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Образование Сефевидского феодального государства в XVI веке

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?aoa?ao

Ia?aciaaiea Naoaaeaeneiai oaiaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa a XVI aaea

1. Ainoaea?noai Naoaaeaeia

A eiioea XV — ia/aea XVI aaea ia?iaeu, canaeyaoea E?aineia ieineiai?uea,
noiyee ia ?aciii o?iaia iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai
?acaeoey, ioee/aeenue ii yoie/aneiio i?ienoiaeaeaieth ycueo, ?aeeaee.
E?iia caieaaeaeue/aneeo ia?iaeia (ia?nia, a?iyi e ae?.), iaeaaeaaoeo
?acaeoie oaoieeie eneonnoaaiiiai i?ioaiey, i?iaeeaaee iieoei/aaua e
ei/aaua ieaiaia, a iniiaiii oth?eneiai e e?aineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
(aca?aaeaeaeaioeu, eo?aeu aaaeoeiu e ae?.). Ii aeaaea naiua ionoaeua ec
ieo ieiiaaee noaaeeth ia?aiauoiuo ioiioaiee, auaeaeea ec naiae n?aaeu
oaiaeaeueii-ieaiaiioth ciaoue. Naaoneea oaiaeaeu (oaiu, yie?u, aaee e
ae?.), eae e aeooiaiua — ionoeueiaineea e o?enoeaineea — aeaaeaee
i?aeoe/anee anae caieae. E?anoueyia aea inoaaaeenue, eae i?aaeei,
niaa?oaiii aaccaiaeueiuie.

Oioy a XVI aaea nio?aieeny iaaieueoie neie oi?iaeueii naiaiaeiuo
e?anoueyi, aeaaeaaoeo iaaieueoeie o/anoeaie caiee, i?aai nianoaaiiinoe
ia caieth auei oeeoeeae. Eo caiey iiaea auoue a ethaie iiiaio ioiyoa
oaiaeaeaie, eae caiey ethaie ae?oaie iaueiu. O aieueoeinoaa aea
e?anoueyi caiee ia auei nianai, e iie iiyoiio auioaeaeaiu auee aa
a?aiaeiaaoue o oaiaeaeia. I?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie caieaiieueciaaiey auea
ecaeieueiay a?aiaea. Ii o?aaeeoeee, au?auaiiue o?iaeae ?ani?aaeaeyeny ia
5 /anoae, niaeanii oiio, eiio i?eiaaeeaaeaee caiey, aiaea, naiaia,
oyaeiaue neio, ?aai/ea ?oee. Iineieueeo ia?aua 2 yeaiaioa anaaaea
i?eiaaeeaaeaee oaiaeaeai, e?anoueyiei iia iieo/eoue iaeneioi 3/5
o?iaeay, ii /aua aio i?eoiaeeeinue aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny eeoue 1/5 eae
iaeaaeaoaeth oieueei ?aai/eo ?oe. E?iia oiai, i?eoiaee einue
auiea/eaaoue cia/eoaeueioth /anoue a aeaea iiaeiiinoae e ia?ieia (/enei
eo aeioiaeeei aei 30 – 40)ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e aeooiaainoao.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai aieiae e yieaeaiee iionoioaee ia?iiiua oa??eoi?ee. Io
aea?aaaiue inoaaaeenue eeoue oieiu, caianaiiua ianeii.

2. E?ai e ia/aeo XVI aaea

A aeaiiue ia?eiae ?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ia oa??eoi?ee
nia?aiaiiiai E?aia e nii?aaeaeueiuo iaeanoae (E?aea, Caeaaeacuey,
N?aaeiae Acee) iineei e?aeia iaaeeaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iaeaieaa yaii yoi
i?iyaeyeinue a caoyioaoainy ioaeaeaiee ?aianea io naeueneiai oicyenoaa.
A XV, XVI e aeaaea a XVII aaea ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeecie i?aaeiaou
i?iecaiaeeeenue aioo?e naeueneeo iauei, a ai?iaea iineee iieoaa?a?iue
oa?aeoa?. Eo cia/eiinoue ninoiyea a iniiaiii a iaee/ee ooo oaiaeaeueiie
ciaoe e eo aeai?ia, a ia a eiee/anoaa ?aianeaiieeia e oi?aiaoeaa.
Ai?iaeneea ?aianeaiieee iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia 2 nioeeaeueii ?aciua
a?oiiu: naiaiaeiuo, iauaaeeiaiiuo a oeaoe, e ?aianeaiieeia, eioi?ua
?aaioaee a ianoa?neeo, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo oaiaeaeo. Iieiaeaiea aoi?ie
a?oiiu iaiiieiaei iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi-ecaeieueueeia. N?aaee neiieu
ea/oa aaaeiyeia a ai?iaeao ca iiuiuie noaiaie aicauoaeenue a ie?oaeaiee
ia?eia aeai?oeu oaiaeaeia. Caiey a ai?iaeao oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeaea ei.

Naeaeaoaeuenoaii iauanoaaiiie ionoaeinoe auea aaaeouay ?ieue, eioi?oth
ea?aee a yeiiiie/aneie iieeoe/aneie aeecie E?aia e nii?aaeaeueiuo
oa??eoi?ee ei/aaua ieaiaia. Iie oaea aeaaii auoee ec ia?aiauoiiiaueiiuo
ioiioaiee, ia?aeaey e oae iacuaaaiiio ei/aaiio oaiaeaeecio.
Iaiiiai/eneaiiay oaiaeaeueii-ieaiaiiay aa?oooea auea niaaoieeii ia?iiiuo
caiaeue. Iaueiiua ianoaeua oiaeeee a aa /anoiia aeaaeaiea, a ?yaeiaua
iaueiieee iiiaaeaee a /enei ia?aaiii?aaiuo /eaiia, oaiaeaeueii-caaeneiuo
e yenieoaoe?oaiuo. Ei/aaay aaaeiioa i?eiueaea e e iaeioi?ui ia?iaeiui
aioeoaiaeaeueiui aeaeaeaieyi XVI —XVII aaeia. Iaeiaei i?ioeann
nioeeaeueiiai ?anneiaiey a neioiaiae/aneeo iauanoaao oae ai?acaei
iaaeeaiiaa, /ai a caieaaeaeue/aneie n?aaea. ?iaeiieaiaiiua
iao?ea?oaeueiua iau/ae, /oanoai e?iaiiai ?iaenoaa ?yaeiauo iaueiieeia n
oaiaeaeece?othuaeny ieaiaiiie aa?oooeie ne?uaaee eeanniaue aioaaiieci.
Yoe yaeaiey aianoa n neeueiuie aiaiiuie o?aaeeoeeyie niea/eaaee
ei/aaieeia a aaeeioth a?icioth neeo, eioi?ay oi?ioi neoaeeea eeanniaui
oeaeyi oaiaeaeia.

Ia?iaeu e ieaiaia E?aineiai ieineiai?uey, yoie/anee e eoeueoo?ii
?acii?iaeiua, a ia/aea XVI aaea ia auee iauaaeeiaiu a iaeii
ainoaea?noai. A?aaeaeiaaaoea ae?oa n ae?oaii oaiu e yie?u o?aaeeoeeiiii
cayaeyee i naaa: «ss, e ieeoi ae?oaie». Iaeaieaa iiuiuie e aeeyoaeueiuie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie ia?aciaaieyie ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai E?aia auee
oainoaa ia thaa Aca?aaeaeaeaia e ia caiaaea E?aia.

Iie aeinoeaee ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ?aeiiaie iaeaieaa aunieiai
yeiiiie/aneiai o?iaiy. Oaa?ec, Oaiaaeai e ae?oaea ai?iaea aeaiiiai
?aaeiia yaeyeenue aaaeiuie oi?aiai-?aianeaiiuie oeaio?aie. Caeanue
i?iecaiaeeee ?acee/iua oeaie (eueiyiua, eioi?ua auee auoaniaiu
oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuie, oa?noyiua e iniaaiii oaeeiaua), eia?iaua ecaeaeey.
*a?ac Caeaaeacuea e Eanieenei-Aieaeneee aiaeiue iooue yoe oainoaa auee
naycaiu n Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie e Iineianeei ainoaea?noaii. Oaee-nu?aoe oae
ia oieueei aeey ianoiuo ioaeae, ii e auaiceeny ii yoei eaiaeai ia
yenii?o. Aei iaeaaeeaaiey aa?iiaeoeaie naycae n Eeoaai Aca?aaeaeaeai aue
iniiaiui iinoaaueeii o?aioeocneeo e eoaeueyineeo oaeeioea/ae. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiuie ainoaea?noaaie yoiai ?aaeiia a eiioea XVI aaea auee eiyaeanoaa:
ainoaea?noai Ae-Eithieo («Aaeiai aa?aia»), ainoaea?noai oaeoia ?aeiia
A?aeaaeeue, Oe?aai (Naaa?iue Aca?aaeaeaeai ni noieeoeae Oaiaoa).
Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiia ii ninoaao ainoaea?noai Ae-Eithieo ai aeaaa n
aca?aaeaeaeaineie ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth aeeianoeae caieiaei caiee thaeiiai
Aca?aaeaeaeaia (iuia oa??eoi?ey E?aia), Oeaio?aeueiiai e thai-caiaaeiiai
E?aia, a oaeaea Ea?aaaoa, cia/eoaeueiie /anoe A?iaiee, Eo?aeenoaia e
E?aea. Aca?aaeaeaeaineei ?aeiiii (iuia E?ai) i?aaeee oaeoe Naoaaeaeu,
noiyaoea ai aeaaa aeooiaiiai i?aeaia «Naoaaea», iniiaaiiiai a ia/aea XIV
aaea oaeoii Naoe aae-Aeeiii. Noieeoeae aue ai?iae A?aeaaeeue,
iaoiaeeaoeeny o iiaeiiaeey ai? n i?aainoiaeiuie ianoaeuaie, aaea
ei/aaaee yeiiiie/anee e?aieea neioiaiae/aneea ieaiaia. Eniieuecoy eo
aiaiioth neeo Oaeoe Naoaaeaeu iinoaiaiii iaeaaeaee anai A?aeaaeeueneei
?aeiiii e i?aa?aoeeenue a aiaaouo eiycae. Iaaeaeo ieie e oe?aai-oaoaie
i?ienoiaeeee /anoua aiaiiua noieeiiaaiey. A aeaeueiaeoai a XVI aaea
Aca?aaeaeaeai ninoaaee yae?i iaoe?iiai ainoaea?noaa eioi?ia aeeth/aei
oa??eoi?eth nia?aiaiiiai E?aia’ Caeaaeacuey, /anoe/ii N?aaeiae Acee,
E?aea, Aoaaienoaia, Iaeenoaia. Oioy iiiaea enoi?eee iacuaatho yoi
ainoaea?noai E?aiii, ai aeaaa aai noiyea aca?aaeaeaeaineay aeeianoey
Naoaaeaeia, aca?aaeaeaeaineay oaiaeaeueiay ciaoue auea aai nioeeaeueiie
iii?ie, oth?neee ycue aue ycueii aeai?a. Ia?a?iaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaa
Naoaaeaeia a E?aineia i?iecioei oieueei /a?ac noieaoea — a XVII aaea.

3. Ia?aciaaiea Naoaaeaeneiai oaiaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa a XVI aaea.
Ia/aei aieiu n Oo?oeeae

E eiioeo XV aaea a E?aia e Caeaaeacuea neiaeeeanue neiaeiay ianoaiiaea.
Ecio?aiiua oaiaeaeueiuie iiaeiiinoyie, e?anoueyia iaiaeiie?aoii
iiaeieiaee ainnoaiey, e eioi?ui i?eiueaea e ei/aaay aaaeiioa. Ia caiaaea
iaae?aea iiuue Iniaineay Oo?oeey. Ana yoi o?aaiaaei eiinieeaeaoeee
oaiaeaeueiiai eeanna. A ai?ueaa ca aaaaiiieth n?aaee o?ao
aca?aaeaeaeaineeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee oniao niioonoaiaae
a?aeaaeeueneei oaeoai. Iniiaaoaeai iiaiai ainoaea?noaa noae Eniaee
Naoaaeae. Eneoniue iieeoee, ii i?eaeae ia naith noi?iio
thaeii-aca?aaeaeaeaineea ieaiaia: oaieo, ?oieo, onoaaeaeeo, oaeaee,
aooa?, eaaeaea? e coeunaaea?. A oiaea naoaaeaeneeo caaiaaaiee e iei
i?eieioei iiiaeanoai oth?ei-ycu/iuo ieaiai e ia?iaeia. Ia/aei
aunooieaiey Eniaeea (1499 a.) niaiaei n ?aniaaeii Ae-Eithieo ia oaeaeu.
Ia?iaeiua aeaeaeaiey i?ioea ae-eithieoneeo noeoaiia i?ienoiaeeee iiae
aeeyieai eaeaieiaee oeecia (oea-naeoa).

Oeeci — oa/aiea a eneaia, eioi?ia ioee/aaony naiaia?aceai e ?acei
ioaa?aaaony i?oiaeienaeueiuie ionoeueiaiaie (noiieoaie). Niaeanii
aeeaaio (nai?ieeo noeoia) «Oaoai» naiiai Eniaeea, ii/eoaaiue a oeecia
oaeeo Aee yaeyaony aiieiuaieai Aiaa, a Iooaiiaae — oieueei i?i?ie. Nai
Eniaee i?eciaaaeny Aiaii a /aeiaa/aneii iaeayiee. Oeecio oa?aeoa?ii e
iaeeaeaiea eiaia-iannee, n i?eoiaeii eioi?iai onoaiaaeeaaaony oea?noai
Aiaeea. Ana yoi aeaeaei oeeci n aai ienoe/aneeie eaeayie i/aiue
iiioey?iui n?aaee e?anoueyi e iannu ei/aaieeia, i?e/ai ?aeeaeae
a?aaeaeaaiiai ainoaea?noaa Ae-Eithieo aue noiieci. I?eaa?aeaioeu Eniaeea
ciae naiae oeeoneie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iineee aieiaiua oai?u n 12 e?aniuie
neeaaeeaie, ii /eneo ii/eoaaiuo oeeoaie eiaiia-iannee. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio
iiaeaea?aeaaoea Eniaeea ieaiaia noaee iacuaaoueny «eucue-aaoe», o. a.
e?aniiaieiaua. Anei?a yoi i?icaeua noaei neiiieiii Naoaaeaeia. A ?onneeo
aeieoiaioao XVI — XVII aaeia aeeianoey e ainoaea?noai Naoaaeaeia iau/ii
iacuaathony eucue-aaoneeie. Eniaeea iiaeaea?aeaei oaeaea ia?neaeneia e
a?iyineia oi?aiai-?aianeaiiia ianaeaiea, no?aaeaaoaa io oaiaeaeueiuo
oniaeoe e aiei ni noi?iiu ninaaeiae Oo?oeee.

Iioiaeu Eniaeea ia/aeenue a 1501 aiaeo n caaiaaaiey Oe?aaia, auee
caoaa/aiu Aaeo, Oaiaoa e ae?oaea ai?iaea, acyou aieueoea o?ioae
(ieii/aoaeueii Oe?aai aue i?eniaaeeiai e Naoaaeaeneei aeaaeaieyi a 1538
a.). Caoai Eniaee aeaeioeny ia tha e a n?aaeaiee ia Oa?o?neie ?aaieia a
1501 aiaeo iaaieiao ?aca?iiee aienei Aeueaaiaea — noeoaia Ae-Eithieo.
Inaiueth 1501 aiaea Eniaee caiye Oaa?ec — noieeoeo Iaeiiai
Aca?aaeaeaeaia — e ei?iiiaaeny eae oao (Oea?ue) Eniaee I (1501 — 1524).
Oeeci aue iauyaeai ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae Naoaaeaeia. A aeaiaaeiia
ia?auaiea auee iouaiu iiiaou n oeeoneei neiaieii aa?u: «Iao Aiaa, e?iia
Aeeaoa, Iooaiaae — iineaiiee Aeeaoa, Aee — ae?oa Aeeaoa». Oeeoecaoeee
iiaeaa?aeinue eae aca?aaeaeaeaineia, oae e ia?neaeneia ianaeaiea, auaoaa
aei yoiai a aieueoeinoaa noiieoaie (oeeoneeie auee oieueei yie?aou Aeeyi
e Iacaiaea?ai a I?eeanieeneii E?aia). Iaaeaeathuea i?eieiaoue oeeci
iiaeaa?aaeenue ianniaui eaciyi. I?eiyoea iiaie ?aeeaee eiaei ia?iiiia
iieeoe/aneia cia/aiea. A XVI aaea oeeci iinee aioeoo?aoeeee oa?aeoa?,
oae eae ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae Oo?oeee aue noiieci. Oeeci iaania/eaae
iiaeaea?aeeo ia?iaeiuo iecia e aeaaae nioeeaeueioth noaaeeueiinoue
iieiaeie iiia?oee. Ii iicaieee Naoaaeaeai naeoey?ece?iaaoue aaeooiua
(oea?eiaiua) caiee e oiiaeu noiieoneiai aeooiaainoaa. Yoi aeaaaei
aiciiaeiinoue ioae?aoue caiee e o noiieoneeo naaoneeo oaiaeaeia ec-ca eo
?aeeaeiciie iaeiyeueiinoe.

Eniaee nin?aaeioi/ee a naieo ?oeao ia?iiiue caiaeueiue aeiiai, aeey
oi?aaeaiey eioi?ui aue nicaeai iniaue aace?ao, aeaaa eioi?iai eiaiiaaeny
«aace? aunieiai Aeeaaia» a ioee/ea io aace?a, oi?aaeyaoaai inoaeueiie
/anoueth no?aiu. E?iia oaoa, e?oiiuie caiaeueiuie nianoaaiieeaie noaee
oaiu (yie?u) aca?aaeaeaeaineeo ieaiai e oeeoneia aeooiaainoai: oaeea
oeeoneea nayouie, eae a. Iaooaae, aaea iaoiaeeony iiaeea iaeiiai ec
iaeaieaa ii/eoaaiuo eiaiia, a. Eoi, aaea, ii eaaaiaea, iioi?iiaia nano?a
yoiai eiaia, e iiiaea ae?oaea ?aeeaeiciua oeaio?u ia?inee ia?iiiui
aaeooiui caieaaeaaeaieai. A 1503 aiaeo caaiaaaiey Eniaeea
i?iaeieaeeeenue. 21 ethiy 1503 aiaea a ianoiinoe Aeia Aoeaae aeec
Oaiaaeaia eucueaaoe ?aca?iieee ae-eithieoneiai noeoaia Io?aaea.
Ainoaea?noai Ae-Eithieo i?ae?aoeei nouanoaiaaiea, e Naoaaeaeneiio
ainoaea?noao auee i?eniaaeeiaiu Oa?n e aieueoay /anoue ia?neaeneiai
E?aea. I?aneaaeoy Io?aaea, a oii aea 1503 aiaeo eucueaaoe acyee e?aineea
ai?iaea Oe?ac, Enoaaai, Eaoai. E 1508 aiaeo aanue E?ai aei Ia?neaeneiai
caeeaa (ca eneeth/aieai Oi?anaia ia ainoiea), A?iaiey e E?ae a?aaneee
auee caoaa/aiu Eniaeeii. A ai?ueaa ca Oi?anai Naoaaeaeneia ainoaea?noai
noieeioeinue n ocaaeneei ainoaea?noaii Oaeaaie-oaiai, neiaeeaoeiny a
eiioea XV aaea. A 1510 aiaeo a n?aaeaiee iiae Ia?aii (a Oi?anaia)
eucueaaoe iaianee ii?aaeaiea aieneai Oaeaaie-oaia. Oi?anai ia?aoae iiae
aeanoue Naoaaeaeia.

Iieina nieioiuo iiaaae eucueaaoae auea i?a?aaia Oo?oeeae, n eioi?ie a
XVI aaea Naoaaeaeu i?iaaee aeaa aieiu: 1514 — 1555 aiaeia (oneiaii o?e
yoaia: 1514-1516, 1534-1535, 1548-1555 aa.) 1576 — 1590 aiaeia.
Iaaeiaieueiue ?anoe?aieai Naoaaeaeneiai ainoaea?noaa, oo?aoeeee noeoai
Naeei I — 1520), eno?aaea a Iaeie Acee ieiei oun. oeeoia, ia/ae
ianooieaiea ia E?ai. 23 aa-1I14 aiaea oo?ee iaaieiao ?acaeee eucueaaoae
a *aeaeu?aineie aeoaa, Eniaee /oaeii inoaeny aeea. A i?aaeieo aieiao
eucueaaoe aiaaaee ai?acaei ooaea aii?oaeaiiiai e iai?aaieciaaiiiai
a?aaa. Eucueaaoe no?aieeenue ioaeiieoue i?ioeaieea y?inoiie aoaeie
eiiieoeu, a aiyo ee/ii o/anoaiaae Eniaee, eioi?iai aieiu ii/eoaee nayoui
e aaeioiiaeyeenue aai ee/iie ioaaaie. Iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey iie ii/oe
ia i?eiaiyee, a?oeeea?ee ia auei. A *aeaeu?aineie aeoaa eucueaaoneay
eaaaea?ey iaoeioeanue i?e aoaea ia caianee?iaaiiua iooee e auea
oie/oiaeaia a?oeeea?eeneei iaiai. Aieueooth ?ieue nua?aea e i?ae?anii
iao/aiiay oo?aoeeay iaoioa (yiu/a?u), aii?oaeaiiay no?aeeiaui
iaiano?aeueiui i?oaeeai.

Oo?ee acyee noieeoeo Eniaeea Oaa?ec, caoaaoeee ii/oe aanue Eo?aeenoai,
caiaaeioth A?iaieth, Naaa? a?aaneiai E?aea. A ia/aea 1516 aiaea oo?ee
iaea?aeaee iiaaaeo iiae Eio/ena?ii. Eo?aeneea ieaiaia ia?aoee ia noi?iio
oo?ie, a yoii nua?aei aaaeioth ?ieue eo iauaa noiieoneia
aa?ieniiaaaeaiea. A 1516—1521 aiaeao i?ienoiaeeee aiaiiua noieeiiaaiey
eucueaaoae n a?oceineei oea?ai Eia?aoee Iaio/ao?ii, eioi?ue ia?aoeeny ca
iiiiuueth e oo?eai. A?oceiu e oo?ee auee ia yoio ?ac ?acaeou. Iaio/ao?,
a oaeaea oea?ue Eaoaoee Eaaai, oea?ue Ianoee Eaa?eaa?a IV, oea?ue
Ea?oiee Aeaaeae VIII i?eauee a Iao/aaai e ceiiaaaoaio caeanue oaoo
Eniaeeo e iaycaeenue aaeaaiaeii auiea/eaaoue aio aeaiue. Oaa?ec aue
iieeioo oo?eaie, a aiaiiua aeaenoaey a iniiaiii i?ae?aoeeenue, oioy
ninoiyiea aieiu i?iaeieaeaeinue.

Iinea nia?oe Eniaeea 23 iay 1524 aiaea oaoii oi?iaeueii aue i?iaicaeaoai
aai nui, aeanyoeeaoiee oea?aae/ Oaoiani (Oaoianea I, 1524—1576). Anee
Eniaee eiae ia?iiiue aaoi?eoao e i?eciaaaeny oeeoneei nayoui oaea i?e
aeecie, /oi iicaieyei aio niea/eaaoue ieaiaiiuo aiaeaeae, oi yoiai ia
auei o Oaoianeaa.

Ainiieueciaaaoenue oaeiaiui iiiaioii, oaiaeaeueiay ciaoue ieaiai ia/aea
iaaeaeioniaioth ai?ueao ca aeanoue. Yoa oaiaeaeueiay aia?oey
i?iaea?aeaeanue 10 eao, /oi nouanoaaiii ineaaeei ainoaea?noai
Naoaaeaeia. Nia/aea eiio?ieue iaae ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeaeaie caoaaoee
eaea (ainieoaoaeue) Oaoianeaa Aeea-naeoai ec ieaiaie ?oieo. Ii
iiaouanoaaiiua yie?u ec ieaiaie onoaaeaeeo E?iae-naeoai e Aaaeoe-ea-oai
ia oioaee aeiioneaoue oneeaiey aai aeanoe. Aeea-naeoai noiae caeeth/eoue
nithc n ieaiaiai oaeaee e i?e aai iiaeaea?aeea ono?aiee io aeanoe
aiaeaeae onoaaeaeeo, eaciea Ea?eiaeaea-aaea Onoaaeaeeo e Ia?ei-aaea
Eaaeaea?a. E?iae-naeoai, iianaynue ?ani?aau, iieeioe Oaa?ec, a
Aeea-naeoai n *ooa-naeoaiii aeaeaee ?acaeaeeee iaaeaeo niaie aieueooth
/anoue caiaeue ieaiaie onoaaeaeeo.

26 iay 1526 aiaea aienea ?oieo e oaeaee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai Aeea-naeoaia
e *ooa-naeoaia a n?aaeaiee i?e Naenaiaeaeeea ?acaeee aienei onoaaeaeeo.
Neaaeothuai 1527 aiaeo a n?aaeaiee o A?ia/ay onoaaeaeeo auee aiiaue
?acaeou, a E?iae-naeoai iiaea. Oeaio?aeueiay aeanoue i?aeoe/anee
ia?anoaea nouanoaiaaoue. Aiaeaee ieaiai noaee ono?aeaaoue naiiaieueiua
ia?anaeaiey ec Oi?anaia a E?ae. Ainiieueciaaaoenue yoei, ocaaeneea yie?u
a eiioea 1526 aiaea aoi?aeenue a Oi?anai e ?aca?aaeee aai. Oie/oiaeea
E?iae-naeoaia, Aeea-naeoai e *ooa-naeoai noieeioeenue a ai?ueaa ca
aeanoue iaaeaeo niaie. A ethea 1527 aiaea ii iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoao
*ooa-naeoaia Aeea-naeoai aue oaeo. *ooa-naeoai iaeaaeae oaeie aeanoueth,
/oi Oaoianeao «auei inoaaeaii oieueei eiy oaoa». Iaeiaei aaoi?eoao
iiaouanoaaiiiai ?aaaioa aue iiaei?aai i?e aeoaa n ocaaeaie o Ca?eaaaea a
1529 aiaeo, aaea ec-ca aaanoaa n iiey aiy ieaiaie oaeaee naoaaeaeneia
aienei aaeaa ecaaaeaei ?aca?iia. Oai a?aiaiai aieueoie iieeoe/aneee aan
i?eia?ae aiaeaeue ieaiaie oaieo Oonaei-oai, noaaoee i?aaeoaeai Aa?aoa.
Iianaynue aai aeeyiey, *ooa-oai a 1531 aiaeo oaeii i?eeacae oaeoue
Oonaei-oaia. Ii iineaaeiee noiae ?ane?uoue caaiai? e oi?aaeeoue
i?ioeaieea. A caaycaaoaeny noaaoea a eaaa?a oaoa *ooa-naeoai aue oaeo
nai, i?e yoii aeaa no?aeu, iouaiiua ethaeueie Oonaei-oaia, iiiaee
neo/aeii a ei?iio oaoa. Iinea nia?oe *ooa-naeoaia oaiaeaeu oaeaee, ia
nie?eaoenue n ii?aaeaieai, auaeaeioee a ?aaaiou nuia iieieiiai Oao
Eoaaaea. Iaeiaei ana ae?oaea eucueaaoneea ieaiaia — onoaaeaeeo, ?oieo,
coeueeaaea? e aooa? — ia oioaee aieueoa oa?iaoue ainiiaenoaa oaeaee. A
n?aaeaiee o Oaiaaeaia iauaaeeiaiiua neeu yoeo ieaiai ?acaeee oaeaee.
Ooeaeaaoea aaaeaee a Aaaaeaae, aaea i?aaee eo niieaiaiiee Oa?eo
aae-Aeeiiaeu. Ii ii a ciae i?aaeaiiinoe oaoo eaciee iiiaeo ec ieo e
aieiau ioineae ei aeai?o. A 1531 aiaeo oaeaee i?aaei?eiyee iineaaeithth
iiiuoeo aa?iooue aeanoue e iinoaaeoue ?aaaioii i?aaeoaey THaeiiai
Aca?aaeaeaeaia Oeaia aaea Oaeaee, eioi?ue iinea iaoaea/e ainnoae i?ioea
oaoa, ?aca?aaee Oaa?ec, ooae n /anoueth ieaiai a Oo?oeeth e i?eiye iioii
o/anoea a iioiaeao noeoaia Noeaeiaia I a Aca?aaeaeaeai.

Iinea naa?aeaiey oaeaee ianooieei a?aiy ainiiaenoaa oaieo,
i?aaenoaaeoaeue eioi?iai Oonaei-oai ?aaaioii. Iiaeiaii
i?aaeoanoaaiieeai, Oonaei-oai oaieo caaioeeny oieueei i naiai ieaiaie, )
aeiioneay iieiaeiai oaoa e o/anoeth a ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaeao. Oonaei
i?aaee aei 1534 aiaea, iiea ia iaaeiai a nio?oaeie/anoaa n aoi?aoeieny
no?aio oo?eaie, a iaia?aiee ia?aoiaea ia noi?iio a?aaa. N eaciueth
Oonaeia (1534 a.) caeii/eeny ia?eiae oaiaeaeueiie aia?oee. Iiac?ineaaoee
Oaoianea nai acye oi?aaeaiea a naie ?oee.

4. I?iaeieaeaiea aieiu n Oo?oeeae

I?e noeoaia Noeaeiaia I Eaioie (1520 —1566) iniaineay aa?oooea ia
inoaaeea iiiuoie ?anoe?aiey aeaaeaiee a ainoi/iii iai?aaeaiee. Yeniainey
Iniaineie eiia?ee ia ainoiea oneeeaaeanue ii ia?a aic?anoathuaai
nii?ioeaeaiey caaiaaaieyi Oo?oeee a Aa?iia, e i?aaeaea anaai a Aaia?ee e
Aano?ee. Aieia ia yoio ?ac aniuoioea ec-ca iaeaaeaiey E?aeii a?aaneei.
Aaniie 1528 aiaea aeaaeaoaeue Eaeueoo?a a Eo?enoaia Coeueooaa?-oai (aei
Aeeaae), ecaanoiue eae Iiooae-naeoai Iinoeeo, iiaeiye iyoaae, caoaaoee
Aaaaeaae, oaea aai i?aaeoaey, naiaai aeyaeth Ea?aaei-oaia, e noae nai
i?aaeoue E?aeii. Caoai Coeueooaa? i?eciae oo?aoeeiai noeoaia, auneaa aio
eeth/e io ai?iaea. A 1529 aiaeo oao Oaoianea aeaeioe ia Aaaaeaae, ii
acyoue oaeoth e?aiinoue auei neiaeii, naaea caoyioeanue. Noi?iiieee oaoa
a naiii Aaaaeaaea oaeee Coeueooaa?a e ioe?uee ai?ioa oaoneei aieneai.
I?aaeaiea iaeanoueth Aaaaeaaea auei ia?aaea-Iooaiiaae-noeoaio Oa?eo
aae-Aeei iaeu Oaeaee n oeooeii oaia.

A 1531 — 1532 aiaeao i?e iiaeaea?aeea 50-ouny/iia oo?aoeeiai aienea
iaoaea/eeaue i?aoaiaeaio ia ?aaaionoai, ia?aaaae/ee Oeaia-aae Oaeaee
noiae caoaaoeoue Aeaeeen, a i?aaeiee aai i?aaeoaeue Oa?eo-oai ia?aoeeny
ca iiiiuueth e eucueaaoai. Oao iio?aaiaae auaea/e Oeaiu, a noeoai, a
naith i/a?aaeue, — Oa?eo-oaia. Ia i?eaey e niaeaoaieth, noi?iiu ia/aee
aiaiiua aeaenoaey. Oaoianea ioaiaaae Aeaeeen. Ainiieueciaaaoenue
iioiaeii oaoneeo aiene a Oi?anai i?ioea ocaaeia, Oeaia a 1533 aiaeo
aiiaue caoaaoee Aeaeeen Oa?eo-oai aue oaeo. Oeaia oaiai?ee noeoaia
Noeae-iaia niaa?oeoue iioiae a Aca?aaeaeaeai e E?ae, iiea aeaaiua neeu
Naoaaeaeneiai ainoaea?noaa caiyou io?aaeaieai ocaaeneiai iaoanoaey a
Oi?anaia.

Eaoii 1534 aiaea Noeaeiai aeaeioeny n ia?iiiie a?ieae a Aca?aaeaeaeai. A
aaaiaa?aea oei 90-ouny/iia aienei aaeeeiai aece?y Ea?aaeiia-iaoe.
Canoeaiooua a?anieio, ianoiua eucueaaoneea i?aaeoaee auee auioaeaeaiu
ionooieoue, iaeioi?ua ia?aoee ia noi?iio a?aaa. Anei?a ia?aaeiaie io?yae
Oeaiu caiye Oa-a?ec, noieeoeo Naoaaeaeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Aeaaiua neeu
iniaiia anooieee a ai?iae 27 naioya?y 1534 aiaea. Caaiaaaoaee a?aaeee e
oaeaaee ie?iia ianaeaiea (n oeeoaie ?ac?aoaeinue ia?auaoueny eae n
eaoe?aie — iaionoeueiaiaie). Iieo/ea aanoue i oo?aoeeii aoi?aeaiee,
Oaoianea aeaeioeny iacaae ec Oi?anaia, ii i?eiyoue aaia?aeueiia
n?aaeaiea n i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie iniaiia ii ia ?aoaeny. A iaaieueoeo
aiyo oo?ee oanieee eucueaaoae (iai?eia? o Ea?aaa/a ia ?aea Eucueocai),
iicaeiae inaiueth 1534 aiaea Noeaeiai aeioae aei a. Noeoaiee. Iaeiaei
ooo ec-ca ii?icia e niaaiiaaeia aienei ?acei nieceei aianiiniaiinoue.
Noeaeiai aue auioaeaeai ia?aianoeoueny n iniiaiuie neeaie ia tha, e
Aaaaeaaeo, ioi?aaea iacaae a Oaa?ec Oeaio. Oaoianea aeaeioeny n aieneii
ioaiaauaaoue noieeoeo. Oeaia aaaeae a Aai (A?iaiey) e caia?ny a ianoiie
e?aiinoe. Eucueaaoe inaaeaeaee Aai aei eiioea ceiu. Oaoianeao i?eoeinue
niyoue inaaeo, eiaaea ii ociae ia eciaia naiaai a?aoa Nai-ie?cu. Aienei
oaoa ioioei a Aca?aaeaeaeai. Oai a?aiaiai, eiaaea oo?ee iiaeioee e
Aaaaeaaeo, aai i?aaeoaeue Oa?eo aae-Aeei Oaeaee, iianaynue eciaiu ni
noi?iiu niieaiaiieeia, iono?aiaiiuo io oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii, naeae
ai?iae oo?eai aac aiy, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii i?aaeaa iaith e?aiinoiua
i?eianu. I?iaaaey ceio 1534—1535 aiaeia a Aaaaeaaea, Noeaeiai I a ia/aea
aaniu 1535 aiaea aiiaue aeaeioeny ia Oaa?ec. Ionooiay ia?aae
i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie a?aaa, naoaaeaeneea aieiu naeeaaee ia?aae
iaaeaeaathueieny oo?eaie iinaau e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua caianu. Caiya
Oaa?ec, iniaiu aiiaue aeaeioeenue ia Noeoaieth, ii ooo ei aieueoie o?ii
iaianee aieiae e /oia. A n?aaeaiee a Aea?aaeaeeia iaaeaeaei io Noeoaiee
aaaiaa?ae eucueaaoae ai aeaaa n Aie?-naeoaiii ?oieo e *u?aa-naeoaiii
Onoaaeaeeo iaea?-eae ia?aoth a yoie eaiiaiee iiaaaeo iaae oo?eaie.
Oo?aoeeay a?iey auea auioaeaeaia ia/aoue ionooieaiea. I?aneaaeoy
i?ioeaieea, eucueaaoe iaea?aeaee aua ?yae iiaaae, iaeaaeaa ?aeiiaie Aaia
e Y?aeaeeoa. eiuo aeaenoaeyo aiiaue ianooiee ia?a?ua. Ainiieueciaaaoenue
yoei, Oaoianea a 1538 aiaeo ieii/aoaeueii i?eniaaeeiee Oe?aai e naiei
aeaaeaieyi (?aiaa ii iaoiaeeeny a aannaeueiie caaeneiinoe Naoaaeaeia). A
Oe?aai auea iai?aaeaia 20-ouny/iay a?iey a?aoa oaoa Aeean-ie?cu, aeaaiua
e?aiinoe Athethnoai e Aoao?aea auee acyou, caoaa/aia ciaiaieoay
nie?iaeuieoea oe?aaioaoia n iaen/eneeiuie aiaaonoaaie. Iiiaea
i?aaenoaaeoaee ianoiie ciaoe auee eaciaiu.

I?eniaaeeiaiea Oe?aaia — naaa?iie aca?aaeaeaeaineie oa??eoi?ee — eiaei,
ianiio?y ia ianeeuenoaaiiue oa?aeoa? yoiai aeoa, i?ia?anneaiia cia/aiea
aeey iaoeeiiaeueiie eiinieeaeaoeee aca?aaeaeaeaineiai yoiina a aaeeiii
ainoaea?noaa. Iaeiaei yoa eiinieeaeaoeey i?ienoiaeeea a oa/aiea aeieaiai
enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea. Eeoaiiay aeanoe, oe?aaineay ciaoue iaiaeiie?aoii
iiaeieiaea iyoaaee i?ioea Naoaaeaeia, a ai a?aiy iniaineeo aoi?aeaiee
iiaeaea?aeeaaea oo?ie e e?uineeo oaoa?.

A 1546 aiaeo i?iecioae aua iaeei cia/eoaeueiue naia?aoenoneee iyoaae
oe?aaineeo oaiaeaeia, eioi?ue aicaeaaee eo iaaeaaiee caaiaaaoaeue a?ao
Oaoianeaa Aeean-ie?ca, iacia/aiiue ooaea i?aaeoaeai (aaaey?aaeii).
Oe?aai aue caaiaaai aiiaue, Aeean-ie?ca aaaeae /a?ac Eaaeac a E?ui, a
ioooaea a Noaiaoe. Iiaui aaaey?aaeii iacia/ai nui oaoa Eniaee-ie?ca
(aoaeouee oao Eniaee II). Inaiueth 1547 aiaea, i/enoea oe?aaineoth
aaeieieno?aoeeth io iyoaaeieeia, Oaoianea aa?ioeny a Oaa?ec. Oa?aeoa?ii,
/oi a yoio ia?eiae — a 1538 e 1546 aiaeao — i?e aeaoo caaiaaaieyo
Oe?aaia eucueaaoe i?e inaaea e?aiinoae aeoeaii i?eiaiyee a?oeeea?eth, a
oaeaea ?uee iiaeeiiu aeey caeeaaeee iei iiae a?aaeaneea noaiu. Ana yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i cia/eoaeueiii i?iaeaeaeaiee aiaiiiai aeaea ii
n?aaiaieth n ia/aeii XVI aaea, eiaaea eucueaaoe n/eoaee i?eiaiyoue
iaiano?aeueiia i?oaeea ieaea naiaai aeinoieinoaa.

Aaniie 1548 aiaea noeoai Noeaeiai n ia?iiiie a?ieae, nia?aiiie ni anao
eiioeia Iniaineie eiia?ee, ia/ae naie o?aoee iioiae i?ioea Naoaaeaeneiai
ainoaea?noaa. I?e noeoaia neaaeiaaee Oeaia e Aeeanie?ca. *eneaiiia
i?aainoiaenoai oo?ie auei oaeiai, /oi Oaoianea aue auioaeaeai naeaoue
Oaa?ec aac aiy. Eucueaaoe aiiaue i?eiaieee oaeoeeo «auaeaeaiiie caiee»,
eeoay a?aaa oo?aaea e i?iaeiaieuenoaey, i aeoaa i?e Ia?aiaea eucueaaoe
auioaeaeaiu auee ionooieoue e noaaea oaoa a Yoeaiaa?a. A naiii Oaa?eca
Noeaeiai i?iaue anaai o?e aeiy: a a?iee ia/aeny aieiae e iaaeaae
eioaaeae. Ai?iae aue ?aca?iieai. Noeoai ionooiee e e?aiinoe Aai, acye aa
e ia?aaeae naiaio iieeiaiaeoeo Eneaiaea?-iaoa, a nai aa?ioeny a
Aeey?aaee?. A aeoaa o Oaaonoa?a eucueaaoe iaianee oo?eai aieueoie o?ii.
Iinea iooiaea iniaineie a?iee oao n aieneii anooiee a Oie. A ?yaea aiaa
eucueaaoe iaianee oo?eai iiaua ii?aaeaiey. Auee i?aaei?eiyou iaiaaeaiey
ia i?ea?aie/iua oo?aoeeea ?aeiiu. Oae, a ?aeiia Aoeaoa auei oaiaii ieiei
5 oun. eiiae, 100 oun. iaaoe, 50 oun. aieia e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa. Nai
oao n aieneii iionoioee e naeaa ?aeii Ouiuna. Aeean-ie?ca niaa?oee
aeoaieee ?aeae ii e?aineei oa??eoi?eyi: ii i?ioae /a?ac Oaiaaeai, Eoi,
Eaoai, iai?aaeyeny ia Enoaaai. No?aiynue oeoe io i?aneaaeiaaiey oaoneeo
io?yaeia, Aeean iiaa?ioe a noi?iio Oa?na, iaeaaeae e?aiinoueth Eacaeoan
(ia iooe Oe?ac — Enoaaai), ono?iea ?acith. Caoai ii i?ioae Oe?ac e
anooiee a Aaoaaoai, Aeecooeue, a ioooaea /a?ac e?aiinoue Aayo auoae e
?oaaaeai Aaaaeaaea. A 1549 aiaeo Aeean iinni?eeny n noeoaiii e iinea
iiiaeo ia?eiaoee a eiioea eiioeia aue caoaa/ai oaoii Oaoianeaii,
caeeth/ai a e?aiinoue Eaoeaoa, aaea aue anei?a oaeo.

N ianooieaieai i/a?aaeiie ie?iie ia?aaeuoee a aieia n Oo?oeeae
iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/eoue aeaaeaiey Naoaaeaeia. A 1551 aiaeo
auei i?eniaaeeiaii Oaeeineia aeaaeaiea (aca?aaeaeaeaineia ainoaea?noai
caiaaeiaa Oe?aaia). Aeaaiue iieio oaeeioeaa – e?aiinoue Eeo auea
?ac?ooaia a?oeeea?eeneei iaiai. Iineaaeiee i?aaeoaeue Oaee Aea?aeo
Iooaiiaae oai aue oaeo, a aai aieiaa aeinoaaeaia oaoo. Oae ana
aca?aaeaeaeaineea caiee auee iauaaeeiaiu a iaeii ainoaea?noai. A 1552
aiaeo oao Oaoianea ia?aoae e aeoeaiui aeaenoaeyi i?ioea oo?ie. A ioaao
ia iaaaae i?aaeoaey Y?co?oia Eneaiaea?a-iaoe oao ?ac?aaioae ieai
iaiaaeaiee ia i?ea?aie/iua oo?aoeeea oa??eoi?ee. Yoei iaiaaeaieyi
iiaeaa?aaeenue caiee aaeieue anaai ?oaaaea io A?iaiee aei E?aea
a?aaneiai. A ?aeiia Aoeaoa auei caoaa/aii 3 oun. eiiae, 10 oun. e?oiiiai
?iaaoiai neioa, 30 oun. iaaoe, a naia e?aiinoue Aoeao iieiinoueth
?ac?ooaia. A ?aeiia Aaia auee oie/oiaeaiu aeiia e iinaau, Ioo niaeaeai.
?aeiiu Aeaeeena, Ainoaia, Aaeeeueaeaeaaaca, Y?aeaeeoa, Iooa, Ianeia auee
iionoioaiu, i?aaeaiu iaith e ia/o. A aiyo oie/oiaeaii iiiai oo?ie e
eo?aeia, caoaa/aiu ia?iiiua o?ioae. A n?aaeaiee o noai Y?co?oia, a
iieooa?naoa (3 — 4 ei) io ai?iaea naoaaeaeneia aienei iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai Eniaeea-ie?cu, oaoneiai ianeaaeieea, ?aca?iieei a?ieth
Eneaiaea?a-iaoe. Auea acyoa oo?aoeeay e?aiinoue Aa?ae?e. Eniaee-ie?ca
niaa?oee oaeaea iioiae a Eo?aeenoai, i?eianoee aieueooth aeiau/o.

Aaniie 1554 aiaea Noeaeiai n ia?iiiie a?ieae aiiaue aoi?any a
Aca?aaeaeaeai e caiye Iao/aaai. Neaaeoy i?aaeiae naiae oaeoeea, Oaoianea
ecaaaae e?oiiuo n?aaeaiee, eciaouaae neeu i?ioeaieea a iaeeeo nou/eao,
eeoae aai i?iaeiaieuenoaey e oo?aaea. Nai oao ni noaaeie ?aniieiaeeeny
ia Aaca?/aa (i?eoiea A?aena). Eniuouaay iaoaaoeo i?iaecee, oo?ee
iieeioee Iaoe/aaaiue e ooee e Y?co?oio. Ecio?aiiua aieiie aienea noeoaia
i?iyaeyee iaaeiaieuenoai. Iiieiay yoi, noeoai au?acee niaeanea ia
aaaeaiea ia?aaiai?ia i ie?a, ia /ai naoaaeaeu iaiaeiie?aoii ianoaeaaee.

5. Ie? 1555 aiaea a Aianuea

Oaea ia ia?aoiii iooe ec Iao/aaaia noeoai Noeiai aeae oeacaiea naiaio
aeaaiiio aece?th Iooai-eo-iaoa aioiaeoue ia?aaiai?u i ie?a. Aue
i?iecaaaeai iaiai aunieiiinoaaeaiiuie ieaiieeaie. 29 iay 1555 aiaea a
Aianuea iiaeienai ia?aue a enoi?ee aeaoo ainoaea?noa ie?iue aeiaiai?.
Yoi aeaao aaneia iniiaaiea n/eoaoue ana aiaiiua aeaenoaey iaaeaeo
Oo?oeeae e Naoaoeeaeneei ainoaea?noaii a 1514—1555 aiaeao iaeiie aieiie
n ia?a?uaaie, a ia ianeieueeeie aieiaie. Niaeanii ie?o 1555 aiaea,
iaeanoe caiaaeiie A?ocee — Eia?aoey, Iaa?aeey e Ao?ey ia?aoiaeeee a
noa?o aeeyiey Oo?oeee, a aa ainoi/iua iaeanoe — Ianoey, Ea?oee e Eaoaoey
iiiaee iiae aeanoue Naoaaeaeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Oi/ii oae aea caiaaeiay
A?iaiey ieacaeanue iiae aeaaeu/anoaii oo?aoeeiai noeoaia, a ainoi/iay
ioioea e Naoaaeaeai. Eo?aeenoai e E?ae a?aaneee n Aaaaeaaeii ia?aoiaeee
e Oo?oeee, aanue Aca?aaeaeaeai inoaaaeny o Naoaaeaeia.

Oo?aoeei-naoaaeaeneea aieiu XVI aaea yaeythony naiui aaaeiui oaeoi?ii a
enoi?ee ia?iaeia Caeaaeacuey. No?aieaiea noeoaia Noeaeiaia caaiaaaoue
Aca?aaeaeaeai iauyniyeinue aeaeaieai iaeaaeaoue naiui ?acaeoui oiaaea
oaeeiaiae/aneei ?aeiiii Caiaaeiie Acee, acyoue a naie ?oee oi?aiaia
nooiiooiia niiauaiea e Aieaenei-Eanieeneee aiaeiue iooue. Aeaaiua Oeaee
Oo?oeee ieacaeenue iaaeinoeaioouie. Ianiio?y ia ia?iiiia /eneaiiia e
oaoie/aneia i?aainoiaenoai, oo?ee ia niiaee caaiaaaoue Aca?aaeaeaeai.
Eucueaaoe, iioa?iaa a ia/aea aieiu ?yae ii?aaeaiee, au?aaioaee
aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeioth oaeoeeo ai?ueau yoeo oneiaeyo: oie/oiaeaoue
i?iaeiaieuenoaea, naeeoue iinaau, oaiiyoue neio, canuiaoue eieiaeoeu e
enoi/ieee, yaaeoe?iaaoue ianaeaiea ia?aae ianooiathuei a?aaii. Ana yoi
aucuaaei a oo?aoeeie a?iee aiaea e yieaeaiee. No?aiynue eiiiaine?iaaoue
naie iioa?e, eucueaaoe ono?aeaaee iaaaae ia i?ea?aie/iua oo?aoeeea
oa??eoi?ee, oaiiyy neio e a?aay oo?aoeeia ianaeaiea. Oo?aoeeay eiia?ey a
yoi a?aiy iaoiaeeeanue a caieoa naiaai iiaouanoaa, iiyoiio a ai?ueaa
i?ioea oo?aoeeie oa?icu aa?iiaeneea ainoaea?noaa aeaeaee a Naoaaeaeao
naiaai anoanoaaiiiai nithcieea. Iinie aa?iaineiai eiia?aoi?a i?e aeai?a
noeoaia Noeaeiaia Aonaae ienae: «Oieueei Ia?ney (Naoaaeaeneia
ainoaea?noai) noieo iaaeaeo iaie e aeaaeueth. Oo?oeey n ?aaeinoueth
iieii/eea au n iaie, anee au Ia?ney ia oaea?aeeaaea aa. Yoa aieia
iaaeaeo ieie aeaao iai eeoue ia?aaeuoeo, ii ia ecaaaeaiea».

Aa?iiaeneea ainoaea?e oaiaa?eaaee Naoaaeaeia i?iaeieaeaoue aieio n
Oo?oeeae, no?aiynue iaaycaoue noeoaio ai?ueao ia aeaa o?iioa. Ni naiae
noi?iiu, noeoaineay aeeieiiaoey no?aieeanue iiaoaeeoue noiieoneea
ainoaea?noaa, a oii /enea ocaaeneia ainoaea?noai Oaeaaieaeia,
iauaaeeieoueny n Oo?oeeae a ai?ueaa i?ioea «eucueaaoneeo a?aoeeia».
Iinoiyiiua aiaaua aeaenoaey ia caiaaeiuo oa??eoi?eyo ainoaea?noaa — a
A?iaiee, A?ocee, Aca?aaeaeaeaia no?aoii ?aci?yee ianaeaiea, iiae?uaaee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu, i?eaiaeeee iinoaiaiii e yeiiiie/aneiio oiaaeeo
yoeo caiaeue.

6. Oe?aieaiea ainoi/iuo a?aieoe ainoaea?noaa

N ia/aea XVI aaea ocaaeneea oaiu Oaeaaieaeu no?aieeenue iaeaaeaoue anai
Oi?anaiii e noieeioeenue ooo n eucueaaoaie. Eo iaaaae i?iaeieaeaeenue ia
i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe anaai noieaoey. Aieio ae?oa n ae?oaii noi?iiu aaee
iiae ?aeeaeiciuie eicoiaaie noiiecia e oeecia. Eaaeaeay noi?iia iacuaaea
naith aieio nayuaiiie aieiie ca aa?o — aeaeeoaaeii, aacaaaoii.
I?ioeaiiieiaeiay noi?iia iauyaeyeanue aia caeiia, iiyoiio aieiu
i?eia?aoaee i/aiue iaeanoi/aiiue oa?aeoa?.

Ainiieueciaaaoenue niooaie, aniuoioaoeie n?aaee eucueaaoneeo ieaiai, nui
e i?aaiiee Oaeaaie-oaia Oaaeaeoeea-oai i?aaei?eieiae iaiaeiie?aoiua
iaaaae ia Oi?anai, ia/eiay n 1524 aiaea. A 1526 aiaeo aaee oi?ne?iaaee
Aioaea?ueth, inaaeeee e acyee Ooa. A 1527 aiaeo o Aena?aia ocaaee aiiaue
?acaeee eucueaaoae e caiyee Ano?aaaae. A 1527 —1528 aiaeao Oaaeaeoeea
naiue ianyoeaa inaaeaeae Aa?ao — noieeoeo Oi?anaia e ioioae io ai?iaea,
oieueei ociaa i i?eaeeaeaiee oaoneie a?iee.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiia n?aaeaiea iaaeaeo i?ioeaieeaie i?iecioei a 1528 aiaeo
i?e Na?ueaiuoa Aeaeaineiai aeeaeaoa. Enoi/ieee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi
Oaaeaeoeea nia?ae oaeia aienei, eaeiai ia auei ni a?aiai *eiaenoaia:
i?eoee aieiu ec «Iaaa?aiiao?a, Eaoaa?a, Oo?eanoaia, Aiaeeaeaia, Io?a?a,
Nae?aia, Eaaoea, Oo?oaia, Aueiaia, Eacaea e noaiae Eui/a-ea e Ee?aecee».
A ia/aea aeoau oeaiae eucueaaoae ianeieueei ionooieee, iiaeaeaaoenue
iaii?o ocaaeia, ii ai aeaaa n naiei oaoii Oaoianeaii aunoiyee. N
iiaeoiaeii naaaeeo nee eucueaaoe ia?aoee a ianooieaiea. Ocaaee auee
?aca?iieaiu, Oaaeaeoeea nianny aaanoaii. Ii iinea ooiaea oaoa a Aaaaeaae
ia iiaeaaeaiea iyoaaea Coeueooaa?-oaia Oaaeaeoeea caiye Iaooaae, a caoai
e Aa?ao. A eiioea 1529 aiaea 70-ouny/iia oaoneia aienei aiiaue caiyei
Oi?anai, a Aa?ao auea iacia/aia oaoneay aaeieieno?aoeey. A 1531 — 1532
aiaeao Aa?ao aue aiiaue inaaeaeai ocaaeaie e aaeaa aunoiye,
aeiaeaeaaoenue i?eoiaea oaoa. Iiiaeanoai aeeoaeae oia?ei io aieiaea.

Ianaeaiea Oi?anaia no?aaeaei io iai?a?uaiuo aiei — eae io a?aaaaeae
ocaaeia, oae e io iiai?ia eucueaaoneie aaeieieno?aoeee. A
iaaeaeioniaeoeao eucueaaoneeo ieaiai 1534 aiaea i?eiye o/anoea e
oi?anaineee aaaey?aae Aaceaa?-oai, niieaiaiiee eaciaiiiai ?aaaioa
Oonaeia-oaia (oaieo). Aieueii eee aieueii iyoaae iiaeaea?aeae e a?ao
oaoa Oaoianeaa. Nai ie?ca. Iinea ?aca?iia iyoaaeieeia Nai-ie?ca, /oiau
?aaaeeeoe?iaaoue naay, eaciee ianeieueeeo ca/eiueeia iyoaaea e iineae eo
aieiau oaoo. Ainiieueciaaaoenue niooie, a oii aea 1534 aiaeo Oaaeaeoeea
aiciaiiaee naie iaiaaeaiey. 22 iay 1535 aiaea ocaaee ?acaeee aa?aoneia
iiie/aiea. Ia iiiiuue Aa?aoo i?eaue i?aaeoaeue Iaooaaea Nooeai-oaeeoa
?oieo, ii aai aienea 13 yiaa?y 1536 aiaea o ae. Aaaeoeaaaae a ?aeiia
Ieoaio?a oaeaea auee ?acaeou, a ii nai iiaea.

Oai a?aiaiai aeeoaee Aa?aoa e oaaeaeeeneia e?anoueyinoai ie?anoiinoae,
no?aaeay io i?eoaniaiee Ouc?o *aeaae (caianoeoaey iieieiiai
Nooeaia-oaeeoa), iiaeiyee ainnoaiea e ia?aoeeenue ca iiiiuueth e
Oaaeaeoeea. 11 ia?oa 1536 aiaea ii iiaeioae e Aa?aoo, ii oieueei /a?ac 5
ianyoeaa noiae aai acyoue. 29 yiaa?y 1537 aiaea ocaaee inoaaeee Aa?ao e
aa?ioeenue a Aooa?o, iianaynue noieeiiaaiey n iiaeoiaeyuei oaoneei
aieneii. Iioiaeu ocaaeneeo oaiia a Oi?anai i?iaeieaeaeenue e a
aeaeueiaeoai: a 1543, 1545, 1548, 1550, 1555, 1558, 1559-1560,
1563-1564, 1566 — 1567, 1569 — 1570 aiaeao. Iaeiaei eaeeo-eeai
?acoeueoaoia ocaaee ia aeiaeeenue. Oi?anai inoaeny iiae aeanoueth
eucueaaoae. Yoe aiaiiua noieeiiaaiey aaee e ?aci?aieth ia?iaea e
iiae?uao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. Aiaiiay oaoieea n iaaeo noi?ii auea
i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaa, i?eiaiaiea a?oeeea?ee, a ioee/ea io aiei n
Oo?oeeae, ia auei oa?aeoa?iui.

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