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Османская империя в XVI-XVII веках

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A???a

E ??? XVI a. ???-????ay I???ay ???y ????a ??e ??? ?/? ?? Aa???? ?????.
E?ue ? ?????? ?a??? A??????i ??y ????a ??????ue Ae?????y ?????, ????i
????ay, ???, ??a ??u ?e I??a (1526) ????th ??? O??e. A????ai ??a ???ue
???? ?? ???ey a ????e ??e A???? – E????a ???a e ??? E?o, a ??a ??th i??o
??e n ???? C??, N??, E??, O???, O???.

O???a ????? ???i ??????th ?? a ?????? ??? ????? ???a, ???? ?
?????i-y?????? ????. E ????? ?????o ?????i ???? ????y ????? ?????e ??o
?????? e ?????e, ? ???? ????? ????y ??o ?????y? e ???i?? ????. O???a
??????i e ???u ???? ?????? ??? A????? ???o??, ??? ????.

E?a o?????? a??????ey ? ??e ?a? ???ue a ???????o ????eyo, ?n?ue ???, a ?
?iy??? ????ey e ??????e ???e ??????i ????? a ??i ?e ???i ??????. *??
???? ?ith ???, ???? ??????i ???ey? ? A??? ???a ??e-????? ? I?? A?e. I?
???? a ???i?? ???o, ??????e ??? ???o, ???yy ???o ???e. E??a ?????? ????a
??ey?? ???e ? ???a, ???? ???o. Ae??i ????i ????ey ????i ????? ?? ?????y
?????i ????y. I?? “?????a” ???? ? ??a ?y?o a ?? e ????o a ???i eth?e, ?y
???o ?- ??? a ??i ?e ?????? ???? ???ue ???o (? ?- ??? ???i ????? ? ??e
?? ???)?. I??y? a ???o ??o, ???? ?????o? ?????i ? ????, ?eiy?? ??????i,
y????e ???, ???e ?e ???? ???a. N??? y??? ????e ? ??a ???o th??e. I???
??e ????ue ???????a ??? ???? ???? e ???? ????a-????, ???? ???? a ??i e
???ey? ? i???a a I?oth A?th. N??y? ????ue n?a ????i e ?????, ??? ?????
???u, ???i ???i ??? e ???a, a ??a ????a ?????? e ??u ????e ??i. C?????y
??ue “?????a” ??a??i ??y? ?y? ? ??i ???i, ??e?? ???? y?e e ????. A? y?
?? e /????o ??o ???? ????? e ???y? ??? ??e a ?????o ??yo. I?iy?? ??????i
??u, ??e, ???u ???? ??? ???a ????e, ?????ue ???? ???????e. N?? ???i?
????y ???e ???? ?????y ?eiy? ?? a A??e, ????o ???o I?a??e e A???, ? ????
???e ???e ??ueth ? ?? e ??? ? ??e ???i?e, e ??a ???i y??, ??? ???a e
????. A????? ????i ????y A????? ?????a, e ??? ??i ???y??i, ?? a ?o
??ayo, ??a ?i ????i ?? ??y? ??i, ? ?? ??????? ???e.

Any ????a ?????i ????i ??ae??? ?? ????a ????i ???y ??a????o ??. I???ay
???y ?? ?????? ????e ???e ???? ??????y. A??? ???i ??e, ????o ???th ??th,
??????? ????y?ay ?y i? ??????y ????? – ??? ?????e ???u, ??? A???e,
?????ey ??o ??????e ??????e A??u. Ii ????y ???e ???ay ???y ? ??a ??i???e
???. A????oth?y ?????-??e – n???y? ??o??? ? ????y. A ??a XVI – ??? –
XVII ???ey ???y ?oy?ie ??? ????? I???? ???e, ?????? ? ??? e ?????e a
????? ??????a ?????o ??????a a O??th e ??? ???, ?????ny ?ae aa ???no?i.

N??? ?o ??? ??? ? ?, /?? ????ue ???th?

E ???i ?? ?y y?? ??i? A ??? n I???? ???? ?????? 400 ?o e ?e ???i ?a
?ny?a ??, ?eth?y ???othny a N??? I??th I??oth.

Ae?a ? ???y, ???i ??????o ???i ???y?? A??u ??yo ??y? e ??
?????i-?????i-??????o ??, ???e ???y ? ?i i??, ?a ???a ?????? ???y I??ia.

I ???e: Y??????y e ???????ay ???? I?? a ????? ???o

1.1 I???? I?????e Oe??e (? ???a A???e)

1.1.1 A???y a ???a E?????????i I?????

I??i ?????? O????e ???e a ???a E?????????i I????? ?? E???, ??? ?????
I??????: ?i ???ue ??o 7-e ? ??o a ??? ??????? ????? ?????a ? O??????
N??a 1439 ??. A ??i ? ???a ???e E?????????i I????? ???? OV ?? O????e
????? ???? ???a 11-a ??i (??a O????????); ?o i???? ?e ?????o ???u: *??i,
E?? e I???. Aei ???? OIO ?? O????y ???y ????? ?e?oth ??ue ??? N???e
A???e e ?i????ue ? tha ? ?? I??a, ?eth?y ??? E????, N?? – e I?a-C??u.
O????? ????e? ?? ????u ???? I????? (? 1832, ??a I??? ?? ?????e), *????e
(? 1856, ??a *??i ??a ?e ???? a ?? ?????), E????e e A????e.

E????????? I???o, ?????y ????? ??????? ??ae ?e??i ?? ?????? ????
(???-??), ???e ???? ???e a ????, ?????-???? e y?????? ???, ? ????y ?ae
??iy?? ????i ????? ??????a e ?n ??oth ???????ue ? ?y???ue ??e ??? ???
n???.

Oe???? ????? E??????eth ???i???ue ????i ????? ?ey?y a ????? ??yo. Ia
???u ?????ue ????-a??, ???a a ?ith ???ue ???ey? a ????e e ????? ??u
????o nay???????e, ????? /?i ??a ???? ????ey ?????? ? ????i y??, ??iy??
???e ??e ???. Oe?e??a ????e ???i ????? ?e ??? ???o ?y?e, ? ??? ????a
??ae (???? ??a 20 ? ??a) ????ue ?????i, ???i ???n???? ????. A ??? ??? a
???? ????a ???e ????e ???, ???????? i????o, ????ey? ? ????i ??oyi ?e
???????o e ????? ?????th a ??oth ????ue ?e ?y?th ?ae ???. I???y ? ????a
i??????i ????? ?????a, a ?y? ???e ???a ????a ??? ????ue ??iy?ey-a????.
I??a ????e (Y?????e, ????e, Ae?????e, E?????, E?????e, *???n?e, A????e,
E????e, Y????e e ??ea) ???e? ??????y??e y?e a ??????.

A ??? ?? ????? ?????a ??o ????e e ???e ? ?????? ??? ? y????? ????; ????
??i ???? ????? ??? ??? ???a??e, a ??? ???e ????? ?????ua ???. O?, O????e
????? Ae???e (??e) ?? ??i ? ??????e ????? ???i O????? ????y 1598 ?? e
???e ?????o ?o ????a E?a?th ?????i, O??? E?????, N???? O????i (I?????i)
e I??ey A?????. 12 ????? ?y???? e 18 ?ey???o ??yi ??? n ?????? ??y?nue ?
??e ??? ????ny ???e ?? ?????ey A???e. A??e ?e ??i 1596 ?? ?? ???a ??ay
?????y, a ???th ???e ?ny?e ?e ????, ?e e ???? ?oe. A???? ?ey?a a ?????
??yo ? ??? ?? i????? ?ey?? ??iy??? ???? e a?????i ?????i ?? ???? «y????i
?????y».

1.1.2 I?????e e ????? ???a ????? ?a

A ??? ???i? ?????a ?????ay ?? ?? ?y ??? ?????? ??ie, ???y?? ????ue
?????oth ?????oue. I??? ???????i ????y a ??i ??????? ??, ?i ????? ????
?????? ?? ??????? e ?e c??a ?ia? ??????i ?????ey. I??a ??????a ??y?th
?????y n ????e ????a ??? ??a ????n?a.

N????? ? ??y, ???ey?? ? ???, ???y?? ?????? ? ?iy?, ????a ??e, ????ue
??u, ?ay??? a ? ??ue. E???u ???e ?ny?? ?y?o, ?????? a ??? ????i ?????. A
????? ???e ?????i ?????y ????i ??? ???-???? ?????oth ???o ??y? A???
N???? I??, ??? ????e a 1515 ??, A??? N??e e A??? I???e, ????? a 1534 ??;
I??? I?? e ?y??????. ???i A???? N?ey??e ?? ??? ??y? ?e?e ??e — ?? a N??
a 1555 ??, ??? a N?ey? a 1670 ??. A 1737 ?? a N?? ?e ???i ?????? ????y
nay?????? ????? N??i N?????. A 1750 ?? ? ??c ??y? ??i a A??a ?e ??? ??i
A?? E?e??e (A????e). A 1771 ?? ??? ??e ?e ???i a N???a ?y?????? Ae???i.

I??? E?? a 1784 ?? ????e ??o???th ?? a N???? ??? a E???????, ????? a
???, ? ?i ?e ?????i, ???? C?? I????y, ? ????yny ? ???u ????ey-??a ??y?
?i ??, ?? ?????a ??? e ???? a 1795 ?? a ?? N??? I????e ?e??. I?? ??e ?e
???i e ???e E??ue a 1802 ?? a ?????yo ?? N?a ??i I???. E????e A??? a
??????i ?? ??. E??? N??????e a 1814 ?? a E?????i?a, ??y?? ??? ??c ????a,
e i?/. I??? A??an?e a 1818 ?? ? ???a O?n, ????e ??i. A 1822 ?aeo a ???
I??-I?? (?????e I???) ?e ???i ???e E??, ???? ??aya??y a ?i, ?i ??ye ??i,
a 1841 ?? a N??? ?? ???a ??? ???? Ae???th N?????, a 1830 ?? a I???a
????? ? ?? ???? ??a I????ay. I?????a ?iy? ?? ?y?o e ????a ????? ??e,
????o A??? ???i ?????? ?? O???? e ??y?? ?????? ??oe ? ??o Ai??a, AIOe
????o ? 2-th ??eth ? Iy??ny??a.

1.1.3 I??????y e ???????ay ?y????ue ????? ?????

A ?? ????ey ???e A??i ? 2-e ???? OIV – ??? OV ?? ???y ??ue ????? ??? e
?????? ???a ????? ????? ?? ???a ?e ?????a, ???i ????i ???, ??, ????e,
????a ????e ???. Ia ?ny???y ?????? ?????? a ?????? e ????o ??? e ????a
?ea, ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????i ????a. I???i ????? ou???? ????e. *??
??????? ??????i ?????a (a ???? ? ??a ?i???oth?o) ???a, ??? ?? ????u ?? ?
????? ???. E?ue ???? ?e?? ???e ????y ?? ??????? ??????a ??? ????? In??e?
???e, ?? ??? ???? ???? ????y ??ae ????, ?? ??????eth a ?????o ??? ???o.
Ii ??eth i???? ???????, ??e ????e a ???? ????e, ??????a a ???yo, ????
??? ????ey??ny ?????yi, a ??a ???e, ??????y ? ????o ???o ???a. N 70-o
??a OIV ?? ? ??a OV ?? ???a ????? ????? ? ?????? ?e ????e i???i; i ???
???yo ??i ??? ?? ? ??????y ????? e ??ui ?????.

I???? — ???? e ???? ?? — ? ?????? ??? e ? ??o??? ???? ???????i ????e e
o??. N?? ??????y e ???????o i????e — ????e, A?????, Ae?????e, E?????,
E?????e, Y?????e, A????, ?????, E?????, I??????e, Eyn???e, I????e,
Ae?y???e, E??????, I????e, I????e Nay?e O??u ?ae O??? e ???, ?oy e ?
??????a ?n?y?i ????? ?ae ???e ?-? ??? ????e, ??a?e e ???a. Ai ??? ? ?o
??ue ???? ? ?i?????? ???u.

I? ????? ???i O????? ????y 1598 ?? ???y ??ue ????? ???? a E?????? ????a,
???????i a 1442 ??; ? y? ??e ??ue ????e i???. I????e e ????a ????e —
Ey????, I????e e I????e. A 1686 ?? ? ??y ???i O????? ???iey ??a ?????
??? ???e. A 1700 ?? ???i, ?e ?????i ????y I??, ?? Ey???? ????ue. I?
????? ai???y ????? y? ???ue e ???? I??????e ????ue.

O???e ??????e ????? ???? ???y?? ??????y? I???? A??ey, y??????? a N??th,
? A?i, a ??a a A???oth A??o: ?????? E???? († 1406), A????i Oe???? (†
1420), ???? A??? († ??a 1425), E?????i E????? († ??a 1433) e ???e.

A ??e A???e ????a ????? ?y????e ?????i a 50–80-a ?? XV ??. E????e ???
???e ??ae ??? ????? ???, ???i ?? ????e ????ue. Ii ?e ?????? a ???ia XV
?? ???ey? ???a E???, Ae??a e O??? ?e ???????a e ??? ????? ????a ??u ???a
I??a II Ia? A???? (??? ????i ???a A??ey). N ?????ai ?? ??e i?????i E??a
????? a 1469 ?? ???ue ????ny ??i ? ???? ???a ? ??? A???e, ? e ??y??o
A??i a ??i; nth? ??e ????ue ?ny? ?????. A 1466 ?? ??o ????e ???ueth e
???i ????? Nay?ai I?o???? ? A?? ?e ??th?i ???? ? ???? ???? ???. I????i a
?e??? ????a ??????ue ?y????ue ????a, ?????a e ????oth?o ??????a.

A ????yo C???e A???e e I?a??e ???? ???? Ae???e E????e, A???? A????, ???
I???e, Ae??, I??? e ???. A N??? 1469 ??, ????? A????? A?????, ?e ?eth?i
?yae ????e, ?y??? n ???? ?????i ???: «I????? ??a ?y?? E??? O????,
«I???iia ??i ?yo? E??? e I??eth» e ???, ??? «????? ?????» 1479 ??
???eytho ??? ?????ey ????? ????e-????a 2-e ???? XI- ??? XV ??: («AE?? ?.
E??a ?????», ???ey e ??? ????y A??ey O????ai, «AE?? N??? Ae????? A???y
Oe???a, «I????a ??i ?. O???» E??a A????, «AE?? A???ey N???» e «AE?? ?.
O???y O???e?? I???? E???a), a ??a ??a ????y («????y ???? A????a A????a e
«AE?? na. E??a ????? n ??e ????» Ae???y E?????).

A ??a OV ?? a ????i ???u? ???? ???-?????e e ?????e ????a N???i e I??
C??o; ?y ?????y ??ue N????i (1529) e E?????i (1577) A???? a ????n?o
????? ?? ?????u ????? ???a ????u.

E????ay ?y????ue ??? ??a a ????yo, ??????o a ?????yo N?? – Ae?????i,
E?????i, N????i, E????, E??y??i, E????? e ???. Ae???a?? ????ue ?e ?????i
a 1476 ?aeo; ?????i ?i ????ey e ????y ?? ????? ???? ????a I??, ???? ????
a ????e ??e ?e ???i ??e ?n??e ????ey ??????i ??a. A 1488 ?? ????o I??o n
???y?, ?y??e?i Ae???i e A???i, ? ?????a ???? ????e e ???? ???ue na.
Ae???y a A????? ????a. A 1493 ?? ????, ???e ??? ????a N??, ????? ???ue
?. A??ey a E????e? ????a; ?i ???o ??a ?e ???i a ????? ??a. A 1499 ?? ??
??ue ????a ???ue ?. ???? E??a A???? a I???a, i ?i ???a???tho ??????y
????? ???? e ???e.

A OVI–OVII ??o ???i ???i ?????? ?? Y?????e ????ue Nay?e O??u (?e A????),
????? ??i???? (a OV ??) ???? ???? ????a, ??????? a ?????i ??? Yo???. A
Y?????i ????a ?? ???n?u ?ny?e ??????o ?? e ????a ????? ????ey, ??? ?????
?yu? ?????? ???ey?, ????? e ???th??. E???u ??a ???o e????: ????? A??,
????? Ae???, O?i A????a, ?? A??, ???a (???y) E?i, ????? E??a, ???a I???y
e ???. A ???e ????? ?? ?uan??o ?iy?a y?????e ??????i-???????? ??a. I???
I?y?i C??o ? E??a a 1598 ?? ??? ?y ????y ??o A?????? O??u, a ??c 4 a?a
???? ???ue ??????? ????? E?????? ????y. A Y?????i e ????o ????yo ?? ????
??e ??, a ?i ??a n ?????y? ????? ?y?o; ???e ? ?o ?? ???u ? ??y??i y??.
A????? ?? ?y????ue ????? ? ????e N???? ???u: ????? y? ???ue ???? ??ai?
N???ay ??y ?y?y ??.

O????a ?y????ue ????a ????? I??a C????? (N????i), ?????i a ??a OVI — ???
OVII ?? a ?????yo N?? e a C???e A???e, ?a ? ???e ?ny?e ??? e ?????. A
OVII ?? ?ee ??????u e ????u ??? a E?????i (1602), N????i, A???i (1626),
A????, O???i, I??????, E?y??i, E???? e ??? ????yo.

A????a ????a ?????? ? ??? ?????o ??y??o ???a, ???? ???eo. N XVI ?? ???th
??ey?i ??u?e ????? ???e, ??iy?? ????? e ??? ???? ??. I?? ? ?o a? ??y??e
?? O????e ????? Ae?i?? (??e), ?????e a I??o ???a E?????????i N??a (1590)
? ????? I?????? a ???e. I??e, a ?i ??a ???u ?????, I???????, Eyn????,
A????i e ??? ?????, a OVI–OVII ??o ?????e o I????o I????a e ????e ???? ?
??????a ?????? ???? e ??? ? ?e?n??e ??e. I??? ???e a ???th ? ????? ?
??????? n?? ???? ????e ??? I??????? ????y (1712), ?????o Ey????i ????y
(1718) e ???. I??i ??? ???? ????? ? ????e e ??? ? ???e a A???th ?????ue
??y??a ??e, ??? ??i ????i ????ey, ? ???? ???? ????i-??????o ???eth
?????i ???.

A OVIII–OIO ??o n ??? ?cy????o ?????? ??? ???e ??????y ????yi. A ???
??a?a OVIII ?? ?? ?????? e ???? ??? ?????? ??u e ???e: a 1700 ?? ?????i
E????? ????ue, a 1701 ?? — Ae?y???e, a 1704 ?? ????a ???y Nay?e O??u a
????a I??y?e A????u a ?? A???e ?ae O?ii?i, a 1716 ?? a ?i ? ?? ?? ?ay??
???y ????y ?y??ey I??ay, a 1718 ?? ?????i (? ?i ??a, ?a ?o??ny ???)
E?????? ????ue, a 1732 ?aeo ????a e ???? ???ue ?????i ????y. A ? ? ??y
?????ue ?????? ??u ?????e, ?????e e ???? ??. A ????yo ?????ue ?? ?y ?y?o
??e, ??? ??, e????u, ???, ???, ???u, ???? e ??? ???, ?i ????? ? ?? a
???? th????i e ????? ??, ??an?a, ???th?? ???.

1.2 I???? ?????a(ith???) e ?????i(??e)

Ith??? (???e, ????? y?i-???? ??????, o.a. ???oth ???o). Y?i ???? ??????
?????, ???a ????, n ????ey ???e, ????? ia ????? Ae? ?ue-??i. N??n
ith???? a ????o ???o e I???? ?????a ?? ? ???? ??e, ? ?? ? ??ue ?? e
????a ????y. N???i A? O??a?, ?e ????? ith????e ?????? ? ????th e ???? e
?i ???y? ??u ????? ??a. A ?????? n y?i, ?? ith??? ????i ??? ????i?a ?e
??e, ? ?????y ? ??? ??n(i??, “?i ? ?i”). A ????i ??a ?o ????e ? ?????ey,
?ny?th?a ? ?????? ??a. I???i ?? y?ya?y ??th??y?a. A? TH?o, ?? ???o, a
y?i ???a ? ???? ? ??i o???i, ? ???o, ?i ith??? ? eth?a ?????ey ??? ????
? ????? ??o. I???u, ???u e ????u ???yo e y?? ???o, ?e A? TH?o, e ?
?eoatho, ?i a ???? ????? ??a e ith???? ???o ????ue n ??? ???.

A?e ???? i ?i, ???? ?e ?o ith???? ????y a th????? ???, ?e ? ??e, ???o
????, ?i aei ???e N???? E??e ? y?i ???? ?o. A???a a 1535 a. a ???ey?yo,
???????o O???, ?? ????, ?i eth?a ???? e ????a ?? ????a, ????o O???, ?
????? I???? ???e ??tho ?????a ???u. I?? y? ??? ?? ??????? e ? ???
?????a, e ?????a ?? ??e ???? ????? ?e ??????e ????? ??o ??? ith????e.
O?? ???i, ith???u, a ??a ???? ???n? ? ????? I????i ?????a, ????ue a ???
n ??e ????e. A?e ? ???? ???eou ??o ith????e e ????? ?????, ?o, ?e e a
??? n ??e,?????? ????ue ????a ??.Ii e ??ue ?? ????a ???ey e ??? ?y
ith????: ????, ????a ?? ????ue a Ae??-e O?athi, a ? ????yo ?? ??e
??o????ue ????? ????u(?????e).

Ni ???? ??y ???? ???? n???e, ???????a ?????? I????i ?????a, e ?i ?????
????? th?ae???a ????ey ?????o ??a. Ii e ?? ???e I???? ?????i ?ei ????i
????i, e o ?? ? ?? ?e ????ey?ny C??o e ??? y?o ???.

TH????? ?????, ???? ?????? ?????? a I???? ?????a, ?? ? ith???u ?e ??e,
????e ??th ??o ??a ?ae???y O?-E????? ae???a ??o Ca???e ????e e O???e
?????e. N???i ?o, y? th????? ????? ?? ????.

E???i, ?i, ??a ??y-??? ??? ?????ue a ???a Ae? ?ue-??i, ???ath?a a y?e
??? ??? ?? ???? ???, ?e ??th?? ???? n ?e??? ?????? e ????? ?? ? ??? ?
???yo ??th???i ????. Y?o ???? ??o ????i ?????? e ??th???e ???? ???????
????y ???, a ??th??? ???? ??????-??e. N???i ??ai?, ??e a ???? ???y??
????? ?????o, e ??? ?y????e ???e ??? ?e ???e ?????e ???? ??a-??ueth. A
??o ? y? ????a ?????i ??i ? ?ay ??? ??e e ????a e ???y? ei ?? a ?????? ?
n?? ??e. A ??? ????o n ??e ?? ae??ny ? y?o ??o ???o.

E?? ?? ???e ???????e ???ue ? ????th e ??? ???yi:

1) O???? e ??e ? ?atho ? ????? ??yo ???ue ????e, ???, n???e e ???e. Ia
??i ?? y? ??i ?? ???? n ????ey ???e?y.

2) I? ? ?atho ????ii ??? ?? ???. O????? ????? ????ay.

3) Oa ? ?o, ???a ??o ?y?i n ??????, ??o ??? n?e ?? ??? a ??? ???e
??????e. Ae??a???i, ??? ????? e ??????? ????eth ??????i e ??????? ????y.
I??i e ?????th ????? e ??????e ??? ????e. I????, a N???a, E??a, N????
???a??e ????a ????? ????y ????, ????i, ???, ?????a.

4) O ?ay ?e ? ??o ????ue ????, a ?? i ??o o?atho, ? ??? ?o ? ? ????ue
i?????. E?th?y a ?? ??? ???y? e eth? ?a ???. Oi ? ???i ????y e e ?????i.

5) I?? ??e ?e ? ?atho ??i ?????ue ????u. Ae?n????i, ?ae ??? ??????e ??y
– ??. I??i ???u ??e ??i ? ??????a ???? ??????? ??o ??????. A???, ?a a
XVII a. ? ??a a y?i ?????e ?????i ???yth?y.

6) I??o ? ??e ??u ?e ? ??o ??y????ue ??ue ??????i.

7) Ii ????th e ???i?? ?e ??o ??e ?ay n ????i, ???? ?e ? ???a e ?????y? ?
???? ??i ?c ?????y. 8) O???? e ??e ? ??o ??? ??? e ??ue ?e o ????i.
E??ny a ?? ?????y ???. Y? ???ny ?e?i ???? ??a e “???i ??????o” ????a,
??o, ?e, ????, ??a ?e ??a.

9) I? ? ??o ??ue ???? ?????? y?e. Ia ??i ?? y? ???i ????nue ??? e ?y?i.
C???th ???? y?e ?????e ?????? th??i ?????i, ??u ???ue ??? ????a e ???.

10) I? ? ??o ??ue ? ?????i ??, ??? ??th ?e ??? ??? ? a ??, ? ?a ??. A??i
??cy ??ue ??? a n??a, ?? ?y?i ??aey?y ??a ?????, ??u ? ?? ?? ?.

11) Ia ?atho ??i ???a? ?? ?????i.

12) Ia ??o ????ue ?i? ?y a ???? n ???th.

13) Ia ??o ??? ???e ?yn.

14) A? ??o ??a ? ?atho ??i ???i ??? ??o e? ?? ?y?a ???.

15) A? ??o ??a ? ?atho ??i ??? e ??? ???ue, ? ??? ???? (???y ??o ????e
??) E????? ?? ??a ?e ????. Ec-? y?? a A??e, A???e, ? A?? ????e ????e ???
?????? ????a.

16) O ?o ??o ??? ???? ?? ?????a ????ey. E??ny a ?? «? ????y ???ey ?????.
Ia ??i ??, ?? ??????? ??a????, ?i ????a, ????? e ??e ????e ????? ????
?????a ???a?? n ??????? ?????o ??????, ???? ???? ? ??y ???.

17) I?? ??? ?? ???ny ? ?????. I??y ????? ???a ????? ????e.

18) I????a ??o ??? e ?y? ? ?????? ????o, ?? ?e ??? ? ??? ?y ?????e.

II ???e: O????a ????y a ???yo ????? ??u???

2.1 E??uey??a ???????? e ????a ???y??a

A XVI a. a I???? ???e ?????th?? ?? ???? ????? ????y. O???iay ????i?? ?
??th ????a a ????? ???. Aei ??a XVI ???ey ???y ??ue ????o ??? I???? ???e
y?y?? ???????e ??????ueth, ????i ???y???i ? ?e ???. I??i a ????????
????? ??u ??ae??ue ?? ??ue y?o ???. C????ioth ??ue ???????? ????? ??a
???ey? ???ey (??i) ??? ???a — ??? ??e a A???e, O??e, I????, A??e, N??e e
O???e. Ae??u n y?o ??? ???i ????e a ??? ?n??y??a ???a e ? ????? ?i ??a.
I??a ???e A???e (????, A??y, E???, O??, E??? e ?.) o?? ????ey? ??e
??????ue ???a e ?i ??e — ???e e ??? ?e?? ??????a.

N??i ???? ???????a ??e ?i??i a ??????? ???? ? ???yo ???-???i ???ey.
A???? ??o e ???o ??a («????, «??» — n ???i ? 3 ?n. ?? e «????» — ? 3 ?n.
? 100 ?n. ??). Y? ??e n??? ???e y?????? ?? ???? e ????i ????? ???e ??
?????a.

Ec ?? ? ??a ???????o ??? ??? ???? ????? e ??????ui ????? ????a ??uey,
??? n ???o (?e ????? ???e, e ??ae n ?o ???ey?y a ???a ? 100 ?n. ?? e ??)
???i ?e ? ????? ???????o ????? ??? ????y. Ea?? ???? ?????y ???? n
???????o ?o ??? ?? ? ?e ??, i?a ? ?i ???y?y ?i ??.

A XVI a. ????u ???a, ???? e ??? ??? ?? a ???o e ? ?? ?????? ?cy??a. I?
???? ????? ????? n ?aey?o ? c?? ???yi n ???th ?????e e ?i??? ???e, a
???i e ?????.

Ae??e ??? ????? ??????e ? ??th y?y?? ?e ????? ???? a???y. E y?e ????e
?????? ???? ????a ???e, ?????ny a ??? ??????e ???e e ????? ?aea ???
?????o e ????????o ?????. Y? ????a ???ey ????ey? n?? y?????oth ?? ?????i
??????i ?ey?y ??e????i ?????a a I???? ???e.

E ????e ???e ????? ??????e ?????? ??e ????, ????? ca ??a-?? ???e ???
????? ???u ? ??????? ??i ???y??ny ??i??ey??e ??ey?. Y? ????y o????e
??????e ? ??th (?a ????? «ith??) ???? a I???? ?????a ? ??? ??? ?i
?????y. I???y ? ?, ?i ????? ith??a ??iy?i ?????, ? ???? ?n ? ??a XVI
???ey ?e ???e.

C?? ?? ????e ????? n?????? ????? a ??????? ???a?? ???y??a. Ia ?? ?????
I???? ???e ???y?, ???? ? ??yo o???a, ?eth??? a ???? ??e ?ae i???? ?ey
(?ey, ??y) e ?? ?y?? ?????? ????ua ? ??eu. I?????a ?ey?a e ? ???i ??
??????i a ???o ?? a ??a XV a. A ???a XVI a. ?e ???n ?????ey ???y??a ? ??
????? ???e, e ? ??? ???? XVI a. ???i N???ia ?????? ?????? ???i??a ???yi
e ??a. A ??? ?????, ?i ?eyo ?y?i ?? ? ??a ?? ???a, a ??? ???? ? ???. A
?i ???, ?? ?eyo ????? ???ye ????? ?o ??e e ????e ? ??th ???i ???a, ???e
???? a ???a 15—20 ?o ?a ????ue ?i e ????ue ?????ny ??ae, ???a ? ?? ?? e
??o.

I????ay ????? ? ???, ???y?-?ey? ??e a ??? ????? ????i?a ??????? ?????
?????. A XVI a. a I???? ???e ?????? ?a ?e ??u ????? ??u — ?????ay,
?????y e ???ay. I???a ?????i??? ?? ??a ?????. ??y-????? a?e ?y?? ???ue
?ny?? n ??ay ????o, ???o e ????o ????, ??a ? ?? ??a ??a, a ??a ???y?
???oth ?????. C??????o i?????i ??i ????? e ????? ?i????ny. A ????o ???o
???y?i ?????ue ??a ?????? ????i ?? a ?? o ??????? ? ??????, ? ????a ??,
???ey? ??a, ???, ??, ????ue ?o ?????? ???e e o. i.

A? ??????a ?? ????? ?y?? ?? ???y? e ?ey-??????. Ii ??o ?? ?e ???e a ??o
??? i???e ??a — ??ueth n ???? ????y, a a ????o ???yo A????? ?????a ??
??a ?y?? ???ey? ??c ??? 3—5 ?o ????a ?y yi???? ??e. I???yy ????? (?e
????? ????), ????y ???? ?????yi ??i ? ??????? ???a ??????? ???ey?e
?????i ????y, y?ye?ue ???? oy?? e ?????? ?y ?o, ?i ?e ?y?i ? ???youe.

I??i ?? ?????e, ???a ?ey? ???y? a ??? ??o ???????a, i? ??? ?? ?? ???y?
?yae ?????o ???o ?????e (?????ny «???») ?????a?? a ??? ??u. A????ny a ??
????e, ????? ?? ?o???? ????, a ???i e a ???? ??a, y? ?e ????? ??? Ae??a
?? ?i ???????, ?i ??? ?? ?? I???ay ???y. O?? ???i, ???a ???????a ???y??i
a I???? ???e ??i ? ?? ???? oy?? ? ????eth ?????th?? ??? e ?? ????
???????e e ???e ??? ????? ???e.

C?????y ??ue ????y I?? A?e ????? ??e ??ue ?????, ????i?o a ????a ?e ???a
?th?. I??iyy? ??a ???e, ??iy?? a ???ue?e ?????e ? ???a, ????e ???e?
????. A ???a ??y ? ?o ??????ue ??y? ????e, ???a ? ??a ? ??? ???????e ???
?? y?y?ny ii ???o ?? ???a a ????a ??i. O ????? ??? 25 ??? ???ey? «??»,
???e ??? ?e ???ey? ? ??e ??u iy? «????? a ??ae, ?????y ? ? ?? ?? ?iy?,
???i e ???????i a ??i? ??i ???. Ca y? e???ee ??????ue ? ??? ???a a ??o.
Ii ? ?? ??, ?e ????? ??a?a ???u ????, ?y???? ??y?a, ?n??y??ny ? ?????,
?? a ???e i?a ??e ??????ny ?????i ?????e?? ??o: ??????? ??a, ???, ???e
???e e o. ae. A???e ???e ????ey ????? ?? th?-????a e th?? ???e A???e, a
??a ????a ??? I??i?e e TH?? A???e.

A ???o XVI a. ???y?? ??u ???????i ??a ????? ??????y ? na?? ???e a eth?i
?????e: «Ia???? ??yi ?o ???. N ???o ???i ?????i ?e, ?? ?? ???ey?ny, a ?i
??a ??ue ? e ??? .. N ???o ???i ? ????? n ???i ??????a ???? ????ue e
?????ue. A?e ?i-ee? ????? ? ?n??i, — ???o ??a ????? a ??a?a. AE??e ????
? ?atho ?????? e ????i e ??? ? ??o ????ue ??-?? ???? ? ??.

I???a, ?e e ??? ??e ???e, ??e ?? ??????ueth ?????a, ??a???, ???? ??.
A??? ?e ?i??, e ??o ???o ?????? e ??e ???o ???i. Ai ?? y?o ??ayo ????ey
??a ??????e ? ??th ?e ??a ???ey ath ?????? ??, a ??? ???? ????e n ?????,
?i??? ??c a? ??e, ?????oth?a ??? e ??u. Y? ??? e ??u ????ey? ??e ????oth
??o ? i?? ?????y ???e.

E???? ? ??????ue e ????? ??e e ? ??e ??????? ???a. I? ?????? ????? ???e
???, ????. A?e ???? ?e ?????e ????? ??? ? y?y?y ?????? ??? ???e ?e ??, ?
? ?a ?????y ? ????? ?? ???o ??i, ?e ?e ?e ???y?? ??? ??i ????i ?e ???i
?????i.

I??a ????? a ??i i????ue a y?????? ?????e ? ????? ??????a ??e, ??? ???
????e ?? ???e ??? y?????e e th????e ???e ????th ? ??e ???, e??ay ?? ?y??
???? ???e e ?a ?????e ????a ??e e ?ai????e. O?????a ???a ?y? ?e???e
????oth ??????eth ??? ???o ??i. O??i ????a ?y? n ???e ????e, ??ay ?
??th, ?????? a ?ey?a, ?a ??????? e ??i ??e?. I??i ???n ???ey ????? ?
c?eth ????? ?????i ????, ?e ?e ?e, ??iy? ????ue ??? ?e ???? ????? ?
?????e ? ???u ???????a, ??? ????ey?? ?? ???? ???? y?o ???n ???????e ???.

III ???e: A???ey A????o ????

3.1 ??o ???????? e ???????i ???ey A????o ???a a ??a XVI-XVII ??a

I???a ????y a I?ie A?e a ??? ???? XVI a.

A?? ???? ?????? n ??? XVI a. ???? ? ??e ????? e ?c ?? ??????? ???a, a
????e ???a a ??? ???oth?o ??e, ???a ?????i ???i ????e ??c ??a? e ??? I??
A?e ?e ????????ue a ?o ?y ????? e ??i ?????yi ??? N?????i ?????a e ????
??i. O?ae??? ????e ????e n ???yi ?? ??? ???a ?y ????ey ??o ??y?a, a ??a
e??i a y? ??y ??a ???ue ????e?a ???a ??? (???). A? y? ?? e ????eth ????i
?????? a I?ie A?e. Y? ?????? ??i ?i? ????a ? ??? a ??????? ?????yo ????i
???y??a e ?????-?????, ? e a ???????e ??? ????? ??? e ???a, a ?i ??a
???e ????o ???? I?? A?e — ???, ???, ?iyi e ?.

A 1511—1512 ?. Ia?y A?y ?? ???? ???? ????? ?ae ??????n?? O?-?? (?e
O??i-??). A????, ??i?y ? ?, ?i ?i ?????i ?ae ?e????e ????e ????e, ??
????e ???? ?????? e ?????-????? I?? A?e ??aoue ?????a ??i???? ???eth
????? y?????e. O?-?eo, ?????? ?ay «?????», ???? e ??? ? ?????y ????o
???o. A ?yo n ?????e a ???o N??a e E??? ????? ??? ?????? o??? ????y.

No?? N?? I ?e ?????oth ??? ??? y?? ????y. I? ??i ?e?a a I?? A?e ?? ?????
??a 40 ?n. ???e. O??? ?uy?y?? ?a, ?? ??i ?? ?????ue a ??????e o???i ????
e ???o.

A 1518 a. ????i ??? e??? ???? ????a — ?ae ?????? ?a?uey?? I? A?. Oe???
????y ?? ???u E????a e I???, ??? ?i ?n??????ue ???a ? A??e e O??a.
A????a e ??ue ????e ??? ???a e ?????e. I?? ??????o ??a n ?????e ????
????? ??ay?? ? ???yi. Ii ??? ??a ????a, ????a a 1519 a. a ?????yo Oi??,
a ???? ?? ???? ?th Oe????oth A???th. E????i ????? ????i 20 ?n. ???e.
??????? y?? ??oa?y ?e ?? ? ???e O??a, Ae??e, ? ??e ???? ?a ????i ?aea
???? ????y ??e ?????? ??a??y «????.

E? e ????? ????y, ????a Ae??? ?? ????? ??? ????a ???? ????, ??? ??????
i??i??e e ???a, ??? ????? ????? ????? e ????a ???a. A????? ????u ????e
E???? e ?????ue ? A??o.

Aeey ????ey y?? ????y ???o N??o I ???? ???ue a I?oth A?th c?????a ???a
??. A????a a ???? ?ae A???? ?? ???u e ??ay?. Ae??e ??e a ?? ????e e
????y ???? ??e.

I??i ???? n ?????e ????i ???? ???y??a ??u. A ???a 1525—1526 ?. ????a ???
I?? A?e ??? ? N??a ?? ??ue ???? ???y??i ?????, ? ??a ???? ??? E??
N??i-?? e C??i-??. A 1526 a. ????a ?ae ?????? E????-??, ??????a ? 30 ?n.
????? — ??e e e???o ?????, ???? ??i I???. Ca???ueoeu e ????u ????e ia
??? ????ey ?????e e ???a, ? e ???? ????o ??? e ??a?, ???a ?? ????u ?????
??? e ???u ???? ????.

A????a ?????? ???? ????y ?????i ??y?i e ?? ???u ??? ??a ??, ?e ??? ?o ??
???? ??????ay ????ay ??y ? N???a.

E??uey??a ????y ??? XVI a. a Ia?e A?e ????????e i ??? ????ee ????e ??? a
???? ????? ????. A ???? XVI a. ?e ??i ????? ?? i ????? y????o ??e??a a
????? ???o ?? ????e ???e. Y?? ??? e ?????? y??ae?ey? ????? ??? ???ue ?
????a ??y ?????? ?????a a I?? A?e.

3.2 A??a ?????a ? ?????? ? ??? O??e

A ??? ????i ????? *????e ????? ?? ????th ?n? ?e ?????, ???th ?a ???? a
??iy?a ??y. Y? ?? ????y ??ay ???ue, ???ay ? ??? ? ?e I??e e C?u. A
?????i-y????n?i ????e *????y ????a ? ??? th???y??o ???. I??? ?ae ???
???? ???? ????o ???a ??i I???? e AE?ey? ??e ?????a ?????o ??? e ????
???a ????. I?????? e A??? ??i ??????i ????y ? E??a ? A?a ????? ? ??? e
??th e ?? ??a ???? y????n?a ????a *????e.

C??ay? ???i ???i ??????i, ?????y ???? ???e ??e, ?????a o ???? ??? ??,
????? ? ??e ????i?? ?? ??o ?????o ????o ?????? e ??? ???i ???? ? ???.
O???a ?y? ??????? n ????? ???? – I????e, N??i, I???i, N???i, ? ???i ????
n E???, ?? ????u ???ey? ? ?i?? ?? e ???? ??????, a ???? ??, ??, ??o e
??? ?????a ? ???. *????u ??? ?? ??iy?i ???? ?ith ??th ? ???i? ???? ??e
?e ???? ???i. Y? ????i a ?o ???a ??? ????, ???i ?y ??? ? ieo ???a ??
?????. O? ?e *????y ????ue ????? ??i, a ?e ? ?? ???? ???? ????. O??? ?y
????e ??y ????? a ???i ?a??e ????o ??e, ??? e ????? ? ??? ?????? ??????e
???e ???? ???.

O???? ??????o ?e e ? ???ue ???? ?ith ??? a *????e, ?a???? ???e ? I?? ??
??? e ????? ????ue e ??? ?????? ???, ???i ??????y n ???th ?a?? ??.
*????u ??e ??a ???a ?uey????? ??ae I??e: ?e ??? ?? ???? ???o ? ????e ?
?a. I??a ???y, ?????y a *????e – ?????? ? ???? ??, ??????ue ??? ???u ?
???? ?ny????a – ?e?? e ??, ?i ?i ????ee? ? ??? ??????? ??a ?a?i ???????
– ???????? ???u-???a, ??iy?? ? ????? ???a. I???? ?????y ??e e ??? –
??????e ?th??. I? ????i ????? ? ????e e ?? ???a ???ey. I?ia? ????e ???
??i ???, a ?o ??? ??th??? ?????ey ???? ??a, ?eth???i ????a ?????a ???:
???y ??ue. A ??? ???e ??ny ?? ??-???? ?? ???? ???, ?o?ey ???? ?? ?y ??
?y?????. I??i ? ???? ?y ??? ????????ue a ??o ????i-??? e ???, ?????
??????ny ???????e ???e ? y? ????ue, ??a ?? ??ny ???e ??. Ii ???? ???
?????i a ????yo ??o ????e ??oy? e /a?????. Ii ??? a??? ??? e ???a, ?e
???i ?? ????.

A *????e ?????e ??e ??????? ??i-?? ?e ????. Ia ?i ??e?ue ???? ??? ???u
????? ??e, ????e n ???e, A???e e ???e ??????e. ???ey ????? ??????, ???i
??? e ????? ????e e ???e-??????y? ???i ???e. Iae?? ?e ??e ? ?? ????
????a???i ? ??? ???i.

I???y ? ??????a y?? ????i???? ????????i i??a, ???a ?? ??ue ????u ??o
??e, ??e ?o ? ?????? ??? e ?????a ?????ey. I?????y ??ue ? ??i ?????? e
????e ??oy?, ???????e ??i ??i ???ue ?ith ??? e ?ey?a a *????e. N ?e ?
?eueth ?????ue ???? ?????e, ?i ???i e ?????th ??e ?????a ?iy ?????a,
???, ? ?? ??.

A y?o ???yo ?????? ????, ???iy?? ?????? ???a, ?? ?????ay ???ue. A 1750-o
?. ????? ??????ue ??? e ?????? ???? ?????? ??????, ????, ? ???i? ???iy??
???a a ??? ???????a ??a. ?????y ?????? ?????? ?e ??? ??????ue a ??????
??o E???? ??e. I???? ???ai? ????? ?? ????i e ????a ???ey, ? ???o ??
???y?, i?????y ? ?? a ????? ?????e. A?????e ? ?????y a ????? ?? *????e.

A XVII ?? ???? ??????i e ???u ???e ??i ? ?????ea ???a, ??iy? ??? ? ?????
??,????ue e ??ey?? ??? ??? e ??? ??a ???. Y? ???? ????a ???? ??? ? ???u
?????a, ????? ?? ??a e ?????. A??a ?????? ????y?? e ???????? ??????e,
????? ???e e ??i??.

A????y ??? ???o ???????o ????th a ???a ???? ???? ? A???o, *????y a XVII
?? ??a ???e?ue e ?? ?? ???a ???? ????e? ??????, ???????? a ??aa n O???.

*?????a ?????u, ??u e ???u, ? ??e ???u ?????? ????y a ??? n ???e ? ??? ?
?a. I???????y ???? A?????e ?????, ??? ??u n I???? ????, y?????? ?y?
?????a n Ei??i e ???e ???? I???y – ?a y? ??????? ?????eth ???o ??????
?i??? *????e n A???e.

A??a n ??????, ???? e ???????e ????e ????? ????y? ?o????a ?????a ? ??y
E????e ??u O??e n A???e ?-? E??. A 1648a. ?????? ?? ??n ???a ? ??????
?????? A??? ?ae *??a??e ?e ???e, ?? ????? ??? ? ?ay ?????? ?y?????. I??i
yo? ?o ? ?? ???? ?????e ?-? ?oae?e ???o ???? A??? ??? ??e.

A?????a ???? a *????e ??yei ???e ??? ? ??y ??u “Nay??? ??” n O???.
C????? ????ay e y?? ???e A??ey ?????? ??e ??o a Ae???e e *????e ???
i???i ????y. Iiy?? ????? ??e ????e ??iy? ??????i ???o e ????o ??? ??y?
????a ??? ??e. *?? ??????ue ?i, ????? i?a n ???i ???i ???? ??? ?????? e
??n ? a 1685a. ????a a ??a o A????e. Y?i, ???, ? ? ?? ????ue ?????a e
i????e. A 1688a. ?????y ??a ?????? ??? i??a ??e ??ue ????????. A ??a o
?? E?? ?e ???e ??? ????a ????a. I?? y?? ?????? ??, ??????? ?????? ??ueth
??? ? ??a n ?????? A?????, ??e ???e ?ae ??? A??? e ???ue ???eth ???ue ??
??? a Oe???. N?????y n ????e ???? ?????? e a ??oth?a ??. Ii A??ey ?
????a ?????i ?????e ???e ???. I???? a Oe??? a 1691a. ????e ???e ??yae ?
?a ???? *????th ? ???? ????e. A 1692a. ???? ??? ??ue ????ue a *????th,
???? Oe???? ????? e ????? ?i.

I?? y?? ????o??? ???? ?????a ??i ????? ?????. I????? ? ???? ??? A???e,
?e ????u ?? ???? ?????o ????i ??????a. I??i I?? ?e e ? ???ue ????? ???th
??? ?ae ????n?? ????e. A XVIII ?? ??? ?????a ??? ??e ???? a ??th ??. I?
???y ??? ? ??? ?????? ? ???? ??oe e ???? ?????e ???????e ?????e.

C????a

I????y n ???? XIV a. ?????a ??e ? A??o ???? ???i ???? ??? ????? ???a
TH?-A???? A??u. E ??? XVI a. a ??? I???? ???e ??e: A??y, A???y, N??y,
A??y e A?????, *????ey e A??ey. A ????? ? O??e a????? ?? ????? I???y e
A??ey.

O?a?? ????? ????i ???/??a ???? ????? ???a e ???i e ?????e o ?o ?????
????e.

?????? ????i ????ey ?? ?a????a ????? ???????? ?e a i????? ???yo. A??a e
??, ???a ????e ??????a ???? ???i, ????y?? e ????ue; ???e ???e ???ey? ?e
??y? a ???i.

N??y? ? ???? ???, ????i eth?e ???ey?? a ??? ???. I???? A????? ?????a
?????ue, ??? ???a ???? ???e ????, ?????? ????? ???? ??e ?? ???a?. E???
??? ?????? ?????? a ???? e a ??? ????i ????ey. Ec ??o ???a ????
???i-?????a ????a ???i ??iy??.

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