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Освободительная война украинского народа 1648–1654 годов

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?aoa?ao

«Inaiaiaeeoaeueiay aieia oe?aeineiai ia?iaea 1648–1654 aa.»

1. Ia/aei inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu. Naa?aeaiea aeanoe oeyoaoneie Iieueoe
ia Oe?aeia

1.1 I?e/eiu, oa?aeoa? e aeaeaeouea neeu inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau.
Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee

A eiioea 40-o aiaeia XVII a. oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneia oaiaoaiea
ia?iaeiuo iann Oe?aeiu – iniaaiii oneeeeinue. E?anoueyia ?aaioaee ia
aa?ueia ii iyoue-oanoue aeiae a iaaeaeth, ioauaaee ianno ae?oaeo
iiaeiiinoae, a oaeaea ieaoeee ia?aiaieoaeueiua ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeiae.
Iie iaoiaeeeenue a iieiie ee/iie caaeneiinoe io naiaai aeaaeaeueoea,
eioi?ue iia eo i?iaeaoue, iaiaiyoue, caeeth/eoue a oth?ueio e aeaaea
oaeoue. Iaauiineiua oaiaeaeueiua i?eoaniaiey eniuouaaee oaeaea ?yaeiaua
eacaee, ai?iaeneay aaaeiioa, ?aianeaiieee.

I?aneaaeiaaeenue eoeueoo?a iau/ae oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. Iieueneea iaaiaou
e oeyooa no?aieeenue ?aci?aaoue nayce iaaeaeo a?aoneeie
ainoi/iineaayineeie ia?iaeaie. I?oaeeai aeooiaiiai ii?aaiuaiey iann auee
iiaeaeanoiua iaia ?eineiio eaoiee/aneay e oieaoneay oea?eae, eioi?ua
i?iiiaaaeiaaee iiae/eiaiea iaaiaoai e oeyooa.

Oe?aeineee ia?iae ainnoae i?ioea iieuenei-oeyoaoneiai ainiiaenoaa e
aeaeae ainniaaeeiaiey Oe?aeiu n ?inneae. Aieia, ia/aaoayny a 1648 a., ii
naiaio oa?aeoa?o auea inaiaiaeeoaeueiie, ni?aaaaeeeaie e iauaia?iaeiie.
Aa aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie aunooieei e?anoueyinoai — naiue
iiiai/eneaiiue yenieoaoe?oaiue eeann. Aianoa n iei ia ai?ueao
iiaeiyeinue caii?iaeneia eaca/anoai, o?oaeiaia ianaeaiea ai?iaeia e
aeaaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?aaineaaiiai aeooiaainoaa e oe?aeineie
oeyoou, eioi?ua oaeaea i?eoaniyeenue iieueneeie iaaiaoaie e /eiiaieeaie.

Aicaeaaee inaiaiaeeoaeueioth aieio 1648—1654 aa. aaoiai Aiaaeai
Oiaeueieoeeee — auaeathueeny ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue e iieeiaiaeaoe.
Ii ?iaeeeny a 1595 a. A *eae?eia a naiuea iaaiaaoiai oe?aeineiai
oeyooe/a. Iieo/ee aunieia aeey oiai a?aiaie ia?aciaaiea a Eueaianeii
eieeaaeoia, aeaaeae ianeieueeeie eiino?aiiuie ycueaie. Oi?ioi ciae
aiaiiia aeaei, enoi?eth, i?aai, aaia?aoeth. Oiaeueieoeeee i?eieiae
aeoeaiia o/anoea a e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeeo inaiaiaeeoaeueiuo ainnoaieyo
20—30-o aiaeia XVII a. ia Oe?aeia. Oaea a ia/aea ainnoaiey ii iiaeiyeny
ia o?iaaiue iaeaieaa auaeathuaainy aeayoaey naiaai a?aiaie.

Caaeoiuaaynue iaae noaeueaie oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. Oiaeueieoeeee ana
aieaa oaaaeaeaeny a iaiaoiaeeiinoe aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueau oe?ieeo
ia?iaeiuo iann i?ioea iieuenei-oeyoaoneiai ainiiaenoaa ia Oe?aeia.
Ei?ieaaneay aeanoue i?aneaaeiaaea Oiaeueieoeeiai: /eae?eineee
iiaenoa?inoa ia?aaee e caoaaoee aai oooi? Noaioia e niaa?oee aeanoieia
ianeeea iaae aai naiueae, a nai Aiaaeai aue a?ioai a oth?ueio. Yoi
aaccaeiiea ia?aiieieei /aoo oa?iaiey. Inaiaiaeeaoenue n iiiiuueth aa?iuo
ae?ocae, Oiaeueieoeeee nia?ae iaaieueoie io?yae eacaeia-iianoaioeaa e a
eiioea 1647 a. Aeaeioeny ia Caii?iaeuea. Ii ?aoee naeaeaoue
Caii?iaeneoth Na/ue aacie inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu.

1.2 Anaia?iaeiia ainnoaiea ia Oe?aeia

Inaiaiaeeoaeueiay ai?ueaa oe?aeineiai ia?iaea ia/aeanue n ainnoaiey
eacaeia ia Caii?iaeneie Na/e. Nthaea i?eaue io?yae eacaeia ai aeaaa n
Oiaeueieoeeei e i?e iiaeaea?aeea caii?iaeoeaa a yiaa?a 1648 a. ?aca?iiee
iieuenei-oeyoaoneee aa?iecii, iinoaaeaiiue aeey eiio?iey iaae Na/ueth.
Oiaaea aea ia iauae ?aaea caii?iaeoeaa Oiaeueieoeeiai eca?aee aaoiaiii.
Ii ia?aoeeny e oe?aeineiio ia?iaeo n oieaa?naeii, niaea?aeauei ieaiaiiue
i?ecua iiaeiyoue iauaa ainnoaiea i?ioea iieueneie oeyoou. «A ioiioaiee
iaiy,— ienae aaoiai,— oi ia aoaeo aeaeaoue ie aeecie, ie nee, aioia ia
anyeea iianiinoe, ana ioaeai… aeey iauae naiaiaeu». Ii iai?aaee
iineaioeaa e aeiineei eacaeai, eioi?ua n?aco niaeaneeenue aunooieoue ia
iiiiuue. *oiau iaania/eoue naaa oue e iieo/eoue iiiiuue a aeaea
eiiieoeu, Oiaeueieoeeee caeeth/ee aeiaiai? n e?uineei oaiii ia iaueo
aiaiiuo aeaenoaeyo i?ioea oeyoaoneie Iieueoe.

Aanoue i niauoeyo ia Caii?iaeuea auno?i ?aceaoaeanue ii ae?oaei
oe?aeineei caieyi. Ia Iiaeiai?iauea oneeeeinue aioeoaiaeaeueiia e
inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea ia?iaeiuo iann. E?anoueyia, ?yaeiaua
eacaee, ?aianeaiieee e ai?iaeneay aaaeiioa iianthaeo i?aaieciauaaee
iianoai/aneea io?yaeu, eioi?ua a?iieee eiaiey oaiaeaeia. «Aeneiao oi?eue
?c i?oa ? ia?iaea eyoai eeoa»,— aiai?eee oiaaea a ia?iaea.

Iieuenei-oeyoaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai no?aieeinue a ca?iaeuoa iiaeaaeoue
ia?iaeiia ainnoaiea. I?ioea e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeeo io?yaeia aunooieei
30-ouny/iia oi?ioi aii?oaeaiiia aienei ai aeaaa n I. Iioioeeei e I.
Eaeeiianeei. Ainiieueciaaaoenue ?acuaaeeiaiiinoueth a?aaeaneeo nee
(iaeei io?yae oae nooae, ae?oaie aeaeaaeny eiaeeaie ii Aeiai?o), Aiaaeai
Oiaeueieoeeee ?aoee ?aca?iieoue eo iiiaeeii/ea. A ai?aea 1648 a. a
o?i/eua AEaeoua Eiaeu (oaia?ue ai?iae Aeiai?iiao?ianeie iaeanoe)
ia/aeenue aiaiiua noieeiiaaiey iaaeaeo iieuenei-oeyoaoneeie aieneaie e
iianoaioeaie.

Anei?a a eaaa?a ?aano?iauo eacaeia, eioi?ua oiaaea auee a ninoaaa
ei?ieaaneie a?iee, aniuoioei ainnoaiea. ?aano?iaua ia?aaeee noi?iiieeia
iieueneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e, eca?aa i?eeaciui aaoiaiii ae?oaa e
ni?aoieea Oiaeueieoeeiai Oeeiia Aeaeaeaeey, i?eniaaeeieeenue e
iianoaioeai. Aie aiciaiiaeeenue n iiaie neeie. A iaa io?yaeai
Oiaeueieoeeiai oaeaeinue iieiinoueth ie?oaeeoue i?ioeaieea e iaianoe aio
nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea. Ieiei 3 ouny/ /aeiaae iiiaei a ieai, a oii
/enea ianeieueei iieueneeo aiaia/aeueieeia.

Oai a?aiaiai iniiaiua neeu iieuenei-oeyoaoneiai aienea
nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue iiae Ei?noiai (nae/an ai?iae Ei?noiai —
Oaa/aieianeee *a?eanneie iaeanoe). Ia?aae oa?icie iieiiai ie?oaeaiey e
?aca?iia ei?ieaaneia eiiaiaeiaaiea ?aoeei ia?aianoeoue neie aeienea a
?aeii Aiaoneaaa e Iaaiei/e. Ii ieaiu a?aaa noaee ecaanoiu aaoiaio: ia
yoii niiauee eacae Naieeei Ca?oaeiue, eioi?ue aue i?iaiaeieeii
iieueneiai aienea. Oiaaea ia iooe ionooieaiey ei?ieaaneeo aiene aaoiai
ono?iee canaaeo. 6-ouny/iue io?yae Iaeneia E?eaiiina iino?iee canaee,
ia?aeiiae oceoth aei?iao aeoaieei ?aii. A yoo canaaeo e iiiae oeyoaoneee
“eaaa?ue. A aieioenoie ianoiinoe aycee aieu, iaaeaee eioaaee. Aeaei
caaa?oeea eacaoeeay a?oeeea?ey e iaoioa. 16 iay e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeie
a?iee e oaoa?neei io?yaeai oaeaeinue i?i?aaoue a?aaeaneoth iai?iio. A
?acoeueoaoa yoiai iianoaioeu acyee a ieai 8,5 ouny/e /aeiaae, a oii
/enea iaieo iieueneeo aiaia/aeueieeia, caoaaoeee a?oeeea?eth, iaic.

Ia?aua iiaaaeu iianoai/aneeo aiene eiaee aieueoia cia/aiea aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaa?ouaaiey inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau ia Oe?aeia.
I?aaeaea anaai, ei?ieaaneay aeanoue auea oie/oiaeaia ia Eaaiaa?aaeuea.
Aaniie — eaoii 1648 a. ainnoaiea ioaaoeei e ae?oaea ?aeiiu oe?aeineeo
caiaeue — Iiaeieeth e Eeaaueio.

Ia?iaeiua iannu no?aieeenue e ainniaaeeiaieth Oe?aeiu n ?inneae.
Au?aaeay aieth anaai oe?aeineiai ia?iaea, Oiaeueieoeeee 8 ethiy
ia?aoeeny e ?onneiio oea?th Aeaenath Ieoaeeiae/o n ienueiii, a eioi?ii
eceiaeee i?inueao i?eiyoue Oe?aeio a ninoaa ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Ii
oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai oiaaea ia iiaei oaeiaeaoai?eoue yoo i?inueao.
Ii/aio? Aeey yoiai nouanoaiaae oeaeue ?yae i?e/ei: ai-ia?auo, ino?ay
aioeoaiaeaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue yoeo niauoee (oie/oiaeaiea oe?aeineeie
e?anoueyiaie oaiaeaeia, eeeaeaeaoeey e?aiinoie/anoaa), /aai iniaaiii
aiyeny oea?eci; ai-aoi?uo, nouanoaiaae nithc Oiaeueieoeeiai n e?uineei
oaiii, ecaa/iui a?aaii ?innee; a-o?aoueeo, oiaaeaoiyy neiaeiay
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay ianoaiiaea iiaea aueeoueny a aiaiiue eiioeeeo n ?a/ueth
Iiniieeoie. Ii oaea a yoeo iai?inouo oneiaeyo ia iiiiuue ainnoaaoaio
oe?aeineiio ia?iaeo ec ?innee ioi?aaeyee iaicu n oeaaii, nieueth,
aiai?eianaie, aiaiiui nia?yaeaieai.

Inaiaiaeeoaeueiue iioiae aiene Oiaeueieoeeiai ia caiaaeii-oe?aeineea
caiee. Eaoii 1648 a. aieia ia?iaeiuo ainnoaiee ia?a?inea a iiao/oth
inaiaiaeeoaeueioth aieio oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. Iaeiaei Oiaeueieoeeee
iiieiae, /oi n ainiiaenoaii oeyoaoneie Iieueoe ia Oe?aeia aua ia
iieii/aii. Iaaiaou e oeyooa i?iaeieaeaee oaiaoaoue o?oaeiaie ethae
Aieuie e Ainoi/iie Aaee/eiu. Iaeiia?aiaiii iaiu aioiaeeenue e iiaiio
iioiaeo ia oe?aeineea caiee. Nia?aa 40-ouny/ioth a?ieth, iie aoi?aeenue
a Caiaaeioth Iiaeieeth.

Iaa a?iee ano?aoeeenue aeec ianoa/ea Ieeyaoeu (iuia naei Ieeyaea
Oiaeueieoeeie iaeanoe) ia Iiaeieee. Ooo, aaea ?aceeaaeanue ?aea Eeaa
(Ieeyaea), Oiaeueieoeeee i?eeacae nii?oaeeoue eaaa?ue, eioi?ue aue
oe?aieai ianeieueeeie ?yaeaie aicia e ieiiai caieyiuie aaeaie. ?yaeii
?acianoeeanue eiiieoea Iaeneia E?eaiiina. Ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiii aa?aao
?a/ee aue iino?iai eaaa?ue iieuenei-oeyoaoneiai aienea.

Ouaneaaiay oeyooa ia?aie ia?aoea a ianooieaiea e caoaaoeea eacaoeeea
oaioeu (oe?aieaiey). Iaeanoi/aiiua aie aeeeeenue ianeieueei aeiae. Ii
anei?a oe?aeineea e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeea iieee ia?aoee a ianooieaiea.
?aoathuaa n?aaeaiea 13 naioya?y 1648 a. caaa?oeeinue nie?ooeoaeueiui
?aca?iiii iieuenei-oeyoaoneiai aienea. Inoaoee oeyooe/ae iaie/anee
aaaeaee ia caiaae. I/aaeaeaoe yoeo niauoee, ia?aaeaaay aoiinoa?o oiai
aeiy, ienae: «Eaeie oain ainiiaenoaiaae oai, eiaaea iiiai ethaeae, ia
ciay aeaaea a /ai aeaei, auneaeeaaee ec naieo aeeeeu, a?inaee iaeie
i?oaeea, ae?oaea — eiiuey ia caieth, o?aouee, oieueei i?iaoaeeaoenue ioi
nia, oaaoaeenue ca /oi iiiaei — eoi ca eiiy, eoi ca naaeth, ca ocaeo, ca
naaeei. ?aiaiuo, aieueiuo — ana a?inaee e aaa?yee naith aeeciue naiei
iiaai. Ana aeia?i e aiaaonoai, eaeia eiaee caeanue iieyee, ana ioaeaee a
iiaeeao naiei ioaeeeai». «Iaiaie – ieeya/eeaie» ianiaoeeai iacuaae
ia?iae ouaneaaiuo oeyooe/ae. Iianoaioeu acyee aieueoea o?ioae — iooee,
?oaeuey, naaee, aiaiiia nia?yaeaiea. Iiaaaea iiae Ieeyaoeaie eiaea
aieueoia cia/aiea. Iia aua aieueoa aaeioiiaeea ia?iaeiua iannu ia
ai?ueao. Iiiai/eneaiiua iianoai/aneea io?yaeu a?iieee oeyooo ia anae
oa??eoi?ee Ainoi/iie Aaee/eiu.

Oai a?aiaiai eacaoeeea iieee i?iaeieaeaee inaiaiaeeoaeueiue iioiae ia
caiaaeii-oe?aeineea caiee. Inaiueth 1648 a. iie ia/aee inaaeo Eueaiaa —
ia?aieeanniie aeey oiai a?aiaie e?aiinoe. Aa?ie/aneeie oneeeyie io?yaeia
I. E?eaiiina e aeiineeo eacaeia aue acyo ooo?iii Aunieee Caiie
iiaeecinoe ai?iaea. Ii nooe, noaeueaa Eueaiaa auea ?aoaia. Ii
Oiaeueieoeeee ia oioae ?ac?ooaoue ooo?iii aiaaoue enoi?e/aneeie
iaiyoieeaie ai?iae. Iiyoiio, aeiaeaoenue eiio?eaooeee io ianoiuo
?inoiaueeia e oeyoou, ioaeae i?eeac ioieoe io Eueaiaa. Inaiiyy
iaiiaiaea, o?oaeiinoe ni niaaaeaieai aiene, yieaeaiey /oiu, io eioi?ie
oia? iaeei ec iaeaieaa aeeceeo ni?aoieeia aaoiaia I. E?eaiiin, auioaeeee
Oiaeueieoeeiai niyoue oaeaea inaaeo iieueneie e?aiinoe Caiinouea.

E?anoueyinei-eacaoeeay a?iey aa?ioeanue ia Iiaeiai?iauea. A aeaeaa?a
1648 a. aa oi?aeanoaaiii ano?a/aee aeeoaee ae?aaiaai

Eeaaa. A /anoue iiaaaeeoaeae a?aiaee caeiu iooa/iiai naethoa. Nooaeaiou
eieeaaeoia aeaeeaie?iaaee noeoe, a eioi?uo i?ineaaeyee inaiaiaeeoaeae.

2. Nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea eciaiaiey ia Oe?aeia

Iiaaaea iaae ioai?iuie iieuenei-oeyoaoneeie a?ieyie e inaiaiaeaeaiea
ia?iiiuo oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu eiaee aieueoea nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey.
Oaea a ia?aue ia?eiae aieiu e?anoueyia ioeacaeenue auiieiyoue
iiiai/eneaiiua oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe, e oii /enea e aa?ueio. *anoue
caiee iieueneeo iaaiaoia e oeyoou ia?aoea a ?oee auaoeo e?aiinoiuo,
eioi?ua iiaee aa i?iaeaoue, aea?eoue, ia?aaeaaaoue a ianeaaenoai. Aieia
ioe?uea e?anoueyiai e aeeoaeyi ai?iaeia aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea a
eacaoeeia nineiaea, eioi?ia oiaaea iieueciaaeinue cia/eoaeueiuie i?aaaie
e i?eaeeaaeyie (inaiaiaeaeaeinue io iaeiaia, eiaei i?aai ia aeaaeaiea
caieae, iiae/eiyeinue iniaui th?eaee/aneei ii?iai e o. ae.).

Aianoa n oai a aiaeu aieiu nouanoaaiii oi?i/eea iiceoeee e i?aa?aoeeanue
a ioaeaeueiia nineiaea eacaoeeay noa?oeia. Iia noaea ia iooue
iaoa?eaeueiiai iaiaauaiey, a /anoiinoe no?aieeanue cae?aieoue ca niaie
caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey, canoaaeoue e?anoueyi auiieiyoue iiaeiiinoe,
iieo/eoue i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey. Iaeiia?aiaiii eacaoeeay noa?oeia
caoaaoeea iieeoe/aneoth aeanoue. Iia aicaeaaeea i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
oaiaeaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, eioi?ue eiae naie iniaaiiinoe.
Inaiaiaeaeaiiay oa??eoi?ey Oe?aeiu ?acaeaeyeanue ia iieee e nioie, aaea
any iieiioa aeanoe nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue a ?oeao aaoiaia, a ia ianoao —
iieeiaieeia, nioieeia e ae?oaeo noa?oei. Auee nicaeaiu aiaiiua neeu,
eioi?ua a ia/aea 1649 a. ian/eouaaee ieiei 300 ouny/ /aeiaae.

Oiaeueieoeeee no?aieeny iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n
eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie. Ecaanoii, iai?eia?, /oi a aaoiaineoth
?aceaeaioeeth a ai?iae *eae?ei i?eauaaee iineu ec Iieaeaaee, Oo?oeee,
E?uineiai oainoaa, Aaiaoeee e ae?oaeo no?ai. Eiy ?oeiaiaeeoaey
inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu auei ecaanoiui a Aiaeee e O?aioeee, Aano?ee e
Oaaoeee. Aeey oaiaoaiiiai ethaea iii yaeyeinue neiaieii naiaiaeu e
iacaaeneiinoe, o i?aaenoaaeoaeae aa?oooee aucuaaei no?ao e iaiaaenoue.

Ainoaea?noaaiiinoue, eioi?ay oi?ie?iaaeanue ia Oe?aeia, eiaea eeanniaue
oa?aeoa?. Iiaua i?aaiu aeanoe n naiiai ia/aea naiaai aicieeiiaaiey noaee
iaaeaaeiui i?oaeeai a ?oeao eacaoeeie noa?oeiu a aeaea oneeaiey
oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneiai ii?aaiuaiey e nioeeaeueiiai oaiaoaiey
ia?iaeiuo iann.

Oae caaa?oeeny ia?aue yoai inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu. A 1648 a.
e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeay a?iey, aicaeaaeyaiay Oiaeueieoeeei, iaea?aeaea
aeanoyuea iiaaaeu iiae AEaeouie Aiaeaie, Ei?noiai, Ieeyaoeaie,
inaiaiaeeea io aiaoa oeyoaoneie Iieueoe ii/oe anth oa??eoi?eth Oe?aeiu.
Ii a?aa aua ia aue ieii/aoaeueii iiaaaeaeai.

3. I?iaeieaeaiea inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu

3.1 Iiaia aoi?aeaiea iieuenei-oeyoaoneeo aiene ia Oe?aeio. Cai?ianeee
aeiaiai?

Nia?aa ia?iiiia iiie/aiea oeyoou, eioi?ia auei iiaee?aieaii neeaie
iaiaoeeeo iaaiieeia, ei?ieaaneia i?aaeoaeuenoai eaoii 1649 a. a?ineei
aai i?ioea ainnoaaoaai ia?iaea. Ianiio?y ia ioaeanoaaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea
iianoaioeaa, iieuenei-oeyoaoneea aienea niiaa caoaaoeee Ainoi/ioth
Aaee/eio e aoi?aeenue ia Iiaeieeth. Iaae oe?aeineei ia?iaeii iaaenea
oa?ica iiaiai ii?aaiuaiey.

*oiau ia aeiionoeoue aeaeueiaeoaai i?iaeaeaeaiey oeyoaoneeo aiene a
aeoaue oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu, e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeay a?iey aeaeioeanue
iaano?a/o a?aao. Iinea iacia/eoaeueiuo aii?oaeaiiuo noieeiiaaiee
oeyoaoneea aienea niaoii ionooieee e a ethia 1649 a. ?acaeee eaaa?ue
iaiiaeaeaeo io ai?iaea Caa?aaea, eioi?ue inaaeeee iianoai/aneea iieee e
oaoa?neea io?yaeu. Aie, i?ienoiaeeaoea iiae ai?iaeii, i?eianee oniao
Oiaeueieoeeiio. Iieuenei-oeyoaoneee eaaa?ue aue iieiinoueth ie?oaeai e
aai nayce n aiaoiei ie?ii i?a?aaiu. Ie?oaeaiiua anei?a ia/aee iuouaoue
iaaeinoaoie i?iaeiaieuenoaey, oo?aaea aeey eioaaeae, aiai?eiania.
Niaeanii naeaeaoaeuenoaai nia?aiaiieeia yoeo niauoee n?aaee oeyoou
ia/aeenue iaieea e aeaca?oe?noai. Iaeiaei aiaiiua aeaenoaey ia
i?ae?auaeenue. N iniaaiiui oniaoii eacaee eniieueciaaee oae iacuaaaiua
aoeye-ai?iaea, oi anoue ia?aaeaeaeiua caneiiu, iiae i?ee?uoeai eioi?uo
iie i?eaeeaeaeenue e a?aao e inouanoaeyee iano?ae eaaa?y. Ia iaioeinue e
aac oyaeaeuo iioa?ue ni noi?iiu ainnoaaoaai ia?iaea. A yoeo
e?iaii?ieeoiuo aiyo iiaeaei iiiai e?anoueyi e eacaeia. N?aaee ieo e
ecaanoiua iieeiaieee iianoai/aneie a?iee N. Ii?icaiei e E. Ao?eye.

Ie, Ii?ica, Ii?icaieo, oe neaaiee eica/a!

Ca oiaith, Ii?icaiei, Oe?a?ia iea/a, –

A oi aea a?aiy ia iiiiuue inaaeaeaiiui niaoeee aeaaiua neeu iieueneie
oeyoaoneie a?iee, aicaeaaeyaiie naiei ei?ieai. Aaoiai, oi?ioi ciaaoee
ieaiu a?aaa, ?aoee ia?a?acaoue iooue ea?aoaeyi. Oiaeui, ii iaeiia?aiaiii
iacaiaoiui iaiaa?ii ii niye /anoue aiene ec-iiae Caa?aaea, iai?aaee eo
iaano?a/o oeyoaoneiio aieneo. Iianoaioeu iacaiaoii caiyee a?aaeaneea
iiceoeee aeec ai?iaea Cai?iaa. Ie/aai ia iiaeic?aaay, iieueneea io?yaeu
5 aaaonoa 1649 a. ia/aee ia?ai?aao /a?ac ?aeo No?eio. Ia/aeny aie, a
eioi?ii oeyooa iiianea aieueoea iioa?e. Oieueei ai aoi?ie-iieiaeia aeiy
ae oaeaeinue nii?oaeeoue oe?aieaiiue eaaa?ue. Aie aiciaiiaeeenue ia
neaaeothuee aeaiue. Eacaee i?i?aaee oe?aieaiey e aio-aio aeieaeiu auee
ai?aaoueny a ?aniieiaeaiea a?aaeaneeo aiene. Iieiaeaiea oeyoou auei
aacauoiaeiui. Iaeiaei a iaeaieaa ?aoathuee iiiaio aiy e?uineee oai
eciaiee naiaio nithcie/aneiio aeieao.

Iiaaeaaynue iauaaeeiaiey aiene oeyoou e oaineeo io?yaeia, Oiaeueieoeeee
ia/ae ia?aaiai?u n iieueneei ei?ieai. Neaaenoaeai eo auei caeeth/aiea a
aaaonoa 1649 a. Cai?ianeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a. Niaeanii yoiio aeiaiai?o
eiee/anoai eacaoeeiai aienea aeieaeii ninoaaeoue 40 ouny/ /aeiaae, a
oa??eoi?ey, eioi?ay iaoiaeeeanue iiae aeanoueth aaoiaineiai i?aaeaiey,
ia?aie/eaaeanue o?aiy aiaaiaenoaaie (Eeaaneei, *a?ieaianeei e
A?aoeeaaneei). Aeiaiai? i?aaeoniao?eaae oaeaea aica?auaiea e naiei
iiiaueeai oao e?anoueyi, eioi?ua ia iiiaee a nienee eacaeia. Ioaeaeueiue
ioieo aeiaiai?a eanaeny ?aeeaeiciuo aii?inia. Oae, ia inaiaiaeaeaiiie
oa??eoi?ee aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeieaeiinoe iiaee caieiaoue oieueei
i?aaineaaiua, a aii?in i nouanoaiaaiee oiee auiineeny ia canaaeaiea
i/a?aaeiiai naeia.

Iiaeienaa oneiaey Cai?ianeiai aeiaiai?a, Oiaeueieoeeee iaania/ee,
i?aaeaea anaai, eioa?anu noa?oeineie aa?oooee, eioi?ay nio?aieea naia
ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea, e caaeeoi/iiai eaca/anoaa. Ii aeiaiai? ia
oaeiaeaoai?ee oe?ieea ia?iaeiua iannu, iaae eioi?uie iaaenea oa?ica
ainnoaiiaeaiey iieuenei-oeyoaoneiai ainiiaenoaa.

E?anoueyia, iauaia e eacaee aiiaue acyeenue ca i?oaeea. Eo aicaeaaeee
niaeua e iiuoiua i?aaeaiaeeoaee — iieeiaieee Aeaieea Ia/ae, Iaoaae
Aeaaeeee e ae?oaea. A iieeo Ia/ay, iai?eia?, ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 40
ouny/ /aeiaae. Iaino?eeenue oaeaea i?ioeai?a/ey ia Caii?iaeuea, aaea,
ianiio?y ia cai?ao noa?oeiu, ?yaeiaua eacaee niiaa ?aaeenue a aie n
iieuenei-oeyoaoneeie caoaao/eeaie. Iaeiia?aiaiii o?oaeyueany iannu
aunooiaee i?ioea nianoaaiiuo oaiaeaeia — eacaoeeie aa?oooee, eioi?ay
oaea n ia?auo eao aieiu noaea ia iooue iaeiieaiey caiaeueiuo aiaaonoa.

Ie?ioth ia?aaeuoeo Oiaeueieoeeee eniieueciaae aeey iioiaea a Iieaeaaeth,
i?aayuea e?oae eioi?ie a?aaeaeaaii ioiineeenue e ainnoaaoaio oe?aeineiio
ia?iaeo e iiaeaea?aeeaaee nithc n iieueneeie iaaiaoaie. A aaaonoa 1650
a. 70-ouny/iia oe?aeineia aienei anooiee a iieaeaaneea caiee e anei?a
iaeaaeaei ssnnaie. Ainiiaea?ue Iieaeaaee Aaneeee Eoioe aue auioaeaeai
caeeth/eoue n Oiaeueieoeeei nithcie/aneee aeiaiai?.

3.2 Oe?aieaiea naycae Oe?aeiu n ?inneae

A ai?ueaa i?ioea iieuenei-oeyoaoneiai ainiiaenoaa oe?aeineiio ia?iaeo
iinoiyiii ieacuaae iiiiuue ?onneee ia?iae. A aieiaeiua 1648 e 1649 aiaeu
ec ?innee ia Oe?aeio iinooiaee oeaa e nieue. *a?ac a?aieoeo
aeinoaaeyeenue oaeaea oeaie, iaeaaeaea, ecaeaeey ec aeaeaca. Aic?anoaee
iinoaaee iooae, ?oaeae e aiaiiiai nia?yaeaiey. Oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai
?ac?aoeei oe?aeineei eoioeai naiaiaeii oi?aiaaoue ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa, e eo oiaa?u inaiaiaeeei io ia?aiaieoaeueiuo
oaiiaeaiiuo nai?ia.

Oe?aieyeenue oaeaea eoeueoo?iua nayce. Ia Oe?aeia oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiyeenue eieae, ecaeaiiua ?onneeie oeiia?aoeyie. Iaiaei eiea,
iaia/aoaiiuo ia Oe?aeia, aeinoaaeyee a ?inneth.

Oiaeueieoeeee no?aieeny onoaiiaeoue oaniua aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey
Oe?aeiu n ?inneeneei ainoaea?noaii. Aua a yiaa?a 1649 a. n Oe?aeiu a
Iineao auaoaei ia?aia iieiiii/iia iinieuenoai, eioi?iio aaoiai ii?o/ee
aanoe ia?aaiai?u i ainniaaeeiaiee Oe?aeiu n ?inneae. N oiai a?aiaie
iieeoe/aneea nayce iaaeaeo aaoiaineie aaeieieno?aoeeae e ?onneei
i?aaeoaeuenoaii noaee ?aaoey?iuie. A ?aciia a?aiy ia Oe?aeia iiauaaei
ianeieueei iinieuenoa ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Ana iie oaaaeaeaeenue a
oii, /oi oe?aeineee ia?iae aeaeaao iauaaeeiaiey n a?aoneei ?onneei
ia?iaeii.

Aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea oe?ieeo neiaa ianaeaiey ?inneeneiai
ainoaea?noaa e inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa oe?aeineiai ia?iaea i?iyaeeinue
a aeayoaeueiinoe Caineiai niai?a 1651 a. Ii aeae niaeanea ia/aoue aieio
n oeyoaoneie Iieueoae e ainniaaeeieoue Oe?aeio n ?inneae.

3.3 Aiaiiua aeaenoaey 1651 a

1651 a. i?eian iiaua oyaeeea eniuoaiey oe?aeineiio ia?iaeo. Ia?ooea
oneiaey Cai?ianeiai aeiaiai?a, ei?ieaaneea aienea a oaa?aea 1651 a.
iaiaeeaeaiii niaa?oeee iaiaaeaiea ia iiaeieueneia ianoa/ei E?aniia, aaea
iaoiaeeeny iaeei ec eacaoeeeo io?yaeia a?iee Oiaeueieoeeiai.

?acai?aeny aeanoieee aie. Iiae iaoeneii a?aaa eacaee ionooieee, /anoue
ec ieo iieaaea a e?iaii?ieeoiie na/a. Iiaea oiaaea e ioaaaeiue iieeiaiee
Aeaieea Ia/ae. Ia nia?oue aa?iy ia?iae ioeeeeioeny ianiae «Ec-ca ai?u
aunieie», a eioi?ie ainiaaae aai aeeaae a inaiaiaeeoaeueioth aieio.
Anei?a ianooieaiea oeyoou auei inoaiiaeaii aeec Aeiieoeu io?yaeaie
oaeaioeeaiai iieeiaieea Eaaia Aiaoia.

Ia Oe?aeia iiaeiyeanue iiaay aieia inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau. E?anoueyia
e eacaee a?iieee a?aaa a Iiaeieee, Aieuie, Ainoi/iie Aaee/eia.
Ianiieieii auei a Aaei?onnee.

Niauoey ia oe?aeineeo caieyo aucaaee oaeaea ene?aiiaa ni/oanoaea e
iiaeaea?aeeo e?anoueyi Iieueoe. A ethia 1651 a. a E?aeianeii aiaaiaenoaa
aniuoioei cia/eoaeueiia ainnoaiea ai aeaaa n Einoeie Iaia?neei.
Iianoaioeu ?aca?iieee ianoiua aa?ieciiu a ?yaea ai?iaeiaie nae. Oieueei
i?e iiiiue ?aaoey?iuo ei?ieaaneeo aiene i?aaeoaeuenoao oaeaeinue
iiaeaaeoue ainnoaiea.

A yoie neooaoeee Oiaeueieoeeee nicaae iauoth, aieneiaoth ?aaeo, ia
eioi?ie iinoaaee aii?in: i?iaeieaeaoue aieio eee ia/aoue ia?aaiai?u n
ei?ieai. Nia?aiaiiee yoeo niauoee naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae, /oi i?aaenoaaeoaee
ia?iaea ioaaoeee: «Iai aaoiai! Aia e aienei oae oioyo, /oiau iu n
ei?ieai ia ie?eeenue, o. e. iu ia yoii ii?aoeee e aeey yoiai nthaea
i?eoee, /oia …i?aea io ian ionooieea, iiaeaiooue anai… e oae ana
iiaeaiai, eeai anao eyoia oie/oiaeei».

Oai a?aiaiai aeaaiua neeu iieuenei-oeyoaoneeo aiene (150 ouny/)
nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue ia Aieuie aeec A??anoa/ea. Anei?a ooaea iiaeioea
100-ouny/iay e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeay a?iey 50-ouny/iay oaoa?neay i?aea.
Ia i?ioyaeaiee 18-20 ethiy 1651a. i?ienoiaeeee e?iaii?ieeoiua aie, a
eioi?uo iianoaioeu i?iyaeee ianniaue aa?ieci e ioaaao. Ianeieueei ?ac
oeyoaoneay eiiieoea aoaeiaaea eacaoeeee eaaa?ue, ii auea ioaeoa. Oiaaea
eiiaiaeiaaiea ei?ieaaneeo aiene ?aoeei oaea?eoue ii eaaiio oeaiao, aaea
auee oaoa?u. Ia auaea?aeaa yoie aoaee, e?uineea i?aeu niiaa inoaaeee
iiea aiy. E oiio aea oai caoaaoee a ieai Oiaeueieoeeiai, eioi?ue iuoaeny
inoaiiaeoue ionooieaiea e?uioeaa. Yoi auea i?yiay eciaia, aneaaenoaea
eioi?ie eacaoeeea iieee iiiaee a ie?oaeaiea. Aeanyoue aeiae aeeeeanue
aa?ie/aneay iai?iia eaaa?y. Iianoaioeu ioaeaaee iai?a?uaiua aoaee a?aaa,
eioi?ue iiae Aa?anoa/eii iiian cia/eoaeueiua iioa?e.

Iieye — i/aaeaeaoe iienae io/ayiioth aeoao 300 eacaeia n ia?iiiui
oeyoaoneei aieneii. Iie ?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aee i?aaeeiaeaiea i?ioeaieea
naeaoueny a ieai, oioy ei e iaauaee nio?aieoue aeeciue. «A iaeei ec
ieo,— ienae aeaeaa i/aaeaeaoe,— aeia?aeny aei eiaeee e ia aeacao ei?iey
e anaai aienea iiaeae i?eia? iaoeiiaeie o?aa?inoe: ianeieueei /ania ii
caueuaeny ia oie eiaeea einie, ia ia?auay ieeaeiai aieiaiey ia no?aeueao
n ?oaeae». Iaeiaei neeu auee aeaeaei ia ?aaiu. Noaei ecaanoii, /oi
iieueneia eiiaiaeiaaiea ia?aa?ineei a oue e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeiio aieneo
eiiieoeo, eioi?ay ia/aea ia?ae?uaaoue ana iooe e ionooieaieth. A yoeo
oneiaeyo, i?ieiaeea /a?ac aieioi ec aicia e naaeae aaoe, iniiaiay /anoue
iianoaioeaa ai aeaaa n E. Aiaoiii auoea ec ie?oaeaiey e n aiyie
i?iaeeanue a Iiaeiai?iauea. Ii a yoi a?aiy ia Oe?aeio aoi?aeenue
oeyoaoneea aienea, aicaeaaeyaiua eeoianeei eiycai ?aaeceaeeeii. Iinea
oyaeaeuo aiaa iie caoaaoeee Eeaa. Aeanyoue aeiae oeyooe/e ?aci?yee
oea?eae, iiianou?e, aeiia eeaaeyi. Ia/aeny ianoiyuee a?aaaae ai?iaea.
Nioie ethaeae auee oie/oiaeaiu, ae?oaea inoaaeee Eeaa e ooee a
ie?oaeathuea eana. Ianoiyuei i?iyaeaieai aaiaeaeecia (aanniuneaiiiai
oie/oiaeaiey) noaei niaeaeaiea Iiaeiea — iaeiiai ec ae?aaiaeoeo e
aeeaiieniaeoeo ?aeiiia Eeaaa.

Ianiio?y ia a?aiaiiua iaoaea/e, oe?aeineee ia?iae aue eniieiai ?aoeiinoe
i?iaeieaeaoue ai?ueao. Inaiaiaeeaoenue ec ieaia, Oiaeueieoeeee auno?i
nia?ae iiaoth a?ieth. A ieaiaie ia?iaeiie aieiu niiaa caiueaea any
Oe?aeia.

Ii iaoa?eaeueiua e /aeiaa/aneea iioa?e ieacaeenue aeinoaoi/ii iuooeiuie.
Iianoaioeai ia oaaoaei aii?oaeaiey, iaeaaeaeu e i?iaeiaieuenoaey. A yoeo
oneiaeyo aaoiai niaeaneeny ia ia?aaiai?u n ei?ieaaneeie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie. A naioya?a 1651 a. aue iiaeienai Aaeioea?eianeee
aeiaiai?. Niaeanii yoiio aeiaiai?o eacaoeeee ?aano? nie?auaeny ia 20
ouny/ /aeiaae, oa??eoi?ey aaoiaineiai i?aaeaiey ia?aie/eaaeanue oieueei
Eeaaneei aiaaiaenoaii; oeyooa iieo/eea i?aai niiaa aeaaeaoue naieie
eiaieyie e aiciaiiaeyea naith aeanoue iaae e?anoueyiaie. Yoeie niauoeyie
caaa?oeeny aoi?ie yoai inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu 1648 —1654 aa.

3.5 Ioii? iieuenei-oeyoaoneie aa?annee a 1652—1653 aa

Iieueneea iaaiaou e oeyooa no?aieeenue aa?iooue oo?a/aiiua caiee ia
Oe?aeia, ainnoaiiaeoue oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoiie aiao. Iie?aynue ia
iiaeaea?aeeo ei?ieaaneeo aiene, iaiu aeanoiei ?ani?aaeyeenue n
e?anoueyiaie. A ioaao ia yoi ia?iae niiaa iiaeiyeny ia ai?ueao.

Ia?iiiue iao?eioe/aneee iiaeuai ioaaoee anth Oe?aeio. A iaa 1652 a.
e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeay a?iey e io?yaeu oaoa? iiaeioee e o?i/euo Aaoia
(nae/an a Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe) ia Iiaeieee, aicea eioi?iai eaaa?ai noiyei
iieuenei-oeyoaoneia ea?aoaeueiia aienei. Ieai Oiaeueieoeeiai aue
?ann/eoai ia oi, /oiau ie?oaeeoue e oaea?eoue ii eaaa?th i?ioeaieea
iaeiia?aiaiii n ?aciuo noi?ii. A ii/ue ia 23 iay ninoiyeanue
aaia?aeueiay aeoaa. Ianiio?y ia nii?ioeaeaiea iaiaoeeeo iaaiieeia,
iai?iia a?aaa auea i?i?aaia iieeaie aaoiaia. Ei?ieaaneia aienei ca
ianeieueei /ania auei iieiinoueth ?aca?iieaii. Nia?aiaiiee-oeyooe/ oae
iienae oiae yoie aeoau: «Ia ae?oaie aeaiue… ieiei iieoaeiy ian aoaeiaae
nai Oiaeueieoeeee n oaeeie aieueoeie neeaie, /oi iu ia iiaee
i?iaea?aeaoueny e iaeiiai /ana. Ian, ie?oaeaiiuo ni anao noi?ii, i?aea
?oaeea naaeyie, a eacaee oae caoaaoeee eaaa?ue, /oi iaoa aienei auei
aoeaaeueii noa?oi n eeoea caiee». Aeoaa iiae Aaoiaii iieacaea aic?inoaa
ianoa?noai e iiuue e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeeo iieeia, auaeathueeny
iieeiaiae/aneee oaeaio Oiaeueieoeeiai. Nia?aiaiieee n?aaieaaee aa n
ecaanoiie iiaaaeie Aaiieaaea iaae ?eineeie eaaeiiaie iiae Eaiiaie
(aniiiiei ec enoi?ee ae?aaiaai ie?a, eiaaea e eae iia auea
inouanoaeaia). A ?acoeueoaoa Aaoianeie aeoau ii/oe any oa??eoi?ey
Oe?aeiu auea inaiaiaeaeaia io iieuenei-oeyoaoneiai eaa. Aaeioea?eianeee
aeiaiai? oo?aoee naith neeo.

Inaiueth 1653 a. a ?acoeueoaoa oniaoiuo aeaenoaee e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeie
a?iee iiae ianoa/eii AEaaiaoe (iuia naei Eaiaiaoe-Iiaeieueneiai ?aeiia
Oiaeueieoeeie iaeanoe) ia Iiaeieee auei ie?oaeaii 80-ouny/iia
iieuenei-oeyoaoneia aienei. Ii e?uineee oai e ia yoio ?ac i?aiaa?aa
naiei nithcie/aneei aeieaii. Ii caeeth/ee n iieueneei ei?ieai aeiaiai? i
ia?aie?ee. Oiaeueieoeeee, eioi?ue ia i?eciae aeaenoaey yoiai aeiaiai?a,
aa?ioeny ni naieie iieeaie ia Iiaeiai?iauea.

A ia/aea aeaeaa?y 1653a. aiaiiua aeaenoaey iaaeaeo
e?anoueyinei-eacaoeeeie e iieuenei-oeyoaoneeie aieneaie i?ae?aoeeenue.
I?iaeieaeaeenue eeoue iacia/eoaeueiua noieeiiaaiey a caiaaeiuo ?aeiiao
Iiaeieee e ia Aieuie. Oaeei ia?acii, caaa?oeeny o?aoee e iineaaeiee yoai
inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu (1652 – ia/aei 1654 a.). Anth eeio/oth yia?aeth
Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee iai?aaee ia ?aoaiea aeaaiiai aeaea naiae aeecie —
ainniaaeeiaiey Oe?aeiu n ?inneae.

4. Ainniaaeeiaiea Oe?aeiu n ?inneae

Aeaeueiaeoaa oe?aieaiea ?onnei-oe?aeineeo naycae

A oiaea inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu oe?aeineee ia?iae ana aieueoa iniciaaae,
/oi ieii/aoaeueiay iiaaaea iaae caoaao/eeaie aiciiaeia eeoue a oaniii
nithca n a?aoneei ?onneei ia?iaeii. Au?aaeay ecaa/iia no?aieaiea
o?oaeyueony Oe?aeiu e ainniaaeeiaieth n ?inneae, Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee
iineaaeiaaoaeueii e ianoie/eai ai?ieny ca aai inouanoaeaiea.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee 1651 —1653 aa. a Iineao ia ?ac i?eauaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee
aaoiaia, eioi?ua a ia?aaiai?ao n oea?neei i?aaeoaeuenoaii auaeaeaaee
i?aaeeiaeaiey i ainniaaeeiaiee. A yoio aea ia?eiae, iniaaiii iinea
caeeth/aiey Cai?ianeiai, a caoai e Aaeioea?eianeiai aeiaiai?ia, ouny/e
eacaeia, e?anoueyi e ai?iaeneeo aeeoaeae Oe?aeiu, nianaynue io oeyoou e
oe?aeineeo /eiiaieeia, ia?aoiaeeee /a?ac a?aieoeo, ia thaeiua oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa (a i?aaeaeao nia?aiaiiuo Oa?ueeianeie e Noineie
iaeanoae). Iie inaaeaaee oeaeeiiua caiee, no?ieee iiaua ai?iaea e naea.
Ia?anaeaioeu ia?aieiaee oicyenoaaiiua iaauee ianoiiai ianaeaiey. ?onneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai aeaaineeiiii ioiineeinue e aaaeaoeai: i?aaeinoaaeyei ei
caiaeueiua o/anoee, inaiaiaeaeaei io iaeiaia. Yoe canaeaiiua oe?aeioeaie
caiee noaee iacuaaoue Neiaiaeneie Oe?aeiie eee Neiaiaeaiueiie.

Ia yoeo aea oe?aeineeo caieyo ecaeaaia aeeee e?anoueyia e ai?iaeaia —
auoiaeoeu ec ?innee. Iie i?eieiaee aeoeaiia o/anoea a inaiaiaeeoaeueiie
aieia. Iea/ii e iea/o ni naieie oe?aeineeie a?aoueyie ?onneea a ninoaaa
eacaoeeeo io?yaeia a?iieee a?aaa iiae AEaeouie Aiaeaie e Ei?noiai,
Aaoiaii e AEaaioeai.

?inney ?acaa?ioea aeayoaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo e aieia ni oeyoaoneie
Iieueoae. Ca ei?ioeia a?aiy auei noi?ie?iaaii e iao/aii ianeieueei
?aaoey?iuo iieeia. Aic?inei i?iecaiaenoai ii?ioa e aiaiiiai nia?yaeaiey,
caeoieaii iiiai i?oaeey ca a?aieoeae.

*oiau ieii/aoaeueii ?aoeoue aii?in i ainniaaeeiaiee Oe?aeiu n ?inneae,
niiaa aue nicaai Caineee niai? a Iineaa. A aai ?aaioa i?eieiaee o/anoea
ia oieueei oea?ue, aunoaa i?aaineaaiia aeooiaainoai, aiy?a, aeai?yia, ii
e iauaia, eoioeu, no?aeueoeu. 1 ieoya?y 1653 a. Caineee niai?
aaeeiiaeanii iaeia?ee ?aoaiea i i?eiyoee Oe?aeiu a ninoaa ?inneeneiai
ainoaea?noaa. Aeey i?iaicaeaoaiey aeoa ainniaaeeiaiey ia Oe?aeio auaoaei
aieueoia iieiiii/iia iinieuenoai ai aeaaa n aiy?eiii A. A. Aooo?eeiui.
Ia anai iooe iineia a?aoneiai ?onneiai ia?iaea oi?aeanoaaiii e ?aaeinoii
ano?a/aei ianaeaiea Oe?aeiu.

4.2 Ia?ayneaaneay ?aaea. Enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea ainniaaeeiaiey Oe?aeiu n
?inneae

Aeo ainniaaeeiaiey Oe?aeiu n ?inneae ninoiyeny a Ia?ayneaaa — oiaaea
cia/eoaeueiii yeiiiie/aneii e iieeoe/aneii oeaio?a Oe?aeiu. A ii?iciia
nieia/iia oo?i 8 yiaa?y 1654 a. ia oeaio?aeueiie ieiuaaee ai?iaea
nia?aeanue aieueoay, ?aaea. Nioie ethaeae — noa?oeia, eacaee,
e?anoueyia, iauaia, aeooiaainoai — i?aaenoaaeyee ana eeannu-nineiaey
iauanoaa oiai a?aiaie. Ia?ayneaaneay ?aaea- eiaea iauaia?iaeiue
oa?aeoa?.

Ia ieiuaaeue auoae Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee n eacaoeeie noa?oeiie. Ii
ia?aoeeny e o/anoieeai ?aaeu n ieaiaiiie ?a/ueth. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaa
iieiaeaiea oe?aeineeo caiaeue iinea oanoeeaoiae e?iaii?ieeoiie aieiu,
aaoiai niiauee, /oi Caineee niai? niaeaneeny i?eiyoue Oe?aeio a ninoaa
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. «A eoi aoaeao n iaie ia niaeanai,— neacae
Oiaeueieoeeee,— oaia?ue eoaea oi/ao aieueiay aei?iaa». Aeiaaiee, eioi?ue
aaee ?onneea iineu, aeinoaoi/ii iieii ia?aaeaao aoiinoa?o, eioi?ay
ainiiaenoaiaaea ia ?aaea. A ioaao ia yoe neiaa aaoiaia aanue ia?iae
aaeeiiaeooii cayaee: «Oioei iiae oea?y ainoi/iiai, i?aaineaaiiai». Iioii
eacaoeeay noa?oeia niiaa ni?aoeaaea: «Ana ee oae aeoiaaoa?» E iiyoue
ioaao aue oaeei aea: «Ana aaeeiiaeooii». Ana o/anoieee ?aaeu
aaeeiiaeooii auneacaeenue ca iauaaeeiaiea a?aoneeo ia?iaeia a iaeiii
ainoaea?noaa.

Neiaa i?iaicaeaoaiiie ia Ia?ayneaaneie ?aaea eeyoau «/oiau iaaaee ana
aaeeiu auee» iiaeaea?aeae aanue oe?aeineee ia?iae. Ii ioioii i?enyaae ia
aa?iinoue ?inneeneiio ainoaea?noao. Eaoiienaoe ioia/ae oiaaea: «Ii anae
Oe?aeia aanue ia?iae n ioioie yoi naeaeae» e «aaeeeay ?aaeinoue a
ia?iaea noaea».

Ainniaaeeiaiea Oe?aeiu n ?inneae noaei caeiiiia?iui ?acoeueoaoii
i?aaeoanoaothuae enoi?ee aeaoo a?aoneeo neaayineeo ia?iaeia — ?onneiai e
oe?aeineiai, ioaa/aei eo caaaoiui iaaeaaeaeai e /ayieyi. Iii ciaiaiiaaei
iiai?ioiue yoai a enoi?e/aneie noaeueaa oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. A
?acoeueoaoa ainniaaeeiaiey n ?inneae Oe?aeia auea nianaia io ii?aaiuaiey
oeyoaoneie Iieueoae e noeoaineie Oo?oeeae. A ninoaaa ?inneeneiai
ainoaea?noaa iia iieo/eea ian?aaiaiii aieaa oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey
naiaai yeiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey.

Oa /anoue Oe?aeiu, eioi?ay ainniaaeeieeanue n ?inneae a 1654 a., noaea
iiao/ei oeaio?ii i?eoyaeaiey aeey o?oaeyueony caiaaeiioe?aeineeo
caiaeue, eioi?ua aua ia i?ioyaeaiee noieaoee iaoiaeeeenue iiae aiaoii
eiicaiiuo ainoaea?noa.

?aoaiea Ia?ayneaaneie ?aaeu eiaei aieueoia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia cia/aiea.
Oe?aieeenue iiceoeee ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa ia ie?iaie a?aia,
aa?anneaiui ieaiai caiaaeiuo ainoaea?noa auee iaianaiu, nie?ooeoaeueiua
oaea?u.

Ainniaaeeiaiea iaoneiaeei aeaeueiaeoaa ia?anoaiea eeanniaie ai?ueau
ia?iaeiuo iann. O?oaeyueany ?innee e Oe?aeiu iaueie oneeeyie iiaaee
ai?ueao i?ioea iiiaueeia e naiiaea?aeaaey, ca naia nioeeaeueiia e
iaoeeiiaeueiia inaiaiaeaeaiea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Na?aeaiei A.ss., Niieey A.A. «Enoi?ey Oe?aeineie NN?: 8-9 eeanna» –
E., 1989

2. Na?aeaiei A.ss. «O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee Oe?aeineie NN?: 7-8 eeanna» –
E., 1987

3. Aeania A.O. «Enoi?ey 8 eeanna» – E., 2002

4. Oaeeoia A.A. «?acaeoea Oe?aeiu» – I., 1987

5. Na?aae A.A. «NNN? a enoi?ee Oe?aeiu» – O., 1999

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