo.

Oioy i?ioeann e n/eoaeny ioe?uoui, a caea i?enoonoaiaaei eeoue
ianeieueei aeanyoeia ca?aiaa ioia?aiiuo «i?aaenoaaeoaeae
iauanoaaiiinoe», a inoaeueiuie «c?eoaeyie» auee naie nio?oaeieee IEAAe.
Auee ioaa?aioou iiiaea yeaiaioa?iua ii?iu noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Ieeaeeo
aauanoaaiiuo

– 14 –

aeieacaoaeuenoa i?ieo?i? NNN? A.ss. Auoeineee ia i?aaeuyaeye, a eieeaaey
Aa?oiaiiai noaea, aicaeaaeyaiay A.A. Oeue?eoii, eo e ia o?aaiaaea. An?
iaaeiaiea auei iino?iaii ia iieacaieyo e i?eciaieyo naieo iaaeiyaiuo. A
noaeaaiii ?acae?aoaeuenoaa oaeaea ia i?eieiaee o/anoey aaeaieaou, a
i?aaeeiaeaiey iaeioi?uo ca?oaaaeiuo aaeaieaoia anoaoue ia caueoo
iaaeiyaiuo auee ioaa?aioou. Ana iieacaiey auee iaeiiia?aciu:
ia?a/eneaiea ?acee/iuo i?anooieaiee eee ieaiia i?anooieaiee, eioi?ua
iiaeaioaaeeaaee «oeaio?» e aai «oeeeaeu».

A. Ceiiaueaa, E. Eaiaiaa e ae?oaea iaaeiyaiua oaia?ue
?aaaeeeoe?iaaiu e iiyoiio aeieacuaaoue oi, /oi i?ioeann aue «aeooui» iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iaeiaei a 1936 aiaeo aeiaa?ea ia?oee e aieueoeinoaa
ia?iaea e Noaeeio, IEAAe e niaaoneiio noaeo auei au? i/aiue aaeeei,
niiiaiey aicieeaee o iaiiiaeo e iaei eoi ?aoaeny auneacaoue eo aeaaea a
e?oao naiuo aeeceeo ae?ocae.

Yoio «ia?aue ioe?uoue i?ioeann» auian nia?oiue i?eaiai? anai
oanoiaaeoeaoe iaaeiyaiui e aucaae i/a?aaeioth aieio ?ai?annee. A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue a?anoiauaaee auaoeo /eaiia «eaauo» iiiiceoeee, ana aacaou auee
iieiu noaoueyie i «?aciaea/aiee» ne?uouo o?ioeeenoia, aieueoeinoai ec
eioi?uo e ia niae?aeenue ooaeaaoue naia i?ioeia.

Aoi?ie iieeoe/aneee i?ioeann – niaeoaeeue ia/aeny ceiie 1937 aiaea.
Ia yoio ?ac ia?aae Aiaiiie eieeaaeae Aa?oiaiiai noaea NNN? i?aaenoaee
A.E. Iyoaeia, E.A. ?aaeae, A.ss. Nieieueieeia, E.I. Na?aa?yeia, ss.A.
Eeaoeoe, I.E. Io?aeia, ss.I. Ae?iaien, I.N. Aiaoneaaneee e ae?oaea –
anaai naiiaaeoeaoue /aeiaae. A aieueoeinoaa iiaenoaeeiua auee ecaanoiuie
aeayoaeyie ia?oee, aeoeaiuie o/anoieeaie ?aaiethoeee e A?aaeaeaineie
aieiu. Ii/oe ana a 1924-1928 aiaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaee e «iauaaeeiaiiie»
iiiiceoeee, ii caoai ioaee/ii iauyaeee i ?ac?uaa n O?ioeeei e auee
ainnoaiiaeaiu a ia?oee. Ia?aae a?anoii inaiueth 1926 aiaea iie caieiaee,
eae i?aaeei, aaaeiua iinou a oicyenoaaiiii e ia?oeeiii aiia?aoao, a
i?aaiao ia/aoe e ae?. Oaia?ue ana iie auee iaaeiaiu a i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e
oae iacuaaaiiio «ia?aeeaeueiiio oeaio?o», a iiaeaioiaea oa??i?enoe/aneeo
aeoia, a oieiiaaea, a auiaoeaaiee ieaiia ?an/eaiaiey NNN? e
ainnoaiiaeaiee eaieoaeecia.

I?ioeann «ia?aeeaeueiiai oeaio?a», a ioee/ea io ia?aiai «ioe?uoiai
i?ioeanna», i?ioiaeee oaea n niaethaeaieai iaeioi?uo th?eaee/aneeo ii?i,
eioi?uie i?aiaa?aaee ia i?aaeuaeouai noaeeeeua. Oae, iai?eia?,
iaaeiyaiui auaeaeeee caueoieeia, eioi?ua, ai?i/ai, aeaaea e ia iuoaeenue
caueuaoue eo io iani?aaaaeeeauo e iaiainiiaaiiuo iaaeiaiee. Oaaaeeaoenue
a aacioeaciinoe «neaaenoaaiiie» iaoeiu Noaeei ?ac?aoee i?eaeaneoue ia
i?ioeann aieueoia /enei eiino?aiiuo ei??aniiiaeaioia e iaeioi?uo
aeeieiiaoia. Ii e oaia?ue ieeaeeo aeieoiaioaeueiuo e aauanoaaiiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa i?aaeuyaeaii

– 15 –

ia auei, a eae oieueei noaeuey A. Auoeineee aiai?ee i i?aaeuyaeaiee
aeieacaoaeuenoa, ioe?uoia canaaeaiea i?ae?auaeinue e ia/eiaeinue
cae?uoia. Aaeeinoaaiiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii e oaia?ue yaeyeenue iieacaiey
iaaeiyaiuo.

Anoanoaaiii, aicieeae aii?in, /oi iiaoaeeei iaaeiyaiuo, eioi?ua, ii
aeaiiui neaaenoaey aeaaii oaea iioa?yee nouae e niaanoue, i?aa?aoeeenue
a oaeeoe e aeeaa?naioia e ia iiaee iaaeayoueny ia nienoiaeaeaiea,
«/enoina?aea/ii» i?eciaaaoueny a niaa?oaiiuo i?anooieaieyo. E oiio aea
ana iaaeiyaiua aeaeaee iaiai?eo, /oi eo ia iiaeaa?aaee iuoeai eee
aeaaeaieth. Iaeiaei, /oiau i?aaeoi?aaeeoue iiyaeaiea eaeeo eeai
niiiaiee, Auoeineee eaaeaeiio ec yoeo «oaeeoe, a?aaeeoaeae e
aeeaa?naioia» caaeae aii?in i iioeaao eo /enoina?aea/iuo i?eciaiee. Ii
an? aea aue i/aaeaeai oaeueoeaue oa?aeoa? iiaeiaiiai ?iaea i?eciaiee.

Yoio i?ioeann, i?ioiaeeaoee a Aeiia Nithcia, caeii/eeny 30 yiaa?y
1937 aiaea. O?eiaaeoeaoue /aeiaae auee i?eaiai?aiu e ?anno?aeo, a
?aaeae, Nieieueieeia e Ia?oia – e 10 aiaeai caeeth/aiey, No?ieeia – e 8
aiaeai. I?enoonoaothuea a caea /aeenou e i?aaenoaaeoaee iauanoaaiiinoe
ano?aoeee yoio i?eaiai? e?eeaie iaeia?aiey, eae e oieia iineae/ae,
nia?aaoeony aicea Aeiia Nithcia.

N?aco iinea ieii/aiey i?ioeanna ?aaeaea – Iyoaeiaa auei iaia/aii
i?iaanoe ieaioi OeE AEI(a). A iiaanoea aeiy yoiai ieaioia ninoiyee aeaa
aeaaiuo aii?ina: 1. I Aooa?eia e ?ueiaa. 2. I iiaeaioiaea ia?oeeiuo
i?aaiecaoeee e auai?ai a Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN?. Ieaioi OeE ioe?ueny 25
oaa?aey 1937 aiaea e, ii nooe, yaeyeny i?iaeieaeaieai i?ioeanna
«ia?aeeaeueiiai oeaio?a». A iniiaiii ianoaeaeaeinue niiauaiea i
«i?anooiiie aeayoaeueiinoe» Aooa?eia e ?ueiaa e i
«oieiinei-a?aaeeoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe» iaeiaai iiaiai
«eiio??aaiethoeeiiiiai» oeaio?a. Nouanoaoao eaaaiaea, /oi iaeioi?ua
/eaiu OeE caueuaee Aooa?eia e ?ueiaa e aic?aaeaee i?ioea ia/aaoeony
ianniauo ?ai?annee, ii yoiai, eiia/ii, ia auei. Ieeoi ia inoaeaeae
iieeoeee Noaeeia e IEAAe, ana iaaeiyee Aooa?eia e ?ueiaa, o?aaiaaee
i?eaea/aiey eo e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, i?eaiaeeee i?eia?u ieioie ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoee e o/?aaeaeaiee ec-ca a?aaeeoaeuenoaa auaoeo
iiiiceoeeiia?ia.

Aoi?iai ia?oa 1938 aiaea ioe?ueny iineaaeiee ec e?oiiaeoeo
i?ioiaeeaoeo a Iineaa i?ioeannia – niaeoaeeae, iiae iacaaieai noaeaaiue
i?ioeann ii aeaeo «aioeniaaoneiai i?aaio?ioeeenoneiai aeiea».
I?aaenaaeaoaeai Aiaiiie eieeaaee aue an? oio aea A.A. Oeue?eo, a
ainoaea?noaaiiui iaaeieoaeai – an? oio aea A.ss. Auoeineee. N/eoaeinue,
/oi yoi naiue aaaeiue i?ioeann, oae eae ii «?aciaea/ae» iaeaieaa oaeiue
e iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiue ec anao «aioeniaaoneeo oeaio?ia». E?iia
Aooa?eia, ia neaiuea

– 16 –

iiaenoaeeiuo neaeae A.E. ?ueia, iiiaea aiaeu aicaeaaeyaoee NIE NNN?. Oae
aea caeanue auee iaaeaaiea ia?iaeiua eiienna?u NNN?: A.I. ?icaiaieueoe,
I.A. *a?iia, A.O. A?eiueei, A.E. Eaaiia e A.A. ssaiaea, eioi?ue anaai
aeaa aiaea iacaae aue ananeeueiie aeaaie IEAAe; e?oiiaeoee niaaoneee
aeeieiiao I.I. E?anoeineee, e?oiiue aeayoaeue ?inneeneiai e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey O.A. ?aeianeee, ?oeiaiaeeoaee
Ocaaeneie NN? A. Ee?aiia e O. Oiaeaeaaa, nae?aoa?ue Ai?ueeiai I.I.
E?th/eia, aeaeiua a?a/e Ae.Ae. Ieaoiaa, E.I. Eacaeia e iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea.

Ana iaaeiaiey i?aaeuyaeaiiua ia i?aaeuaeoueo i?ioeannao auee
iieiinoueth iiaoi?aiu (oaeenoai Ee?iaa, iiaeaioiaea oaeenoaa Noaeeia e
ae?.) e e iei au? auee aeiaaaeaiu iaaeiaiey a oaeenoaa Ai?ueeiai,
Eoeauoaaa e Iaiaeeineiai, a iieooaiee ia A.E. Eaieia au? a 1918 aiaeo, a
oaeaea a no?aieaiee ioaeaoue eiia?eaeenoai ia oieueei Oe?aeio,
Aaei?onneth e Aeaeueiee Ainoie, ii e Caeaaeacuea ni N?aaeiae Aceae.

Oae aea, eae e ia i?aaeuaeoueo noaeao, aieueoeinoai ec iaaeiyaiuo
n?aco aea i?eciaee naay aeiiaiuie, a nii?ioeaeaiea ieacae oieueei iaeei
E?anoeineee. Eiaaea ia ia?aii noaeaaiii canaaeaiee Oeue?eo ca/eoae
iaaeieoaeueiia caeeth/aiea e ia?aoeeny e eaaeaeiio ec iiaenoaeeiuo n
aii?inii: «I?ecia?oa ee au naay aeiiaiuie?» Aooa?ei, ?ueia e ssaiaea
ioaaoeee: «Aea, i?eciath». Ana inoaeueiua iaaeiyaiua ioaaoeee oi/ii oae
aea. Eiaaea i/a?aaeue aeioea aei E?anoeineiai, oio iaiaeeaeaiii ioaaoee:
«ss ia i?eciath naay aeiiaiui. ss ia o?ioeeeno. ss ieeiaaea ia aue
o/anoieeii «i?aaio?ioeeenoneiai aeiea», i nouanoaiaaiee eioi?iai ia
ciae. ss ia niaa?oae oaeaea ie iaeiiai ec oao i?anooieaiee, eioi?ua
aiaiythony ee/ii iia, a /anoiinoe ia i?eciath naay aeiiaiui a naycyo n
aa?iaineie ?acaaaeeie».

Oaeay ?aieeea ioa?aoeea anao i?enoonoaothueo e ?anoa?yaoeeny Oeue?eo
iiaoi?ee naie aii?in, ii iiyoue iieo/ee oio aea ioaao. Iinea yoiai aue
iauyaeai aeaaaeoeaoeieiooiue ia?a?ua. *oi i?ienoiaeeei ai a?aiy yoiai
ia?a?uaa? Iaecaanoii, ii ianiiiaiii, oai auei ?aoaii eciaieoue ii?yaeie
aeii?ina iiaenoaeeiuo. Ia?auie ia/aee aeii?aoeaaoue Aanniiiaa, ?ieue
eioi?iai e a i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeanna e ii «noeaia?iiio ieaio» auea
iniaie. Eiaiii Aanniiia aue ii ieaio oai, eoi naycae o?ioeeenoia e
ceiiaueaaoeaa n «i?aauie». Yoi ii ?aaioay a oi?ai?aaenoaa NNN? a Aa?eeia
aoaeoi au i?aaieciaae ano?a/e iiiiceoeeiia?ia n O?ioeeei e Naaeiaui. Yoi
Aanniiia aoaeoi au ia?aaeaaae aee?aeoeau O?ioeeiai «i?aaio?ioeeenoneiio»
aeieo. E oiio aea Aanniiia yaii iiaeoaa?aeee naith aioiaiinoue
i?iaeieaeaoue ea?aoue a yoii niaeoaeea ioaaaeaiioth aio ?ieue.

– 17 –

Iinea ia?a?uaa canaaeaiea noaea aiciaiiaeeinue, ia/aaoenue n
aeii?ina Aanniiiaa. Ana iiaenoaeeiua iiaeoaa?aeeee aai iieacaiey, ii
eiaaea noaeuey Auoeineee ia?aoeeny e E?anoeineiio, oio ioaa?a ana
iieacaiey Aanniiiaa. E?anoeineee aue e?oiiui ainoaea?noaaiiui e
ia?oeeiui aeayoaeai e aei naiaai a?anoa ?aaioae caianoeoaeai ia?eiia
eiino?aiiuo aeae. Oioy ii e ni/oanoaiaae iaeioi?ui aeoeeyi «eaaie»
iiiiceoeee, o?ioeeenoii ii ieeiaaea ia aue e ia o/anoaiaae ai
aioo?eia?oeeiie ai?ueaa 20o aiaeia, oae eae a oi a?aiy ?aaioae iineii a
Aa?iaiee. Ia noaea E?anoeineee ioaa?aae ana iaaeiaiey, cayaee, /oi
ieeiaaea e ieaaea n Aanniiiaui i naycyo n o?ioeeenoaie ia aiai?ee e, /oi
Aanniiia eaeao.

Yoi noaeeeeua caeii/eeinue 13 ia?oa 1938 aiaea. Ieiei 30 ieioo
Oeue?eo /eoae i?eaiai?, eioi?ue ana neooaee noiy. Aieueoeinoai
iiaenoaeeiuo auei i?eaiai?aii e aunoae ia?a oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey –
?anno?aeo; Ieaoiaa – 25 aiaeai caeeth/aiey, ?aeianeee e Aanniiia – e 20
e 15 aiaeai.

A ii/ue ia 15 ia?oa 1938 aiaea I.E. Aooa?eia, eioi?iai Eaiei
iacuaae ethaeioeai ia?oee, A.E. ?ueiaa, auaoaai I?aaenaaeaoaey
Niaia?eiia, e eo oiaa?euae ii ian/anoueth ?anno?aeyee.

Ana yoe i?ioeannu aucaaee iiaua aieiu ?ai?annee, iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioea
auaoeo o/anoieeia iiiiceoeee. Ii yoi ieacaeinue oieueei iaaieueoie
/anoueth anao aaae naaeeaoeony ia iiiiceoeeiia?ia. E eiioeo 1937 aiaea
aieueoay /anoue «eaauo» e «i?aauo, eioi?uo e oiio a?aiaie ian/eouaaeinue
60 oun. *aeiaae, oaea iaoiaeeeanue a caeeth/aiee, a iiiaea ec ieo auee
?anno?aeyiu. Ii ianiio?y ia yoi, a oa/aiea anaai 1937 e 1938 aiaea iioie
?ai?annee iaoeeiiii i?iaeieaeae ?anoe, i?eieiay an? aieaa ianniaue e
ceiaauee oa?aeoa?.

Oyaeaeue oaea? aue iaian?i i?aaeaea anaai ii Oeaio?aeueiiio Eiieoaoo
AEI(a). E ia/aeo 1938 aiaea ii anyeiai ?iaea eeaaaoie/aneei iaaeiaieyi
auei a?anoiaaii aieaa aeaoo o?aoae /eaiia OeE AEI(a). Ana iie anei?a
auee oece/anee oie/oiaeaiu.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n aiia?aoii OeE ia?oee aue ?aca?iieai e aiia?ao
Eiiennee ia?oeeiiai eiio?iey. Aieueoay /anoue /eaiia EIE, eca?aiiuo XVII
nuacaeii ia?oee, auea a?anoiaaia (E.I. Aaeea?, I.N. Aa?acei, A.N.
Aiaooaaneee, N.E. A?eeea, A.A. Aaieei, I.E. A?aiianeee, A.ss. A?inniai,
O.E. Caeoeaa, I.I. Ceiei, I.E. Eioeaie, A.A. Eaaei, E.A. Eu/aa, AE.E.
Iaa?cii e ae?.). Ii/oe ieeoi ec ieo ia inoaeny a aeeauo.

Oyaeaeua ?ai?annee ia?ooeeenue ia oeaio?aeueiua niaaoneea e
oicyenoaaiiua i?aaiu. Auea a?anoiaaia aieueoay /anoue /eaiia I?aceaeeoia
OeEE NNN? e AOeEE. Oae aea aue ?aca?iieai aiia?ao Ainieaia NNN?. I?e
yoii iiaea iiuoiue ia?oeeiue e

– 18 –

oicyenoaaiiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue A.E. Iaaeeaoe, aeieaea aiaeu aicaeaaeyaoee
Ainieai NNN?. Auee a?anoiaaiu e iiaeaee ia?eiiu NNN? – iai?iiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe I.E. ?ooeiiae/, eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe E.A. Ethaeiia,
eaniie i?iiuoeaiiinoe N.N. Eiaia, aioo?aiiae oi?aiaee E.ss. Aaeoea?,
cae?aaiio?aiaiey A.I. Eaieineee e ae?oaea. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
i?ienoiaeee ia oieueei a?ano ia?eiiia, ii e ianoiyuee iia?ii
aicaeaaeyaoeony eie ia?eiiaoia, a eioi?uo a?anoiaaee ii/oe anao aaaeoueo
?aaioieeia.

A 1937-38 aiaeao aue iaian?i na?ue?ciue oaea? ii eaae?ai
?anioaeeeaineeo e iaeanoiuo ia?oeeiuo e niaaoneeo i?aaiia. A ?NON? auei
?aca?iieaii aei 90% anao iaeiiia ia?oee e iaeeniieeiiia, a oae aea
aieueoeinoai ai?iaeneeo, ie?oaeiuo e ?aeiiiuo ia?oeeiuo e niaaoneeo
i?aaiecaoeee. A ioaeaeueiuo iaeanoyo eiiaaea a?anoiauaaee n?aco ii
ianeieueei ninoaaia iaeiia ia?oee.

Aeaaiaea?y iiyaeaieth o?iae e aeaiae ianniaua ?ai?annee a ia?iaea
i?eia?aoaee an? aieueoee e aieueoee ?aciao. I?aaeaea anaai auea
oie/oiaeaia aieueoay /anoue eioaeeeaaioeee, eiathuae naie nianoaaiiua
iacaaeneiua acaeyaeu e noaeaeaiey ii iiaiaeo ?acaeaathueony a no?aia
i?ioeannia. An? yoi ioiineeinue e iao/iie, iao/ii-oaoie/aneie, aiaiiie,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie, ia?oeeiie eioaeeeaaioeee niiniaiie caiyoue
naiinoiyoaeueioth iiceoeeth a ia?oee e iauanoaa. Eae y oaea aiai?ee, ca
yoio n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoie ia?eiae a?aiaie auee oie/oiaeaiu iiiaea
naiua oaeaioeeaua ethaee iaoae no?aiu. Oa, eoi aeaenoaeoaeueii
i?ioeainoiyee noaeeineiio ?aaeeio (I. ?thoei, A. Nie?iia, I. Yeniiio e
ae?oaea) oie/oiaeaeenue ii i?eioeeio «eoi ia n iaie – oio i?ioea ian» ca
au?aaeaiiua eie acaeyaeu, oa aea, eoi eeoue iiaeic?aaaeny a niiniaiinoe
e eiaeiiuneeth, an? ?aaii iauaaeii eno?aaeyeenue n iiiiuueth
noaa?eeiaaiiuo aeae. Ii oie/oiaeaiea yoi ia anaaaea auei oece/aneei:
/anoi iii au?aaeaeinue a inoaeaeaiee ia iiiaea aiaeu eaaa?ae e nnueee,
/oi i?eaiaeeei e ecieyoeee /aeiaaea io iauanoaa e, a aeaeueiaeoai, e
iieiiio ii?aeueiiio oie/oiaeaieth. Eiiaaea nenoaia ia?aie/eaaeanue
«i?i?aaioeie» oiai eee eiiai aeayoaey, eiay oeaeue neiieoue aai aieth e
i?aa?aoeoue a iineooiia i?oaeea aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo eaeaieiae/aneeo
caiuneia. Ia?yaeo n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioaeeeaaioeee, ?ai?anneyi
iiaeaa?aaeenue ?aai/ea e e?anoueyia, i?ioea eioi?uo auee noaa?eeiaaiu
aeiiinu ia eo iieeoe/aneie a?aaeaeaaiinoe Niaaoneie aeanoe. A oa aiaeu
aeiiineoaeuenoai iiiu?yeinue. Iaeiaei nia?oiiiniue nia?/ ?ai?annee
i?ioae ia oieueei ii no?aia, ii e ii a? a?iee e oeioo. A?anou a iniiaiii
auee iai?aaeaiu i?ioea aunoeo eiiaiaeiui eaae?ai, iieeoninoaao e
oeaio?aeueiiio aiia?aoo Ia?eiiaoa iai?iiu. Ii eiathueiny naaaeaieyi n
iay 1935 aiaea ii naioya?ue 1938 aiaea a a?iee iiaeaa?aeenue ?ai?anneyi
aieaa o?eaeoeaoe oanoe ouny/

– 19 –

/aeiaae, a ia oeioa – aieaa o??o ouny/. *anoue ec ieo auea, i?aaaea,
eeoue oaieaia ec ?EEA. A ?acoeueoaoa yoie e?iaaaie ai?ueau n «a?aaaie
ia?iaea» niaieeenue ii/oe ana eiiaiaeothuea ie?oaia e, ia 90% i?ioeaioia
i?iecioei iaiiaeaiea ia/aeueieeia ooaaia ie?oaia e caianoeoaeae
eiiaiaeothueo, ia 80% iaiiaeeny ninoaa oi?aaeaiey ei?ionia e aeeaecee,
ia 90% – eiiaiaee?ia e ia/aeueieeia ooaaia. Enoaoe, eae neaaenoaea yoie
/enoee yaeeinue ?aceia iiieaeaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiiai iioaioeeaea, eae a
a?iee, oae e ia oeioa.

I?iaiaey ?ai?annee a no?aia, Noaeei iie?aeny a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia
ea?aoaeueiua e noaeaaii-neaaenoaaiiua i?aaiu. Iaeiaei aaaeiaeoae
ninoaaiie /anoueth e i?aaeiinueeie yoeo ianniauo ?ai?annee auei
oece/aneia oie/oiaeaiea iiiaeo ouny/ ?aaioieeia IEAAe, noaea e
i?ieo?aoo?u.

Aacaeaeinoiay /enoea ea?aoaeueiuo i?aaiia ia/aeanue oaea a 1936
aiaeo. I ?aaioieeao yoeo i?aaiia o?oaeii aiai?eoue, eae i /anoiuo
/aeenoao. Iie i?eieiaee o/anoea ai anao ?ai?anneaiuo eaiiaieyo eiioea
20o – ia/aea 30o aa. Iie aioiaeee ia?aue e?oiiue i?ioeann i?ioea auaoeo
eeaea?ia iiiiceoeee. Iaeiaei ia?a?iaeaeaiea e iieeoe/aneia ?aceiaeaiea
n?aaee ?oeiaiaenoaa IEAAe, noaea e i?ieo?aoo?u, oei ia oae auno?i, eae
yoiai oioaeinue Noaeeio. I?aaeiieaaay iiaa?iooue ino?e? ?ai?annee i?ioea
iniiaiiai yae?a ia?oee e ainoaea?noaa, ii i?eiye ?aoaiea ei?aiiui
ia?acii eciaieoue e ninoaa ea?aoaeueiuo i?aaiia. E oiio aea ana yoe
ethaee ciaee «neeoeii iiiai», a oe?aiu ia ethayo naeaeaoaeae naieo
i?anooieaiee.

Iiiai/eneaiiua aieiu a?anoia i?ioee ia oieueei n?aaee i?aayueo
e?oaia, ii e cao?iioee ia?iiiia /enei ?aaioieeia n?aaeiaai e iecoaai
caaia e ana neie ianaeaiey.

A 1936-1939 aa. ec ia?oee auei eneeth/aii aieaa iaeiiai ieeeeiia
/aeiaae, a a oneiaeyo oiai a?aiaie yoi ii/oe anaaaea naycuaaeinue n
a?anoii. E yoiio /eneo iiaeii i?eaaaeoue ethaeae, eneeth/aiiuo ec ia?oee
ai a?aiy /enoie 1933-1934aa. *enoee cao?iioee aieaa ieeeeiia /aeiaae, a
iiiaea ec ieo auee a?anoiaaiu. A?anoai iiaeaa?aaeenue e aania?oeeiua,
/aua anaai ?iaenoaaiieee a?anoiaaiiuo eiiioienoia, eo ae?ocuey e
nineoaeeaoeu.

Aieueoea iioa?e iii?n e ?aai/ee eeann. Ia Yeaeo?icaaiaea a Iineaa,
ii naeaeaoaeuenoao E.I. Ii?oiiaa, auei ?ai?anne?iaaii aieaa ouny/e
?aai/eo e neoaeaueo. I/aiue iiiai ?aai/eo auei a?anoiaaii ia Ee?ianeii
caaiaea a Eaieia?aaea. Oaeia aea ecaeaiea ?aai/eo eaae?ia i?iaiaeeeinue
ii/oe ia eaaeaeii i?aaei?eyoee no?aiu.

Oyaeaeue oaea? aue iaian?i e iiiaino?aaeaeueiie niaaoneie aea?aaia.
E?anoueyi a?anoiauaaee nioiyie e ii niaa?oaiii a?aaeiaui iaaeiaieyi.
Iiiaei ec ieo auei i?aaeuyaeaii iaaeiaiea a o?ioeeecia. A.N. Aeicao?a
ienaea a naieo

– 20 –

ainiiieiaieyo i noa?ie eieoicieoea, eioi?ie auei i?aaeuyaeaii iaaeiaiea
a o?ioeeecia. Ia iiieiay niunea yoiai neiaa, noa?ooa aeieacuaaea, /oi
iia ia «o?aeoi?enoea» e /oi a eo aea?aaia noa?uo ethaeae ia o?aeoi? ia
naaeatho.

E oaeeo o?aaaaeee a oa aiaeu auea ia iaeia ouny/a.

A iaeioi?uo iaeanoyo no?aiu iaacoiaaoea nio?oaeieee IEAAe,
iieuecoynue oeacii io 7 ai?aey 1935 aiaea, i?eaeaeaee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe
ca «eiio??aaiethoeeth» e «oa??i?» aeaaea aeaoae. Oae, iai?eia?, a
ai?iaea Eaieinea-Eociaoeea auei a?anoiaaii 60 aeaoae, iaaeiaiiuo a
nicaeaiee «eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie oa??i?enoe/aneie a?oiiu». Aeaoae ainaiue
ianyoeaa aea?aeaee a ai?iaeneie oth?ueia, ii iioii «?aaaeeeoe?iaaee».

No?iaui ?ai?anneyi iiaeaa?aaeenue nayuaiieee e eniiaaaeothuea
?acee/iua ?aeeaee. A 1937 aiaeo n iiaie neeie aiciaiiaeeenue ia/aoua a
30o aiaeao, aiiaiey ia oea?eiaue. Ec 96 aeaenoaothueo o?aiia Eaieia?aaea
e eiioeo 30o aiaeia nio?aieeinue anaai naiue.

A 1936-1938 aa. Noaeei ia?ae?ue ana «?aei?aeu» iieeoe/aneiai
oa??i?a, ecaanoiua enoi?ee. Ecaanoii, /oi a 1936 aiaeo auei i?eaiai?aii
e ?anno?aeo 1116 /aeiaae. A 1937 aiaeo auei auianaii 350 680 nia?oiuo
i?eaiai?ia. Aeaiiua i ?anno?aeao ca 1938 aiae iaecaanoiu, ii a?yae ee
iiaeii neeueii ioeaeoueny, anee aiai?eoue i 200-300 ouny/ao
?anno?aeyiiuo. Yoi auee oaea ia ?o/aeee, a ?aee e?iae niaaoneeo ethaeae.
Ie iaeei ec oe?aiia e aeaniioia i?ioeiai ia iiaeaa?aae i?aneaaeiaaieyi e
ia oie/oiaeee oaeiai aieueoiai /enea naieo niioa/anoaaiieeia.

Caeeth/aiea

Aio e caeii/aia iiy ?aaioa. Aeieaee ia?eiae a?aiaie y aeee a oii
eioia?iii ie?a. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca eeoa?aoo?u e iaeioi?uo enoi/ieeia ii
noaeeineiio ia?eiaeo iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce
oaeenoaa N.I. Ee?iaa e oa??i?a i?ioaaeoaai ii no?aia a !935-1939 aa.
Nnueueiue ei??aniiiaeaio A. Ee?eeeia yaeyaony i/aiue y?eei i?eia?ii
/aeiaaea, eioi?ue iiaeaa?any noaeeineei ?ai?anneyi, a a oa aiaea
iioiaeay noaeueaa aeaeaea aeanyoee ouny/ ethaeae.

I/aiue o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa aanue ?aciao noaeeineiai oa??i?a,
an? iaaiia?aceiia eiee/anoai aai aea?oa. Iiaeii neacaoue, ieeeeiiu
ethaeae iiaeaee io ?oee iaeiiai aaeeinoaaiiiai /aeiaaea. Neieueei eao
eaea/eeinue niciaiea ethaeae ia?iiiie no?aiu. Ia iiaeaea?aeaiea eoeueoa
ee/iinoe Noaeeia auee a?ioaiu ana neeu n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.
Ia?iae iaiaiuaaee enoi?eee, o/aiua – aanue oiae enoi?e/aneeo niauoee
iiaeaaaeny iaeiinoi?iiia, ii inoaeaeaoue eo iu ia eiaai i?aaa. Aeoiay e
ciay iaeii, iie auioaeaeaiu auee e ienaoue, e aiai?eoue nianai ae?oaia.
Aeey ieo yoi aue aii?in aeecie e nia?oe. Ethaee ia?aaeeaaee a?aiaia
«/enoie» a 1936, 37 e 38aa., i?eieiay iiiai/eneaiiua e a aieueoeinoaa
nai?i iani?aaaaeeeaua a?anou «a?aaia ia?iaea» ca i?aaaeo e ia ana
iniciaaaee, eae iani?aaaaeeeau noaeeineea ?ai?annee.
Noaeeieci anaaaea iuoaeny eeoeoue ia?iaeu iaoae no?aiu naiaai
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai. Oie/oiaeaeenue i?ae?aniua iaiyoieee noa?eiu,
oieeaeueiua nii?oaeaiey, ac?uaaeenue o?aiu e oea?eae, a a ae?oaeo
oea?eayo ono?aeaaeenue neeaaeu, aa?aaee, oth?ueiu.. Ianeeueii ia?iaeo
iaaycuaaeenue acaeyaeu y?uo aoaenoia. Iiiaea ai?iaea oo?aoeee nai?
naiaia?acea, i?iecioei iiaaeueiia ia?aeiaiiaaiea oeeoe, ieiuaaeae,
ai?iaeia. Anai yoei ionaeaee ooiaeyuea a i?ioeia ei?ie, eeoaee no?aio
enoi?ee, a cia/eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe. Aaaeue aac i?ioeiai iao
ianoiyuaai, a cia/eo ia iiaeao auoue e aoaeouaai.

Ia oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ii ia?eiaeo noaeeiecia iaienaii iiiaeanoai
i?iecaaaeaiee. Iiiaea ec ieo a oa aiaeu auee cai?auaiu e eeai
auioneaeenue ca a?aieoeae, eeai iiyaeeenue a ia/aoe nianai iaaeaaii.

Ia iie acaeyae ia?eiae noaeeineeo ?ai?annee – yoi iaeei ec
oaeaniaeoeo no?aieoe iaoae enoi?ee e ia aeae Aia, /oiau oaeia
eiaaea-eeai iiaoi?eeinue.

Eiieaano ?. «Aieueoie Oa??i?»; ecaeaoaeuenoai «?aenoieaen», ?eaa,
1991a. No?. 109

Eiieaano ?. «Aieueoie Oa??i?»; ecaeaoaeuenoai «?aenoieaen», ?eaa,
1991a. No?. 69

Aiooa Ae. «Enoi?ey Niaaoneiai Nithca»; ecaeaoaeuenoai «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
ioiioaiey», Iineaa, 1991a. No?. 450; Ee?eeeia A. «?eeioao»;
ecaeaoaeuenoai «Ciaiea ?innee», Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1993a. No?. 97

Aeaeocaiia Aiooa «Enoi?ey Niaaoneiai Nithca»

«Eaieia?aaeneee Ia?oe?ieia 1937 – 1938aa.»; Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1995a.
No?. 13

Oai aea.

Iaaeaaaeaa ?. «I Noaeeia e Noaeeiecia»; ecaeaoaeuenoai «I?ia?ann»,
Iineaa, 1990a. No?. 351

«I Na?aaa Ee?iaa»; ecaeaoaeuenoai iieeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, Iineaa,
1985a. No?. 237

Ainoaea?noaaiiue iocae Iieeoe/aneie Enoi?ee ?innee (AI IE?), OVI
?An51044/1,2

AEo?iae «Iao Nia?aiaiiee» 11-88 ; A.A. Ee?eeeia «Aeiaaieee nnueueiiai
?aaeaeoi?a». No?. 115

Oai aea. No?. 119

Oai aea. No?. 120

AEo?iae «Iao Nia?aiaiiee» 11-88; A.A. Ee?eeeia, «Aeiaaieee nnueueiiai
?aaeaeoi?a». No?. 121

AI IE?, OVI, ?An51044/10

Iaaeaaaeaa ?. «I Noaeeia e Noaeeiecia»; ecaeaoaeuenoai «I?ia?ann»,
Iineaa, 1990a. No?. 310

Iaaeaaaeaa ?. «I Noaeeia e noaeeiecia»; ecaeaoaeuenoai «I?ia?ann»,
Iineaa, 1991a. No?. 323

Oai aea. No?. 330

«Enoi?ey e noaeeieci»; ecaeaoaeuenoai iieeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, Iineaa,
1991a. No?. 97

Oai aea. No?. 98

Oai aea. No?. 104

Iaaeaaaeaa ?. «I Noaeeia e noaeeiecia»; ecaeaoaeuenoai «I?ia?ann»,
Iineaa, 1990a. No?. 353

Eiieaano ?. «Aieueoie Oa??i?»; ecaeaoaeuenoai «?aenoieaen», ?eaa,
1991a. No?. 127

Oai aea. No?. 130

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