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Октябрьская революция. Первые декреты

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IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

1. Eo?n aieueoaaeeia ia nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth. Iaino?aiea
iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau a ?innee

2. Ia?aua aeae?aou Niaaoneie aeanoe

Caeeth/aiea

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

E ia/aeo inaie «i?ioeann ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ?aceiaeaiey aeinoea naiaai
aiiaay». Aeey naioya?y-ieoya?y 1917a. Oa?aeoa?iu auee aeaa oaiaeaioeee:
A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iinoaiaiii oa?yao a no?aia eiio?ieue;
oaaee/eaaaony aeeyiea a no?aia ?NAe?I(a), eioi?ay ioe?iaaiii e oaa?aiii
aaae?o aeaei e i?ieaoa?neie ?aaiethoeee.

Eicoia «Any aeanoue Niaaoai!» niiaa aue iieiaeai a iniiao i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe OeE ?NAe?I(a). Ia aac aeeyiey aieueoaaeeia a ?innee
ia/eiaaony aeoeaiay eaiiaiey ii nicuao II nuacaea Niaaoia ?aai/eo e
nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia. «Iieo/ea aieueoeinoai a iaieo noiee/iuo Niaaoao
?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia, aieueoaaeee iiaoo e aeieaeiu acyoue
ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue a naie ?oee.

…I?aaeeaaay oio/an aeaiie?aoe/aneee ie?, ioaeaaay oio/an caieth
e?anoueyiai, ainnoaiaaeeaay aeaiie?aoe/aneea o/?aaeaeaiey e naiaiaeu,
iiiyoua e ?acaeoua Ea?aineei, aieueoaaeee ninoaayo oaeia i?aaeoaeuenoai,
eaeiai ieeoi ia naa?aiao,» – ienae A.E. Eaiei a ienueia OeE,
Iao?ia?aaeneiio e Iineianeiio eiieoaoai a na?aaeeia 1917a.

Aieueoaaenoneay ia?oey iaeaioia nuacaea Niaaoia yaeyeanue, iiaeaeoe,
naiie iiiai/eneaiiie e i?aaieciaaiiie ia?oeae. Aeaiie?aoe/aneia
ianoaeaeaiea aii?inia a OeE ?NAe?I(a), iinoaiiaea aeooaeueiuo aii?inia
e, eacaeinue au, i?inoua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eo ?aoaieth i?eaeaaaee
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue aieueoaaeeai. A eiia/iii eoiaa yoi aiaeaeei a ?yaeu
ia?oee iiauo /eaiia. E yoiio iiaeii aeiaaaeoue au? iaeio /a?oo, eioi?ay
ia iiaea ia i?aaeoueny oe?ieei iannai. A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo ia?oee
aieueoaaeee auee ia?oeae, eioi?ay anee noaaeea aii?in, oi no?aieeanue
aai ?aoeoue.

Ia iiaee ?aoeoue ieieno?u-nioeeaeenou, aicaeaaeyaiua yna?ii,
ieieno?ii-i?aaenaaeaoaeai, Aa?oiaiui aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei A.O. Ea?aineei,
aii?in i caeeth/aiee ie?a e auoiaea ec aieiu. Iiiuoee a?aoaiey iaaeaeo
/anoyie THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa e iaiaoeeeie /anoyie i?anaeaeenue
a?oeeea?eeneei e ioeai?oiui iai?i.

Ia?oee yna?ia e iaiueoaaeeia ieacaeenue ia a ninoiyiee aeiaeoueny nicuaa
O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey. Ai?ueaa aieueoaaeeia ca aai nicua aei iiaaaeu
Ieoya?ueneiai aii?oae?iiiai ainnoaiey ii?aaeaeyeanue no?aieaieai
iieacaoue iaaeaaniiniaiinoue iieeoeee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Iaino?aiea iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai e?ecena, neiaeiay ?annoaiiaea eeanniauo
nee ia oieueei ia nieiaee, a iaiai?io o?aaiaaee ?aoaiey aii?ina i
aeanoe. Ii eaeei ioo?i – ?aaeeeaeueiui, oi anoue aii?oae?iiui, eee
aeaiie?aoe/aneei? A eiioea 1917 a. Eaiei n o/?oii ?aaeueiie neooaoeee n
i?aaeaeueiie yniinoueth noi?ioee?iaae i?aeoe/aneea i?aaeeiaeaiey i
aacioeaaaoaeueiie iiaeaioiaea aii?oae?iiiai ainnoaiey.

«Acya aeanoue n?aco e a Iineaa e a Ieoa?a… iu iiaaaeei, aaconeiaii e
ianiiiaiii»1, ienae Eaiei. Ii ia noaaee aii?in i eiie?aoiie aeaoa
ainnoaiey, a n/?e iaiaoiaeeiui i?eaea/ue aieiaiea /eaiia OeE ia?oee
aieueoaaeeia e oneiaeyi, eioi?ua iiaee i?eaanoe e aai iiaaaea.

Ainnoaiea iiaei auoue oniaoiui, ii iiaieth Eaieia, anee iii aoaeao,
ai-ia?auo, iie?aoueny ia ia caaiai?, ia ia ia?oeth, a ia ia?aaeiaie
eeann. Ai-aoi?uo, ainnoaiea aeieaeii iie?aoueny ia ?aaiethoeeiiiue
iiaeu?i ia?iaea. E, a-o?aoueeo, «ainnoaiea aeieaeii iie?aoueny ia oaeie
ia?aeiiiue ioieo a enoi?ee ia?anoathuae ?aaiethoeee, eiaaea aeoeaiinoue
ia?aaeiauo ?yaeia ia?iaea iaeaieueoay, eiaaea anaai neeueiaa eieaaaiey a
?yaeao a?aaia e a ?yaeao neaauo iieiaei/aouo ia?aoeoaeueiuo ae?ocae
?aaiethoeee».

I?ioea eaieineiai i?aaeeiaeaiey i aii?oae?iiii ainnoaiee aunooieee
Ceiiaueaa, Eaiaiaa e O?ioeeee. Aii?aee i?ioeaiaeaenoaeth Eaiaiaaa e
Ceiiaueaaa ?anoe?aiiia canaaeaiea OeE iiaeaea?aeaei ?aciethoeeth io 10
ieoya?y e nicaeaei Aiaiii-?aaiethoeeiiiue oeaio? ii ?oeiaiaenoao
ainnoaieai.

Oniao aioiaeaoaainy ainnoaiey caaenae io ?yaea ianoiyoaeuenoa: io
iieeoe/aneie, aiaiii-oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee e i?aaeeueiiai auai?a
iiiaioa ia/aea ainnoaiey.

1. Eo?n aieueoaaeeia ia nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth. Iaino?aiea
iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau a ?innee

3 ai?aey 1917 aiaea a Iao?ia?aae ec yiea?aoeee aica?aoeeny eeaea?
aieueoaaeeia A.E. Eaiei. Ii iiaeaa?a e?eoeea ia?oeeioth onoaiiaeo ia
«caaa?oaiea ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee», iauyaea a?
aeiaiaoe/aneie e ia niioaaonoaothuae «naiaia?aceth oaeouaai iiiaioa a
?innee», e iio?aaiaae iaiaaeeaiii acyoue eo?n ia nioeeaeenoe/aneoth
?aaiethoeeth.

Ai?aeueneea aeaiiino?aoeee a ?innee iieiaeeee ia/aei ia?aiio e?eceno
aeanoe e i?eaaee e niaeaoaieth iaaeaeo A?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii e
Eniieeiiii Iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia. A
?acoeueoaoa auei nicaeaii eiaeeoeeiiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai n o/anoeai
iaiueoaaeeia e yna?ia. Aaniie iiae aeaaeaieai i?ienoiaeeaoeo a no?aia
niauoee A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei i?aia?aciaaii a eiaeeoeeth
eeaa?aeueiuo aeaiie?aoia e oia?aiiuo nioeeaeenoia ec Niaaoia. Ianiio?y
ia iiaue ninoaa, «i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaeieaeaei o?aaiaaoue ii?yaeea e
aeenoeeieeiu, inoaeaeaei ?aaiethoeeiiiua aieiaiey, ianoaeaaei ia
i?iaeieaeaiee aieiu n Aa?iaieae – eeai aei iiaaaeiiai eiioea, eeai aei
ie?a, aeinoeaiooiai ioo?i ia?aaiai?ia, – e iooyaeaaei ?aoaiea aaaeiaeoeo
nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai, a iniaaiiinoe aii?ina i caiea, aei nicuaa
O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey, eioi?ue iaia/aeny ia eiiaoe aiaea».

Iaeiia?aiaiiia aoiaeaeaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ia?oee a
ninoaa A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e a Iao?ia?aaeneee Niaao ?aai/eo e
nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia ia ono?aiyee aeaiaaeanoey. Aieaa oiai, yoi
aeaeaei yoe aeaa ia?oee noi?iiieeaie e nio/anoieeaie i?iaiaeeiie
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeee. O/eouaay ?ieue e ianoi yoeo ia?oee a
niaaoao, i?aai ?aaiethoeeiiiie ia?iaeiie aeanoe noaiiaeeny ioaaonoaaiiui
ca aeayoaeueiinoue A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Niaaou ?aai/eo e
nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia i?aa?auaeenue a caeiaeieeia i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Iiiaea ia?oeeiua ooieoeeiia?u ?NAe?I(a) aieioue aei aica?auaiey A.E.
Eaieia ec yiea?aoeee ia aeiioneaee iunee i aiciiaeiinoe ono?aiaiey
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ia?aaea/a aeanoe Niaaoai, auee i?ioea
ia?niaeoeau aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee e a? ia?a?anoaiey a nioeeaeenoe/aneoth. Aieaa oiai, ia
Ana?inneeneii niaauaiee ia?oeeiuo ?aaioieeia, i?ioiaeeaoai a eiioea
ia?oa – ia/aea ai?aey 1917 aiaea a Iao?ia?aaea, oioy e iacia/eoaeueiui
aieueoeinoaii aieinia, ii auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i nicaeaiee eiiennee aeey
ia?aaiai?ia n iaiueoaaeeaie i i?eioeeieaeueiuo oneiaeyo iauaaeeiaiey.

Oieueei iiae aeeyieai A.E. Eaieia aioo?e ?NAe?I(a) noaee iaiyoueny
iiaeoiaeu e ioeaiea i?ienoiaeyueo a ?innee niauoee. Eaiei ia?aui cayaee
i caaa?oaiee yoaia ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee e ia?aoiaea e
yoaio nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Iiyoiio ii i?ecaae i?ae?aoeoue
iiaeaea?aeeo A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aeiaeaaoueny ia?aaea/e anae
iieiiou aeanoe Niaaoai, i?iaiaeeoue aioeaiaiioth iieeoeeo. Yoi aue iiaue
iiaeoiae e ioeaiea neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee. Ia neo/aeii, iiyoiio Eaiei ia
n?aco iieo/ee iiaeaea?aeeo a ?yaeao ia?oee. Ia?aay ?aaeoeey ia aai
Ai?aeueneea oacenu a e?oaao aieueoaaeeia auea iaiaeiicia/iie – aai
iaaeiyee a aaaioth?ecia e iaiiieiaiee ?inneeneeo oneiaee. Iaeiaei a
oa/aiea ai?aey niioiioaiea nee a ia?oee eciaieeinue a iieueco Eaieia.

Iaeuecy eneeth/aoue, /oi eiaiii ?aaeeeaeeci A.E. Eaieia, aai aa?a a
iiaaaeo i?ieaoa?neie ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ay, ii aai oaaaeaeaieth, iiaea
?aoeoue iniiaiua ianouiua aii?inu, i eioi?uo ia/oaee ieeeeiiu
o?oaeaieeia ?innee – i?ae?auaiea aieiu e caiaeueiue aii?in, – i?eaaee a
?yaeu aieueoaaeeia ouny/e iiauo /eaiia ia?oee e i?eaeaeee e iei ieeeeiiu
ni/oanoaothueo.

Yoi iaiaeiaaaeiia ianoiyoaeuenoai i?aaeii?aaeaeeei oniao aieueoaaeeia a
1917a., eioi?ue aia?eeaineee niaaoieia N. Eiyi iacaae
«aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiui» aeey ia?oee, au? a oaa?aea ian/eouaathuae 24 oun.
/eaiia e iaeaaeathuae iaaieueoei aeeyieai, a a ieoya?a noaaoae ianniaie
i?aaiecaoeeae, eiathuae 350 oun. /eaiia.

22 iay 1917 a. A.E. Eaiei, aunooiay n ?a/ueth ii aa?a?iiio aii?ino ia I
Ana?inneeneii nuacaea Niaaoia e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia, i?ieci?n
ianeieueei o?ac, nooue eioi?uo iiaoi?ye iicaeiaa a ?aciuo aa?eaioao
iaiaeiie?aoii: «…Aeanyoee ieeeeiiia ethaeae ia eaeoo ia ?aaiethoeeth ii
caeaco, a eaeoo oiaaea, eiaaea ianoa?o aacunoiaeiay ioaeaea, eiaaea
ia?iae iiiae a iieiaeaiea iaaiciiaeiia, eiaaea iauee iaii?, ?aoeiinoue
aeanyoeia ieeeeiiia ethaeae eiiaao ana noa?ua ia?aai?iaeee e,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, a ninoiyiee oai?eoue iiaoth aeeciue»1.

Eiaiii aei oaeiai oyae?eiai iieiaeaiey auee aeiaaaeaiu oe?ieea ia?iaeiua
iannu ?innee a naioya?a-ieoya?a 1917a. E inaie 1917a. A ia?iaeiuo iannao
iaeiieeanue a?iiaaeiay onoaeinoue io iaauaiee, iniaaiii Ea?aineiai,
?aoeoue ianouiua aii?inu, auaanoe no?aio ec iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai e?ecena.
Aeey yoiai ia?iaeo ioaeai aue ie?, e?anoueyiai – caiey, ?aai/ei –
oaa?eee e caaiaeu. I?ia?aiio auoiaea ec e?ecena i?aaeeaaaea ?NAe?I(a).

24 ieoya?y A.E. Eaiei ia?aoeeny e /eaiai OeE n ienueiii: «ss ieoo yoe
no?iee 24-ai, iieiaeaiea aeiiaeuecy e?eoe/aneia. ssniaa yniiai, /oi
oaia?ue, oaea iienoeia, i?iiaaeeaiea a ainnoaiee nia?oe iiaeiaii.

Eci anao nee oaaaeaeath oiaa?euae, /oi oaia?ue an? aeneo ia aieinea, /oi
ia i/a?aaee noiyo aii?inu, eioi?ua ia niaauaieyie ?aoathony, ia
nuacaeaie…, a eneeth/eoaeueii ia?iaeaie, iannie, ai?ueaie aii?oae?iiuo
iann»2.

Eaiei i?aaeeaaae aeaenoaiaaoue ae?noei, i?aaieciaaiii, auno?i. Aeaeaa
aeaeaoue iaeuecy. Ioaeii a?anoiaaoue i?aaeoaeuenoai, ia inoaaeyy aeanoe
a ?oeao Ea?aineiai aei 25 ieoya?y, iaaci?oaeeoue thiea?ia, iiaeeeciaaoue
?aeiiu e iieee, iai?aaeoue io ieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae a A?E e OeE
aieueoaaeeia.

A ii/ue n 25 ia 26 ieoya?y A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei a?anoiaaii. Ca
a?aiy ?aaiou iii iaiaeiie?aoii iaiyei naie ninoaa e ia ?aoeei ie iaeiiai
i?eioeeieaeueiiai aii?ina – i aieia e ie?a, caiaeueiue, ia i?iaaei
auai?u a O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea.

Aei iineaaeiaai iiiaioa ia auei yniinoe i aiciiaeiii niioiioaiee nee ia
II nuacaea Niaaoia. 25 ieoya?y a 22 /ana 40 ieioo iaiueoaaee O.E. Aeai
io eiaie OeEE ia?aiai nicuaa iauyaee II Ana?inneeneee nuacae niaaoia
?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia ioe?uoui. Nuacae ieacaeny aanueia
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui. Naieo aeaeaaaoia ia nuacae iai?aaeee 402 Niaaoa.
Iaeaieueoaa /enei aeaeaaaoia ia nuacae iai?aaeee aaaeiaeoea i?iiuoeaiiua
oeaio?u no?aiu. A ?aaioa nuacaea o/anoaiaaee nauoa 200 aeaeaaaoia a?iee
e oeioa. Anee ai o?iioiauo e a?iaeneeo eiieoaoao aeaaainoaothuoth ?ieue
ea?aee iaiueoaaeee e yna?u, oi n?aaee aeaeaaaoia oeioa, iniaaiii
Aaeoeeneiai, e ioaeaeueiuo niaaeeiaiee aeaenoaothuae a?iee auei iiiai
aieueoaaeeia.

Iinea iaeaoaiey niiauaiey ia a?anoa A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa nuacae ii
i?aaeeiaeaieth A.A. Eoia/a?neiai i?eiye aiccaaiea «?aai/ei, nieaeaoai e
e?anoueyiai», a eioi?ii eceaaaeanue i?ia?aiia aeaenoaee aoaeouaai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iaeiei ec eeth/aauo aii?inia, eioi?ue ?aoee nuacae,
i?eieiay aiccaaiea, aue aii?in i aeanoe. «Iie?aynue ia aieth a?iiaaeiiai
aieueoeinoaa ?aai/eo, nieaeao e e?anoueyi, iie?aynue ia niaa?oeaoaany a
Iao?ia?aaea iiaaaeiiiniia ainnoaiea ?aai/eo e aa?ieciia, nuacae aa??o
aeanoue a naie ?oee.

A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ieceiaeaii. Aieueoeinoai /eaiia A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa oaea a?anoiaaii…

Nuacae iinoaiiaeyao: any aeanoue ia ianoao ia?aoiaeeo e Niaaoai ?aai/eo,
nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia, eioi?ua e aeieaeiu iaania/eoue
iiaeeeiiue ?aaiethoeeiiiue ii?yaeie».

Ia?aia canaaeaiea II nuacaea Niaaoia caaa?oeeinue oieueei oo?ii 26
ieoya?y, a neaaeothuaa canaaeaiea ninoiyeinue oaea aa/a?ii 26 ieoya?y.
Iaeiaei a?aiy iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy canaaeaieyie auei iaiieiaii o?aaiaie
e iaeeaeaieai. Iao?ia?aae aue iieii neooaie i A.O. Ea?aineii. Iiyaeeinue
aiccaaiea «Io Ana?inneeneiai nuacaea Niaaoia». A i?i niiauaeinue ia
a?anoa ieieno?ia A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa Iao?ia?aaeneei A?E, aaanoaa
Ea?aineiai ec Iao?ia?aaea. I?aaeienuaaeinue anai a?iaeneei i?aaiecaoeeyi
i?eiyoue ia?u aeey iaiaaeeaiiiai a?anoa Ea?aineiai e aeinoaaee aai a
Iao?ia?aae. I?e yoii a aiccaaiee ioia/aeinue, /oi «anyeia iiniaie/anoai
Ea?aineiio aoaeao ea?aoueny, eae oyaeeia ainoaea?noaaiiia
i?anooieaiea»1.

Iaaeaeo oai Iao?ia?aaeneee A?E i?eieiae i?eeacu, aeae?aou, aiccaaiey:
iacia/ee eiienna?ia a ieienoa?noaa e ae?oaea ainoaea?noaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey, ?anii?yaeeeny ia inaiaiaeaeaiee ec Iao?iiaaeianeie
e?aiinoe ieieno?ia-nioeeaeenoia A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A?E i?ecaae
a?ieth auae?aoue aiaiii-?aaiethoeeiiiua eiieoaou, aeaeaciiaei?iaeieeia –
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ii?yaeie e ia caaea?aeeaaoue iiaeaic i?iaeiaieuenoaey e
ai?iaeai e o?iioai.

Neeu, i?ioeainoiyaoea niaaoneie aeanoe, a?aiy c?y ia oa?yee. 25 ieoya?y
iuoaaony aeaenoaiaaoue Eiieoao iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe. Ii i?aaiecoao
a caueoo A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa aeaiiino?aoeeth aeoineeo aeaniuo,
iaeioi?uo /eaiia ?aniouaiiiai i?aaeia?eaiaioa, eeaea?ia iaiueoaaeeia e
yna?ia. Ieiei 400 aeaiiino?aioia iai?aaeeenue e au? ia acyoiio e oiio
a?aiaie Ceiiaio aeai?oeo, ii auee inoaiiaeaiu oeaiueth aii?oae?iiuo
iao?inia.

A ii/ue ia 26 ieoya?y ia canaaeaiee Eiieoaoa iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe
auei ?aoaii aai i?aia?aciaaoue ec ai?iaeneiai i?aaia a i?aai
ana?inneeneee – Eiieoao nianaiey ?iaeeiu e ?aaiethoeee. A ninoaa
Eiieoaoa aioee i?aaenoaaeoaee Iao?ia?aaeneie ai?iaeneie aeoiu, OeEE
Niaaoa ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia ia?aiai nicuaa (iieiiii/ey
eioi?iai oaea i?ae?aoeeenue), Eniieeiia ana?inneeneiai nuacaea
e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia, /eaiu o?aeoeee iaiueoaaeeia e yna?ia, ooaaeoea
ni II nuacaea niaaoia, i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aniouaiiiai i?aaeia?eaiaioa,
iaeioi?uo o?iioiauo e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Iiyaeyaony aiccaaiea Eiieoaoa nianaiey ?iaeeiu e ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ia
auei ?ani?ino?aiaii ia oieueei a Iao?ia?aaea, ii e ii ?innee. Aie?oa
Eiieoaoa iauaaeeiythony neeu, inoaaoeany aa?iuie A?aiaiiiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao.

A aiccaaiee «E a?aaeaeaiai ?inneeneie ?anioaeeee» Eiieoao nianaiey
?iaeeiu e ?aaiethoeee i?ecuaae e naa?aeaieth oaea iiaaaeeaoae a
Iao?ia?aaea niaaoneie aeanoe e cayaeye, /oi «iyoaae aieueoaaeeia iaiineo
nia?oaeueiue oaea? aeaeo iai?iiu e ioiaeaeaaao anai aeaeaiiue ie?.
A?aaeaeaineay aieia, ia/aoay aieueoaaeeaie, a?iceo aaa?aiooue no?aio a
iaiienoaiua oaeanu aia?oee e eiio??aaiethoeeth ni?aaoue O/?aaeeoaeueiia
nia?aiea, eioi?ia aeieaeii oi?i/eoue ?anioaeeeaineee no?ie e iaanaaaea
cae?aieoue ca ia?iaeii caieth.

Nio?aiyy i?aainoaaiiinoue aaeeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, Ana?inneeneee
eiieoao nianaiey ?iaeeiu e ?aaiethoeee aicuei?o ia naay eieoeeaoeao
ainnicaeaiey a?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia, iie?aynue ia neeu
aeaiie?aoee, aeiaaae?o no?aio aei O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey e nian?o a?
io eiio??aaiethoeee e aia?oee»1.

A Iao?ia?aaea noi?iiieee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia niae?aeenue
naeaaaoueny e aioiau auee e ai?ueaa ca aeanoue aii?oae?iiuie iaoiaeaie.
Iao?ia?aaeneee aa?iecii a naiae iniiaa noiye ia noi?iia A?E. Eaca/uee
/anoe, ?aneaa?oe?iaaiiua a ai?iaea e ooaaeoea iaeaioia ec Ceiiaai
aeai?oea, aea?aeaeenue iaeo?aeueii. Iiaeaeoe, aaeeinoaaiiie neeie, ia
eioi?oth iia ?ann/eouaaoue e iia?aoueny Eiieoao nianaiey ?iaeeiu e
?aaiethoeee, inoaaaeenue aiaiiua o/eeeua e oeieu i?aii?ueeia.

I?eauaoee a ooaa naaa?iiai o?iioa Ea?aineee 26 ieoya?y ioaeae i?eeac i
iioiaea ia Iao?ia?aae. I?eeac a aieneao aue aini?eiyo aeiaieueii
ianneaii, e ia Iao?ia?aae aeaeioeanue eeoue /anoue 3-ai eaaaea?eeneiai
ei?iona, eioi?ui eiiaiaeiaae aaia?ae E?aniia. Ea?aineee ?ann/eouaae
iaianoe oaea? ii Iao?ia?aaeo, i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio iaonoie/eaua
/anoe Iao?ia?aaeneiai aa?ieciia e ainnoaiiaeoue aeanoue A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

A Niieueiii ianoaiiaea 26 ieoya?y auea ia iaiaa iai?yae?iiie, /ai a
ai?iaea: i?aaenoiyei i?iaanoe o?aeoeeiiiua canaaeaiey, aeiaiai?eoueny i
nicaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iaania/eoue a ai?iaea oioy au ioiineoaeueiue
ii?yaeie, oaea?aeaoue ia naiae noi?iia aa?iecii, eioi?ie?iaaoue
i?iaeioeeth i iieiaeaiee aeae a Iao?ia?aaea, iiaeaioiaeoueny e
aiciiaeiiio aith n /anoyie, iiaeaea?aeeaaaoeie Ea?aineiai, i?iaeoiaoue
ia?u ai?ueau n Eiieoaoii nianaiey ?iaeeiu e ?aaiethoeee e o.ae.

26 ieoya?y a Iao?ia?aaea iieiaeaiea ineiaeieeinue a nayce n ia/aaoeiny
naaioaaeai: i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua e ai?iaeneea /eiiaieee ioeacaeenue
iiaeiiaaoueny eiienna?ai, ?aaioieee ii/o e oaeaa?aoa eeoeee Niieueiue
iauaiey n aiaoiei ie?ii. Ana?inneeneee eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao nithca
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa ioaa/ae ioeacii ia ana i?inueau
Niieueiiai aeaoue iiacaea. Aanueia ioiineoaeueiui inoaaaeny iaeo?aeeoao
eacaeia. E oiio aea iiaaaeiiiniiio ainnoaieth a Iao?ia?aaea
i?ioeainoiyee ia oieueei ao?aeoaciua yeaiaiou, ii e ia?oee
nioeeaeenoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe, ca eneeth/aieai eaauo yna?ia,
iaiueoaaeeia-eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoia, i?eaa?aeaioeaa a?oiiu «Iiaay aeeciue».

I?aaaea, aieueoaaeee eiaee aaniiue a?aoiaio: ca ieie oee oe?ieea iannu
?aai/eo, nieaeao e iao?inia. Aieueoaaeee iiaee ?ann/eouaaoue ia
iiaeaea?aeeo /anoe e?anoueyinoaa. Io ia?auo oaaia, eioi?ua i?aaenoiyei
naeaeaoue ?NAe?I(a), caaenaee noaeueaa ainnoaiey a Iao?ia?aaea e
iiaeaea?aeea nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee a ?innee.

2. Ia?aua aeae?aou Niaaoneie aeanoe

Canaaeaiea II nuacaea Niaaoia i?aaeiieaaaeinue ia/aoue a /an aeiy, e
aeoiaue cae Niieueiiai einoeoooa aue ia?aiieiai. Ii oieueei a 20 /ania
40 ieioo i?aceaeeoi nuacaea caiye naie ianoa.

Aa/a?ii 26 ieoya?y aia?aua a i?aceaeeoia iiyaeeny A.E. Eaiei. Aai
iiyaeaiea ia o?eaoia auei ano?a/aii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuie aieiaeeniaioaie.
I?aaenoiyei i?eiyoue aaaeiua aeieoiaiou, ia?aui ec eioi?uo aue
i?aaeeiaeai aeey ?anniio?aiey Aeae?ao i ie?a. Iinea ei?ioeiai
ianoaeaeaiey Aeae?ao i ie?a aue i?eiyo.

Aeae?ao i ie?a, i?eiyoue aaeeiiaeanii, ia/eiaeny neiaaie: «?aai/aa e
E?anoueyineia i?aaeoaeuenoai, nicaeaiiia ?aaiethoeeae 24-25 ieoya?y e
iie?athuaany ia niaaou ?aai/eo, nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia,
i?aaeeaaaao anai aiththuei ia?iaeai e eo i?aaeoaeuenoaai ia/aoue
iaiaaeeaiii ia?aaiai?u i ni?aaaaeeeaii aeaiie?aoe/aneii ie?a»1, oi anoue
i ie?a aac aiiaenee e eiio?eaooeee. A.E. Eaiei eae iaeei ec aaoi?ia
aeae?aoa iiieiae, /oi aai iaei iai?aaeoue i?aaeoaeuenoaai. Iiyoiio
Aeae?ao i ie?a aae?aniaaeny ?aai/ei o??o naiuo e?oiiuo ainoaea?noa,
o/anoaiaaaoeo a aieia, – Aiaeee, O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee. Oaeia ia?auaiea
auei ia neo/aeiui: eiaiii ?aai/ea yoeo no?ai iieacaee ie?o, /oi oaeia
?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea: /a?oenou a Aiaeee, ?yae ?aaiethoeee ai
O?aioeee, nicaeaiea ianniauo i?ieaoa?neeo i?aaiecaoeee a Aa?iaiee.

Ia?auaynue e ?aai/ei Aiaeee, O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee, II Ana?inneeneee
nuacae Niaaoia au?aaeae iaaeaaeaeo, «/oi ?aai/ea iacaaiiuo no?ai iieioo
eaaeauea ia ieo oaia?ue caaea/e inaiaiaeaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaa io oaeania
aieiu e a? iineaaenoaee, /oi yoe ?aai/ea ananoi?iiiae ?aoeoaeueiie e
aaccaaaoii yia?ae/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth naiae iiiiaoo iai oniaoii
aeiaanoe aei eiioea aeaei ie?a e aianoa n oai aeaei inaiaiaeaeaiey
o?oaeyueony e yenieoaoe?oaiuo iann ianaeaiey io anyeiai ?aanoaa e anyeie
yenieoaoaoeee».

Aeae?ao i ie?a i?aaeoniao?eaae ioiaio oaeiie aeeieiiaoee,
iacaiaaeeeoaeueioth ioaeeeaoeeth oaeiuo aeiaiai?ia e iaiaaeeaiiia ia/aei
ia?aaiai?ia i caeeth/aiee ie?a. A ea/anoaa ia?auo oaaia i?aaeeaaaeinue
n?i/ii caeeth/eoue ia?aie?ea.

Aoi?ie aii?in, eioi?ue i?aaenoiyei ?aoeoue nuacaeo, aue aii?in i caiea,
aieiiaaaoee iiiaiieeeeiiiia e?anoueyinoai ?innee. Ia o?eaoio nuacaea
niiaa iiaeiyeny A.E. Eaiei e ca/eoae ioieou aeae?aoa, ninoaaeaiiiai ia
iniiaaiee 242 iaeacia ianoiuo niaaoia e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia.

Iiiaue/uey nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth ioiaiyeanue iaiaaeeaiii aac anyeiai
aueoia. «Iiiaue/uee eiaiey, ?aaii eae ana caiee oaeaeueiua,
iiianou?neea, oea?eiaiua ni anai eo aeeaui e i??oaui eiaaioa??i,
onaaeaaiuie iino?ieeaie e anaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyie ia?aoiaeyo a
?anii?yaeaiea aieinoiuo caiaeueiuo eiieoaoia e oacaeiuo niaaoia
e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia, ai?aaeue aei O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey»1, –
aiai?eeinue a aeieoiaioa. Aeae?ao i caiea aue «i?eiyo i?ioea iaeiiai
aieina ainueie aicaea?aeaaoeony»2.

Io eiaie o?aeoeee aieueoaaeeia nuacaeo auei i?aaeeiaeaii i?eiyoue
iaienaiiia A.E. Eaieiui iinoaiiaeaiea ia ia?aciaaiee ?aai/aai e
e?anoueyineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A i?aaeeiaeaiiii iinoaiiaeaiee
i?aaeeaaaeinue «ia?aciaaoue aeey oi?aaeaiey no?aiie, ai?aaeue aei nicuaa
O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey, a?aiaiiia ?aai/aa e e?anoueyineia
i?aaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ia aoaeao eiaiiaaoueny Niaaoii Ia?iaeiuo
Eiienna?ia…

Eiio?ieue iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth ia?iaeiuo eiienna?ia e i?aai niauaiey
eo i?eiaaeeaaeeo Ana?inneeneiio nuacaeo Niaaoia e aai Oeaio?aeueiiio
Eniieieoaeueiiio Eiieoaoo»3.

A ia?aue ninoaa NIE aioee oieueei aieueoaaeee. Eaaua yna?u aieoe a iiaia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ioeacaeenue. Niaao Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia aicaeaaee A.E.
Eaiei. Ia?iaeiuie eiienna?aie noaee: ii aioo?aiiei aeaeai – A.E. ?ueia,
ii caieaaeaeeth – A. Ieethoei, ii o?oaeo – A.A. Oeyiieeia, ii aeaeai
oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe – A.I. Iiaei, ii ia?iaeiiio i?inaauaieth –
A.A. Eoia/a?neee, ii oeiainai – E.E. Neai?oeia (Noaiaiia), ii
eiino?aiiui aeaeai – E.Ae. A?iiooaei (O?ioeeee), ii aeaeai thnoeoeee –
A.E. Iiiieia (Eiiia), ii aeaeai ii/o e oaeaa?aoia – I.I. Aaeeia
(Aeaaia), ii aeaeai iaoeeiiaeueiinoae – E.A. Aeaeoaaoaeee (Noaeei). A
ninoaa eiieoaoa ii aiaiiui e ii?neei aeaeai aioee A.A. Aioiiia-Ianaaiei,
I.A. E?ueaiei e I.A. Aeuaaiei.

Ninoaa niaia?eiia inoaaaeny iaeiiia?oeeiui aei aeaeaa?y 1917 a. Iaeia?ea
ninoaa Niaia?eiia, II nuacae niaaoia i?enooiee e eca?aieth
Ana?inneeneiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Eniieieoaeueiiai Eiieoaoa, i?aaenaaeaoaeai
eioi?iai noae E.A. Eaiaiaa. AOeEE noae aunoei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui i?aaiii
no?aiu iaaeaeo nuacaeaie Niaaoia. Nuacae i?eiye aaaeiia ?aoaiea i oii,
/oi AOeEE iiaeao auoue iiiieiai i?aaenoaaeoaeyie oao a?oii e ia?oee,
eioi?ua ooee ni nuacaea. E, aeaenoaeoaeueii, AOeEE iinoiyiii iiiieiyeny.

II nuacae niaaoia ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia caieiaao iniaia ianoi
a enoi?ee iaoae no?aiu. Nuacae ?aoee eeth/aaua aii?inu – i ie?a e
caiaeueiue. Ii aianoa n oai iaeuecy caauaaoue i oii, /oi aieueoaaeee
inoaeenue ia nuacaea aac iiaeaea?aeee ae?oaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ia?oee,
/oi ineaaeyei eo iiceoeee.

Caeeth/aiea

Ia i?ioyaeaiee oieueei iaeiiai 1917 aiaea i?iecioei noieueei niauoee
ia?iiiie enoi?e/aneie cia/eiinoe, eioi?ua a ninoiyiee iio?ynoe ia
oieueei ?inneth, ii e aanue ie?: iaaeaiea iiia?oe/aneiai ?aaeeia
Oaa?aeueneay ?aaiethoeey, iaaeaiea ao?aeoaciiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ia?aay
a ie?a i?ieaoa?neay ?aaiethoeey, oi?ie?iaaiea ia?aiai a ie?a
?aai/a-e?anoueyineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa – Niaaoa Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia.
Eoiaii aiaea noaee aic?inoay iiioey?iinoue ?aaeeeaeueiuo ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
nee, Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey e i?eoiae e aeanoe aieueoaaeeia.

Anee Oaa?aeueneoth ?aaiethoeeth aeaeaee, oi Ieoya?ueneay noaea
iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth, eioi?oth iiaeii auei ecaaaeaoue. Iiyoiio ioiioaiea e
iae ia iaeiicia/ii. ?acaa?ioeanue ai?ueaa iaaeaeo iiioey?iuie neeaie.
Nouanoaiaaei iaiaei ia?oee e a?oiie?iaie, oeaeeeii eee /anoe/ii
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo neeaie, iaaeaeo eioi?uie ?acaa?ioeanue
aaneiii?iienniay ai?ueaa. Iaeioi?ua a?oiiu ianaeaiey e io?aaeathuea eo
iano?iaiea ia?oee iuoaeenue anoaoue ia iiceoeee iaeo?aeeoaoa. Ii yoi
auea oaoeay iiceoeey, e nio?aieoue iaeo?aeeoao a oneiaeyo a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu auei iaaiciiaeii.

Ia ana ia?oee nioeeaeenoe/aneie i?eaioaoeee ?acaeaeyee oacen Eaieia i
aiciiaeiinoe iiaaaeu nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee a iaeiie ioaeaeueii
acyoie no?aia. Iaeiaei, io?eoeay eaieineee oacen, iie ia iiaee
i?aaeeiaeeoue iooue auoiaea ec e?ecena, a eioi?ue iiiaea ?inney. Ia
noiaa a ?acoeueoaoa Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee aeaaea i?eaeeceoueny e
?aoaieth aeaoo aeaaiuo aeey ?innee caaea/ – auoiaea ec ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu e caiaeueiiai aii?ina, – iie ia?aeee naay ia ii?aaeaiea.

Aieueoaaeee a naieo aeaenoaeyo iioee aeaeueoa e ?aoeoaeueiaa naieo
i?ioeaieeia e aiciiaeiuo nithcieeia, ia/aa nai? nouanoaiaaiea a ea/anoaa
i?aayuae ia?oee n i?eiyoey ia II nuacaea Niaaoia ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo
aeaiooaoia Aeae?aoia i ie?a e caiea. Aeaeaa iineaaeiaaee aeae?aou ia
inouanoaeaiee ?aai/aai eiio?iey iaae i?iecaiaenoaii, iianaianoiii
nicaeaiee ia anao o?iaiyo Niaaoia ?aai/eo, nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo
aeaiooaoia. Aeaenoaey aieueoaaenoneeo eeaea?ia ioee/aeenue iiaeciie,
eioi?oth ia iiaee i?eiyoue ia oieueei auaoaa ?inneeneia A?aiaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai, ii e ca?oaaaeiua ainoaea?noaa.

Oaea e eiioeo 1917 aiaea ia/aee en/acaoue oa?ieiinoue,
nienoiaeeoaeueiinoue, eioaeeeaaioiinoue. Ia niaio ei oee aa?a
eneeth/eoaeueii a naith i?aaioo e io?eoeaiea i?aaa ia aeeciue eiuo oi/ae
c?aiey. Yoa iiceoeey ii?iaeeea iaeanoi/?iiinoue, aaneiii?iienniinoue,
aeanoieinoue, iceiaeaiea.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aeeoi?ia A.A. ?inney ia a?aie aaeia (eiiaoe XIX – ia/aei XX aaea).
*.2. Aiae 1917 ii naeaeaoaeuenoaai nia?aiaiieeia: O/aaiia iiniaea / Iiae
?aae. A.A. Aiiia. – I.: Oeiainiaay aeaaeaiey, 1999. – 184 n.

2. Aa?aneiaiei A.A. O?ainoi?iaoeey aeanoe a ?innee a 1917 aiaeo. –
Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey, 1997a, ? 1.

3. Aeae?aou Niaaoneie aeanoe. – I., 1957. O.1.

4. Coaa I.I. Enoi?ey ?innee. O/aaiee aeey aocia. – I., I?EI?, 2000.

5. Eaiei A.E. Aieueoaaeee aeieaeiu acyoue aeanoue // INN. O. 34. N.
239-241.

6. Eaiei A.E. Ia?eneci e ainnoaiea // INN. O. 34. n. 242-247.

7. Eaiei a.E. Aoi?ie Ana?inneeneee nuacae niaaoia ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo
aeaiooaoia // INN. O. 35. N. 7-29.

8. Ioi/aaa O.I. Enoi?ey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. O/aaiee aeey aocia. –
I., THIEOE, 2000.

9. I?eia A.N., Aai?aeaa A.A. e ae?. Enoi?ey ?innee. – I., 1998.

10. Ino?ianeee A.I., Ooeei A.E. Enoi?ey ?innee. OO aae. Uaoeiia TH.A.
Enoi?ey ?innee. XX aae. – I., 1999.

11. ?eae Aeae. Ainnoaaoay Iaeneea. Aeanyoue aeiae, eioi?ua iio?ynee ie?.
Aia?eea 1918 // Aeaeeioaea anaie?iie eeoa?aoo?u; Na?.3 I. 1968. O. 174.

12. Nooaiia I.I. Caienee i ?aaiethoeee: A 3 o. – I., 1992. O.3. Ei. 5,
6,7.

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