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Образование казахской народности

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Ieienoa?noai iaoee e aunoaai ia?aciaaiey

?anioaeeee Eacaonoai

Aa?aceeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

ei. E.I. Aoieeaaa

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

Oaia: Ia?aciaaiea eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe

e

ia?aiai eacaoneiai oainoaa

auiieiee: __________________

___________________________

i?iaa?ee: __________________

__________________________

a.Anoaia, 2000

Iaeaaeaiea

Aaaaeaiea………………………………3

Aeaaa 1. Ia?aciaaiea eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe………..6

Aeaaa 2. Ia?aciaaiea ia?aiai eacaoneiai oainoaa….16

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………..21

Aeaeeia?aoey…………………………………24

Aaaaeaiea

I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiinoe o eacaoia, noaiiaeaiey
noaa?aieoaoa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai i?ioaeae a iiiaiia?aciuo oi?iao e
aioo?aiieo ia?eiaeao, aanueia neiaeii e iai?yiieeiaeii, oioy yoi aue e
anoue aaeeiue enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann. I?ieaey aeiioaoe/aneoth “noaaeeth
aeeeinoe”, eiaaea aeiieie?iaaee caeiiu aeeaioiiai ie?a, i?aaeee
eacaoia, oaeaea eae e ana /aeiaa/anoai, naiii?aaieciaaeenue a ?iaeiaua e
ieaiaiiua iaueiu e caoai nithcu ieaiai. Iniaaiiinoe eo nioeeaeueiiai e
iieeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ii?aaeaeyeenue iio?aaiinoyie anoanoaaiiiai aeey
aeaiiie aaia?aoe/aneie e eeeiaoe/aneie n?aaeu iaeoaiey, ei/aaiai niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?aca aeecie, iio?aaiinoyie a ianoaeuao e
oeaeaniia?aciii eo ?ani?aaeaeaiee ii ?aeiiai e naciiai ei/aaie, a iaiaia
i?iaeoeoaie o?oaea n caieaaeaeue/aneeie niiauanoaaie, a caueoa io a?aaia
e aeey ?anoe?aiey nianoaaiiiai aeeciaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa.

I?eia?ii a yoio ia?eiae iiyaeythony iauanoaaiiay aeanoue ?iaeiaiai
noa?oeinoaa, e caoai aeanoue ieaiaiiuo aiaeaeae. Yoio ia?eiae a yiioa
iioanoa?iie aeanoe iiaeii iacaaoue aeiainoaea?noaaiiui ia?eiaeii
yoiiiieeoiaaiaca eacaoia.

Ia?aoiaeiie noaaeeae e ?aiiaainoaea?noaaiiiio ia?eiaeo caeanue noaei
ia?aciaaiea naeaie e iannaaaoaie ieaiaiiuo nithcia.

Yiioa iioanoa?iie aeanoe n aai aeiainoaea?noaaiiuie e
?aiiaainoaea?noaaiiuie ia?eiaeaie iiaeaioaaeeaaea yiioo aeeianoe/aneie
eacaoneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Iaeiaei anoanoaaiiue i?ioeann neeaaeuaaiey
eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe e noaiiaeaiey nianoaaiiie noaa?aiiinoe a enoi?ee
Eacaonoaia eniuoae neeueiia aeano?oeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea. Oaeiauie a
yoiiiieeoiaaiaca auee iiuiua iea?aoeeiiiua iioiee, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue
a?aieoe, niauaiea e en/aciiaaiea yoie/aneeo a?oii e ae?. Ia/aaoeeny
caeanue i?ioeann neeaaeuaaiey iaaeieaiaiiie yoie/aneie iauiinoe
naea?aeeaaeny iaoanoaeai a iuiaoiea N?aaeithth Aceth e Eacaonoai i?ae
*eiaecoaia.

Eeoue iinea ?aniaaea iiiaieueneeo oeonia oaia Aeaeaaaoay ia thai-ainoiea
e oaia Aeaeo/e ia naaa?i-caiaaea iuiaoiae oa??eoi?eae Eacaonoaia ((((-((
aa.) aiiaue noaee aicieeaoue yoiiiieeoe/aneea ainoaea?noaaiiua
ia?aciaaiey.

N eiioea (( aaea ia/eiaaony yiioa nianoaaiiie aeeianoe/aneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe eacaoia n ia?aciaaieai a 1470 a. Eacaoneiai oainoaa –
eoia i?ioeai?a/eaiai iiiaiaaeiaiai aicaeaenoaey e acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey
iieeoe/aneeo e yoiinioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeeaoeo ia oa??eoi?ee
iuiaoiae Oeaio?aeueiie Acee.

Ianoiyuay eo?niaay ?aaioa iinayuaia eco/aieth aii?ina ia
yoiiiieeoiaaiaca eacaoia, ia?aciaaiee eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe e ia?aiai
eacaoneiai ainoaea?noaa. Eiaiii yoio aii?in inoaaony ia naaiaeiyoiee
aeaiue, ianiio?y ia iiiai/eneaiiua iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey aeinoaoi/ii
i?iaeaiiui e eioa?aniui aeey eco/aiey.

Iniiaiuie aii?inaie iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou
yaeythony aii?inu ia?aciaaiey eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe e ia?aciaaiey
ia?aiai eacaoneiai ainoaea?noaa. A ?aieao eco/aiey i?iaeaiu iu
iie?aeenue ia o?oaeu oaeeo o/aiuo enoi?eeia eae E.I. Aoieeaa,
Anoaiaeea?ia N.Ae., Aanei A.ss., Oaea?ei Eoaeaeaa?aeu-oeu e ae?.

Aeaaa 1. Ia?aciaaiea eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe

Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo caaaaeie eacaoneie enoi?ee inoaaony caaaaeea
i?ienoiaeaeaiey e a?aiy ia?aciaaiey aeocia.

A neeo aeaenoaey iiiaeo yoiiiieeoe/aneeo e oicyenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia ia
oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia aicieeee o?e iniiaiuo yoiioa??eoi?eaeueiuo
iauaaeeiaiey – Noa?oee, N?aaeiee e Ieaaeoee AEocu. Nouanoaiaaiea aeocia
io?aceei neiaeiinoue i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe,
iaeiaeeei naith ia/aoue ia eieaeueiua eoeueoo?ii-auoiaua iniaaiiinoe aa
?acaeoey.

AEocu yaeyeenue niaoeeoe/aneie oi?iie nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe. A enoi?ee eacaoia aeocaie i?eiyoi
iacuaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua nithcu ieaiai, iniciathueo naith
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e aaeeiie eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe e ianaeythueo
oeene?iaaiioth o?aaeeoeeae /anoue iauaeacaoneie oa??eoi?ee. A
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a aianoi aeoc oiio?aaeyeny a
aeaaiea a?aiaia aioaaeoee a ?onneee ycue oa?iei i?aea.

I?eiaaeeaaea e iaeiie eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe eaaeaeue ec aeocia eiae naie
iniaaiiinoe, eioi?ua aeaeaee eo ioee/iuie ae?oa io ae?oaa.

Iniiauaaynue ia enneaaeiaaieyo, i?iaaaeaiiuo o/aiuie enoi?eeaie
Eacaonoaia, iu iii?iaoai iaiaueoue e aeaoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo eaaeaeiio ec
eacaoneeo aeocia.

Anaai aeocia – o?e: Oeo aeoc (Noa?oee, eee Aieueoie, aeoc), I?oa aeoc
(N?aaeiee, eee C?aaeeiiue, aeoc) e Eeoe aeoc (Ieaaeoee, eee Iaeue,
aeoc).

Ei/aauey aeocia ?aniieaaaeenue a ii?yaeea n thai-ainoiea ia
naaa?i-caiaae: Oeo aeoc caieiae thai-ainoi/ioth /anoue Eacaoneiai
oainoaa, Eeoe aeoc – naioth caiaaeioth, a I?oa aeoc – na?aaeeiioth
oa??eoi?eth.

AEocu iieo/eee naia iacaaiea ia ii /eneo i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e iei
ei/aaieeia (Eeoe aeoc aue naiui iiiai/eneaiiui), ii ii noa?oeinoao
aoiaeeaoeo a eo ninoaa ?iaeia. I?e yoii noa?oeinoai iaaeaeo ?iaeaie e
aeocaie n/eoaeinue ii i?yiie eeiee: “naiue iineaaeiee ?iae” Oeo aeoca
eiae i?aeiouanoai ia?aae “Naiui noa?oei ?iaeii” I?oa aeoca e o.ae.
Ii?aaaeuaaeinue yoi oai, /oi i?aaeie noa?oa (aoanu oeeai). Niaeanii
yoiia?aoe/aneei iaaethaeaieyi, ii?yaeie noa?oeinoaa niaethaeaeny:

i?e ii?aaeaeaiee ianoa a aiaaii ii?yaeea;

i?e ?acaeaeaiee aiaiiie aeiau/e;

i?e anooieaiee a aeii e ?annaaeeaaiee ii ianoai;

i?e ioe?uoee oi?aeanoaa;

i?e i?aaenoaaeaiee ea/anoaa i?aaeeaaaaiiai a ainoyo e ia ie?ao eooaiuey.

A XVII naiii ia/aea XVIII aa. ana o?e aeoca oi?aaeyeenue aeyie –
?iaeiia/aeueieeaie, oiieiiii/aiiuie anaeacaoneei oaiii; a ni a?aiaie
iinea eii/eiu Oaoea-oaia (iaaeaeo 1715-1717aa.), iineaaeiaai eacaoneiai
oaia, aeanoue eioi?iai i?eciaaaeanue ai anai ainoaea?noaa, eaaeaeue aeoc
eiae naiaai oaia ec /enea noeoaiia – ioaeneeo iioiieia *eiaec-oaia (oi.
a 1227 a.).

Ecaanoii, /oi aia?aua eiy iaeiiai ec aeocia – Oeo aeoca (ii oa?ieiieiaee
enoi/ieea “Eaca/uey Aieueoay i?aea”) auei caoeene?iaaii a ?onneei
aeieoiaioa, aeaoe?oaiii 1616 aiaeii e eiathuei caaeaaea: “?ani?iniua
?a/e a iinieueneii i?eeaca neoaeeeuo ethaeae O.Iao?iaa e I.Eoieoeuia i
iiacaeea a Eaeiuoeeoth caieth”.

A ionoeueiaineeo enoi/ieeao ieaaea eacaoneea aeocu ia oiiieiathony
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi enoi/ieee, iienuaathuea ninoiyiea aeae a Ainoi/iii
Aeaoo-e Eei/aea a XIII – ia/aea XVII aa. aeinoaoi/ii iaeeueiu e
?anneacuaatho i iiiaeanoaa aeaoaeae aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?iie
aeecie oiai a?aiaie. Ec e?aiiycu/iuo e oth?eiycu/iuo ni/eiaiee iu ociaai
e eiaia oaiia e acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie, e i iaaaaao e aieiao, e
ia?o?ooao e niiniaao ei/aaaiey, e aeaaea i oaeeo yoiia?aoe/aneeo
iiae?iaiinoyo, eae, iai?eia?, oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey iyaeeo eiaeaiuo
iaeeaeie. Ii eiaaea ?a/ue caoiaeeo i oa??eoi?eaeueii-aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
no?oeoo?ao Eacaoneiai oainoaa, aacaea oeao?e?oao oa?iei oeon (oaeae
aeaaeaiea, a oaeaea ainoaea?noai), e oieueei.

Iaae caaaaeeaie eacaoneeo aeocia aeeenue iieieaiey enoi?eeia Eacaonoaia,
ii oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai e iaeiicia/iiai ?aoaiey oae e ia iaoee. Aua a
1911 aiaeo aeaaeaiee A.A.Aa?oieueae a naiae ?aaioa “Enoi?ey eco/aiey
Ainoiea a Aa?iia e ?innee” ienae: “Iu ia eiaai oi/iuo naaaeaiee i oii,
eae i?iecioei ?aniaaeaiea yoiai (eacaoneiai – O.N.) ia?iaea ia o?e
i?aeu: Aieueooth, N?aaeithth e Iaeoth (eee Noa?ooth, N?aaeithth e
Ieaaeooth), ec eioi?uo eaaeaeay eiaea naiaai oaia…”

Iuiaoiaa ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu ia neeoeii i?iaeaeioeinue n oiai a?aiaie.
Iaeiaei e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie iaeiieeinue aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai
iaaethaeaiee, iainiiaaiiuo ia eco/aiee ana oao aea ecaanoiuo iaoea
enoi/ieeia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oioy au iaueo iooae aeaeueiaeoaai
enneaaeiaaiey.

Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae neeiiyeenue e iunee i oii, /oi ?acaaaeeo
neaaeoao eneaoue a oao o?eaeueiuo nenoaiao, eioi?ua ?aaeueii
nouanoaiaaee a aeaeaeii i?ioeii o oth?eneeo ia?iaeia ni a?aiai aoiineie
eiia?ee e oth?eneiai eaaaiaoa.

Auei ecaanoii, /oi i?aaiecaoeey aienea e naycaiiiai n iei
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey a yoeo ainoaea?noaao no?ieeanue ii noaia
i?aaia e?uei (caiaaeiay – o.e. i?eaioaoeey oiaaea auea thaeiay), eaaia
e?uei (ainoi/iia) e oeaio?. Oeaio? aienea e oeaio?aeueiua iaeanoe
eiia?ee oi?aaeyeenue iaiin?aaenoaaiii eaaaiii, a eaaia e i?aaia e?ueuey,
niioaaonoaaiii caiaaeiua e ainoi/iua iaeanoe eiia?ee,
iaianoieeaie-?iaee/aie.

Ae?oaie o?eaeueiie nenoaiie ecaanoiie o ae?aaieo oth?eia auea nenoaia
a?a/iuo ioiioaiee, aaea o?e yeciaaiiuo ?iaea a ecaanoiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe onoaiaaeeaaee a?a/iua nayce.

Iaeiaei iaa yoe nenoaiu ie a iaeaeoae noaiaie ia iiaoo auoue naycaiu n
o?aiy eacaoneeie aeocaie, o.e. oa ia?aiia/aeueii ia eiaee cia/aiey ie
aeey aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, ie aeey a?a/iuo naycae. *oi aea eanaaony
aeaeaiey iaocia (oo?eiai) ia o?e a?oiiu – ieaeithth, n?aaeithth e
aa?oithth, eioi?ia aia?aua caoeene?iaaii a O a. e nio?aiyeinue aieioue
aei XII a., oi, aeoiaaony, /oi i?aau oa o/aiua, eioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi
yoi noaoai eieaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea ia?ac?uaii naycaii n ?a/iuie aeieeiaie
Nu?-Aea?uee e Aio-Aea?uee e ieeae ia ?ani?ino?aiyeinue ca i?aaeaeu yoeo
aeieei, a aeaaiia ii oa?aeoa?o ioee/ii io aeaeaiey eacaoia ia o?e aeoca.

Eaeea aea aeeciaiiua i?ioeannu e enoi?e/aneea ianoiyoaeuenoaa XVI a.
i?aaeii?aaeaeeee aicieeiiaaiea oiaaea, a ia ?aiaa e ia iicaeiaa
niaa?oaiii iiaiai i?eioeeia naiii?aaiecaoeee ieaiai iauaaeeiaiiuo
naiiiacaaieai eacae?

N iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey Eacaoneiai oainoaa (Eacaoneiai oeona) a 1476-71
aa. e aieioue aei ia/aea XVII a. ainiiaenoaiaae oieueei iaeei i?eioeei
iauaaeeiaiey e oi?aaeaiey no?aiie – oeoniue i?eioeei, i?e eioi?ii
ioaeaeueiua ?iaeu e ieaiaia, neiaeeaoeany a Ainoi/iii Aeaoo-e Eei/aea a
XIII-XIV aa. /anoi ec ineieeia aieaa ae?aaieo ieaiai, aeeth/aeenue a
iieeoe/aneoth no?oeoo?o iaeuo e aieueoeo oeonia, aicaeaaeyaiuo noeoaiaie
(iai?eia?, oeon Aeaeaieo-noeoaia, Oaieo-noeoaia, Oo?noi-noeoaia e o.i.),
ai aeaaa n oaiii e oi?ie?iaaee iaeei aieueoae oeon-ainoaea?noai, eioi?ia
a iaeiii neo/aa iacuaaee ii eiaie iaeiiai ec oaiia (iai?eia?,
*aaaoaeneee oeon, Ocaaeneee oeon e o.ae.) eee, eae a iaoai neo/aa,
iaicia/aee nei?a nioeeaeueiui, /ai iieeoe/aneei oa?ieiii, aei oiai ia
eiaaoai yoiia?aoe/aneiai cia/aiey – oa?ieiii eacae.

Ia?aiia/aeueii Eacaoneee oeon (Eacaoneia oainoai) aue
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneei nithcii a?oiiu ieaiai Ainoi/iiai Aeaoo-e Eei/aea,
ioeieiaoeony io iannu ?iaenoaaiiuo ieaiai e aicaeaaeaiiuo iaeiie ec
aaoaae aeeianoee *eiaeceaeia. Yoie/aneay eiinieeaeaoeey yoeo ieaiai a
?aieao iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa e iiae oi?aaeaieai iaeiie aeeianoee
(iioiieia Aeaeo/eaea O?on-oaia) e noaea oai i?ioeannii, a oiaea eioi?iai
e a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai iaicia/aeenue iiaua oaea ia iieeoe/aneea, a
yoiioa??eoi?eaeueiua no?oeoo?u – aeocu.

Eaeiau auee oa oaeoi?u, eioi?ua iai?aaeyee e noeioee?iaaee iiyaeaiea
iiauo no?oeoo??

Ia?aui ec ieo auea oa??eoi?eaeueiay oeaeinoiinoue Eacaoneiai oainoaa a
oneiaeyo aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiie aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe.
Inoaaaynue niiauanoaii ei/aauo ieaiai, Eacaoneia oainoai ia ?oaaaea
XVI-XVII aa. aeeth/eei a naie ninoaa oa??eoi?ee n ae?aaieie oeaio?aie
ai?iaeneie e inaaeei-caieaaeaeue/aneie eoeueoo?u, nicaeaaoeie
ii?aaeaeaiiua ciiu oicyenoaaiiiai e eoeueoo?iiai i?eoyaeaiey aeey
ianaeaiey ie?oaeathueo eo noaiae.

Aoi?ui oaeoi?ii, a ecaanoiie ia?a yaeythueiny neaaenoaeai ia?aiai, auei
oi?ie?iaaiea aoeueiie nenoaiu ?annaeaiey, oicyenoaiaaiey e auoa. Eiaiii
yoio i?ioeann a?inaaony aia?aae i?e aiaeeca enoi/ieeia XVII aaea.
Oianoii aniiiieoue, /oi a XIII-XVI aa. a Aeaoo-e Eei/aea ainiiaenoaiaaea
nenoaia oeoniiai ei/aaaiey, “… eiaaea ia?iiiay ianna, aicaeaaeaiiay
oaiii e noeoaiaie, i?aeoe/anee iai?a?uaii ia?aiauaeanue ia naieo
eeaeoeao, niiioe?iaaiiuo ia a?aao, aeaeiiuo aa?aethaeaie e eioaaeueie ii
ouny/aeeeiiao?iaui ia?o?ooai oiaaeaoieo ei/aaee”.

Ia n?aco e ia iianaiaoii yoio ia?ac aeecie caiaiyeny eiui – ia?aei/aaee
iaaieueoeo naiaeiuo a?oii (aoeia), naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie ia oieueei
?iaenoaaiiuie, ii e ninaaeneeie e eiuie ioiioaieyie, ia ia?aie/aiiuo
oa??eoi?eyo n ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeeie ia?o?ooaie ia?aaeaeaeaiey. Eeaeoee
ia a?aao, “oao?u ia eieanao” niaiyao ?acai?iay th?oa, iaaueth/eaaaiay ia
aa?aethaeia: e ia/aeo XVII aaea ioiinyony iineaaeiea ii a?aiaie
ecaanoiua niiauaiey ia eniieueciaaiee aeeoaeyie Eei/aeneie noaie
/aou?aoeieaniuo aeiiia-iiaicie, a a aieaa iicaeieo enoi/ieeao
oiiieiathony oieueei aeaooeieaniua a?au e niaea?aeaony eeoue iienaiey,
oioy e ia?aaeei, e aieueoeo ii ?acia?ai, ii ?acai?iuo th?o e ia?aiiniuo
eeaeoie.

Ia?aoiae io ei/aaaiey a eeaeoeao ia eieanao e ?acai?iui th?oai aue
e?oiiui eciaiaieai auoa ei/aaiai ianaeaiey Aeaoo-e Eei/aea, e yoio
oaeoi? i?aaeii?aaeaeee ia?yaeo n ?iaenoaaiiuie e aaiaaeiae/aneeie
naycyie ieaiai e ?iaeia aioo?e aaeeiie iieeoe/aneie iauiinoe aua e nayce
oa??eoi?eaeueiua a a?aieoeao ioiineoaeueii onoie/eauo cii iinoiyiiuo
ia?aei/aaie. Oaeiai ?iaea ciiu ieeae ia niaiaaeaee n oeoniui
(aaeieieno?aoeaiui) eee othiaiiui (aiaiiui) ae?iaeaiea
iauaainoaea?noaaiiie oa??eoi?ee, e ioiioaiey aioo?e yoeo cii ia iiaee
?aaoee?iaaoueny aicaeaaeyaoeie oeonu oea?aae/aie-/eiaeceaeaie. Iiaua
oa??eoi?eaeueii-?iaeiaua nayce o?aaiaaee eiuo ?aaoeyoi?ia, e eie noaee
“aieueoea ethaee” ianoaeuiuo iauei – aee, “iaoeeiiaeueiay” a?enoie?aoey,
yeeoa nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu ea?a-noeae (/a?iay einoue – ?aae.) ii/eoaaiua
ca ciaiey e oiaiea eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue iiiaiaaeiaia ia?iaeiia i?aai,
iiiaiaaeiaua iau/ae, oieueei e iicaieythuea nio?aiyoue a noaie i?enouaa
ei/aaui neioiaiaeai ie?iono?ienoai. Eiaiii aie?oa aeaa ia/aei
oi?ie?iaaoueny iaae?iaeiaua aioo?eoa??eoi?eaeueiua nayce, eioi?ua
iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaee noeoeth ei/aauo ieaiai a oicyenoaaiiia e
eoeueoo?iia niiauanoai, aa?aaaoeey eioi?iai inouanoaeyeanue aaeeinoaaiii
aiciiaeiui oiaaea niiniaii – /a?ac onoaiiaeaiea aaiaaeiae/aneeo e
ea?a?oe/aneeo acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?iaeaie e ieaiaiaie, iaaeaeo
aoeueiuie ianoaeuiuie iaueiaie.

Iiaua no?oeoo?u e eo aeaau – aee ioithaeue ia no?aieeenue ?ac?ooeoue eee
ia?ooeoue oaea onoaiiaeaoothny iieeoe/aneoth e aaeieieno?aoeaioth
no?oeoo?o Eacaoneiai oainoaa n aa oeonaie, ii aeey iaicia/aiey
noi?ie?iaaaoeony ciiaeueiuo niiauanoa iie aeieaeiu auee eniieueciaaoue
eaeea-oi oa?ieiu, auoiaeeaoea ca ?aiee ?iaeiieaiaiiuo iaicia/aiee e
ieeae ia caaeaaaaoea iaicia/aiey, naycaiiua n aunoei aiaiii-iieeoe/aneei
oi?aaeaieai. I/aaeaeii, oaeei oa?ieiii e noae aeoc (aoeaaeueii “noi”,
“nioiy”).

Aia?aua yoio oa?iei eae aaeieieno?aoeaiue caoeene?iaai a ni/eiaiee
aaeoneiai enoi?eea Iaoioaea eai Aaee “Aao? ae-an?a?”. Niaeanii
niiauaieth yoiai aaoi?a, Ae-I?aea, iaeii ec aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee Aeaeo/eaaa Oeona (Cieioie I?aeu), auea oaeaea ecaanoia
iiae iacaaieai Eoc-I?aea.

Iu i?aeoe/anee ie/aai ia ciaai i auoiaaiee yoiai oa?ieia a iineaaeothuaa
a?aiy – i?eaeai?iua enoi?eia?aou ia iioneaeenue, eae i?aaeei, aei oaeeo
iecia ia?iaeiie aeecie. A?yae ee nae/an eee a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai noaiao
aiciiaeiui iaeiicia/ii ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, eaeei ia?acii naa?oeeinue
i?aa?auaiea iaeiiai ec iaaunieeo aiaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oa?ieiia a
iaicia/aiea e?oiiuo ieaiaiiuo (aoeueiuo) niiauanoa?

Noaiiaeaiea aeocia i?ienoiaeeei ia iaeiia?aiaiii, e ii iiaieth ?yaea
aaoi?ia nei?aa anaai yoio i?ioeann ia/aeny a Naie?a/uea,
?ani?ino?aieaoenue ioooaea ia oeaio?aeueioth, a aneaae caoai e
caiaaeioth /anoe Eacaoneiai oainoaa. Ionthaea, aiciiaeii, e ea?a?oey
aeocia, eiaaea noa?oei e ia?aiia/aeueii aeeyoaeueiui noae eiaiii
Naie?a/aineee aeoc, a I?oa (N?aaeiee) aeoc e Eeoe (Ieaaeoee) ii a?aiaie
naiaai i?iyaeaiey(oioy e ia onooiaee ii /eneaiiinoe ieaiai e oa??eoi?eyi
Noa?oaio) ieacaeenue aaiaaeiae/anee ia aieaa ieceeo nooiaiyo.
Iinoaiaiiia aicauoaiea aeociauo no?oeoo? noieue aea iinoaiaiii, ii
iaoeeiiii aaei e oiaaeeo i?aaeiae nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee
eacaoneiai iauanoaa – oeonia. I?aaeiyy i?aayuay aa?oooea oainoaa
(noeoaiu) iaiaeeaeaiii iaoea naia ianoi a iiaie nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee: iia noaea n XVIII noieaoey (ia/aei aoiaeaeaiey Eacaoneeo
oainoa a ninoaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee) anee e ia iieiiaeanoiie, oi
aeinoaoi/ii aeeyoaeueiie aa?oooeie anao o?ao aeocia, i?e yoii nio?aiea
aaiaaeiae/aneoth, a cia/eo e iieeoe/aneoth iainiaeaiiinoue – noeoaiu ia
ioiinyo naay ie e iaeiiio ec oth?ei-iiiaieueneeo ieaiai, ie e iaeiiio ec
eacaoneeo aeocia, ia ?acaeaeythony ia eieaia.

*aou?aoaaeiaia nouanoaiaaiea aeociaie no?oeoo?u ieacaei noieue neeueiia
aicaeaenoaea ia yoie/aneia naiiniciaiea eacaoneiai ia?iaea, /oi e nae/an
ia oieueei nio?aiyaony a iaiyoe eaaeaeie eacaoneie naiuee, ii e aeeyao
ia iianaaeiaaioth aeeciue eacaoia.

Ianiiiaiii, iaeiaei, /oi a iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai ii?aaeaeythuay ?ieue
inoaiaony ca iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie eaeaioeoeeaoeeae, a eeaiiaua e aeociaua
i?eaycee iinoaiaiii noaioo aeinoiyieai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai.

Aeaaa 2. Ia?aciaaiea ia?aiai eacaoneiai oainoaa

I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe a XIV-XV aa. a iniiaiii
caaa?oeeny.

A na?aaeeia XV a. – ia?aciaaeinue Eacaoneia oainoai – eoia
i?ioeai?a/eaiai iiiaiaaeiaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey e acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey
iieeoe/aneeo e yoiinioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeeaoeo ia oa??eoi?ee
iuiaoiae Oeaio?aeueiie Acee. A yoiiiieeoiaaiaca ei/aauo ieaiai iaeuecy
ia ioiaoeoue iniaoth aaaeiinoue niauoey oao a?aiai, eioi?ui noaea
ioei/aaea a 1459 aiaeo iioiieia iniiaaoaey aeeianoee eacaoneeo oaiia
O?on-oaia – Aeaeaieaaea e Ae?ay – n i?aaeaiiuie ei ieaiaiaie. Cia/aiea
yoiai niauoey a oii, eae ioia/atho eacaoneea enoi?eee, /oi iii onei?eei
i?ioeann neiaeaiey eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe a ?acoeueoaoa auaeaeaiey e
iainiaeaiey ec eiiaeiia?aoa ?iaeia, ieaiai e oi?ie?othueony ia?iaeiinoae
Ainoi/iiai Aeaoo-e Eui/aea, eaeei auei caeanue ianaeaiea e ia/aeo XY
noieaoey, ecaanoiia iiae iauei niae?aoaeueiui iacaaieai ocaaee.

Ec Ocaaeneiai oeona auaeaeeeenue e ia?aei/aaaee a Naie?a/uea ia i?inoi
?ac?iciaiiua ieaiaia, iaaeiaieueiua iieeoeeie oaia Aaoeoae?a, ii
iauaaeeiaiea ?iaeia e ieaiai /eneaiiinoueth aei 200 oun. /aeiaae,
eioi?ua ninoaaeyee a Aeaoo-e Eui/aea ianaeaiea oeonia iioiieia
O?on-oaia. Aeiaaiea ?iaea aeaeae?, iaeiai, ae/ei, eei/ae e ae?. Noaee
yoie/aneeie eiiiiiaioaie eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe. Ia?eoeaoaeueiia neiai
“eacae”, ia?aiia/aeueii iaicia/aaoaa – naiaiaeiue, neeoaeaoe, ecaiaiiee
eee a?oiio ei/aaieeia, eioi?ua ioaeaeeeenue, auoee ec eaeie-oi
iiaeaeanoiinoe e i?ioeainoiyuea ae, i?eia?aei yoiiiieeoe/aneee niune.
Oth?eiycu/iua ieaiaia, iauaaeeiaiiua iiae aeanoueth iioiieia O?on-oaia,
ia?aee naiiiacaaiea e ieii/aoaeueii noaee iacuaaoueny, i?aaaea, ie aac
noauaeoeaiuo aeaeieciaiaiee, eacaeaie, a no?aia eo – Eacaenoai. Iiaia
yoiiiieeoe/aneia ea/anoai noaiiyeia, ooaa?aeeaoeony ia caiea Naie?a/uey,
iieiaeeei ia/aei ?acaeoeth nianoaaiii eacaoneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, a
oa?ieia “eacae” e “ocaae” noaee iaicia/aoue aua e ?acaeaeaiea ethaeae ii
ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa, i/a?/aiiiai oaea naiaai ?iaea iieeoe/aneeie
a?aieoeaie.

Aieioue aei nia?oe iineaaeniaai eacaoneiai oaia
Oaaaeaeue-Iooaiiaae-aaou?-oaia (Oaoea) a 1718 aiaeo e i?aa?auaiey o?ao
eacaoneeo aeocia a naiinoiyoaeueiua oainoaa a yiioa eacaoneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe yoio io?acie a?aiaie iiaeii auaeaeeoue eae ii/oe
300-eaoiee ia?eiae oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai yoiiiieeoe/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey
eacaoia, eioi?ia yaeyeinue ie/ai eiui, eae ainoaea?noaii. A yoio
ia?eiae, iai?eia?, a oainoai nuia Aeaeaieaaea oaia Eanuia (1511-1523
aa.) iiae iaeiie aai aeanoueth aue iauaaeeiai a yeue, iaeei ia?iae aieaa
ieeeeiia eacaoia. E yoiio a?aiaie ioiinyony iauea aeey ieo ocaeiiaiey :
“Eanuia i?aaaaeiue iooue” (XYI a.), neoaeeaoaa iniiaiui caeiiii; “Naiue
ocaeiiaiee” oaia Oaoea (aoi?ay iieiaeia XYII a., cae?aieyaoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie e oaiaeaeueiia i?aai eacaoia.

E yoiio aea ia?eiaeo yoiiiieeoiaaiaca ioiineony aiaoiaiieeoe/aneia
noaiiaeaiea i?aainoauaeoiinoe eacaoneiai ainoaea?noaa, a /anoiinoe,
iiaeii i?eaanoe i?eia? naiinoiyoaeueiiai onoaiiaeaiey ii eieoeeaoeaa
oaia Oaaaeeaey (1586-1598 aa.) aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee Eacaoneiai
oainoaa n Iineaie. “Ioeoeeaeueiua ?onnei-eacaoneea ioiioaiey, – ienae
A.ss. Aanei, – ia/aeenue, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia iicaeiaa 90-o aiaeia XYI aaea
” A ia?aie /aoaa?oe yoiai noieaoey eacaoe, eae naiinoiyoaeueiay
ia?iaeiinoue noaee ecaanoiu e a caiaaeiie Aa?iia.

Ianeaaenoaaiiay oaineay aeanoue ia?eiaea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
yoiiiieeoe/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey eacaoia caeeth/aeanue a aa?oiaiii i?aaa
?anii?yaeaiey anae oa??eoi?eae eacaoneeo oeonia, ?ani?aaeaeaiee ei
ianoaeu e ia?o?ooia ei/aaie, aiaeiuo enoi/ieeia, a i?aaiecaoeee eo
aii?oaeaiiie caueou, a i?aaa ecaeaaaoue iauaiaycaoaeueiua iiaaeaiey, a
oaeaea eacieoue e ieeiaaoue. Oai aae ia?aaiai?u n ae?oaeie
ainoaea?noaaie, iauyaeye aieio e ie?, caeeth/ae nithcu.

Eacaoneia oainoai 16-18 aa. Auei ea?aoece?iaaiiie
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie, aia?aaoae a naay o?aaeeoeee ei/aaie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, ni/aoaaoae yeaiaiou iiia?oee e oaiaeaeueiie
?anioaeeee. Aaeaaiaeii nicuaaeenue eo?oeoae (ia?iaeiua nia?aiey) ec
/enea a?enoie?aoia – noa?aeoei e i?aaeoaeae ?iaeia, noeoaiia – aeey
?aoaiey niaianoii n oaiii iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae. Aeeyoaeueiua
?iaeiia/aeueieee ninoaaeyee i?e oaia niaao aeaa – caeiiiniaauaoaeueiue
i?aai. Aee a ?iaeao ieeoeaoai?yee noaeaaioth e aaeieieno?aoeaioth
aeanoue. E, a ioee/ea io noeoaiia – iioiieia /eiaeceaeia (nineiaea
“ae-noe-ae”), ninoaaeyee yeeoo “ea?a-noeae” – ?iaeiaoth ciaoue.

Aienei eacaoneiai oainoaa oi?ie?iaaeinue ec aii?oaeaiiuo io?yaeia oaiia,
noeoaiia, aeaa e ia?iaeiiai iiie/aiey. Eaaeaeue ?iae, aeoc eiaee naia
ciaiy (oaiao) e naie aiaaie eee/ (o?ai), ii ana aienei aunooiaei iiae
iaeiei iaaanii-aieoaui ciaiaiai e o?aiii oainoaa. Iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey
?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue oaineeie onoaiiaeaieyie, aaeaoii (iau/iia i?aai
eacaoia) e ?aoaieyie niaaoii aeaa (a?aaea). Iieeoe/aneeie oeaio?aie
Eacaoneiai oainoaa ia i?ioyaeaiee iieooi?a noieaoee ( n eiioea 16 aei
ia?aie iieiaeiu 18 aaea) auee ai?iaea Oaoeaio e Oo?eanoai.

Aeoeaiay aiaoiyy iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa, ?anoe?aiea aeaaeaiee, oe?aieaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, i?e ia?auo oaiao, iniaaiii i?e Eanuioaia a ia/aea
XYI a., caoai niaieeenue oneeaieai iaaeaeioniaiie ai?ueau, ianniauie
ioei/aaeaie ethaeae.

Ai 2-e iieiaeia XYI a. i?ienoiaeeo iiaue iieeoe/aneee iiaeuai Eacaoneiai
oainoaa, niaae iaaeaeioniaeoe, ?acaeoea neioiaiae/aneiai e
caieaaeaeue/aneiai oicyenoaa, oi?aiauo ioiioaiee, ?anoe?ythony eiioaeou
n ?inneae e ae?oaeie nii?aaeaeueiuie no?aiaie.

Oaineay aeanoue oiai ia?eiaea oioue e aeinoeaea a ecaanoiie noaiaie
anaioaaouaathuaai oa?aeoa?a e eiaea iaeii?iaeiia yoie/aneia iniiaaiea,
iaeiaei yeaiaio ioiineoaeueiinoe a oeaio?aeecaoeeth yoie aeanoe
i?eaiineee ai?ueaa ca aeanoue noeoaiia ?aciuo oeonia e i?aeoe/anee
iai?ae?auathueany aieiu n ocaaeaie e eaeiueaie. Yoe oaeoi?u
i?aiyonoaiaaee oi?ie?iaaieth oaeiai iaiaoiaeeiiai yeaiaioa a noaiiaeaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe eacaoneiai oainoaa, eae i?aaiecaoeey ianaeaiey
ii oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?eioeeio. Iniiaie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe inoaaaeanue
?iaeiaay i?aaiecaoeey ianaeaiey, aoeeeee/iue oa?aeoa? neioiaiae/aneiai
oicyenoaa e ei/aaie ia?ac aeecie ia iaania/eaaee iaiaoiaeeiie
noaaeeueiinoe oaineie aeanoe, a eacaoneiio iauanoao – aniauae
oeaeinoiinoe.

N ia/. XYIII a. o/anoeeenue iaaaae aeaeoiaa? ia eacaoneea caiee. Iiyoiio
oai Oaoea i?aaei?eieiaao iiiuoeo iauaaeeiaiey o?ao aeocia. Eacaoneia
oainoai, ?acaee?aaiia iaaeaeioniaeoeae e i?ioeai?a/eyie, ineaaeaiiia a
ecio?eoaeueiie aieia n aa?anni?ii, aaaeao io/ayiioth ai?ueao ca naith
iacaaeneiinoue.

A o?oaeiie yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee anoae aii?in i
aoiaeaeaiee a ninoaa ?innee, eioi?ia i?iaeieaeaeinue ieiei 150 eao.

Iaeiaei, yoi oaea ae?oaie ia?eiae a yiioa aeeianoe/aneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe eacaoia, eioi?ue o?aaoao ioaeaeueiiai ?acaiai?a.

Caeeth/aiea

Caaa?oay enneaaeiaaiea aii?inia i ca?iaeaeaiee eacaoneie ia?iaeiinoe e
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a Eacaonoaia, oi/aony neacaoue i oii cia/aiee, eaeia
eiaao iiieiaiea aeaiiiai aii?ina a aeaea noaiiaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie
iacaaeneiinoe ?anioaeeee naaiaeiy.

16 aeaeaa?y 1991 aiaea i?eieiaaony Caeii ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai i
iacaaeneiinoe (eiathuaai neeo Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Caeiia). Iauyaea i naiae
iacaaeneiinoe, ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai noaea i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie
iieeoe/anee naiinoiyoaeueiia ainoaea?noai n iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiui
oeeaaeii, n aaeeiui iiiieeoiui i?aaieciii. 1995 a. 30 aaaonoa ia
anaia?iaeiii ?aoa?aiaeoia i?eieiaaony iuia aeaenoaothuay Eiinoeoooeey
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?anioaeeea i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiue ?ino /enea
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ioe?uaathony i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e?oiiaeoeo
eiiiaiee ie?a, ?ac?aaaouaathony e inouanoaeythony i?iaeou niaianoiie
?ac?aaioee i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e ia?a?aaioee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
aiaae?aiea i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiaee a aa?a?iie noa?a e o.ae.

Aiaaoua i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu Eacaonoaia, nioeeaeueiay e iieeoe/aneay
noaaeeueiinoue a ?anioaeeea aeaeatho yoio ?aaeii iaeiei ec iaeaieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo aeey aeiaeaiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea n?aaee ?anioaeee
auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca.

?anioaeeea Eacaonoai noaea iieiii?aaiui /eaiii ie?iaiai niiauanoaa,
iieo/ea i?eciaiea e iiaeaea?aeeo aaniethoiiai aieueoeinoaa ainoaea?noa
ie?a. Ia naaiaeiy Eacaonoai i?eciai 113 ainoaea?noaaie, ni 105-th ec ieo
onoaiiaeaiu aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey. Oe?aieyaony acaeiiaeaenoaea,
?anoe?yaony nio?oaeie/anoai n iaeaieaa aaoi?eoaoiuie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
no?oeoo?aie. A eo /enea III, Aa?iiaeneia niiauanoai, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e
Aa?iiaeneee aaiee ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue
oiiae, IAAAOY, E?aniue E?ano, THIANAO, THIANEI, AIC e ae?. ?anioaeeea
i?eniaaeeieeanue aieaa /ai e 40 iaaeaeoia?iaeiui eiiaaioeeyi, ath
iiaeienaii ieiei 400 iiiainoi?iiieo e aieaa 700 aeaonoi?iiieo aeiaiai?ia
e niaeaoaiee.

A 1997 a. i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i ia?aiina noieeoeu ec a. Aeiaou a a. Aeiiea,
naycaiiia n aaiiieeoe/aneeie, yeiiiie/aneeie i?e/eiaie ?acaeoey
Eacaonoaia.

?ac?aaioaia e i?eiyoa e ?aaeecaoeee I?ia?aiia “I ia?ao ii ?aaeecaoeee
no?aoaae/aneiai ?acaeoey Eacaonoaia aei 2030 aiaea”.

Iieeoe/aneia ooaa?aeaeaiea Eacaonoaia naaiaeiy ia?ac?uaii naycaia n aai
iieeoe/aneei i?ioeui. Iineieueeo, eae aeaeii ec ianoiyuae ?aaiou,
Eacaonoai ecaeaaia aue naiaiaeiui ainoaea?noaii, a a?aiaiiue aai nithc n
?inneae aue iieeoe/aneei oaaii a ai?ueaa ca iacaaeneiinoue.

Aeaeeia?aoey

Aoieeaa E.I. Ae?aaiyy ?onue e Aaeeeay Noaiue. I., 1989. N. 43.

Enoi?ey Eacaonoaia n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai e aei iaoeo aeiae. I/a?e / Iiae
?aae. I.E. Eacuaaaaa e ae?. Aeiaou. 1993. N. 113.

Aoiaeaa E.E. Ae?aaiyy ?onue e Aaeeeay noaiue. I., 1989.

Anoaiaeeeia N. Ae. Enoi?ey Eacaonoaia n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. Aeia-Aoa,
1993.

Aoieeaa E.E. Ae?aaiea oth?ee. E., 1968

Oaea?ei Eoaeaeaa?aeu-oeu. ?iaeineiaiay oth?eia, ee?aecia, eacaoia e
oaineeo aeeianoee. Aeia-Aoa, 1990.

Ea?aicei I.I. I?aaeaiey aaeia I. 1988. N 195.

Ooaieo-oaaeaee. *aiaec-iaia. Oaeneieea, ia?aaiae, o?aine?eioeey,
oaenoieiae/aneea i?eia/aiey, enneaaeiaaiea. A.I. THaeeia. Aeia-Aoa.
1992. N. 61.

Aaonaeoiaa I.O. Eacaoneia oainoai ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XYI a. Aeia-Aoa,
1985. N. 89.

Eeyooi?iue N.A., Noeoaiia A.E. Eacaonoai: eaoiienue o?ao ouny/aeaoee.
Aeia-Aoa. 1992. N. 276.

Aanei A.ss. ?inney e eacaoneea oainoaa a XYI- XYIII aaeao. Aeia-Aoa.
1971. N. 78.

Aaiia A.A. Aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea nioeeaeenoe/aneeo caiaeueiuo
i?aaiioiioaiee a Eacaoneie NN?. Aeia-Aoa. 1963. N. 52.

Aoieeaa E.I. Ae?aaiyy ?onue e Aaeeeay Noaiue. I., 1989. N. 43.

Oai aea, N. 15.

Enoi?ey Eacaonoaia n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai e aei iaoeo aeiae. I/a?e /
Iiae ?aae. I.E. Eacuaaaaa e ae?. Aeiaou. 1993. N. 113.

Aoiaeaa E.E. Ae?aaiyy ?onue e Aaeeeay noaiue. I., 1989.

Anoaiaeeeia N. Ae. Enoi?ey Eacaonoaia n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. Aeia-Aoa,
1993.

Aoieeaa E.E. Ae?aaiea oth?ee. E., 1968.

Oaea?ei Eoaeaeaa?aeu-oeu. ?iaeineiaiay oth?eia, ee?aecia, eacaoia e
oaineeo aeeianoee. Aeia-Aoa, 1990.

Ea?aicei I.I. I?aaeaiey aaeia I. 1988. N 195.

Eeyooi?iue N.A. , Noeoaiia A.E. Eacaonoai: eaoiienue o?ao
ouny/aeaoee. Aeia-Aoa. N. 276.

Oieuaaeia N.A. Ei/aaia iauanoai eacaoia a O((( – ia/aea OO aaea.
Aeia-Aoa, 1971. N. 506.

Enoi?ey Eacaonoaia n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai e aei iaoeo aeiae. I/a?e /
Iiae ?aae I.E. Eacuaaaaa. Aeiaou. 1993.

Ooaieo-oaaeaee. *aiaec-iaia. Oaeneieea, ia?aaiae, o?aine?eioeey,
oaenoieiae/aneea i?eia/aiey, enneaaeiaaiea. A.I. THaeeia. Aeia-Aoa.
1992. N. 61.

Aaonaeoiaa I.O. Eacaoneia oainoai ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XYI a. Aeia-Aoa,
1985. N. 89.

Eeyooi?iue N.A., Noeoaiia A.E. Eacaonoai: eaoiienue o?ao ouny/aeaoee.
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