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O??? A??? I???

(19.04.1686 – 15.07.1750)

I??????e ?????? ??e a ???e, ???o, ???????e ?y??. I??? a I??a E????th e
A????e?oth ??o. O????e a N???e ??a (1700-1721), ???ye ????a ???-???????a
????ey ??y I?? I. A 1720-1722 e 1734-1939 ??o ???yth?e ????e ???? ? O??,
????e I?????e y????e, ????? A??????, I????, I??. A 1741 – 1745 ??o –
?????? ?????.

O??? ????? ??oth ???th ???a?th ?????? ?????, ??y a ???e ??? ??? “????
???” e N???? 1550 ?? n ?ae??? ??????, ???e ??? ???eth a ???e y????e,
???????ey. N??e ???th?e ?? ? ??????e ???e, ?i???e ? ??? ??????? ???o e
?????o ????? -“E??eth ?????th n ??o ????? ???”, ???? ??? ???e y????????
???ue.

A??? a ???e ??????e O??? ??? ???o ?y?? ??????? a ???? ????, ????? ???u
??????y ???????e ???. Ii ???? ?e ?????o, ?y??th?e ?????? ???n n ????i
“??????ey”. Ec ?? ?? ???????ai ????y ?y ???e O??? y?? ?????? ???e
?????eth. O??? ???a a ??????e ??????e ?e ??th ?????eth ???e ???e: ?????
?????ey (862-1132), ????a ?????ey (1132-1462), ??????? ?????ey (n 1462).

I??? A??ae O??? (O?? Ea???)

(18 .09. 1705— 11.10. 1783)

?????e ???e, ????? E?????? I?????? A???e ??. ???ny a ????i – ??? ??a. A?
?? ?e ???? ????, ?? — ? ??e ????? ???? A???a. Ii ????e ???? a 1722 I???
???? a ?????o ?????, a a 1724-25 ???ny o ????? ???? e ???? E. A. I?? a
E????? ??????, ?a ???e ???ue ????a. I??i ?a ??? ? ??ye ?????a i ??? a
I?????? A???e ?? e a ?y?a 1725 ??? a ???th.

I?????? ????? a ??????e ????, ?e ????? ??????? ??????y E. Ae. O???a e
???i?e a ?????e ??? e ????? A???e ??. I??? ???e ????? e
???th«N??-I?????? a????»— «I?y?? ??????, ???????a e ??????? ????ey a
A???oy?, y???ny ??? ???i ?????? e ???-??ey?? ????. A 1730 I??? ?e ???
?????i A??i?. A 1732 ? ???e ??? ???e ?????? ??? — Sammlung Russischer
Geschichte, ?a ???a (? ???? y??) ?? ?????? ???e ? I???? ???? ????. AE??e
? ??? ?? ?ae ????i ????? ??? ? ???e ???e ?y ?????? A??u. O?? ? I??? ????
e i????? ?? ???ey e ???y ????o ?????? ????? ? ???e ???e.

A 1733 a ???a ??????? ??y? Aa??e E????e y????e I??? ????ny a N??ue, ?a a
???a ?ny? ?o ??? ????u ???o ???a, ???e ???????, y??????? e ???????a ???
? ???e N??e. Ii ??? ????th ???ue?o ?????? ????? 16-17 ?.. I??? ????i ???
???iy???o ???o ??o, n???e ???e y??a ???o ???a, a ?????? ?a?e ???e y?e.

Ii ?????e a 1743 a I???? I??? ????e e ????a ????o ????? e ????th ????
??a ??e ??e – ?????e «E??? N???. I????? ? ????y ?????? e ???e ??ueth
«E???a i ??? ?????. A 1744 ? ???? n ???? ???ey ?e A???e ?? E??????
?????? e ????? ????o ???ey ???e ???e. A 1747 ??e ???? ???ny a ???e, ??ye
??e??a ????? e ???e ????ue ??????

A 1754 I??? ?????y ????oe – ????? A???e ??, a a 1755 ?o ?? ???? ???????
??????? ???a «Aae??y?? ????y».

I??? ?? ?????? ??ae a ??e?a ??????? ??????y: ? ?? ?c???? ???? ??????? e
???ey ???? ?????, ? y??y ?????ai ???i ????y ???o ???????? ????? , ?e???e
???e ????? ??? (? ???y?? ?? ?? ? ????o ???o ??a?e I??u). Ei ?? ???? ??a
«E???a i ??y?o ????e?, ????? ?????? ???? ???a I????e ????. A??? ????y
I??? e ?????? ?y????ueth.

A??i E?i I???

(01 .01.1735 – 06. 10.1792)

???? ???e, ???????e ?y??. ???ny a ??y??e ??a. A 16 ?o A??i ?e ???? ?y??i
a ???????? ??; a 1768 a. ??e a ???? n ??i ???e-??? e ??? ?e ????i ?????
???e a A????a; ??c 10 ?o ?e ????i a I????, a ???th ????oth ???y?th, a ?
aa ????, a 1780 a., ???? a ???th e???th, ???a ?????, a ??i ??? ????;
A??i ??i ?ae? ? ???e e ??? ?????y n ????? ????e ????i ??. Ii ??? ????e
??n ???? i ???e ???a ? ???nyi, ???? e ???? e ?? a??? ????yi. ?????u ??o
?????? A??i ???? ???a ???? a ??a ????-???????i ???y, ???e, ?e ????? ??a,
???ny ? ?a ???iy???o: ????? ????-??????? ???ue e ???? ??y?-???e. E ?o e
??? ????, ???, ? ??????. O? ? ??a ??? ? ?????th n???y ????a ?y A???
????? ?????e e ?? ???? ????. I??? ???? A??? ??????? ? ??? ????? n ??????
?????e, a ?i ??a n ???e A.I. O???a e ?????o ??????e.

O A??? ??ue ???a ??????a. Ii ??????i ??y?i ? ??? ??o e ??????yi ?????
??????i ?????y ?????? ??e, ?????? a ??i ????a e A??o. E ?y A???
??i????ue ?????? y??? ?? ?????y ?ay, ???e ?????y ?????ia ??????. E???
???, ? ?i ?a?th, ???? “??iy????, ??? ?y ??????e ?y? e ?uy??ey ???????
?o?”; ?????e ????u ??? ?e ???e, ?? ?e ??? e ?y??eth ????????? y???; a
????i ??? y? ??o “??? ????u”. I???i o?? “????????? ??e” A??i ???o ????th
?y?, ?e ?a ?iy?y?ny a ??a ?????y ????? ???e ? ??a?a.

I?? ?e ?????? ???? y?yth?y ?y A??? ?????i, ? ???i ??e?y ???????e ??y?e:
??th??? a ???e ???? “a ???o” ????yo “? i?a ??? a ???”. A ?nth? ???o e
?????? ??ae: “O??? ??? ?i???ue ???, ??? ??u ???i; i???? ?c ???y ???ue ?
??i”. Yoe ??????a ??y? A??i ???y? e ?uy??eth ???? ??????i ????. ???y “?
a ?i ? ???” ? ??? ?????a ?????a, ??? ?i ???i ???/? ? “????? ??????ey” e
??? ??a ???ny ?ae ? ???e. ???oth ???th A??i ???? n “??a??y ?th??”, ???e
“??e ??? e ???eth” ??? e ??yi. I??o ????? ?th??a Ai??o e ????ey?ny “y??e
c??ey ???? ???”, ?i y? ???a, ??????ny ??? ??? ?????, ????? ??c ???? ??e
??ae.

A??i ???? n ???? ????? ?i?e, e ??? ??? ??th??y ? ???e ????? ????e: ??eye
a ??? ??? ??y ????i ????y, a ???e ????? ???? ??? ???eth n ?????i ??????,
???a ???? ??? i ??????e ?????i ??a a ???e. A??i ?????? ???e ?????? ???n
?e ???n, ???y?? ????, ??? ?y ?? ???a. A i??a ??e ???a ??? ?????u n “????
???e”, a ?o?oth ?? ?a?? ?? ??????? ????y “? ???eth ??? e ??????. ????a a
???, ????a ???? ??????i, ???y? ?? ???? e ?e ????ny ??i ???? ??????i
?????y ??e, y???ue ??y???i e ????a?th ???i ???????? ??y?a ?e E?? III e
Aa??e III.

A??i ?????o ?yae ????? ???ae?? ? ????? ???e ???e, i????, ? ???e ???y??a
e ??y??a, ? ???o i ????a; ? y? ???a ???? ?a ?i ???? ?????? n??.
Oe?????th e ??????ueth ??y?a ? ???th ???th A??i ??? ?????o e ?????o ?o,
e ??? ?????o ? ?i ????a. A??i ?e ??? ??? n ??????y? ????i ??a??ey (????,
n A????, I????, I??a, ???, A??i e ???e), ? ?e y?i ? ???e ???a ??e ?y?
??iy?ai n ??? ???? e ?? ??? ?a??a ????ue?e ????????. Ii ?i ????th, ??ue
????? ?? ??u, e ? ?? ???, – ??a ? ???i ??ue “????? ? ?ay”; ? ?a ?? ??a
??????, – e A??i ? ??? ??, ??u ???a ?????? “??ey e ????a” o ???? ??ae?.

A??i, ?i ??a ????ey e ???e??y ???e ???e ??e ??????a ?a??a ?y ???e ??????
??e. A ???e ???????ey A??i ??i ??????e ??? ???, ??????y e ?????? ???a
?????.

U???a I?a? I????/

(1733 – 1790)

???ny a ?y??? ??a a 1733 a. I??????a ?????a ???e ??. N 1750 a. ??? a
??-???e N????? ??o, ? ??a ????a 18 ???y 1762 a. ??e a ????.

Ia ?????e ???, ?? ? ??i ????, U???a ?? ??oth ?????ue ??? ?????ny n ?????
???e. A 1767 a. ?, a ???? ???? ? y???n?? ??y??a, ????ae a ???? ?y ?????y
??? ???ey, ?a ??ue ?y? ????e ?o??u ??y??a e ??e ??? ??eny n ?????-?????i
??????.

I???? ??? U???a ?? ????ny ???e ????, ?ae ?ey?? Ie??a. A 1767 a. U???? ?e
??? ??? a ????oth e o?????n?th ?????, ?a ?? ???u ??? ????e, ????ua ? ??o
I?? I ? ??? ?????. Ia ????e 12 ???a, ?y?o i??a, e 7 ?????o U???a ?y?y ?
?????a ???e. E 1769 a. ? ???e 2 ??? ??. O?? ? ????ny ????y ?????ay
?y????ue U????. Ii ????: a 1769 a., ? ??? ????? ??e??e, “Oe????oth ??o”;
a 1770 a., ii ????th A???? II – “E??eth ???? ??u”, ???????i ?????oth
I??i A???; a 1771 a. – “E???ue i ??? iy??o”, a 1772 a. – “Oe?????
????oe”. A 1770 a. ? ??/? ????? ?????ny ?????e ????i? ??? ?in???e ????,
?a ????ue ???? e ????? ???u ?y?e n ???? XIII ?? e ?iy??e ??i????? ???? n
????e ???? XV ?ea. Y???? ??y??ue ? ????? y?o ???, U???a a 1772 a. ???e
III, a a 1774 a. – e IV ?i ??e ???.

A 1776 – 1777 ?. ? ???ey? ??????th ???o ? ?????, ???y ? a ???i ??? ??u
A???ey, ? ?? a ?u?a ????????ey. A? “N????a a ?????e ???e” ?eth?? 12 ???:
1) ??????, 2) ???u, 3) ????? (y?????? ???ea), 4) ?????? (????? ????y),
5) ??, 6) ????a, 7) ??, 8) ???, 9) ???eth, 10) ?????o, 11) ???? ???? e
12) ?????? e ???e ???e. A 1778 a. ? ???ny ?????i ???-???? e ?e ????
??????? a y????e ??????o ???a; a 1779 a. ?e ???? ????i.

Aei ??e ??e ??? U???a ????e ??????ny ??????e, ?????? e y??????e ????e,
???y ?? ??y? a ?y? ???. E??ey ?i ?? ?????ue ??ue ???.

U???a ?? a ??? ?????a ?a? e ??ue ??? ???, ?e ???e?? ??? I?????e ????
(XIII e XIV ??), A?????? ?? e ???. Ii ???e ????i ????y n ???ny?, ? n??y
????y ??? ???a a ???e ??o e ???ay ?? ??o ? ??? ?????, ? ???a ? ??e ???
???.

I?? ??a ???e ???e U???a i??n ????? e ???? ??a. A????y ?i ???e , ??a ????
??????? ???? ?????e, ?e: ????e, ?????e ????e ?y?e, ?iy???e ???????o ????
e ????? ???? ????a; ????a, ?e ???ue, y????ey ???e ? ????e e ???a ??
?????ue ???ey ??a ???? ???a ???e, ?a ????y ???? ????tho ?e ??? ????th?y.
I???, I??? e U???a ???, a ??ueth ?????e e ??ieth ??i ????i ????a, ????
??? I?? A???i. I????e ? ????e e ??a ???? U???a ?y??? ??????e, ? ?i ?????
???i ?? – ??i??????e ?e ????????e – ??????????: ???i ???e y?y?ny ????.
I???? ??e ????e ? ?uy?y? ????? ?????th ???o, ???e ???e ?????? ?o. N???i
? ??i ????e?? U???a ? ???? a ???e ??i??? ????i e ????y ???i e ???e. Ii
??y? ? ????? i??a ???e ???e e ? ??e ?ae ? U???a ??o ??a ??i e O???.

Oe?ue ?????y ??e ???e ? ??o a ??? ????? ?????e ?o ????, ? ?? ???o ?
???th n ?a????e ??e ??ey, ?oy a ??? ??a, ??a?ay? ? TH?, ???o ? n?????i
??y? ? ???th, ?e ??o, ??iy?thny ???ue ???, ???yth?a ??ueth ??????.
U???a- ????? ???? ?i?y??a. A? ?????? e ????? ??yaeu ???? ?? ? ?e y??.

??????? ?? ???? ???th ??? ? U????. I???i ????? ??y? ?i ? ???th : ???y,
?e e i?????, ??? ?? ??? ?????e, ???ue ????th ??y?a, ??? e ?????y, ???
?y??????ey? y?yth?y ?? ???e.Ae??? ?ia?e, U???a ? i???o ?????? ???e
eth?e.

E???i I??? I????/

(1.12.1766 – 22.05.1826)

???? ???e, ????, i????. ???ny a n. I??e??, ?? A?????i ??? I?????e ???e a
??a ???? N????e ????. I??? ???? ?????a, ??i ??ny a I?e? a ???i ???? O??y
(? 1782 a.); i??? ??a ??? a I????i ??????.

A 1782 a E???i ????ny a I???? e ????a ??y ??? a ?????i I??????i ??o. A?
????a ??y E???i ???e ?iy?yi ?????e.

I?????? e ?????? ??y? ????a??ue ?ae ?ey?? ????e y?? I????ey e ?????
????????? ????e ????????. A 1789 ?? ???? ?????a ? C???e A??a. A????ue a
???th ???e “I????e ???” – ??? ??? ??e a y??a 1791 a. 

Aei Ea???a a ???i ???? ??????? ?? ????a, ?i ??e ???y e ???th?y ?y ??o
“???” e ??? ????? ? ??? ?? ?e i?? ??a ??? e ???i. E???i ????y ? ??????i
????i ??y e ?? ?????ny ??i e ?????? y??i, ?????? e ?????e ??. E???i ???e
a ???a ????a ??? ? ????o ?????o ????o. Ii ? ?? ??i????? ????i? ???e.

A ??oth?o ???o ???a E???i ????e ????i ??o ??????e, a a eth??? ??? ????
???ue “A??y E?a”. Y? ????a ??i?? y??? ??? ????? ??????i ???? ???????a. 

A 1802 a. E???i ?? ????ue “A??? A??u”. I??i ?????????o e ???/??o ???
E???i ???e a ??i “A???a” ?????? ????y, ????y ec ???e ??e, ????a e
?????y, a ??a ?????ey ?y?? ?????e.

A ??? 1801 a. E???i ???y ? A???? E???a I????e. Ii ?a ? ??? ?ae, ??a
?ae??y ???, ?a ???. A 1804 a. E???i ???y ??? ?c ? A???? A???? E?????,
???/?e ??? ?ycy Ay????, n ???e e ??? ? ??e ???.

A 1803 ?? ? ???e ? A????a I ????a ???? ???th ???e. E ??? XIX ?? ???y ??
?? ? ? ?????? ?????e ???e, ???y ? ?o ?? ? ??a ???i ????i e ??????? ????y
??e ???e. N?????e ????, ? ??? ? ??e ??? ?????u.

N ?oy?y ?? ? 1803 a. – ?????o A? E?a????? A????a (????? ?????y ?y E????
????ue). I??? (1818) – ???? ?? I?????? A???e I?e. Ii ?????y? ???th ??? n
???? ?????a, n ???? ?????ey.

A ?? ??? E???i ???eye ?? ???e, ??e ????, ?????? ??e e ???? ??th?
???-???u. Oe?ueth ?i ?? ???ue ??????, ?????i ???? ????a, ???a ? ????i ?
?y ??? ????y ?????e ?????. Y? ??? ?? ?? ? ??y ????ey, a ??????????
?????? ???a??a, ???????a ?y ???e ???e. Ia ???yy ??? a ???a??a ? ????u, ?
???e ? ???ue ?i?e y??????e ?????y?. A ????? ?-?ae ?i ?? ??i y?? ??????,
???a ? ??i ???? ?????i ? ??? ???ey. I?????i e ??? 12 ?i?, ????a ???? ?
1611 ??. “E??ey A????? ??????” ??a ? ??? ?????? ?????? ???, ? e ???i
y???i ???e ??????? ??u. AE??? ???? ???? ????y n ?i ???????ueth ????i
E?a??a ??e ??oth ?ith ??o ???? ??? ?????i. A ????? “I????y” ? ??? ???
????? ??iy?? n ???? ???i. O?? ???i, “E??ey” E???? ?e ? ???y ? ?a ??e –
“??ae????th”, ???????th ?y e??? ??ey, e “??oth” – ?y ????? e ????i ???ey
???e. I? ????? ??? ? ????i ?ny?a a 1812 a. a ?y? n ?iy?? ????? I??u.
A??e 1817 a. “E??eth” ??? ???? ??o a ?? ????eyo – ???e, ????e e ?????e.
I??a ??? ??a ?y??? a ???a a ??? 1818 a. e ???? ???a?? ???ae. N y?? ???e
??? ??e ?i “E???” ????ny ?????? e ????? ????. I????, 12-e ?i E???i ??e
?a oy?? ???i.

C???? ?i ? ? ?i?. A??? ???? e ???e ?? a 22 ?y 1826 .

I??? I??e I???/

(1800 – 1875)

?????e ???e, ????, ???? I?????? AI. N? ?????i “??????y” o ??a N????a. A
1818 a. i???e a I????e ?????o. I??? ?? a 1823 a., I??? ??c ?ae ???e
?????oth ?????th “I ??????e ??e”, ?a ya?ny ????? ????? ??u e ?????i ????
??? ????? ???i??ey ???o ?y?e, ? ???? ?iye E?????. A 1826—1844 ?????
I????? ??????. I?????? ?o ?? ???? ??? ???oth ???th ?y ????a ???i ??a. A
1835 a. ? ?e ????i ? ???o ??e? ???e, a 1841 a. ??? a ??u ??i? ????y
Ae??? I?e (? ???io y?? e ?????e); ?e ??a ????? “I???a E??? e Ae????e
?????o” e ????e ???? “????i ??????i N???a”, ?a ???? ??oth ??ueth “I
??????”.

E ??o ??????e ?y????e I???a ????y ??? ???y ? “E?????e, ??? e ????e”, ?
???o e ???ny, ???i ???i, ???? I???a ?e ????.. A y? ? ??y I??? ??e ????a
??? “Ae???????”, ??th???i a ?? ??o ?iy???, ?e ???ii?, ?e e ??????, ???e
???u.

I??? ????i ?c ??e ? ???ae; ? ?i ?????o ?????e ????? ???? ??o ??? (1835),
??a ? ??e a I?? ???a ???ey n ???e ?a????ey? ??e ??e ??y??o ?????e:
O????, A??e e I???i. Y? ?????a ????? ??????? ????th ???? ???i ?? ?
??y??i. N 1844 a. ????? – ??ay ?y????ue I???a ?i??o e ????? ??? e ??o ?i
??e.

I??? a ??o ??y?o ???ny ?e ????? ??? ?????e ????? e ????, ??? n ?????i
O???? , e ???, ????? y? ??eth ?????e ???? ????e. N?e ??yaeu ? ???? a
ae?o ?????ny ? ????: “I????i A???a” (1827 – 1830) e “I??eoy??” (1841 –
1856).

I????e ?????? ?????y e ?a?? ?????y?? ???y ? ?? I???o ?????ny a ????y e
??????i ?y?ey, ? ?? ???? ? ????a?. Eth?? e ??eth e ????e ? ?a?? ?i ???
????i-???????, n ?????i ????i a ???e ??????e.

O???a A??? A??????

(1864 – 1920)

?????e ???a, ???? I?????? AI (1894). E?????? ???? yc?a, a o. /. ?i ???a,
??????e ?????, ???? ?????y, ???? ???ai e ??y??? y????a, ???? ????u e
?ay??. C??? ??? ????n?? ???ey ???? ??????i y??, o????? ?e ??e. O?? ?
???????i y??i (a o. /. ??y??i), ???? e ?????o y??i. ????? ??????? «N???y
???? y??» (1891-1916).

N???a N??e I????/

(5.05.1820 – 4.10.1879)

???? ???e, ???y a I??a a ??a ?y???a. A 1842 ?? ???e I????e ?????o. A
1845 ?? ??e ??? ?? ???e ???e a I????i ?????? e ???e ?????oth ?????th, a
a 1847 ?? – ????oth. N 1847 ?? ????? I????? ??????.

A 1864-1870-o ??o N???a ???e ae???? ??? ????-???????i ?????, a a
1871-1877 ??o – ???a I????? ????o?a. A ????a ?? ??e ?e ??????i I?????
???? ???e e ????? ?????o, a ??a ????? I???? ???..

A??ui ??i ??e N??y I????? y??? ???? “E??? ???e n ????? ???”. A 1851-1879
??o ??i 28 ??a, a ????e 29, ????? ? 1775 ??, ??e ????i.

*?????a ???? ????ey?? N???? ????i ?????, ???ath??y “?????i e ?????”. Ii
????y ? ?ae??ey “?????i” e “?o???i” ???? a ???e ???e e ?? ???ue ???i ?
????ey, a ?o???a ????.

O??e ???e ?????a a ???? ???e, ??th???ny ? ?i ??eth, ??? ??i a ???????
????e ??? (??o A??? e A??), ?????e ??e ?????oth ??? ? ???? ?????e.

N?aey ?????? ???? a ???? ??a e ????th ???????o ??, N???a ???e
?????i-y?????? ??e ??? ??????oth ?? ? ????th n ???? ??????. I???e ??????
???? ???i ? a “E??? ???e n ??i??o ???” ? ??? e?e ?????? ???????, ?a ??u
?y?? a ??oth ???oth ???o. A????y y?? ??? ?e ??th????th ? ?? e ???????e
????th ???o ???e ???e ? ??y??e ??a. A? ??u ???e ???? ?ey?a ? ?? ???oth?o
???o ????a.

U?? A???e I?????

(5.10.1831 — 27.2.1876)

???? ???e e ????o. ???ny a ??a ????y. A 1852—56 ??ny a E???? ???? ????.
A ???? U?? ??e ???th ???e ???e, ?????ay? ???i ???i ? ???a ??????ey
?????? ??e ? ??yii-???i y???? ???????, ???i ??e ?????? ???e ??e ?????o
??????e. Ae????th ????? y?o ??? ?? ?i “E?????a ??? ????i ??????ey e
???ey (??????i e ????y????)”, a “AE??? I?????a I???? I????ey” (1863).
U?? ?????? ?? ??yae ? ?ae ???e e??? e ? ??? ? ?????ey. Nay? ???c??ey
U??a ? ??y?????i ?a ?y?? ???ey; ?, ?e e ??y???, ??? ? ??? ?, ?e ????i e
?i ae??i ??????i ? ?????, a ?, i ?i ???e a ?????, ??a ??u e ?a???y
??????ue a ?o. A? ??eth ???a ??i ??i ???ue ???e ?e ???i-???????e.

A 1860 a. U?? ?e ????i ?????i ???e ???e a ?????o, ?a ?? ??th??y ??o.16
??ey 1861 ????n ??eth?i?oth ?? ? ??o?a ? ???i A?????i ?????y 1861, ?e
????i e ?a????i a I????. I??? ????? ?e A??a ?ye U??a ? ??? e ???? ?i
????? ?????? ? ??????i ??i, ii U?? ? ?a ?a n ???i ???i ?????? i????ue
??o ??o. A 1862 ??? ? ??? e ????y ?ae i????? ????. N???? ????: «I???a??a
????, «???? ???, «A?iy», «A?» e ? A 1864 a. U??, ? ????eth a ?ycyo n A.
E. A???i e I. I. I???i, ?e ??? a E???, ?a ????e ??i ????, ???i ???i ?
???i ????. A 1866 ????? a ???? y???? a y????e N????i ??? ????i ???????i
???? a O????? ?? I???? ?i ??u ???? ???a ??? ???e e ? ??o, ??????i, ?? a
????a n ???? ????. A 1874 a. ????? ?i ?? I?? E???a, ???y ?th ?ay ??y??
??? ??, a a 1876 a. ????ae ? ?th e ?i U?? ( ?? ? ?????a.). 

U?? — ??? ??? ??o ? ???e ???o?? e ???a, ???a ? ?????? ?e ?iy??? ????i
???? ??? ?????i ???. O?? U??a ????? a ?c?o ??????o ???yo e ??? ???? ???
????.

*??? A?? I????/

(26.5.1828 — 3.2.1904)

???? ???o, ???e, ????o e ?????? ?y??. I??? th????? ????o I????? ??a???a
(1849). A 1853 ???e ?????oth ?????th «I???? ????ey ???e a XVII a.», n
1861 — ????? ???u ???? ??a. A 1866 ?u?? a ???? ????? ?????e ??o «I ????
????????? (1866). A 1868 ??? n ???e ?????a ??e a ???? a ?? ???? ???
????y ???????? ???, ?e a n. E??e, ?e ???th ???, ????? a ?y???n? ???a. A
1882—83 ????? ????e ???, ??? a ???? ? ????eth ????? A????a III ? ?? ?
???oe?, a ???e ?? ???? ???? ??e ? ????? ?????e.

N ???? 1850-o ?. *??? — ?? ? ???a ?????-??????? ??a a ???i ?????? ????.
A ??y?a 1858 *??? ??e a E??i ?y ?????a n A. E. A???i ? ????e ?i???ey
????? A??? ???e ?????. I??? *???a ???? A??? e ???? ????i ?????ue ???
????, ?o?? ?? y??i ?????ey ?????a e ????? a ???e ?????? ??e 2-e ???? 19
a. *??? ?????? ???y e ?y????e ??eth???o ?????, ??ueth 1861 ???? ???
??????i ??a?y, ?????e ?????th ???? ?????o? a ????e I??e e I???? ???iey
1863—64. A ??o ????yo *??? ???? e?th ?????? ???? ??i ??? ? ?????ey e
???????e ????, ???th ? ??? ????e ?y ???e ??? ?????a. *??? — ??a?? ????
???????e ??u a ???e ???????, ????ue ??? «?????ey e ??????y ????», ????
???e ??????i a 16—17 ?. ???i ???ey e ????i ? ?? a ?????????o ????o. A
???e ????e *??? — ????? ??????ue ???i ???y??a a ???e. A ????a ?? ??e
*??? ??n? ?yae ??o ? ?????? ??? (??e, ????, ??????? ????e). «A?????y»
*???a — ??? ???? ? ???e ?????? ??e e ???ey 2-e ???? 19 a.

N??a I?? I????/

( 27.7.1796 — 5.1.1876)

???? ???e e ????o, ?? I?????? AI (1849). A 1813—1816 ??ny a I????i
??????. A 1814 ??e ???th «E??oth ?????th ???th a ??? ?????i th????», ?y
??? ???e ??? ????????? ???e, ??????ny a ????e ? 30-o ?. 19 a. I?????i
??e ???? a ???a «N? I????» ??? ? ???e ???e( ???i ???i i ??????e ?????y
????? ?????o ?????? ???o ?y?e, n ????i ? ?a ????e ???? ???). A 1815 a.
N??a, ? ??? ??a, ???ee ? ??? a ??a ?????? ????i? ?e ???i ?????i a E???e
????y ???????o ??? e ????a. 1816 – 1826 ?. – ??y ?y????e N??? a ?e ?????
??? ??a ??y??a. A 1817—1818 a. ???? ???o ? ????yi I????e ???? e ??? ?
???. A ????? y?e ???e ?? ???u E???e 1073, ?????ey ??i??? E???a, E???
O????i, N???e E?? III. A y? ?? N??a ??? “I???? ???? ??y?-????? ????e,
??y??y a ????? A??????i ????y” – ??? ? ???e ??? ???? ????e a ???e ?????.

A 1823 ? ?e ??? ??? I????? ???? ???e e ????? ??e??o. Ii ????? N??? ????
a 1828 ?y????ue A???????o y????e, n 1834 — A???????e ????. A 1829—34
N??a ????? ??? a ???? ???yo ???e, a ??i a I???a, I????e, Ay??e e I???e
????yo. E???ue ?iy???, ????? ??a?? ????e, N??a ??? ???a ??? ???e ??????e
e ? ??? ????e ? ??? a ???? XIX ???ey. I??i? ????? ???i e ???i ????a,
????? a ??? N???i, ???? ???th ??o e ?? ????i ?????ue n ???e ???? e
????????th ?????ue ?? ???a.

Eeth???e A??? I???/

(16.01.1841 – 12 .05.1911)

???? ???e. ???ny a ??a ?y???a. A 1865 ?? ???e ?o??i-??????? ????o I?????
??????. A 1867 ?? ??e ????????th ?y????ue. A 1872 ?? ???e ?????oth
?????th, a 1882 ?? – ????oth ???o?eth. N 1879 ?? ???, n 1882 ?? ?????
???e ???e I????? ??????, n 1889 ?? – ?? ??????o I?????? A??i? ??, n 1900
– ????, a n 1908 ?? – ??o?e ???? ? ??y? ?y?? ne????e. O??e ????.

A ??o ??? A.I. Eeth???e ??????? ???? ? ???a ????? e y?????? ???? a ???e
????, ?i ?? ??i y???i a ???e ??oy???e ??????e.A “N???yo ?????a i I????i
?????a” (1866) Eeth???e ??e ??i ??a ???eth ?iy?e ????y. A ??? “O?y????y
?y????ue N????? ????y a ?????i ??” (1867-1868) e a ???a?e “Ae?????? ??y
?y?o ?e ????n?e ????” (1871) ? ??? e ?ai? i ??th?i ???? ???????i ???a a
?????e e ???e ???e. E???a?th Eeth???e, a ????? N.I. N????, ????e?e ?e
???n, ???????e ? ?y????ueth ?????a, a ????? ???y? ??? e ??? ???????y. A
????? “Aiy??y ?? Ae??? ??e” (1882) Eeth???e ???y ????? ?????i-??????
???? ??? a 10-18 ?., a ?e ? ???e i??u ??e ????e ???? ??????i ??an? a
??i. ????a ???a Eeth???e ?y??e n ?????? ???? ??e ????, ?????y ???? ?? e
?y????e ????o ???a. I??i Eeth???e ? ????e ????o ?????? e ????e ??? ???e
??????i ???? e n??e ?????i ???yth?i ?????? ???i.

N?? ???o ??o ???? “N??a i???????? ? ???o ???o Ae??? ??e” (1890-92),
“E????? A???? II. 1786-1796 ?.” (1896), “I?? A??? ??e ??o ?????a”
(1901).

A I????i ?????? Eeth???e ??e n ??? 80-o ??a ??e ?? ???e ???e n ????? ???
? XIX ??. Eiy Eeth???? ?????? ???e ??ey???th ??e ?o????? e ??????. Ii ?e
??oyu? e ????? ????, ?????? ????i.

O??y?a I??? A?????

(04.05.1805 – 08.06.1870)

I???? I??????i ??a???a, a???e E?????? A???e I?e. I??? ?? a I??????
?????oa. A 1824 a. ? ???? ? ?????th ???. A 1827 a., ? ????, ?iye ??i
???y ???e a ??????e ????. A 1830 a. ? ??e ???ae ????y I???? ? ?n?? y?e,
???a ?i ????ey?; a 1832 a. ??e a iy? ??yo “N???y ??????a i Ae???
N????a”, a a 1833 a., a 2 ??o – “N???y ?ycy E????”. Ii ???e ? ?o ?a
Ae????? ??? e ???u a ??????? ????a, ???e ae??? e ???i e???. A 1831 a.
O??y?a ??e ??? a I?????? ?????? ??? ? ???? e ???e ???e, a n 1834 a. – ?
??e ??? ???e. E??e ?? ? ??y?e ???o ???????a e ???a ??? ????a ? ???
???ai.

O??y?a ??? ? ???o ????a n?e ???? a ??o ??eyo ??? ??i ???e ????? ?????a.
A 1836 a. O??y?a ???e n??? ???a ???e ? ?????a i ???a ??????? ??e? ???e e
?e, ??i ??? a A???th I?e. A 1837 – 1841 ?., a ?? ???y e ??i e??yi, ? ??e
a 5 ??o “???oth ???th”, ?????i e ???e a 1847 a. y??? “E?????a ????a
?????ey ?????a I??ay I”, ?????? ? ???? On?y?? ??i ?????i. O??y?a ???e
ae? ???o ???? ?y ???? e ???? ???. O???e O??y?? ?? ??n????, ? ???i ???ue
???a th???? ? 60 ??a 19 a. N?? ??? ???, ???? ??y?e ?? ?? O??y?a a ????a
23 ?? ??e ??e, ?? “E??ey ?????ey I?? I”. I??? a 1842 a. ??? a ???????e
??a, O??y?a ?ae? ? ?? ??i ??? ?????. O?ae ?i ???y ??????i (??e ??ei ?.
1–4, 6, 1858–1859, 1863), ? ???? ?yae ??? ?????. A “E??? ?????ey I?? I”.
O??y?a ???? ???? ??th???? ? ???a ??u e ??u ????/a??; ????? ??e ?????a ?
??? ? ???ny. C?y?y ???? Ia?a I ????e O??y?? ? ?i ???????o ?y????e. E??e
?i ? ???y?? e ?ae ??oe ??e ??????? ?y????e ? ??e ? ?? ?????. I?? ???
O??y?? ???? “C???”, ???a ????? a “Ae??? e I?? ???e” (1877 – 1880).

E????a I??? E???/

(4.05.1817 – 7.04.1885)

O?a??? e ???e ???e, y???o, ????, ???. ???ny a ??a ???? ????, ?? – ????ay
????ay ???y?a. I??? O????? ?????o a 1837 a. A 1841 a. ????? ?????oth
?????th “I ???? e ????a ?? a C???e ???e”, ???y ?? ????a e ????? ? ??ae ?
?????e ????e ????. A 1844 a. ???e ?????th. N 1846 a. – ????? E????
?????? ? ???a ???e. I?i ? ??????a ???i E??? – Iao????? ????, ????? ??e
??th ???? ??y??e ???????e ????e ? ??a n O???e. A 1847 a. ?u??i ??
?????i; E????a ?e ????i e ??? a N???. Aei 1857 a. ??? a ?????i ???????
????. A 1859-1862 ?. – ?i??? ???e ???e I??????i ??????. A??, ???. ???u ?
???e ???? ???? (“A??i O????? e ?c???? TH?? ??e e ???e” 1857 a., “A?o
N??? ???a” 1858 a.) n??? E????? ???th ?????ue. Ii ?e ??????i e ?????i
?????i ???? “I??u” (1861-1862), ????? ? ???i e o????i y??o.

A 1862 a. E????a ????y ????? ???o ??? ??? ??? ? ?????a I??????i ??????,
?i ????i ????o ????a, e ? ???? ?e ?? ? ??????. A???? ???u ?n?? e ?????
???e E????a ???? n ???e ??oa?? ??????e. E????a ????y e y???????o ????o
?e e ????o, ? ?i ??eth, ?y ????y ???e ???.

E?????e ???, ??? ???? e ???i ???? ???e ????e E????? ???ue ??th ???th
???o e ????? ?????? ?y??e a ??? “???ay ???y a ??????yo ? ????? ?y??e”
(??? ???a a 1873 a.).

Ee???? Ae??? E???/

(1832 – 1920)

E??? e ????o. I????? ???e a I????i ??????. I??? ???ue ???? ? “E??eth
?y???? ?y???”, ?a?? ???a – ? “A????? ?? 1793 a.”. E????e ???? ?????i
?????i ?????e ??? e ?????i ?????e ???y e ????? ???eyi i ??? ?? ???e
???e, ????y, ?i a e???yo ????? ???e ????ey e ???? ???? ?y?e. N??e E?????
ii ??y?-???? ???o ????u a “?????yo i ??? ??e” ??i a ??, ?e ????? ???????
????o. I???y “E??ey ???e” E????? ??a ???oue n 1876 a. I????? ? ????th ?
? ?????y, E????e ???i “I?? Aae?? e ???/ A???” ??e a “E??a” ????a ??e
y?????? ??e? ? ???e ????? e ???????e y?o. A “E???” E????e ?? ???????y ?
????? ????i-y?????? ??o?eyo e ??e ???; ? ? ?? ?y?? ?n???i ??? ??? e i???
?uy??ey ???e. I??? ?o ???o a “E???”. I? ????, ???, ??? ??i a ?????, ?i
??a ?i a ?e ???a ???a ???a ???? ?a ??e ???ai ???; ???y th?-???? ?i ??e
e???a o? ? ????, ?e e ???-????e. O???e E????? ? ???? e ???e ???e ????e
?ny?e ???e; ?e ???? ??i y??i. E? ???e?, E????e ???? ??ue e?????ii e ???
????????e. A 1897 a. ? ????e e ???th ?????? ??? “E?i?”, ??th???? ???y??i
?i ?????ey?. Ii ???? ???? ?ey?a e ???? ??e ???o ????e, y???? ????o ???
???i ??o?a ?e ?????? ????i ?????y. E???? ??i?e, ????ay ???? a ???e ?????
???? ???e e ???? ??? e ???ey??? E????? a ??? e ?????? ??? e e ???eth ?i
c?????o ??? a ???e ???e e???.

Aa?y??? E?i E???/

(1837 – … )

I???ue-???a .I??? ?????a a N????? ???? ????e, a ???i ??????? ????a e
???e ?? a I?????? ?????? ? ????-???????o ?????. I????e ????? a ??????i
????-??????? ????a e a I????i ????a; ???th e ????e y?e – a 3-e e 6-e
??????o ???eyo. Io 1869 a. ? 1908 a. ?n?ye ??? ???i ???? ?????? ?????
?????y. N???e ??oth?a ???? ?y ????, ???? ??? e ????o ???: “Ae??? A??e e
????? ??y A??e” (NIa., 1908); “?????? e ???e ???e” (ib., 13-a ?., 1911);
“E?n ???? ???e” (ib., 15-a ?ae., 1911); “Y?????e ?? ???? e ???e ???e”
(ib., 39-a ?ae., 1911); “?????? e ???e ???e n ????ey? ? ????” (ib., 21-a
?ae., 1911); “E?n ???e ???e (y?????e)” (ib., 14-a ?ae., 1910).

I???a N??e O????

(16 .06.1860 – 10 .01.1933)

???? ???e. ???ny a *???? a ??a ??????i ??a??. A 1882 ?? ???e
????-??????? ????o I??????i ??????. A ?i ? ?? ??e ????????th. A 1888 ??
???e ?????oth ?????th ,a a 1899 ?? – ????oth ?????th . N 1899 ?? ??a??
???e ???e I??????i ??????. A ?i ? ?? ???i ?? e ??? ???a “E??e ? ???e
???e”. N 1903 ?? N.O. I???a – ???? AE???i ???????i ????a. N?e ?? ? ?????
a «O?a?? ???e ????, ?a ???a ??a, ????a ????a ????? n ????ueth e
??????ueth.

A 1908 ?? ????ny ???-??????o? ?????e ???? ??. A 1916 ?? I?o?? ???? ??i ?
????a ???. I??i ??eth???a ???y 1917 ?? ??o? ?i e ???e ?????? ???.

I???a 1917 ?? I???a ????e ???e ? ???? ???eth ??? I?????a ????i ?????y,
??? 1918 ?? ? ?e ??? a I???????th ???eth ? ??? e ????? ???a ??????
???th?? ?????. Ae???? A???????i e???oa, ????? I??????i ??????. 3 ??ey
1920 ?? ????ny ??????? ??? ?????e A???e ??.

A ?a 1925 ?? I???a ??e ???? ? ?????? ? ????e. N ???i ???a 1925 ?? ?
????y? E???o ???e ????? ,a ??c ????i ?? I?? ???? A???e ???? ?i ?????
??????e ?????. O??e ????? ?ie ??u, a ??a ????o ????a ??a ???, a ?i ??a e
? ???i. Y? – ????? “I??a e C??”, “E?i A???”, “I?? A???” (???iyy ?o?ay
??? I????). A ??a 1926 ?? ? ???? ???e I?????? ?????o.

A??e 1929a. I???a ?e ??? ?????-????? I???ey ???o??o ?? e ?? ??? I????a
A???e.

A ???? ?oy?y 1929 ?? ????i ?????a A???e ???? ???? ? “???”, ???y ???? a
E????a, ?i a I????i Ae?a e a A???????e ??n?e “??i” ??y?y ????u ????
i?????? ???ey – ????? ??a ? ????e ? ???? I??ay II e ???? ?ycy I???, ???
Ae?????a ???e, E??? ????a, Io???i ????y e ?. I??a I???? e ????o ?i
?????a ?? ?????? “??”. A ??a y??y 1930 ?? N??e O???? ?e ????i. A??o
?????ue ??a ????e I.I. E???, I.E. Eth???e, A.A.O?? e ? o???. A?????
?????? ???? ? iy? ?o ??? ? ???th ???? IAIO. N.O. I???a ???e ??? a N??a,
?a e ????y 10 y??y 1933 ??.

I????e I??e I????/

(1868-1932)

N???? ???e, ????e e ???????e ?y??. A???e AI NNN? (1929). I?? ?i??ey
????-???????i ????? I????? ?????? ? ????o ???th ??? n ???? ???? a
??????? ???. Ae??a ??y ??ae?ny a y???? e ???ny a ???th ??? a ???a 1917
a. O???e ?oy???? ?????. N 1918 ?? – I.I. I????e, y?yy? ?????? ??i?
?????y, ????ny ???i ???????e ????, ????u ??? ??i?e ??u. Ii ??? ????th ?
???e ??a ???? ??i a ??a ?????a ??? e ??? ??????. I. I. I????e ???e ??u
?????ey A???????i ???i ???, E???????e ????, E???? ???e, I???a ????a-
?????, E???? ???e ?????, Oe????? e ?y? ??? ?????e a ??a ???a?. A 20-a
aa. ? ?e ?????i ?yae ???o ?????? ??? ???ay ???y a ??i ??? ???”, ???yy
???? ???e XX ???ey” , ??u ? ???e ??eth???? ???ey, ???????.

Ii ?????a ?? ?????? ?????? ???n n ??? ??????, ????????? ??e ??ey. I.I.
I????e ?e ???i: “E??ey ?? ????, ?????y a ???a”. I???? e I????? ?? ?????
?????, ??? ??i ?-? ?i ??????e, ????y ? ?? ????i ? ?????. E? ?????? ??e e
??? ??u I. I. I????e ???? ??? ???th ???? ? ?ai?????o ????eth ?y??
?????y. I???? ??? ???e ??????, ?? ??????a ????y ??????a. A ?????? ??a
?????ue ??? Ii?????, ?y ???e ?? ????? ??ai ????????? ??? e ???e, ?an??e
???? e ?????a ?????? ???e a ?????o ????o. N ??? I????? ?e ?????? e ????
?? ???e, ???e ?e ???i ?u??????i.

O?y ?? I????e a 1932 a. ??? ????i e ????? ????i ? ????? ?????e ??? a ??a
30-o ?. ?? ????? ????th?y ???a ?i ??y?a. I???i ????? ??? eth??a ???e I.
I. I?????, ????a ? y?i ?ith ???th ???o. A?i ????, /? ??? I????? y?y??
??e ??e??e, ???a e ?????a, ??i ???????y ?e ??? ?i ???o a?????? ??????
?????.

A?? TH?e A?????/

(18.06.1873 – 17.12.1943 )

N?a??e ???e e ????, ???? AI NNN?. A 1895 ???e ?o??i-??????? ????o I?????
??????. A 1903—15 ???-??? y?? ??????, ??i ?????. ???u A?? ??y?? ???e
???e e ???e XVII e XVIII ?. e ???a?ytho ????? ???? y?????? ???e e ?o??
????? a ?y? n ???? ?????.

A ??? ???e ?y????e A?? ????y ?ae ?ey?? ?????e A. I. Eeth????. A ??? ???e
?a?a «C????? ?? a XVII a. I?o ?????ey ? ???e y??????i ?? I????e ??? ?
??? ?????i ???ey ???? ?? A?? ???e ????? e ????a ??? a ????? ???? e ????
?????e ??? 17 a. e ???oth?e ???n ??????ey ?cy??a, ?no ??y??? ??????y ?
??o ???e ???e ??????? a 17 a. ????o ??? n ???y??, ???? ?????ey ?a?ueyi e
???? ? ?????e. Y? ??a???a ???y? ???a ???? ? ??o ??. Ae??y ???y ??? A?? —
«E??ey ????? ????ey a ???e ? I?? I ? A???? II». A?? — ??? «I??a ???e
??????y a ??n?», a ???i ??? ??? ?????e i???e. N 1900 ??? ?e ???? a
??????o e th????? ???o. A ???o «I??e ? ???e ?????? ???? A???? A??? e
«AE???e ?e a A???? A??? A?? ???? ? ??? ??? ???e e ????? ?y ???ey ????
???a ???e ???e. Ei ???a ?? ???th?y ???y ????a ????i, ? ??????i ????????
????a i ????? ???e NNN? ? ????a e ???a ? ??????y Ae??????i ?????a. E??
?a???? ? ? ???? ???a «I?y??e ???u N???? 1609—1611 ?.», ?????? ? n ?????i
y?? ???e i???????a «A????a ???????e a Ii???? ?????a a XVI a.» e ?.
????e. O????e a ????e ???i ???? ?y ??a — «E??ey NNN?». A?? ?e ???th
??????oth ??oo ? I????o ??? ???o ??? (1902—1918), a I??? ????a
(1907—1917), ?????? O?y?e?i (1913—1918), ????a ???a A??? (1928—1930),
IEOEE (1934—1941) e ????a ???e AI NNN?. N 1898 ? 1930 ?e ???i ?????i, a
??i ?i????i ????a A??th?? ????? ?. A. E. E??a

A??a A?? Ae????/

(9.04.1882 – 9.09.1953 )

N???? ???e, ???? AI. N 1901 a. ??ny a A????i ??a???a, a 1905 a. ????y a
I????e ?????o, ???e ???e a 1907 a. I??y ????????y ??? A??? ??y??
????i-y?????? ???e A???i I????. E??? ?????? ???? ? ????o, ??????o a
????? ???a. A??e ??e ?????? A??? y?y?? ???y Ae??? ??e e ????o ??yi. A
?????i ??a “E???y ??ue” ? ????e ???a ?? ??a ????? A??a ??? e ???, ?i
????a ??y? ???e ? ????i ??iy e ????ui ????yi ??y ????????th ???eth.Ii
??????e, ?i ???e ?cy????e ?y????e Ae??? ??e ?? ??????? ???? ????? e
????? ???? ??ea ?????e ? ????? ????i-y??????i ??y ???o ??yi. A??a ?n?,
?i E???y ??ue ?? ??e ????th ????, ?????i e ?????? ???a. A??? ???i a ????
??????e ???e ??a ??? “E???a Ae??? ??e” (1944).

A??a ??a ??i ????y ????i ???? th?? e ???? ??yi, ?o??? ? ???? ???? e
“I??”. A?i? ??e ???o ??o A??? ?? ??a???a ???e ???? ???y??a. A 1946 a. ?
?? ?????? ?????a ?????? ? y? ?? – “E??uey? ? ??e n ????? ??? ? 17 ??”.
A??a a?n ???e ??ae a ????? ??????e, a ???? ???????ey. I? ?i ?a?? ????
??a 30 ???o ???e ?????. Ei ???? ??? ? ?????? ?aey?o A.N. I???, I.A.
E????a, I.E. I????ai e ?.

I??i-????????th ?y????ue A??a n??? n ??????i (? ?e ?????i IAO e EAO) e
?????? ?y? ????? AI.

Ae???i I??? I????/

(1.01.1886 – 8.08.1986)

N???? ???e, ???? AI. I??? e ????-??????? ????o I????? ??????. N???y
??????oth ??? (I?? ??eth?e NNN?, 1924 – 1934) n ?ae?????e ?y????ueth
(IAO, 1929 – 1948 ?. e ?.),?e ????????th ??? a ?AIEIIa e n 1938 a. – a
E???? ???? AI. N?e ???? ?????ey Ae???i ??y?e ????i-y?????? ???e ???e 19
?? e ????i ?????? ??e e ??eth???? ???ey. A??? ??u ii ???e ???????? ???ey
a ???e: ????ey “Ae???? I??a I???a” (1933), – i N???i ???? ?????a, a ??a
??? i I.E. I???, N.I. O????, E.Ae. ss???a, ????a N???? ??n?a. A ???
“A??????? ???y? e ???? I. E???a” (1946-1958) ?????a ????? ???y ???????o
???yi e ?y? ???u E???a n ???y??e ???? 1861 a. A 1958 a. Ae???i ??e
?????? ??????e ???e e ??????o a ?e ????a. Aei 1964 a. ? ????e ?y????ueth
E???e ? ???e ????i ?cy??a e ???y??a, ???? ?????e ??????? ??e “E??uey??a
???? a ???e” e ?. E???? ????????ay ??a I.I. Ae???? “A?????y e ??e ????”
(1967), ?i ?????a ??? ??????? a 1996-1997 ?. a ???a “A??? ???e”

???? A?? A??????

(1908 – 2001)

N???? ???e, ??-??????o ? I???eth ?????? ?? (???i?y) n 23 ?oy?y 1953 a.,
???? ? I???eth ?????? ?? (???y NNN?) n 20 ethiy 1958 a. ????? a ???e
???e, ????? e ???? Ae??? ??e. I?o ????a ?????o ??? ? ???e ???e, ?????ey
??????y ???o ??yi, i???? y??a ????? ????????e, ?c??y ??n?, ???? ???o
???, ?????a ??????o ???a, ???? e ?????, ????yi ???o ??yi. 

E????e A??? A????/

(21.10.1886 – 24.07.1959 )

A 1910 a. ???e I????e ?????o. N 1921 ?? ??????? ?? E???? ???e ?????e
????? ??? – ????????o ????? ?????? ?? (?AIEII), n 1929 ?? – E?o??a ???e
E???????e ????. A???eye ???o e??? ???o ??a IAO (1934 – 1949 ?.) e ???
???e ???o ??a a E???? ???e AI NNN? (1936 – 1952).

O??oth ?????ue ???? ?????ey E????? ? ???? ???e ??????e A??e 11 – 15 ?.,
a ???o o??e ???e ????oth ???o ?e ?????th ?y ????ey ???? ????e ??u
y??????? ???yi. Ii ?y?e ?????? ???? ??u ?ae ???? e ?????i ???i, ??????e
???a ?n?????? ??o ? ??o e ??? e ??? i ???? ?a a y?o ??? ???i-???? ????e
a ????? ???a.

E????e ?????? ??a ???u ??????e ???o ??a, ???e ????? ????? ??eth?e 17 a.,
???e A???e, ?e ??i ? ???a ???? ?? “E??? ?????”. Ii ?e ??i ? ???o ???a e
????? ???uo ????a ? ???e ???o ??a ?y ???e e ??? ??u a ??a 30-o – ????
50-o ??a, ????? ???a ??/??i ????a??e – ?????a.

O?? A??? A????/

(27. 1875 – 5.01.1955)

?????e ???e, ???? AI NNN? (1927). I???e ?? ??? ????? ?????? i???. A 1896
?? ???e ????-??????? ????o I????? ??a???a. A ??? ?? ???e a I????i,
I?????? (???a – a I?????? e E??????), TH????, E?a??i ??????o. I? ????e
??? a 1930-34 ???????y. Aeey ??o O?? ????? ????i ?????ai ????a, ???a
??????, ??oy?e e?????e ??ue. I???a ??u: «???? ??n ? O??? a y?? ??eth??
(o. 1-2), «Ei??????y ????, «I????, «O????, «AE???? e ????». A?e a ???e
??? ??????? ????u ????o. ?????, ???? ???a. I???a e a ?? A??? ?????i? ??u
O?? ???? ??? «I???? I???? ? ???th», i Ia???, O???, E???a, ????i ??????
«E???y ??? (o. 1-2). O????e a ????? ?????? ??? – “E??ey ?????”, ????a ?y
??a. A????a??y ??ey NNN? (1942, 1943, 1946). A??oth ????????th ??? O??
???e n ??????e e ??????ne? ???e (??? a ???. ???).

N??? N??e Ae????

(7.10. 1890 – 14.04.1973)

A 1915 ?? ???e ????-??????? ????o I????? ??????, n 1920 a. ?? ?????ue a
y?i ? ??????. N 1935 a. – ????? ??????i ?????, a n 1949 a. – ???th?e
???? ???e ???o ??a. ???o a IAO ???e n ???? ??? – ????????e ???e a ?AIEII
e E???? ???e AI NNN?. A 30- o ??o ?????e ?yae ??o ? ??e ???e O???,
A???e, E??e. I???i ????? ??ae N???a a ????? o??????? ???i ???e ???o ??a.
A ??o ?a??o ? ????o i???a ??????? ???ey ??????? i???a a ?????o ???o.
N??? ??? ????th ?? ????o ??e ??????ey ???? ????e a ??? ???? ??????y:
????? ????? ????e e ????ea ?????a a ???? ?cy??a ?????a ??i C???e A??u e
????? ????e ???u a ???o Oe????? e A???? A??u. I?? ??u ?????ey N???a ?
???e ??????a??? ??eth??a, ? ???e ??????e ???? e e????. A? ?? ?e???? ????
? ???e ???o ??a ?y ??a, ??u a “E??? ?????”, “A???? ???e” e ?.

Ao??a E? I????/

(1912-1992)

?????e ???e, ???o, ??? ?????? (1961) e ??????? (1974) ??, ???? ?AAI
(1991). N? I. N. A???a e A. A. A????. N???? ??ey i ?????? e y??? e?
??????o ????yo; ????? ?iy??a???oth ????o y????a (??? ? ???????th). O?? ?
???e oth???, ?????o, ??y??o e ?. ???a A???.

E??? Ae??? N????

(15.11.1906 – 30.10.1999 )

?????e ???-??????ae e ?????? ?y??, ???? ?AI (1991; ???? AI NNN? n 1970),
A?? N???????? O?? (1986). A 1928-32 ?e ??????i, ??e N??a?? ???e.
O??????? ?????ey «N?? i ??o E???», ?????u e ???? Ae?. ??e, ???i ?????e.
E?? «Iiy?? ??????e ?????» (3 ???a, 1979). Y?a «C??? i ???? (1981). ???u
i ???e ???? e ?????? ? ???? (???e «I??? — ????», 1985). I?????ue ????y
?????? ??????? ??a ???? (1991-93; ?????? ????y N????i ??a ???? a
1986-91). A??????ay i??ey NNN? (1952, 1969), A??????ay ??ey ?????e O????
(1993).

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