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Октябрьское восстание и II Всероссийский съезд советов

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?a??o

«I?y???a ????a e II A?????? ??ae ???a»

I. I?y???a ???a?? ????a

1.1 E???? ?? ?????? ??o?ey

I??th 1917 a. a ???e ????ue ?a ???y ?y ??????i ?????? ????y. A.E. E??
?????? ??? ??? ? ??????ue ???? ????? ????y. A ???a ? ???e ??o o ???e
???a e ????ny a A?????n, a a ???? ??y?y — a A??a, ??? ????e ?????
?y????ueth ???, ?????e ?????? ????y.

A ???? ??y?y E?? ???e ?? ?????? ??? a OeE ???: «A????e ??? ?y? ???» e
«I???i e ?n???». A???? E?? ??e: «I??? ?????i a ??o ????o N??? ???o e
????? ????a, ????ee ??o e ??? ?y? ???????th ??? a ?? ??». Ii ????, ?i ?a
???y, ?????a ?y ??? ????y, ???. I??? n ????? ?? ??cy, ?e ?e A????
??????i ????? ??th?? n A???? ????? ?? e n ???th ?????o ??? ????? ??
??????ny ??a?????e ??eth?e. A ??o ???o E??, ???? ??a I??a i ?i, ?i ????a
?? ????i, ??????: ????a ???? ???? ? ??o, ?i ??i ????i e ?????a ?????ue.
1 ?oy?y E?? a ??i ??? a OeK, i?????? e ????? ?????i ??a ???e e ?????e
?a???? ????y.

7 ?oy?y E?? ? ???th OeE ??? ????? ???e ? O?ey?? a I???? e ????e ?th ???
? ????? ????y. Ia ??oth?e ?? ? ???e ??ueth «N??u ??????», a ???e ???e
????? ?? ????ey ?????? ????y. E?? i???? ?????? ??????a e ????a ?????a ?
??? I????a ? ???o ????a, a ??a ??eth???? ??y?? ? O?ey??, Y???, E????a,
???ue a ?????a ?? ??, ???ue ?a???e ???n ?e ??eth?e ?ae ?????th???o ?????
??? e ??a, ????ue e eth?e ??e ???? ???i, ????, ???????a ???e, ??u, ???ue
????a ??y? ? ??o ?????o y???? — «?????, ?a?? ????, ??? ???? — ?y ???a ??
????o ???a. Aea??i y?o ??y?a ??? ??: «N??ue ?e ???».

Y? ?a??y E??a ??e a ??? ?? ?y????e ??? ? ????? e ?i???th ?????? ????y.

1.2 I???a ?????? ????y

10 ?oy?y 1917 a. ??iy?? ?????? ????a OeE ?NAe?I (a). N ???? i ???i ???a
???? E??. Oe????? E??? ??ye ?i ??eth?th, ?????oth ????i ?????yi ??? ?a
?????? ???u ??aey ? ??, ?i ?????a ????a ????i e ??? ???i. Oe?? oy??e
?i???i ????e ? ?????th ????? ????y. I??a ???e? ??eth?e ????? C???a e
E???, ???a, ?????i ???ay ?????a ????o ?e, ? ??? a ??o ????y. Ia y?i
????e ?y ?????a ???e ?? ???i I?????a ath? OeE ? ??a n A.E. E???.

???th?y Oe?????i E???a y??? ??? ????? ???ey ?y ?? ???. Ii ???eth OeE
???? I??????i N??a ???o e ???n?o ????a ??? A??i-??eth???e ???o (A?E),
???e ?? ????i ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????y. I??a???i A?E ?e ???? I.E.
I????e, ????? — A.A. A???-I??i?.

16 ?oy?y ??iye?ue ?????a ????a OeE ??? ?????a, ?a E?? ???? n ?????? e
???e ??eth?e ? 10 ?oy?y. E??? e C???a ??ue ?a???e ???? ?????a ????a. Ii
OeE ??? ? ?????a. A?a ??y? ??eth?y A.E. E??a. 16 ?oy?y OeE ???
A??i-??eth???e ??? ? ?????o ?????i ????? a ???a A.N. A???, O.Y.
Ae?????i, ss.I. N????, E.A. N??? e I.N. O???i. A??i-??eth???e ??? OeE
????e A?E I??????i N??a.

A ?? ? 18 ?oy?y E?? ??? ????a n ??a???y? ???e ?????e ?????a e ???e A?E.
Ii ???e ?e??a ? ??????ue ????? ???-?????e ????? ??o?ey. Aeey y?e ?? OeE
??? ??o ??????? a Ae???, ? O?e, a E????o, N???, ? TH?-C???e ??o e a ???
??a. A ?oy?a ???a?? ??? ??????? ????a ?????e, ??? N???, ?????e ?????a,
???a ???e ??oth ?? a ?????e ?? ? n???????th ??eth?th.

Anth? ?ae ?????? ?????a ?????ue ??y? E??? ???e. A ?oy?a a 62 ???o ???
??????ue ? 200 ?n. ????????. A??? ?? ????? a I????a. Ai ??? ???? ?oy?y
??ue ?? ? 23 ?n. ?????o ?????ae??a. Ca ?????? ?i ???yth?a ?????i ????o
???o, n??o ????a e ???? A????? ??a. A??????y ?????y I????a ?????a a ??o
?y?o ??i 50 ?n. ??? ???. «E?ay ??? o ??eth?e, — ???e E??. — O??ue ??a
???a — y? ???y? ath ?e, ??u ????».

A ??a? ????? ????y, 18 ?oy?y, E??? e C???a ?????? a ????????? ??? ?y???
i ??i ????? n ???? OeE i ????e. O? ??i ?e ??? ??o ?????y a ??a ???a ???
i ????? ?????? ????y. Y? ?e ?????e ?o ??????a. A. E. E?? ????? ??????
??th??y ??o ??????? ec ??? ‘.

A???? ??????i, ???????a i ?o?y??y ????e, ???i ?????th ?????th???o ?e ?y
?i ????ey. Ii y? ? ??i ??????ue ????oth ??? ????ie ????u.

I? ?????? OeE e E??a ????? ???ee ?? ??eth?e e ??? ???i ??. A?E ????
????? ? ?a ??e, ? ???a ??? e ???, a I??????oth ????. E????-????? ????
??? ??? ??u ???o e ???. E??? ??y? E??? ???e, ??eth???? ??o, ???? ???th
?? ?? ????? ??? ???a. A ???? ??????y, ??????a ?ae I??a??i, ?? ?????
????u, ??u ???? ??? ? ???o ??a?????e ??eth?e.

1.3 I??a ?????? ????y a I????a

A???? ??????i ??? ???ue ?e???o ? ?e ?????a e ???e ?? ? ??i ?a?th?e. N?a
?????a ?????th?y ??? 24 ?oy?y a 6 ??a ?? ???? ????? ?????e ??i ???????
??? — ??? «???? ??», ????oth ??? «I???. Ii ????? ?e ??? ??eth???o ???
??iy? ?ith ???.

O?? 24 ?oy?y ? ????e OeE ?? ??? ??/?ue ss.I. N???? ??th??a ? ???ey?
??????a, A.N. A??? — ? ????e ????, O.Y. Ae?????o — ? ??? e ?????, A.I.
I?? ?e ????i a I??o. A??a ??iy?? ????a I??????i ???? ?????a n ?a??i ???,
?a ?? ??y? ???a ???? ?????a ????a a? ????i ?????y.

Ii ???o A?E ? ?????a ???ey?e ???u ?????? ???. I?y? E???e ???e, ??eth???a
???? ??e ???? a ???o ????? ????e, ????e ??u ??c I?o, ????e ???? e ??? ?
???? ???? ???i, ????ee ???? ?ae Oe????? ?????,

I??i O???, y?y??ny a ? ??y ??????i I??????i N??a, ?ae ?y??e ????ue ?ae
?????? ????y. I?ay? ?oy?? ????a ?????i ??????a, 24 ?oy?y a I?????? N??a
? ???? ? ??????ue ??th?o ???? ? ??? A????i ??????a ? ???y ???a i ???
A??i A?????? ???i N???, ???e ??? ?e ????y ??? ? ??oth?e ??. O?ay ???y
O???i ???a ??? ??eth?e.

A.E. E??, ?????? n????y ? ?????e ????, ??a i ?????e O???i, ???i 24 ?oy?y
???e ??? a OeE, a I?????? e ???? ???? ??ee, a ???i ??? ??? ???th O???i.
E?? ???e ????? ????ue e ????? A???? ????? ??????i: «…? a ?? ??? ?
???y? ??? a ??o E????i e ???? ? 25-?, ??? ????; ??? ?? ???y ????? ???i
?e ??th». I??i ??????ue ???i ???????i: «I????? a ?????e ??? ????.

E?? a ??????e ?y??i, ???? ???? Y?i ??uey, n ??? ?y ??e i????y a N???e,
?a ????? OeE ??? e ?? ????y — A?E. I??a a N???e, A??i? E?? ??o ? ????e
?????i ?????i ?????. Ii ???e e ?? ??????? ???a e ???, ???? ????a, ??y?a
E??? ???e e ??e ? y?? ???ey ? ?????e ????y. I????? ? N???? ? ?a ??? ???
???ey?? ?y??, ??u ?????ue ???ey E??a e A?E.

A ??o?a ???? ???a ?? ??eth?e: ??y? E??? ???e, ??e e ?o??? ????a, ???a
???e A????? ??a. A??i-??eth???e ???o ??c ?????eth ???? «A??? ???? ???i,
???y?? ???? e I????o, ? ????? a ???o ? ??e ??e, ???y ??a ? ??? ? i??ue
A????o ??????o.

A???? ??????? ??? e ???i. A ?/?? 24-? e a ?? ? 25 ?oy?y ??y? ???o, ??? e
???? ?iy? ?e??, ???o, y??????th, A??????? ??, ??? ????????a ??ey. E ??
25 ?oy?y ??? ???a a ?? A??i-??eth???? ???? I??????i N??a. A?? A????i
??????a E???? ??e ? C??? ??? ? ?????? ???, ??y? ????ue n ??? ??ea ???
??eth???? I????a. A????? A???? ?????o? ???? ? ??? ?ae ???e th??? e ???o
?????, ??ay i??? ???? ???.

A 10 ??a ?? 25 ?oy?y (7 ?y?y) A??i-??eth???e ???o ?????e ????? A. E.
E??? ????a «E ????i ???e!», a ???i ????? i ????e A????i ??????a e i ????
??? a ?? A??i-??eth???? ???? I??????i N??a. A???? ?????i ???o, ???? ???
???????? ??eth?e ? ?? ???.

Ae?i 25 ?oy?y ??iy?? y????a ????a I??????i N??a ???o e ????? ????a, ?
???i ???? E??, ?????i ?????e ?????ny.

«???ay e ???y??y ??eth?y, i ??????e ???? ?a ??y ???? ????ee, ?????ue…
I??a ????o ??y ??? a ???e ??n?, e ??ay, ??uey ???y ??eth?y ??? a ??i
???? ??a ???? e ??? ?????», — ????? ?y?e E??. Ii ?i ???o N?? ??ye
?c?th?th, a ???e ??y? ??????e ?????? ?????a ??o?? ??? ????u ????e.

O? ?a??i ????a a I????a ????? ???i ?????y. N?u ??eth?e ????? ??e. *??
???????? 25 ?oy?y ???? 40 ?n. ???e. Ec E????a, ???y (?? O??i), A??????
???e ??ua ???e e ??? ?ny? ??eth???o ???? A????? ??a, ?????? Oe?????i.

E ??? 25 ?oy?y ??y? ????????, ????, ??eth???o ??? ????e ????a C??? ???.
*?? ???? ??????y, A?E ??uy?e A????o ??????o ????? i ??a, ? ??? ? ?????i.
A 9 ??a 40 ??o ??? ???e n ???? «A??? ????e ??? ??? C??? ???.

26 ?oy?y a 2 ?? 10 ??o ?? C??e ??? ?e ?yo. *?? A????i ?????i ???a??? ??
????? e ??th?? a I??????oth ????.

A????? ????a a ???a ????. A??ue ???a a ?? A??i-??eth???? ????, ???e ???e
? II A??????o ?a?o N???.

II. A??e A?????? ?a? N???

2.1 I??????a ???e ?????? N???

25 ?oy?y a 10 ??a 40 ??o ??? a N???i ???ny ?????? II A?????? ??ae N?a?a
???o e ????? ????a. Ec 673 ????a ?? 390 ?????a, 179 — ??o y??a. I??a y??
e ?????, ????? a ?????a, ??i????i ?? ? ???.

A?? ????o ????a ????e ???? n???? i ?y?e C??? ??? e ??? A????i ??????a.
A?? ? y?i n ???? ??????? ??ae ??ye ????? E??? ?????? ????a «E ???i, ????
e ???y?i!».

A y?i ????a ??ae ?????? ???ae ?ae ??? a ???e, a ??? e ? ???, e N???
???o, ????? e ?a?uey??o ????a: «I??y? ? ?eth ????? ?????a ???o, ??? e
???yi, ??ay? ? ??????y a I????a ?????? ????a ???o e ????a, ??ae ??o ???
a ?? ??…

N?? ?n???y?: ?y a??ue ? ??? ????o e N??? ???o, ????? e ???y??o ????a,
???a e ??? ????? ????e ??eth???e ??y??. O?? ???i, ???y ??a ??i???e N???.
N?? a ??y?i ????i ????e ??????e ????o ????o ???ey?e N???? ???, e
??????th ???? ?a ??? ?? ????? ?????: ?????a ???????ai ?? ?? ???i,
??????y ?????y ?????, ????, ?i????o ??? e ???? ? a ???y??a ???y??o
????a, o?????a ???? ???ey ?ae ??????i, ????? ??? ??????? ??e; ?????a ??
??yi, ??eyth?i ???th, ???i?i ??a ? ???????a, ??? n ???i e o. ae.

N?? i??? ??? a ??? e ?????? e ????e, e ??? ??eth?e ? ?y?o ?ny????a
??????, ?? N???? ??????i ? ???ny ??th??y ???????? ??. C??a ??eth?e, ???a
???e N???? ????ee ???o e ???yi ??a ??e ? ????o ???e N???? ???. «Iu —
???? ???, n 25 ?oy?y 1917 a., ? — ? ??? ????a n y?? ?y», — ???e E??.

II A?????? ??ae N??? ????? ????e e ??????th ???????e ? ????u ?y????e
N???? ???, ???? ? ??i ??? e ????i ????e 26 ?oy?y ?a ?????? ????a: Ae??o
i ?? e Ae??o i ??a.

2.2 Ae??o i ??

Ae??ae i ?? ? ??? ??? A.E. E??, ?????i ?????e ?????. «E?? E?? ?y?eny ?
???a, — ????e ???o ??? A.A. A???, — ?? ?e ??yeny e ????y e ???a, ?a ?iye
E??. Ii ??i ? ?a ??? ?ith ?? ?-? ?????th??y ??????a e ????a: «Aea ?????o
E?ei!»

A ?? c???ey ????ue ?i-? ???y??. A?????u ??????? n e??? ???e. O? ?a ?? ?
??? ???? ???, ?e ????ny ? ??? ??????y a N???i ????, ????e e ????e. Eth?
?????ue ? ?????e, ???u ???, ? ??uey, ?? ? ???ue ?iy??i ? ???a E??a. A
??? ??? ??e, ??e, ????? ???u?e, ???? ??y?a ??o ????. O?, ?iy, ??ae ????
??? Ea?? i ??».

Ae??ae E??a ?e ???????. O??a ? ?, /? ??? i ?? ?? ???, ???e ??? ??????e,
E?? ???e ????? ? ??? Ae??? i ??. Ae???u ??? a ??o ????ieyo ??y? ???? y?o
???, e ??ae ????? ???? ?i. Y?i ???? N???ay ??? ????? ?? ?thth?i ???i e ?
????ue??i ??? ????? i ??????, ???????i ??, ?c ??e?e e ?????e. A?i
?thth?i ???i ?????? ????? ??th/?ue ????a ? ?e ?ny?, a ???a ???o ??? ??
????u ?????u i ??. Ae???i ????????ue ??? ??? ?????, ??????a ??? ????a e
?????y ??? ?.

Ae??o i ?? ????? ??ae ?? ?????a? ?????, ??????e ???? ??? ???e ??u e y??y
?y ???a ?? ??i ???i ???? e ??. A Ae??? i ?? N???? ?????i ???i eth?th ??o
????, ???? ??i ?? ???a — a??? e ??o, ???? e ????, — ?a ? ?e ? ????e, ?
???n?? ??????a. O? ??i ????? ?y ?????ay ???a ??????, ?i ?????y ???? ???a
e ?????y ???, ???? ???a, ????a?? e ??????? ?????i-???????y ??? y?o ???a
??? ????????? ??????a. Ae??o i ?? ??? ????yth?i ???? e ??o??i ???i ? ???
? ?? ??????.

A Ae??? i ?? ?? ??????? ????a i???u ???e ???? N????i ?????a: ??????
???????? — ??? ? ?????? ????? ???a, ? ???o, ??????ue e ????i ?? ???a,
??? ??eth???? e ?????i-???????? ???eth, ?????? e ??? ??? ????????? ????,
??? ? ???i; ??? ???????a ????? n ????i ????i-y?????? e ?????? ???.

2.3 Ae??o i ??a

II A?????ee ??ae N??? ???? ?????? Ae??o i ??a, ??eo ???? ?e ???i e ???i
??? ? ??e ??????? ??? A.E. E???. Ae??o ?eth?e a ?ay a ???? «?????a ?
?????ieth ???o ????o ???????» ????, ????? ?eth e ??iey ???yi ? y?? ????
???o ?y ?o ???o: «E??uey??e ?e? i ???, ?????? ? ????e 242 ???o ???y??o
???a. Yoi y?? ??????i ???? ???????? ????a ?a ??? ???? N???? ???.

A ?????? n ??e e ???y? ???yi, Ae??? ?uy?e ?????th e ??????th ??? ?????
??????e ? ??th, ???? ????? ???, ????, ?????? e ???i? ??? ? ?? ????? e
?????e a ???y??a ????o ?i??? ????a e ???o N??? ???y??o ????a. C??
??i???e ??? ???e ??????e ? ??th, ??a, ??, ??, o. a. ? ??????eth.
E?ey-???a e ??a ??e a ??? ?? ????u. I????a ???? ??a aeey ????e ‘??e ?
?????ue, ???????ue ??????a ????????: ??y ??o ???y?? ???? ? ??? ?e ?
???n?o ???????.

Ii Ae??oo i ??a ???y??i ???? ? N???? ??? ?????? 150 ?i. ae?y?i ??e,
??????? ? ??eth?e ????i, ????e, ???u?yi, ???e ???e. E??uey? ?????? ?
????o ???? ???? ???i, a ??a ? 3-i?????i ??a E??uey??? ????? ??o.
E??uey?i ?e ???i ????e ????ue ????ueth ??a 300 ?i. ?a.

O? ?i? Ae??o i ??a ?????? ????i-???????a ????e a ae???, ????e ????th
???. Ae??o ??n ???e ?? e ? ??o?????? ??????e, ?iya ??e o ????e, a ??a
?????a ??ey, ????? a ???.

I??????y ??e ??? ????a ??????????oth ????eth ???yi e ?i ????a ?????? ?
???ae e ??????o ????eth. *??ay ??????ue ? ??th ??ao y?o ???ae ??a ???i e
???i, ?a ??y??? ???y?? e ?i ???o ?cy??o, ?e e? ?o oyae?i ????ny n ?????i
?a??i ??e.

2.4 I????? N????i ??????a

II A?????? ??ae N??? ????e ??? N???? ??????i, ???a ??? ?? ????ue N??
I???o Ei???? (NIE), a ??? ??????a — ????e ?????e. I???? a N??? ?????e
?????, ?????i ? ??? N??? ?????? ????e i??e. Ec ??????? y?e ??? e ??
????? N???? ??????i.

Oe????? E??? ??? ?????a ??? ??????? ?eth??a, a ????ue?? e ??????? ???
??o y??a, ???y ??a ?????? a??ue N??? e ?????? ???? ???e ??e ????i
???y??a. I??i ??a y?? ????? ???ue ??o ??????? a ?a?????. Iiy?? II ???
N??? ?e ????i ??i ??????? ??? N??a I???o E????a ? a?? n A.E. E???. N??
a????i ???? ?i. «…O??i ??????? ??????i ??o ?? ??? ???? N???? ??????i?,
— ??e E??.

N?? N??? ??? A?????? Oe????? E??????e E??? (AOeEE) – ??? ??i ??? a ???
?ae? ???? N???. Ec 101 ??a AOeEE ?????a ?ei ???i 62, ??o y??a — 29,
????a ????ey? ??? ???.

II A?????? ??ae N??? ?? ?????? ????. I??y? ? ??? ?????? ????y a I????a,
??ae ???? ???ae ??? a ??? a ?? N???. Ii ?????? ???th ?????? N???, ????e
????o ?y????e N????i ?????a, ??ye Ae??o i ?? e Ae??o i ??a, ???a E?? ???
?e «ae? ??? ???e ????», ????e ???-???y??a ??????i ? ??a n A.E. E???.

N??e ?????

1. N??? A.I. «E??ey NNN?» – I., 1988

2. N???? N.A. «I??e y?????? ???e ???? – I., 1960

3. A??i E.A., O??? E.A. «E??ey NNN?: 9 ??? – I., 1977

4. E???a E.A. «E??ey NNN?» – I., 1990

5. A???a A.A. «Y?????? ???? NNN?» – I., 1987

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