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Особенности экономического курса в 50-60-х годах ХХ века

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Iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai eo?na a 50-60-o aiaeao OO aaea

A ia?oa 1953 a. oia? E. A. Noaeei. N?aaee aai aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey
ia/aeanue ai?ueaa ca aeanoue, ieii/eaoayny iiaaaeie nae?aoa?y OeE EINN
I. N. O?ouaaa.

Oe?aiea naith aeanoue, O?ouaa ia/ae oeaeue eiiieaen yeiiiie/aneeo
i?aia?aciaaiee:

-inaiaiea oeaeeiiuo caiaeue (Eacaonoai, THaeiue O?ae, THa Neae?e), /oi
iicaieeei ?aoeoue ca?iiaoth i?iaeaio e oaaee/eoue yenii?o, ii yoi aue
yenoaineaiue iooue. I/aiue auno?i caiey enoiueeanue e oaea a ia/aea 60-o
aiaeia o?iaeae nieceeenue;

-aeey oeo/oaiey oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie aianoi io?aneaauo ieienoa?noa
nicaeaaaeenue niaia?oicu – niaaou ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Niaia?oicu
iicaieeee i?ae?aoeoue iaeioi?ua cao?aou, auno?aa aaiaeeoue iiaoth
oaoieeo. Ii ea?aeeiaeueiuo ia?aiai ia i?iecioei, yeiiiieea ii-i?aaeiaio
iaoiaeeeanue iiae eiio?ieai ia?oee e ainoaea?noaa;

-a naeueneii oicyenoaa auee oe?oiiaiu eieoicu. Aianoi iaoeiii-o?aeoi?iuo
noaioeee (ION) oaoieeo ca aueoi ia?aaeaee eieoicai, iaeiaei ia ana ec
ieo iiaee naaa iicaieeoue iieoieo oaoieee. Iiiaea eieoicu ieacaeenue a
aeieao ia?aae ainoaea?noaii. Ec-ca iiniaoiinoe oi?ioay, a oeaeii, eaeay
ia aeaea iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia. [2, n.126]

Oicyenoai ?acaeaaeinue ia iniiaa aee?aeoeaiuo iyoeeaoieo ieaiia: iyoiai
(1951 —1956aa.), oanoiai (1956 —1960aa.), naaeueiiai (1961 —1965aa.). A
noaeeineea ii?o ioi?aaiie oi/eie ?acaeoey auei ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi
a NNN? iino?iaii nioeeaeenoe/aneia iauanoai e ia/aeny ia?aoiae e
eiiioiecio, eioi?ue iiaeii iino?ieoue a iaeiie no?aia. Eaeay aeiaiaoue e
ia?aaiaoue eiaeono?eaeueiua no?aiu auea iiaeaea?aeaia A. N. O?ouaaui,
eioi?ue i?iaicaeanee eo?n ia aeinoeaeaiea a NNN? iaeaunoaai a ie?a
aeaaininoiyiey ethaeae. Yoi auei aaaioth?iia ?aoaiea, iineieueeo ca
ea/anoaaiiuie iieacaoaeyie oicyenoai NNN? ionoaaaei io NOA, ae?oaeo
yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai. ?acoeueoaoii ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu, ia?oeeiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa, aeaoeoeeoa
aeaiie?aoee auea yenoaineaiay iai?aaeaiiinoue ?acaeoey oicyenoaa no?aiu,
eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeei ii aeiaiaiiie noaia. [5, n.512]

Oe?ieay i?ia?aiia ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa Oe?aeineie NN? auea
eceiaeaia a «Caeiia i iyoeeaoiai ieaia ainnoaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa Oe?aeineie NN? ia 1946-1950aa.», i?eiyoii a aaaonoa
1946 aiaea ainueiie nanneae Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ONN?. Iauai
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a /aoaa?oie iyoeeaoea ninoaaeye ii ?anioaeeea 65,1
ie?ae.?oa., /oi i?aauoaei o?iaaiue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ai ana ia?iaeiia
oicyenoai Niaaoneiai Nithca a ia?aie iyoeeaoea. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei
i aieueoii aieiaiee, oaeaeyaiii ainnoaiiaeaieth ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
Niaaoneie Oe?aeiu eae ninoaaiie /anoe NNN?. Noaaeony caaea/a aeiaanoe
iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ONN? a eiioea iyoeeaoee aei 103% ii
n?aaiaieth n 1940 aiaeii. E 1950 a ieaie?iaaeinue i?iecaiaeeoue 9,7
iei.o /oaoia, 8,8 iei.o. noaee, 86,1iei.o oaey. I?aaeiieaaaeinue
aic?iaeeoue iaoaeeo?ae/aneea caaiaeu Aeiiaanna e I?eaeiai?iauey, aaanoe
a no?ie 30 aeiiaiiuo ia/ae iiuiinoueth 9 iei.o /oaoia a aiae,
noaeaieaaeeueiua aa?aaaou iiuiinoueth 8,4iei.o noaee, 58 i?ieaoiuo
noaiia iiuiinoueth 6,5 iei.o i?ieaoa.

?aoathuaa cia/aiea a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee eiaeono?ee, eae e anaai
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, i?eia?aei onei?aiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.
Ia?oey e i?aaeoaeuenoai iinoaaeee yoo caaea/o a oeaio? naiaai aieiaiey.
Ninoiyaoeany a 1954 e 1955 aa. Ananithciua niaauaiey no?ieoaeae e
?aaioieeia eiaeono?ee ianoaeeee ei?aiiua aii?inu i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
no?ieoaeuenoaa, ia?niaeoeau eo ?acaeoey ia iniiaa oe?ieiai aiaae?aiey
aeinoeaeaiee iaoee, oaoieee, ia?aaeiaiai iiuoa. Ii iaoa?eaeai niaauaiey
no?ieoaeae OeE EINN e Niaao Ieieno?ia NNN? ?ac?aaioaee e inouanoaeee
oe?ieoth i?ia?aiio ia?ii?eyoee ii oeo/oaieth eaieoaeueiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa a no?aia. ?aoathuaa cia/aiea i?eaeaaaeinue oneeaieth
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e aeaeueiaeoae eiaeono?eaeecaoeee no?ieoaeuenoaa,
i?eiaiaieth nai?iuo eiino?oeoeee e aeaoaeae, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
aeaeaciaaoiiiuo, eiiieaeniie iaoaiecaoeee oyaeaeuo e o?oaeiaieeo ?aaio,
nicaeaieth iinoiyiiuo eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia no?ieoaeae. A 1955—1956
aa. ?acaa?ioeinue no?ieoaeuenoai 1270 i?aaei?eyoee ii i?iecaiaenoao
aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee e aeaoaeae. Eiiniiie iauyaee yoe no?ieee
oaea?iuie e iai?aaee ia eo nii?oaeaiea ieiei 100 oun. /aeiaae. Auee
inouanoaeaiu ia?u ii nicaeaieth iinoiyiiuo eaae?ia no?ieoaeae,
iiauoaieth eo eaaeeoeeaoeee, ii oii?yaei/aieth ii?ie?iaaiey o?oaea e
i?aaiecaoeee ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/eo, oeo/oaieth aeeeeuiuo e
eoeueoo?ii-auoiauo oneiaee no?ieoaeae. A iaa 1955 a. OeE EINN e Niaao
Ieieno?ia NNN? a niaoeeaeueiii iinoaiiaeaiee ii?aaeaeeee ia?u,
iai?aaeaiiua ia oeo/oaiea aeaea eco/aiey e aiaae?aiey a ia?iaeiia
oicyenoai iiuoa e aeinoeaeaiee ia?aaeiaie ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie
iaoee e oaoieee.

A ethea 1955 a. Ieaioi OeE EINN ianoaeee aii?in «I caaea/ao ii
aeaeueiaeoaio iiaeuaio i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaoie/aneiio i?ia?anno e
oeo/oaieth i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa». Ieaioi oeacae, /oi aaaeiaeoae
caaea/ae ia?oeeiuo, niaaoneeo e oicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a iaeanoe
i?iiuoeaiiinoe yaeyaony anaia?iia iiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy
i?iecaiaenoaa ia aaca yeaeo?eoeeaoeee, eiiieaeniie iaoaiecaoeee e
aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, aiaae?aiey iiaaeoeo
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo noaieia, iaoei e aiia?aoia, iinoiyiiiai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eiaiaiey aoiiiie yia?aee a
ie?iuo oeaeyo.

Aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa ?acaeoeai e aiaae?aieai a ia?iaeiia oicyenoai
ia?aaeiaie oaoieee aue nicaeai Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao Niaaoa Ieieno?ia
NNN? ii iiaie oaoieea. Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e no?ieeao nicaeaaaeenue
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneea niaaou. A Iineaa auea i?aaieciaaia
iinoiyiiay Ananithciay i?iiuoeaiiay aunoaaea, i?iiaaaiaee?iaaaoay
ia?aaeiaua oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey niaaoneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Aeey oneeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey ca ?aaioie ieienoa?noa e
aaaeiinoa e oeo/oaiey eo ?aaiou a iaeanoe o?oaea e ca?aaioiie ieaou a
iaa 1955 a. aue nicaeai Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao NNN? ii aii?inai o?oaea
e ca?aaioiie ieaou.

Auee ?ac?aaioaiu ia?u ii aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth oeaiaioiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oeo/oaieth aa ?aaiou, ii onei?aieth no?ieoaeuenoaa
ai?ii?oaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia aaca aiaaoaeoeo aeaeacii-?oaeiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee Eo?neie iaaieoiie aiiiaeee. A 1956 a. aue ooaa?aeaeai
aaia?aeueiue ieai yeaeo?eoeeaoeee aeaeaciuo aei?ia, eioi?ue
i?aaeoniao?eaae yeaeo?eoeeaoeeth a oa/aiea iyoiaaeoeaoe eao 40 oun. ei
aeaeaciuo aei?ia, aeaaiui ia?acii ainoiea e thaa no?aiu.

50-a aiaeu ioia/aiu ana aieaa oe?ieei eniieueciaaieai aoiiiie yia?aee a
ie?iuo oeaeyo; onei?aiiui ?acaeoeai iiauo, iaeaieaa i?ia?anneaiuo
io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe — oeiee, ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee, ?aaeeioaoieee,
neiaeiiai iaoeiino?iaiey e i?eai?ino?iaiey; a i?eiaiaiee aieaa
niaa?oaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, ?acei iiauoathueo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea; a oe?ieii i?eiaiaiee
au/eneeoaeueiie e oi?aaeythuae oaoieee aeey oi?aaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e o. ae. Ei?aiiay iniaaiiinoue iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
?aaiethoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi iaoea noaiiaeony ana aieaa
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui yeaiaioii i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoeeiiii aic?anoaao e
?anoe?yaony aa ?ieue e aicaeaenoaea ia ana io?anee e noa?u
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iieo/eei ?ani?ino?aiaiea nicaeaiea iaaecaaiaeneeo oeie iiaaoi?ia.
Cia/eoaeueii au?inei aeaeaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ia e ecia?aoaoaeae. A
ieoya?a 1956 a. ninoiyeinue Ananithciia niaauaiea ecia?aoaoaeae,
?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ia e iiaaoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeeaoaa naie caaea/e a
ai?ueaa ca onei?aiea oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, niaa?oainoaiaaieth
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, ?inoo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea (a 1960 a.
iia auea aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca auoa, /ai a 1950 a.) oaiiu ?inoa
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auee auoa caieaie?iaaiiuo. Ca 1950—1960 aa.
iauee iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oaaee/eeny a 3 ?aca (a oyaeaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe — a 3,3 ?aca, a eaaeie e ieuaaie — a 2,7 ?aca).
Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iieo/eee ana aeaeu o?ainii?oa. I?ioyaeaiiinoue
aeaeaciuo aei?ia oaaee/eeanue ii/oe ia 9 oun. ei e aeinoeaea a 1960 a.
125,8 oun. ei. Auee i?iaaaeaiu ?aaiou ii oaaee/aieth i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe aeaeaciuo aei?ia, iniaaiii a ?aeiiao O?aea, Neae?e,
Iiaieaeuey e Oeaio?a; yeaeo?eoeoee?iaaii 10,7 oun. ei iooae — a o?e n
eeoiei ?aca aieueoa, /ai ca ana i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu. A 1960 a. aieaa 43%
anao ia?aaicie ia aeaeaciuo aei?iaao inouanoaeyeinue n iiiiuueth
yeaeo?iaicia e oaieiaicia. N 1957 a. a NNN? i?ae?auaii i?iecaiaenoai
ia?iaicia. A?ociiai?io aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa au?in a 2,5 ?aca.
Iiauie noaeaie iiiieieeenue ii?neie e ?a/iie o?ainii?o. Ia ?aeao no?aiu
iiyaeeenue iiaiai oeia iannaaee?neea noaeia oaieioiaeu «?aeaoa» ia
iiaeaiaeiuo e?ueueyo. A 1959 a. anooiee a yenieoaoaoeeth ia?aue a ie?a
aoiiiue eaaeieie «Eaiei», i?ecaaiiue oeo/oeoue iaaeaaoeeth ii Aaeeeiio
Naaa?iiio ii?neiio iooe. Aieueoia ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea eiaei
nii?oaeaiea Aieai-Aeiineiai eaiaea ei. A. E. Eaieia, ii eioi?iio eaoii
1952 a. ioe?ueinue ?aaoey?iia a?ociaia e iannaaee?neia aeaeaeaiea.
(Eaiae ia/aee no?ieoue aua aei Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu. A aiaeu
aieiu ?aaioa auea i?a?aaia e aiciaiiaeeanue a 1947 a.). No?aia iieo/eea
aiaeiue iooue, niaaeeieaoee a aaeeioth aiaeii-o?ainii?oioth nenoaio
iyoue ii?ae: Aaeia, Aaeoeeneia, Eanieeneia, *a?iia e Acianeia.
A?ociiai?io ii?neiai o?ainii?oa oaaee/eeny a 3,3 ?aca, ?a/iiai — aieaa
/ai a aeaa ?aca. Oe?ieee ?aciao iieo/eei no?ieoaeuenoai iaaeno?aeueiiai
o?oaii?iaiaeiiai o?ainii?oa: i?ioyaeaiiinoue iaooa- e
iaooai?iaeoeoii?iaiaeia e aacii?iaiaeia au?inea ca 10 eao a 5 ?ac e
aeinoeaea a 1960 a. aieaa 38 oun. ei.

A ia?eiae “iooaiaee” aieueoiai oniaoa aeinoeaea einie/aneay io?aneue. A
1957 a. aue caiouai niaaoneee eneonnoaaiiue niooiee Caiee, a a 1961 a.
ia niaaoneie ?aeaoa ioi?aaeeny a einiin ia?aue /aeiaae – TH. A. Aaaa?ei.
Oniaoii ?acaeaaeenue yaea?iay oeceea, auee “?aaaeeeoe?iaaiu”
iee?iaeieiaey e eeaa?iaoeea. Iaeiaei aei eiioea aiciiaeiinoe IO? ia auee
eniieueciaaiu. [6, n.552]

E?ecen niaaoneiai no?iy, eioi?ue noae /oanoaiaaoueny ai a?aiy iicaeiaai
noaeeiecia oi anoue ia eceiia 40—50-o aiaeia, a eaeie-oi noaiaie aue
i?einoaiiaeai ?aoi?iaie A. O?ouaaa. Iaeioi?ay iiaea?iecaoeey niaaoneiai
no?iy aeaea aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue ii?aaeaeaiiua iiceoeaiua ?acoeueoaou
a ?aeaoii-einie/aneie aiiea n NOA, ?acaeoee iaoee e eoeueoo?u, iiaeuaia
ia?iaeiiai aeaaininoiyiey. Iaeiaei ie iaeia ec ?aoi?i I. O?ouaaa ia
caoiaeeea oae aeaeaei, /oiau i?aia?aciaaoue aioo?aiithth nouiinoue
niaaoneiai iieeoe/aneiai no?iy e niioaaonoaothuae aio aee?aeoeaiie
yeiiiieee. Oa ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua ia?ooaee aioo?aiithth oeaeinoiinoue
oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu, i?aaiieee I O?ouaaa oi?acaeieee. Iieeoe/aneia e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Niaaoneiai Nithca i?ienoiaeeei iiae
ciaeii ianooieaiey noaeeienoia, oi anoue oao iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae,
eioi?ua n/eoaee ethaua ?aoi?iu a?aaeiuie.

Iiao/ay i?iiaaaiaeenoneay iaoeia oaaaeaeaea niaaoneeo ethaeae a oii, /oi
ana, iie, oi?ioi, no?aia ?acaeaaaony ca ieaiaie, ooaa?aeaeaiiuie ia
ia?oeeiuo nuacaeao, eiathony ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe ?inoa, iaeiaei eo
iiaeii i?aiaeieaoue. Iaeiaei iiae iiaa?oiinoueth ioiineoaeueii
noaaeeueiie e niieieiie aeecie ao?eeee ?ac?ooeoaeueiua i?ioeannu.
Iieacaoaee eiee/anoaaiiiai ?inoa yeiiiieee iinoaiaiii, ii iaioa?aoeii
nai?a/eaaeenue Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea iaaeaeo
i?aaeaieai I. O?ouaaa e I Ai?aa/iaa ioaeeoeenou i?eiaieee oa?iei
«canoie», eioi?ue oi/ii ia?aaeaao iniiaioth /a?oo a?aiaie E. A?aaeiaaa:
iaeia ca ae?oaie i?ioiaeeee iyoeeaoee, ia inoaaaynue a iaiyoe ethaeae.
NNN? eiae i?aeiouanoaa, naycaiiua n iiaeeueiinoueth eiiaiaeiie
yeiiiieee. Ath iiaeii auei iaieioee?iaaoue, ia?aa?anuaay ?ano?nu a
ioaeiua io?anee oae auno?i, eae yoiai aeaeaee a E?aiea. Iauaa
iai?aaeaiea iaieioeyoeee auei iaeii — eieinnaeueiua ?ano?nu
ia?aiauaeenue ec noa?u iio?aaeaiey a noa?o iai?iaeoeoeaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiaaaeiua ?aeyoeee ioiineoaeueii auiieiaiey iyoeeaoieo
ieaiia ia caeeth/aee a naaa naiie nouanoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee:
iaoa?eaeueiua e /aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu iai?aaeyeenue ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee, ia ioaeiie aeaaea aiaiiui, — ?aeao, oaieia, iooae,
aiai?eiania e oiio iiaeiaiia. Oaeouaa i?iecaiaenoai ?aaioaei ia neeaae.
Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeaoii-yaea?iiai iioaioeeaea ecia?yeanue niiniaiinoueth
oie/oiaeeoue i?aaeiieaaaaiiai i?ioeaieea — nia/aea iaeei ?ac, iioii
aeaa, iyoue, aeanyoue… Eiaaea e yoe iieacaoaee auee aeinoeaioou,
i?iecaiaenoai ?aeao e aiia ia i?ae?aoeeinue.

Yeiiiie/anee iayooaeoeaiia oicyenoai eiiaiaeiiai oeia ia iiaei
eiieo?e?iaaoue n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Iineaaeiyy anaaaea iaoeaeaia ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey, oioy n aioiaiinoueth auiieiyao
ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaiiua caeacu, eioi?ua oi?ioi iiea/eaathony. A
?acoeueoaoa iaee/ey ian?aaiaiii aieueoaai, /ai a NNN?,
iauayeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu IAOI i?aeoe/anee ia no?aaeaee io
ioai?a/eaaiey ?ano?nia ec noa?u iai?iaeoeoeaiiai iaa?iiiaeaeaiey. A oi
aea a?aiy a ?anioaeeeao NNN? e no?aiao niaaoneiai aeiea eieinnaeueiue
aiaiiue athaeaeao ?ac?ooeoaeueii aeaenoaiaae ia ia?iaeiia oicyenoai.
Iaaiciiaeiinoue iiauoaiey aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey a ?acoeueoaoa
aaneiia/iie aiiee aii?oaeaiee caino?yea iieeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth.
Yeiiiieea eiiaiaeiiai oeia auea ia?a/aia inoaaaoueny ?anoiaeiie,
yenoaineaiie, e??aoeeiiaeueiie. ?aoi?ia «iioea a ianie», a ia ieaeaoao
iiae ii?o?aoaie E. A?aaeiaaa ia/aoaee aeoaieiiuneaiiia auneacuaaiea aa
aeaaiiai iiaeeueueea: «Yeiiiieea aeieaeia auoue yeiiiiiie».

I?eaeaaiea yeaiaioia ?uiea eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieea auei i?eioeeieaeueii
iaaiciiaeiui. Iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea eee oiaiueoaiey
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, oi anoue ea/anoaaiiua oaeoi?u
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, ea?aee aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue. Niaaoneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ?acaeaaeanue i?aeiouanoaaiii yenoaineaiui iooai, ca n/ao
i?eaea/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiee/anoa nu?uey e ?aai/ae neeu, nicaeaiea
iiauo iiuiinoae. Eioaineaiui iooyi ?acaeoey i?aiyonoaiaaea
iaaini?eei/eainoue i?iecaiaenoaa e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiio i?ia?anno.
Iiaaeooth oaoieeo i?eoiaeeeinue «aiaae?youe» neeiauie n?aaenoaaie.
Ionoonoaea eiieo?aioeee i?eaiaeeei e noaaiaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iineieueeo aiciiaeiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?eaea/aiey a i?iecaiaenoai
nu?uey e ?aai/ae neeu iinoaiaiii en/a?iuaaeenue, oaiiu i?iiuoeaiiiai
?inoa nie?auaeenue.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iieeoeea niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa a yiioo ia?anoaiey
nenoaiiiai e?ecena a yeiiiieea NNN? e Oe?aeiu

Oaiaeaioeey iaaeaiey auea oa?aeoa?ia aeey anae niaaoneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
A Oe?aeia iaaeaiea oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa auei iniaaiii caiaoiui a
?acoeueoaoa oiaiueoaiey aa /anoe a iauanithciuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaieyo.
Ia/eiay n 70-o aiaeia aeey Ainieaia NNN? noaee i?ei?eoaoiuie ainoi/iua
?aaeiiu no?aiu. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyea yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea, a oii /enea
aoiiiay. Iiaua yeaeo?iyia?aaoe/aneea iiuiinoe nii?oaeaeenue a Oe?aeia n
?an/aoii ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae ninaaeieo no?ai NYA.

Ca 1970—1985 aa. aeiau/a aeaeaciie ?oaeu au?inea n 111 aei 120 iei. o,
i?iecaiaenoai i?ieaoa /a?iuo iaoaeeia — n 32,7 aei 37,7 iei. o,
yeaeo?iyia?aee — n 138 aei 272 ie?ae. eAo//. Oiaiueoeeanue aeiau/a oaey.
Aeiiaann aeaaae a aeaayoie iyoeeaoea ieiei 200 iei. o oaey a aiae, a
aeanyoie — 190 iei. o., a iaeeiiaaeoeaoie iaiaa eae 180 iei. o a aiae. N
eaaeaeie iyoeeaoeie naaanoieiinoue oaey ?inea. *oia aeiauoue oiieeai,
i?eoiaeeeinue aaiaeeoue a yenieoaoaoeeth oiieea neie eee eaeoe aeoaaea
iiae caieth. Iaaeinoaoi/iay oaoie/aneay iniauaiiinoue io?aaeaeanue ia
oieueei ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ii e ia oneiaeyo o?oaea oaooa?ia
Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee ?inea. Iai?ioea, oiiaeiioaea/a, oi anoue
i?iecaaaeaiiue iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae a ?an/aoa ia ?oaeue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia (caaeaenoaiaaiiua a i?iecaiaenoaa
iai?oaeiaaiea, nu?uea, oiieeai, iaoa?eaeu), iaoeeiiii nieaeaeanue.
Aii?aee i?ecuaai eiiia?oeeiuo eaeaieiaia niaaoneay yeiiiieea ia aeaeaea
auoue yeiiiiiie. Oaiiu ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee auee cia/eoaeueii ieaea, /ai oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue naea.
Ioaea/a eaaeaeiai ?oaey eniieueciaaiiuo a naeueneii oicyenoaa Oe?aeiu
iniiaiuo e iai?ioiuo oiiaeia (oiiaeiioaea/a) oiaiueoeeanue a
iaeeiiaaeoeaoie iyoeeaoea ii n?aaiaieth n ainueiie (1965—1970 aa.) ii/oe
ia 60 i?ioeaioia. Eieoicu e niaoicu ia iiaee iaei?ieoue ai?iaeneiai
iio?aaeoaey, iaace?ay ia oi, /oi ainoaea?noai ?anoiaeiaaei ia ieo ana
aieueoa n?aaenoa. Oiaiueoaiea oiiaeiioaea/e iauyniyeinue
iayooaeoeaiinoueth naiie nenoaiu eieoiciiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ay auea
eeoaia ?aaeueiiai oicyeia.

A Niaaoneii Nithca auei iiiai ?acaiai?ia i iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
?aaiethoeee, iaeiaei iie ii/oe ia ?aaeeciaaeenue ia i?aeoeea.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii niaa?oaiiie oaoieeie, iieiinoueth caeoieaiiie ca
a?aieoeae, aeaaeaee i?aaei?eyoey aiaiiiai aaaeiinoaa e ioaeaeueiua
caaiaeu e oaa?eee. Iaaeaeo oai ianooaau i?iecaiaenoaa ?inee, i?aaeaea
anaai, a aeiauaathueo io?aneyo. ?ino ianooaaia eniieueciaaiey
ianiaa?oaiiie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee i?eaiaeeei e oooaeoaieth
yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee. Yoi iniaaiii ino?i /oanoaiaaeinue a Oe?aeia.

?anioaeeea auea ia?aa?oaeaia i?aaei?eyoeyie oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
iniaaiii ii aeiau/a oaey e ?oae, auieaaea /a?iuo iaoaeeia. Iie
?acaeaaeenue i?aeoe/anee iai?a?uaii, ca eneeth/aieai aiaiiuo ia?eiaeia,
n aei?aaiethoeeiiiuo a?aiai. A 80-o aiaeao oa??eoi?ey Oe?aeiu
caa?yciyeanue iooiaeaie ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaiai eiiieaena a 10 ?ac
eioaineaiaa, /ai NNN? a oeaeii. Aaeaaiaeiia ecuyoea ec iaae? aieaa /ai 1
ie?ae. o iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo nii?iaiaeaeaeinue auiinii ia iiaa?oiinoue
2,5 ie?ae. o ai?iuo ii?iae.

A naeueneii oicyenoaa yeaeo?eoeeaoeey, oeiecaoeey, iaeei?aoeey e
iaoaiecaoeey auee iauyaeaiu iaaeno?aeueiuie iai?aaeaieyie ?acaeoey.
Iaeiaei oaoiie?aoe/aneee iiaeoiae e i?iecaiaenoao ia nianae iieiaeaiey.
Aacioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?oeeiuo e niaaoneeo einoaioeee, eioi?ua i?eieiaee
?aoaiea, oa yeiiiie/aneay iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoue io/oaeaeaiiuo io
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?eaiaeeee e
oyaeaeui iineaaenoaeyi. Naiay ieiaei?iaeiay a ie?a iieina
i?eaeiai?ianeeo iieiaiiuo /a?iicaiia i?aa?aoeeanue a aeii eneonnoaaiiuo
ii?ae. Iaeei?e?oaiua ii/au nieiieeenue eee caaiea/eaaeenue. Ianuuaiiua
oeieeaoaie naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou noaiiaeeenue iianiuie aeey
caei?iauey.

Ia eiay aiciiaeiinoe aeiaeoueny io eieoicia aunieie o?iaeaeiinoe,
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu ianoaeaaee ia iinoiyiiii ?anoe?aiee iinaaiuo
ieiuaaeae. Noaiaiue ?aniaoaiiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee
aeinoeaea a Oe?aeia 80 i?ioeaioia ii n?aaiaieth n 25 a NOA. Ecauoi/iay
?aniaoaiiinoue i?eaiaeeea e aeoeaecaoeee y?iceeiuo i?ioeannia.
Aaeaaiaeii oa?yeinue ieiei 0,5 ie?ae. o ieiaei?iaeiuo a?oioia. Aiiaua
/a?iicaiiua ii/au, eioi?uie anaaaea neaaeeanue Oe?aeia, ieacaeenue a
oaeaniii ninoiyiee.

Yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey eaoano?ioe/anee oooaeoeeanue iinea ac?uaa a
ai?aea 1986 a. /aoaa?oiai yia?aiaeiea ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN. I?e/eiaie
yoie iaeaieueoae a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa oaoiiaaiiie eaoano?iou auee
aiciooeoaeueii ieceia ea/anoai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ecaioiaeaiey e
ianeoaeeaaiey oaoieee. Ia?yaeo n i?eaueueth, niaieoiiinoue eioi?ie a
ianooaaao anaai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ninoaaeyea iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae,
a i?eaueueioth /anoue athaeaeaoa iiaea eneonnoaaiii aeeth/aoueny /anoue
?anoiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa (naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee), a eiaiii
aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, eioi?ua i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey iieiiai
ainnicaeaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. N?aaenoaa aii?oecaoeee iaeaieeaaee
a aaieao, /oiau ni a?aiaiai eoieoue ia ieo iiaoth oaoieeo e ecuyoue ec
yenieoaoaoeee n?aaioaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea. Iaeiaei ainoaea?noai eae
aaeeinoaaiiue aeaaeaeaoe anao n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa eniieueciaaei yoo
/anoue aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ia iaycaoaeueii ii ianoo iacia/aiey.
Iii iiaei ia?aa?anuaaoue eo a ae?oaea io?anee eee eniieueciaaoue a
ae?oaeo oeaeyo. Ia?aaeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey iieueciaaeenue oieueei oie
/anoueth aii?oecaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ay auea ia eo n/aoao e
i?aaeiacia/aeanue aeey oaeouaai aini?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa,
oi anoue oece/anee eee ii?aeueii onoa?aaoay oaoieea iinoiyiii
aiciaiiaeyeanue iin?aaenoaii ?aiiioia e inoaaaeanue a i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi
iaaaoeaii io?aaeaeinue ia ea/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeyo.

Iiaeiaiay i?aeoeea i?eia?aea aieueoea ianooaau eiaiii n 70-o aiaeia.
Iai?eia?, n?aaenoaa aii?oecaoeee ia?aa?anuaaeenue nithciui aaaeiinoaii
ec iaia?niaeoeaiiai Aeiiaanna, aaea auea aunieay naaanoieiinoue
oaeaaeiau/e, a ia?niaeoeaiue Eocaann. A io?aneyo, aaea ianooaau iiaiai
eaieoaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa auee iaaieueoeie, iaiiaeaiea iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey ii/oe ia iaaethaeaeinue. A iniaaiiinoe ieceee oaoie/aneee
o?iaaiue aue naienoaaiai eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ua
oeiaine?iaaeenue ii inoaoi/iiio i?eioeeio. Ia naoa?iuo caaiaeao Oe?aeiu
eiiaaea ?aaioaee iaoeiu, ecaioiaeaiiua aua a XIX a. Oneiaey o?oaea
?aai/aai eeanna ii?aaeaeyeenue niaoeeoeeie io?anee. Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena e iiaino?ieeao oyaeaeie eiaeono?ee iie
auee eo/oa, a a oaoie/anee caiouaiiie noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia
ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey – iaiiiai ooaeoei.

A oeaeii ieiei 40 i?ioeaioia ?aai/eo a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ieiei 60
i?ioeaioia a no?ieoaeuenoaa ?aaioaee a?o/ioth. Ino?ue aeaoeoeeo ?aai/ae
neeu iia auoue niya/ai nie?auaieai /anoe ?o/iiai o?oaea. Iaeiaei
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey ii aieueoae /anoe iai?aaeyeenue a noa?o iiaiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa, eo ia oaaoaei ia auaaaeaiea ec yenieoaoaoeee onoa?aaoaai
iai?oaeiaaiey e iaoaiecaoeeth o?oaea. ?acaeoeth iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee a
Niaaoneii Nithca i?eaeaaaee, eae e ai a?aiaia A. O?ouaaa, aieueoia
cia/aiea. A ainoaea?noaaiiii athaeaeaoa ia ooiaeaiaioaeueioth e
i?eeeaaeioth iaoeo, a iniaaiiinoe naycaiioth n aiaiiuie iio?aaiinoyie,
auaeaeyeenue aeanyoee ieeeea?aeia ?oaeae. Iiyoiio iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
?aaiethoeey ia iaoiaeeea niaaoneea ?anioaeeee noi?iiie.

Iaeiaei i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee i?ienoiaeeei a
iaiiiai iaiueoeo ianooaaao, /ai a no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Anee ai
anai ie?a aeinoeaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee ana aieueoa e
aieueoa eciaiyee aeecie ethaeae, oi a NNN? iie caiaoii aeeyee oieueei ia
oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue io?aneae aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena. Ia?aaeei
?ac?aaioee niaaoneeo o/aiuo nia/aea eniieueciaaeenue a ca?oaaaeiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a caoai aica?auaeenue a NNN? a aeaea aunieiea/anoaaiiuo
i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia.

Iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey inouanoaeyeenue a aeaaeaie/aneeo o/?aaeaeaieyo,
o/?aaeaeaieyo aaaeiinoaaiiiai iiae/eiaiey e a ecaanoiie ia?a a aunoeo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo. A Oe?aeia aeaaioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee iaoee ea?aee
o/?aaeaeaiey AI ONN?. Iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee, iiae/eiaiiuo oi?aaeai/aneei
no?oeoo?ai AIE, auei iaiiiai. A ioee/ea io ?innee caeanue ia aicieeei
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa canae?a/aiiuo ai?iaeia — eiiieaena caaiaeia,
i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo i?aaiecaoeee, iiuoiuo i?iecaiaenoa e iao/iuo
einoeoooia n aeanyoeaie ouny/ ?aaioieeia a eaaeaeii. Iiyoiio Oe?aeia
ionoaaaea io ?innee ii eiee/anoao iao/iuo ?aaioieeia a ?an/aoa ia 1 oun.
/ae. ianaeaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy i?ienoiaeee onei?aiiue ?ino /eneaiiinoe iao/iuo eaae?ia:
a ia/aea 80-o aiaeia iia i?aauneea a ?anioaeeea 200 oun. eeoe.

A io?aneyo iaoee, eioi?ua ia ioaeaeaeenue a oieeaeueiii oaoie/aneii
iniauaiee, yooaeoeaiinoue enneaaeiaaiee auea aunieie. Oai, aaea
aeinoeaeaiea iao/iuo ?acoeueoaoia naycuaaeinue n eniieueciaaieai
yenia?eiaioaeueiie aacu oieeaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee, iieiaeaiea auei
iaiiiai aieaa neiaeiui. Einoeooou, eioi?ua iiaee eniieueciaaoue
n?aaenoaa AIE, ia eiaee oeiainiauo i?aiyonoaee aeey ?acaeoey naiae
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu. Iaeiaei naiiai iaee/ey n?aaenoa auei
iaeiaaoi. Iai?oaeiaaiea aeey iao/iuo oeaeae ie?iaiai eeanna niaaoneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ii aieueoae /anoe i?iecaiaeeoue ia iiaea, a eiii?o aai
aue cao?oaeiai. Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?aaiu IAOI aea?aeaee iiae no?iaei
eiio?ieai iaaeaeoia?iaeioth oi?aiaeth naiuie niaa?oaiiuie ia?acoeaie
oaoieee e iai?oaeiaaiey, cai?auay eo caeoieo no?aiaie niaaoneiai aeiea.

E ia/aeo 60-o aiaeia a NNN? ia nouanoaiaaei oi?aaeai/aneiai i?aaia,
eioi?ue au ioaa/ae ca aeayoaeueiinoue iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee ?aciuo nenoai
iiae/eiaiey. A 1961 a. oaeie i?aai iiyaeeny — Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao
ii eii?aeeiaoeee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio. A 1965 a. aai
iaaeaeeee aieueoeie i?aaaie e ia?aeiaiiaaee ia Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao
ii iaoea e oaoieea. Ii nouanoao, auei oeaio?aeeciaaii oi?aaeaiea anae
iaoeie, a /anoiinoe aeaaeaie/aneie.

A Oe?aeia aicieeee oaeaea ?aaeiiaeueiua oeaio?u oi?aaeaiey iaoeie. A
1965 a. auei nicaeaiiue Aeiiaoeeee iao/iue oeaio? a ninoaaa /aou?ao
o/?aaeaeaiee AI ONN? e Aeiiaoeeiai oieaa?neoaoa. A 1971 a. aicieeea
oeaeay naoue oeaio?ia: Naaa?i-ainoi/iue (Oa?ueeia), I?eaeiai?ianeee
(Aeiai?iiao?iane), THaeiue (Iaeanna) e Caiaaeiue (Eueaia). *a?ac
aeanyoue eao auei ia?aciaai Naaa?i-caiaaeiue oeaio?, eioi?ue iauaaeeiee
iao/iua o/?aaeaeaiey e aieueoea aocu oanoe iaeanoae. Nicaeaiea iao/iuo
oeaio?ia aeaaii?eyonoaiaaei ?inoo iioaioeeaea iaoee aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee e i?eaioaoeee aa ia ?aoaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?iaeai. A 60—70-o
aiaeao iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey inouanoaeyee iieoi?u nioie aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee, 90 i?ioeaioia ?aaio auiieiyeinue ii oic?an/aoiui aeiaiai?ai
yoeo caaaaeaiee e i?aaei?eyoee.

AI ONN? i?aa?aoeeinue a eieinnaeueioth iao/ioth no?oeoo?o, n?aaieioth ca
naiei iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneei iioaioeeaeii e /eneaiiinoueth iao/iuo
?aaioieeia n iaeaieueoeie aeaaeaieyie ie?a. *eneaiiinoue iao/iuo
?aaioieeia a AI ONN? au?inea n 4,4 oun. a 1961?. aei 15,3 oun. a 1985
a., oi anoue a 3,5 ?aca. Eiee/anoai aeieoi?ia e eaiaeeaeaoia iaoe n?aaee
ieo oaaee/eeinue ca yoi a?aiy a 5,5 ?aca. A Oe?aeia aiaeu «canoiy»
iaicia/aiu aeeiaie/aneei ?acaeoeai iiauo aeaaeaie/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee. Ca
aeaa aeanyoeeaoey auei nicaeaiiue oanoue ec aeaayoe eiathueony a 1985 a.
einoeoooia ioaeaeaiey iaoaiaoeee, iaoaieee e eeaa?iaoeee, iyoue ec
aeanyoe einoeoooia ioaeaeaiey oeceee e ano?iiiiee; naiue ec aeaayoe
einoeoooia ioaeaeaiey iaoe i caiea, o?e ec oanoe einoeoooia ioaeaeaiey
oeceei-oaoie/aneeo i?iaeai yia?aaoeee.

Aieueooth iao/ioth ?aaioo inouanoaeyee 25 einoeoooia aa?a?iiai i?ioeey,
eioi?ua aoiaeeee a nenoaio Ananithciie aeaaeaiee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
iaoe. Naiua aaniiua aeinoeaeaiey eiae eieeaeoea Ie?iiianeiai einoeoooa
naeaeoeee e naiaiiaiaenoaa ioaieoeu iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aeaaeaieea A.
?aianea. Auaaaeaiiuie a Ie?iiiaea ni?oaie canaaaeinue ieiei 8 iei. aa
caiee.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo eicoiaia a?aiaie ia?ano?ieee auei «onei?aiea». Oea
?a/ue ia onei?aiee oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. A naiii cao/aiee
neiaa «onei?aiea» /oanoaiaaeny iioeieci. Iie, ?acaeaaainy a oeaeii
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii, ii ioaeii acyoue aieaa auno?ua oaiiu.

*oia onei?eoue oaiiu, i?aaeeaaaeinue aeoeaii aaiaeeoue a i?iecaiaenoai
nia?aiaiioth oaoieeo e aunieii?iaeoeoeaiua oaoiieiaee. A ethia 1985 a. a
Iineaa auei nicaaii Ananithciia niaauaiea ii aii?inai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Ia yoo a?aiaeeicioth i?aaiecaoeeiiioth
caoath auee iio?a/aiu ieeeeiiu ?oaeae e nioie /ania o?oaea
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?aciuo o?iaiae, ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ia auoee ca i?aaeaeu
iiaeaeaiee iaiiaeiaea aieueoa, eo/oa, aeoeaiaa. I?aaiecaoi?u e o/anoieee
niaauaiey auee aeoaiei oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi ana i?iaeaiu iiaeii
?ac?aoeoue, aiaeee?oy e aeoeaiinoe e noa?aoaeueiinoe ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe.

Iinea niaauaiey i?ioae ieaioi OeE Eiiia?oee Oe?aeiu, iinayuaiiue
ia?ii?eyoeyi ii onei?aieth iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Aai ?aoaiey
aeoaee?iaaee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee Ananithciiai niaauaiey. A iiya?a 1985 a. a
Eeaaa i?aaieciaaee Ananithciue naieia? ii eco/aieth iiuoa ?aaiou,
eioi?ay inouanoaeyeanue a Oe?aeia a io?anee ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey.
I?aaei?eyoey e io?anee, eioi?ua ionoaaaee ii iieacaoaeyi io n?aaeiaai
o?iaiy, auee iiaeaa?aioou «eiino?oeoeaiie i?eioeeieaeueiie e?eoeea».
O?oaeiaua eieeaeoeau, eioi?ua eiaee iieacaoaee auoa n?aaeieo, i?eaeaeee
e naaa iauaa aieiaiea. Ethauo niiinoaaeaiee yoeo «iayeia» n iieacaoaeyie
i?eaueueiuo ca?oaaaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua ?aaioaee a oneiaeyo
naiaiaeiiai ?uiea, ieeoi e ia niae?aeny aeaeaoue. *aou?a aeanyoeeaoey
i?aeoe/anee iai?a?uaiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee a ia?aaeiauo
no?aiao ie?a naeaeaee eo i?iecaiaenoai ianiiinoaaeiui n niaaoneei.
«Iayee», eae i?aaeei, eniieueciaaee eiii?oiia iai?oaeiaaiea. Iaeiaei
eoieaiiay oaoieea anaaaea auea aeey no?aiu-iieoiaoaey, a eioi?oth
i?aa?aoeeny Niaaoneee Nithc, oaoieeie a/a?aoiaai aeiy. [7 , n.802]

Oaeei ia?acii, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea /aeiaa/aneeo
?ano?nia, iaoa?eaeueiuo e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, aeinoeaeaiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna i?eaaei e nenoaiiiio yeiiiie/aneiio
e?eceno e ?aniaaeo NNN?.

Caeeth/aiea

Ca 70 eao nouanoaiaaiey niaaoneie aeanoe neiaeeeenue ainoaea?noaaiiua
oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey e nianoaaiiinoe. Iie ii?iaeaeaee o?iie/aneee
aeaoeoeeo, aeaoi?iaoeeth ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, iaaunieoth aeoeaiinoue
ethaeae, ianneaiinoue e yooaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?acaeoeth
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e oeeaeeeciaaiiie eiieo?aioeee. 95% i?aaei?eyoee
auee iiae/eiaiu Iineaa. Oeaio? niciaoaeueii ianaaeaeae i?ei?eoaoiia
?acaeoea i?aaei?eyoee a?oiiu A (aeiau/ioth, ia?a?aaaouaathuoth, aiaiioth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa). Oieueei 28%
ninoaaeyee i?aaei?eyoey a?oiiu A. Oaeie iaiiuiie, aeaoi?ie?iaaiiie a
oicyenoaaiiii ioiioaiee auea yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu a na?aaeeia 1991a., oi
anoue a iiiaio i?iaicaeaoaiey iacaaeneiinoe.

A oneiaeyo nouanoaiaaiey aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiiai oi?aaeaiey
yeiiiieeie ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaiaiiuo eao, ianiio?y ia ?acaeoea iaoee e
oaoieee yeiiiieea ia?iiiie no?aiu i?eoea a oiaaeie aeaaiaea?y
iayooaeoeaiui iaoiaeai oicyenoaiaaiey.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Anaie?iay enoi?ey: Iiae ?aae. – O.A. Iieyea, A.I. Ia?eiaie. — I.:
Eoeueoo?a e nii?o, THIEOE, 1999 – 496n

2. Anaie?iay enoi?ey. /A. I. Ianyiieeia, O. A. ssiiieueneay -X.: *I
E?oaeia, 1997 a. – 208 n.

3. Eaiiaee A.Ae., Iaoaeei ?.I., Iaoenyeaae/ C.I. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. E.:
Ciaiiy, 2000. – 574n.

4. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. I?ae ?aae. A.A.Niie?y. E.: Aeueoa?iaoeae, 1997. –
416n.

5. Aieei I.Ae. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. E.: Aeaaeaiaeaeaa, 2004. – 656n.

6. Aa?o Enoi?ey NNN?: Niaaoneee ia?eiae: — I.: Auno. oe., 1987.— 704n.

7. Iia?oiy ?noi??y Oe?a?ie (1900-2000) / Nethna?aiei A.A., Aon?a A.?.,
Eeoaei A.I. oa ?i. – E.6 A.o.,2002

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