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Николо Макиавелли, Государь

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uai, iai anai, /oi n oie eee eiie noi?iiu oa?aeoa?ecoao /aeiaaea eae
ee/iinoue, auaeaeyao aai ec iauae ethaeneie iannu. I?e yoii iu iuoaainy
iaeoe yoiio /aeiaaeo ianoi n?aaee ae?oaeo ecaanoiuo iai ethaeae,
ioeaieaay eaaeaeia aai aeinoieinoai eee iaaeinoaoie. Ii a aeaiiii neo/aa
“ia/aeii ion/aoa” yaeyaony aeey ian iaeee “on?aaeiaiiue”, iau/iue
/aeiaae, oio eoi ia neeoeii auaeaeyaony ec i?eau/iiai iai e?oaa iauaiey,
eiai iu ia oaeeaeeenue au oaeaeaoue ?yaeii n niaie. E ia?auaoue aieiaiea
iu aoaeai, a iniiaiii, ia aai no?aiiinoe, oi anoue ia oi, /oi ioee/aao
aai io ae?oaeo.

*oi aeaeaoue a neo/aa, eiaaea eiaiii eaeay-oi oa?aeoa?iay iniaai-iinoue
/aeiaaea i?iyaeyao naay eae aai oaeaio ? Oiaaea a iienaiee ee/iinoe iu
auioaeaeaiu ia?auaoue aieiaiea a iniiaiii ia yoo eiie?aoioth /a?oo,
?anniao?eaay anth inoaeueioth /anoue /aeiaa/aneie iaoo?u eeoue n oi/ee
c?aiey ieacuaaaiiai ia yoio oaeaio aeeyiey. Oae, aiai?y ia ecaanoiii
ienaoaea, iu a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioeaieaaai aai oai?/anoai, aai ianoi a
eeoa?aoo?a aiiaua, a oae iioii aa?ainy aiai?eoue i aeia?aoee, aea e oi
nia/aea iuoaainy iaeoe a aai aeecie iauyniaiea aai eieaai, a iioii oae
aaeyaeuaaainy a ee/iua ea/anoaa. A yoii neo/aa iu euai ianoi /aeiaaea ia
n?aaee iau/iuo ethaeae, a oaea a e?oao eca?aiiuo – ?aaiuo aio ii
i?iyaeaiiiio oaeaioo.

Eae aea oiaaea iaeoe ianoi /aeiaaea, i eioi?ii iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ii
aaieaeai ? Anee /aeiaae aa?oee noaeueao ionoue ia ie?a, ii no?aiu, anee
ii ia?aainoaiaae ai iii-aeanoaa aeae, anee ii inoaaee ii naaa iaiyoue ia
ianeieueei aaeia, anee, iaeaaeay iiiaeanoaii oaeaioia, ii iaoae a naaa
yia?aeth aeey anao ieo, – oi eae oiaaea ?annoaeaeaoue i iai ?

Oaeay ee/iinoue, ?acoiaaony, o?aaoao eiiai ianooaaa ecia?aiey.
Iieo/aaony, /oi iaaei aiai?eoue ia oieueei i aai i?ienoiaeaeaiee e anae
aeecie, ii e i aai iieiaeaiee n?aaee oao, eoi ie?oaeae aai, i aai ?iee a
nianoaaiiie yiioa e i aai aeeyiee ia anth enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa a
oeaeii. A aeaiiii neo/aa ea/anoaa /aeiaaea eae oaeiaiai aaaeiu eeoue
iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iie iauyniytho a eaeie-oi ia?a aai aeayiey .

Ai?acaei aaaeiaa, ia iie acaeyae, i?iieeiooueny iuouaieai yiioe, eioi?ay
ii?iaeeea e i?iaoaeeea e aeaenoaeth aaiey.

Noieue aeeeiiia anooieaiea aeieaeii, eae iia eaaeaony, iiynieoue, ii/aio
aeey aiaeeca iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia Ieeeiei Iaeeaaaeee niaa?oaiii
iaiaoiaeei ?anneac i iai naiii, i a?aiaie, a eioi?ii ii aeee, i oie
iaiyoe, eioi?oth ii ii naaa inoaaee.

Eoae, Ieeeiei Iaeeaaaeee ?iaeeeny a 1469 aiaeo ai Oei?aioeee. A enoi?ee
Eoaeee yoi a?aiy – eiiaoe eaao?i/aioi – iaaa/ii inoaiaony n ai?aeui e
i?ae?aniui eiaiai Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey. Aeaaea nae/an yiioa yoa
i?eoyaeaaao aeaneii naieo aeinoeaeaiee. Eaaeaony, ie a i?aaeuaeouea, ie
a iineaaeothuea aaea ia oieueei Eoaeey, ii e ethaay ae?oaay no?aia ia
?iaeaeaea noieueei oeoaiia. Ieeiaaea aieaa, iiaeao auoue, e?iia e?aoeiai
aaea ?anoeaaoa Ia?eeeiauo Aoei /aeiaa/anoai ia aciuaaei noieue aiacaiii
ia oaeea auniou ?acoia, Aeooa e Eneonnoaa. Eiaiii a Eoaeee ?aiueoa anaai
auieanioeinue ia?oaeo ana iiaia, /oi c?aei a aeoaeiao N?aaeiaaaeiauey, e
neiaii au e?oaaie ?acioeinue ii oiaaeaoiae Aa?iia. Ionoue aeaaea yoi
i?aoaaee/aiea, ii a eaeii-oi niunea yoe aieiu i?iaoaeeee Oaenie?a a
Aiaeee, Aeeiia e ?iina?a ai O?aioeee, Aeth?a?a a Aa?iaiee. *oi aea
oiaaea aiai?eoue i naiie Eoaeee, aaea a oa/aiee o?ao aaeia neyee oaeea
naaoi/e /aeiaa-/aneiai aaiey, ?aaiuo eioi?ui a enoi?ee Aa?iiu oaea ia
iiyaeyeinue aieaa. Yoi a?aiy aieoaei a naay ana oeaiiinoe aioe/iiai
ie?a, – naia caiey Eoaeee, o?aiyuay a naaa aanoeaiiaeoaa ianeaaeea
?anioaee-eaineiai e Eiia?aoi?neiai ?eia, a /a?ac iaai e A?aoeee a?aiai
aa iaeaunoaai ?anoeaaoa, iiaea?eea aiiaue acaeyioaoaio ia ie?
/aeiaa-/anoao ioae?inoue A?enoioaey, Ieaoiia, Aa?iaeioa, e?anii?a/ea
Oeeoea?iia, aaiee Aa?aeeey e Iaeaeey, /aeaiioth eaouiue Oeaca?y. Ii aaea
o?enoeainoaa, aaea aa?u a aeooiaiia ia/aei, a aiaeanoaaiiia
i?aaeiacia/aiea /aeiaaea, a oi?aeanoai Aeooa iaae a?aiiie ieioueth
iaiaaoeee aioe/iue eoeueo /aeiaaea eae i?ae?aniaeoaai oai?aiey i?e?iaeu
iniciaieai aeooiaiie iiue /aeiaaea – oai?oea, aeaeaeouae neeu naiae
noaeueau.

Eoaeueyineee aoiaieci , aieoaa a naay eo/oea /a?ou

N?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u e ioaa?aioa aa , iiaa?ioeny e Ai-oe/iinoe ; ii
, auaaaey ia naao eeanne/aneea ?oeiiene ec ii-ianou?neeo aeaeeioae e
ae?aaiea ?oeiu ec ne?uaaaoae eo

caiee , aoiaienou iaiieieee eo eo naiei iiaui ie?iiuo-uaieai . Ec
aioe/iie “ea?ooee ?iea” /aeiaae a yoo yiioo noaiiaeony oicyeiii naiae
noaeueau . Oaeia ianoi a ie?a ie-eiaaea aei yoiai iaa?aceeinue /aeiaaeo
. Ia?neeei Oe/eii –

iaeei ec aeaeiaeoeo aeayoaeae oiai a?aiaie – ieoao ii yoiio iiaiaeo :

” … eoi noaiao io?eoeaoue , /oi aaiee /aeiaaea

ii/oe oaeie aea , eae o naiiai oai?oea … ” ,

aaaeue a yoie o?aca anoue e aea?cinoue , e aucia , e ai?aeinoue
iacu-aaoueny *aeiaaeii .

*aeiaae , eaeei iuneeee aai eoaeueyineea aoiaienou yiioe
aic?iaeaeaiey – neeueiue , niaeue , ?acaeoue oece/anee e aeooiaii ,
i?ae?aniue e ai?aeue , iiaeeeiiue oicyei noaeueau

e ono?ieoaeue eo/oaai ie?a . Ia neo/aeii aea eiaiii oiaaea , ca

/aou?a aaea aei acyoey Aanoeeee , auei i?iaicaeaoaii i?aai /aeiaaea ia
naiaiaeo e n/anouea . Eiaiii oiaaea auee aia?aua ooaa?aeaeaiu i?eioeeiu
?aaainoaa , ni?aaaaeeeainoe e /aeiaa/-iinoe . Aua a XIII aaea
Oei?aioeeneay ?anioaeeea inaiai-aeeea e?anoueyi io e?aiinoiie iiaeiiinoe
, iainiiauaay oaeia

?aoaiea neaaeothuei ii?aceoaeueiui aeey oiai a?aiaie iiee-oe/aneei
“e?aaei” :

– 4 –

” Naiaiaea anoue iaioueaieaiia i?aai , eioi?ia ia iiaeao caae-naoue io
i?iecaiea ae?oaiai eeoea , e iaiaoiaeeii , /oiau ?an-ioaeeea ia oieueei
iiaeaea?aeeaaea yoi i?aai , ii e oe?aieyea aai ia naiae oa??eoi?ee .”

Oei?aioeey aiiaua noaiiaeony naiaai ?iaea noieeoeae
Aic?iaeaeaiey , iiaeeeiii “iiauie Aoeiaie” . A ioee/ea io ?eia ,
iaoiaeeaoaainy iiae neeueiui aeeyieai iainoaa , Oei-?aioeey anaaaea auea
naiaiaeiethaeaie . Eiaiii ai Oei?ai-

oeee , ia/eiay n Aeaeiooi , oai?eee y?/aeoea ianoa?a aeeai-iene ,
a?oeoaeoo?u e anao iuneeiuo “ecyuiuo eneonnoa” .

E eiioeo XV aaea ai?iae oaea i?eia?ae oa iaiiaoi?eiua e i?ae?aniua /a?ou
, eioi?ua e ii nae aeaiue i?eaeaeatho ouny-/e ethaeae . Oaea auee
iino?iaiu aaeeeieaiiua o?aiu e aeai?oeu , oaea auee iaienaiu oieeaeueiua
o?anee e ia iei-uaaeyo ai?iaea oaea auee onoaiiaeaiu i?ae?aniua noaooe .
I?eia?ii a yoi aea a?aiy ai Oei?aioeee ?aaioaee e Eaiia?-aei aea Aei/e ,
e Ieeaeueaiaeaeaei , e ?aoayeue .

Naii a?aiy oiaaea aeanoii o?aaiaaei aaieaa . *aeiaae oioue
neieueei-ieaoaeue oaeaioeeaue ia iia iicaieeoue naaa in-oaaaoueny a
aacaanoiinoe , a iaeue/ee , ?iaeeaoeeny a oaaaeaa-iie oei?aioeeneie
naiuea e iieo/eaoee i?e e?auaiee eiy

Ieeeiei , aue , eae ieacaeinue , i/aiue oaeaioeea .

Oaea a aeinoaoi/ii c?aeii aic?anoa a ienueia iaeiiio ec “aaeeeeo
ie?a naai” Iaeeeaaaeee ienae , /oi n naiiai aeaono-aa aai a aeecie
ie?oaeaee nei?aa ioaeaea e eeoaiey , iaaeaee a?oaeu aiaaonoa , ii/anoe e
neaaa . *aai ooo aieueoa , eoeaaiai i?eoai?noaa eee aea ene?aiiae
aeaeinoe e naiiio naaa ? O?oaeii neacaoue . Eiia/ii , Iaeeaaaeee
?iaeeeny ia a aa?oeia-neii aeai?oea , ii aai ?iaeeoaee ia auee e ieueie
. Naiuey Iaeeaaaeee auea aeinoaoi/ii ae?aaiae , – ai Oei?aioeee iie
iainiiaaeenue aua a XII aaea , iiiaea /eaiu yoiai naiaenoaa aoiaeeee a
ai?iaeneie Niaao Iyoenio , auee a naiuea e aiaia-/aeueieee , e
nayuaiieee . *oi eanaaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?i-aeeoaeae Ieeeiei , oi aai
ioaoe aue aeinoaoi/ii ecaanoiui th?enoii , e oiio aea , iinoieueeo
iineieueeo ii i?ienoiaeee ec

– 5 –

nineiaey iiaeeae , ii aeaaeae oaeaea iaaieueoei iiianoueai , – a iauai ,
aii?aee cayaeaieyi Ieeeiei , naiuey eo aeaeaei ia aaaenoaiaaea . Ai
anyeii neo/aa , ?iaeeoaee niiaee aeaoue naia-io nuio aeanoyuaa
eeanne/aneia ia?aciaaiea , ionoue aeaaea oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea naiuee e
ia iicaieeei Ieeeiei i?ie-oe oieaa?neoaoneee eo?n .

Iaeei ec enoi?eeia cayaee , /oi Iaeeaaaeee iaaei auei auoue
aeaaiaea?eoue noaeueao , oaa?aaooth aai io oieaa?neoaoia oiai a?aiaie .
Eiaiii a yoeo “i/aaao ciaiey” eae ieaaea neeue-

iu auee n?aaeiaaaeiaua o?aaeeoeee , e a?yae ee nooay noieanoe-ea i/aiue
iaiaaoeea au oi . Oioy , iaaa?iia , aeaaea oieaa?ne-oao ia oaee au a
Ieeeiei Iaeeaaaeee aeeainoe oia e aeooe .

Iu ia ciaai , eoi auee oeieueiua o/eoaey Ieeeiei , ii enoeiiuie
ianoaaieeaie aeey iaai noaee eieae . O aai io-oea auea i?ae?aniay
aeaeeioaea eaoeineeo aaoi?ia , e eiaaea nui aeinoaoi/ii iaeaaeae
eaouiueth , aio ioe?ueny ie? auni-eie ioae?inoe i?aaeieo iieieaiee : Oeo
Eeaee , Oaoeeo , Oee-oea?ii , Oeaca?ue , Aa?aeeee , Eaooee , Iaeaeee , –
aanue iiuo aa/iiaeeaouaai /aeiaa/anoaa , ana /oi e yoiio a?aiaie noaei
aeinooiiui i?inaauaiiiio e caeioa?aniaaiiiio /eoaoaeth .
Ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai ycuea Iaeeaaaeee ia ciae e iiyoiio n oa-aeaa?aie
Aiia?a , Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey ii aue ciaeii oieue-ei a eo eaoeineeo
ia?aaiaeao . N thiinoe aea o Ieeeiei i?i-yaeeny aeon e ?iaeiiio
eoaeueyineiio ycueo . Eae ienaoaeue Iaeeaaaeee ?acaeaaeny iiae aeeyieai
Iao?a?ee e Aeaioa , – o iaai auei o eiai iio/eoueny .

Ieeeiei iiaacei e aua a iaeiii – a aai naiuea auei i?eiyoi
ia?aaeeia a oi a?aiy naiaiaeiia ioiioaiea e ?aeeaee e Oea?eae . Aeaaea
iaoue aai ia auea iaaiaeiie . Iaaa?iia , eiaiii yoi iiiiaei Iaeeaaaeee
aiineaaenoaee ?aaeueii , a oi e e?eoe/anee ioeaieaaoue ?ieue oea?eae a
aeecie Eoaeee . *aai noieo iaeia aai iueana “Iaiae?aai?a” ! Iaienaiiay a
aeooa “Aea-eaia?iia” Aieea//i , oooeeaay iueana iai?aaeaia i?ioea /a-

eiaa/aneie einiinoe e ooiinoe , ii oai aaea aeaei eanaaony

oea?eae , iia ia?anoaao auoue aaciaeaeiie oooeie e i?aa?aua-

– 6 –

aony a ino?ue iaioeao , aieueii aeaeyuee eae i?iaeaaeiuo nayuaiieeia ,
aioiauo ?aaee aeaiaa aeaaea ia i?yiia ia?ooaiea naiaai ianou?neiai
aeieaa , oae e i?ioea ethaeneie aeiaa?/eain-oe , aicaiaeyuae eaaeaeia
neiai /aeiaaea a ?yna a ?aia aiaeano-aaiiiai ioe?iaaiey .

?ieue oea?eae e a enoi?ee Eoaeee , e a enoi?ee Aa?iiu Iaeeaaaeee
ioeaieaae oaeaea i/aiue iaaaoeaii . Aiciiaeii, an-ee au Aeaenaiae?o VI ,
THeeth II eee ethaiio ec eo i?aaeoano-aaiieeia oaeaeanue iiiuoea
iauaaeeieoue Eoaeeth iiae aeanoueth ?eineie eo?ee e nicaeaoue aaeeiia e
iacaaeneiia eoaeueyineia ainoaea?noai , Iaeeaaaeee ii-ae?oaiio ioianny
au e iieeoeea Aaoeeaia , ii aeaaea yoi eaaeaony niiieoaeueiui . Eiia/ii
, eae iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue Iaeeaaaeee oiae i?eieiaoue e oea-ieoue
i?aaeaea anaai oniao e aiieia ii-eacoeonee ii?aaaeuaaoue i?aeoe/anee
ethaua n?aaenoaa , aaaeouea e aeinoeaeaieth iinoaa-eaiiie oeaee . Ii ana
aea ii aue iao?eioii naiae no?aiu , eae Oei?aioeee , oae e anae Eoaeee ,
– iaaea?ii iniiaiia ia-n/anouea naiae ?iaeeiu ii aeaeae a oii , /oi
oea?eiaue ia iaea-aeaea aeinoaoi/iie neeie , /oiau iauaaeeieoue no?aio ,
ii auea aeinoaoi/ii neeueiie , /oiau iiiaoaoue aa iauaaeeiaieth ia iiae
naiei aeaaainoaii . A “Ainoaea?a” Iaeeaaaeee i?eaiaeeo iiiaeanoai
i?eia?ia ioeai/iie iieeoeee iai , e ioeaee yoe iauyniyao oai , /oi
Aaoeeai naie eioa?anu anaaaea noaaee auoa iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania
Eoaeee . Iiaeaeoe, aaeei-noaaiiui ainoaea?noaaiiui aeayoaeai ,
aunooiaaoei ia noi?i-ia ?eineie eo?ee e caneoaeeaoei iaeia?aiea e ii/oe
ainoe-uaiea Iaeeaaaeee , aue Oeaca?ue Ai?aeaeea , oioy iaeuecy nea-caoue
, /oi Ai?aeaeea ia i?aneaaeiaae ee/iuo eioa?ania , a n?a-aeaeny oieueei
ca eaeath ie?iaiai ainiiaenoaa ?eineie Eaoiee-/aneie oea?eae .E eiaiii a
yoie ee/iie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe , a ia?iiiie yia?aee e aiea , a
ainoaea?noaaiiii oia *aca?a Ai?aeaeea aeaeae Iaeeaaaeee caeia
i?oeaaoaiey no?aiu , oi?aa-eyaiie oaeei /aeiaaeii . Ii – vae victis ! –
ianoiyoaeuenoaa ,

aea e naia noaeueaa auee i?ioea Ai?aeaeea , oioy ii aue i/aiue aeecie e
inouanoaeaieth naieo ieaiia . E , eaaeaony , eiaiii

– 7 –

yoa iaoaea/a eae au ieii/aoaeueii ii?aaeaeyao ioiioaiea Iee-eiei
Iaeeaaaeee e oea?eae e aa iieeoeea . Ai?i/ai , yoi ia-i?eyoea auei
aiieia acaeiiui : oaea a 1559 aiaeo eaoiee/an-eay oea?eiaue aianea
o?oaeu Iaeeaaaeee a “Eiaeaen cai?auai-iuo eiea” , oioy iieeoe/aneeie
i?eioeeiaie , eceiaeaiiuie a ieo i?iaeieaeaea iieueciaaoueny .

Iaeiaei , aica?auaynue e aeia?aoee Iaeeaaaeee , oioa-einue au
iiaiai?eoue i aai iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe . Aieath noaeueau aeeciue
Ieeeiei Iaeeaaaeee ?acaeaeaia ia aeaa ii/oe ?aaiua ii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe /anoe : ia?aay – yoi aanueia ao?iay iieeoe/aneay,
aiaiiay e ainoaea?noaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue a ea/anoaa nae?aoa?y
oei?aioeeneie ?anioaeeee , a iioii e aeiaa?aiiiai eeoea e niaaoieea
i?aaeoaey Oei?aioeee , a aoi-?ay – a?aiy ecaiaiey ec ?iaeiiai ai?iaea n
i?eoiaeii e aeanoe Iaaee/e , nnueee a nianoaaiiia iiianouea e iieiiai
iono?aia-iey io anyeiai ?iaea aeayoaeueiinoe , e?iia eeoa?aoo?iie .

Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ian/anoeeaiio iiai?ioo eieana Oi?-ooiu aeeciue
Iaeeaaaeee i?ae?anii niioaaonoaoao iooeei-neei no?ieai : ” Aeaaeai , eoi
n iieiaeo aue iieiae ,

Aeaaeai , eoi aia?aiy nic?ae … ”

Eiaiii ai a?aiy naiae auioaeaeaiiie ionoaaee Iaeeaaaeee , oaea iiiaia
iiaeaeaaoee a aeecie , e iaienae ana naie iniia-iua o?oaeu , iaiauea a
ieo iaaethaeaiey iieeoe/aneie aeecie nia?aiaiiie aio Aa?iiu e iiuo
eeanneeia aioe/iinoe .

A , iaaei neacaoue , Aa?iia oiai a?aiaie i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
i?aethaiiuoiaeoaa c?aeeua . I?ienoiaeeei noieueei any/aneeo niauoee ,
/oi n?aaieoue aeaiioth /anoue naaoa iiaeii ?acaa /oi n eeiyuei eioeii ,
a eioi?ii eeiei/ao iaeia ia-aiiaoeoiia ia aeae aa?aai . Aea , naiaiaea
/aeiaaea ii/eoaeanue aaee/aeoae ae?aaioeaiiinoueth , ii naia aeeciue aai
ia noieea e eiiaiiai a?ioa . Ana no?aiu e , a iniaaiiinoe ,
iiiaino?a-aeaeueiay Eoaeey ooiiaee ii eieaii a e?iae naieo a?aaeaeai .
*aai noieee iaeie oieueei ?aeeaeiciua aieiu ! A Ieaea?eai-

aeao – iania?oue noeanoioaoeany aacu e eaoieeee-eniaioeu , ai

O?aioeee – eaoieeee e aoaaiiou, a Aiaeee – oi i?ioanoaiou ,

– 8 –

aeaouea eaoieeeia , oi eaoieeee , aeaouea i?ioanoaioia . Ana yoi eeai
i?ienoiaeeei i?e aeecie Iaeeaaaeee , eeai aioiae-einue i?iecieoe . Naia
yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey , oaeay naaoeay e ?aaeinoiay a naiai eneonnoaa ,
auea ia naiii aeaea i/aiue i?i-oeai?a/eaie e aeanoieie . Ethaie – neoaa
eee aa?oeia – ia ca-aeoiuaaynue ie ia ieiooo , ioneae a aeaei yae eee
eeiaeae , e ?aaeei eiaaea niia?aaeaiey ii?aee eee a?yaeouaai aiciacaeey
inoaiaaeeaaee yoeo ethaeae . Aoiaiecio , eioi?ue inaauaao ana eneonnoai
oie yiioe , ia iaoeinue ianoa a naiie aeecie . Ana oio aea Ia?neeei
Oe/eii ieoao :

” ss ie/aai ia neuoo , e?iia ooia i?oaeey , oiiioa eiiae , oaea?ia
aiiaa?aeu , y ie/aai ia aeaeo , e?iia neac , a?aaaaea , iiaea?ia ,
oaeenoa “, – aio en/a?iuaathuay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeecie yiioe .

Naiua ciaiaieoua ethaee oiai a?aiaie neiaii au ni-oeaiu ec
i?ioeai?a/ee . Ciaiaieoue iaia Aeaenaiae? VI Ai?aeaeea , no?aiyueeny
oie/oiaeeoue anao aio iaiiei?iuo , oaeeoea , a?aaeoaeue e ?aca?aoiee ,
aue eae ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue iaaeaeai aeanoyuei oaeaioii . Oe?ai
Neaecioiae Ia-eaoanoa , ii naeaeaoaeuenoao nia?aiaiieea , ” a
aeanoieinoe i?aacioae anao aa?aa?ia . Naieie ie?iaaaeaiiuie ?oeaie ii
iiaeaa?aae oaeaniui iuoeai iaiiaeiiuo e aeiiaiuo . Ii oan-iee aaaeiuo ,
ioieiae o aiaaouo eo eiouanoai , ia uaaeee ie ne?io , ie aaeia “. Ii yoi
ia ana . Oio aea Iaeaoanoa iaeaaeae oe?ieeie iiciaieyie a oeeinioee ,
iiaeieao aanaaeiaae n aoiaienoaie , neooae n ianeaaeaeaieai ethaiaiua
niiaou e a noaeaeaieyo i aeeaiiene e neoeueioo?a i?iyaeye naiue
ooii-/aiiue aeon . Aeey oiai a?aiaie ia auei ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueii-ai a
oii , /oi eeiaeae a ?oea oaeeoeu aue oaaeaa?ii thaaee?-iiai eneonnoaa .
Eaeaae , noieue oii?ii aiieiuaaiue a en-eonnoaa , a aeecie inoaaaeny
ianauoi/iie ia/oie .

Iiaeii ii-?aciiio iauyniyoue yoio aceao eoeueoo?u ia oiia
o?aaaaeee ?aaeueiie aeecie . Aiciiaeii , aeooiaiay enoeia

e aeieaeia ?iaeaeaoueny a no?aaeaieyo eae aaeeinoaaiii aiciiae-iue
niinia eo i?aiaeieaiey . Caeanue eioa?ania oi/ea c?aiey

– 9 –

Ieeieay Aa?aeyaaa , eioi?ue iuoaaony iauynieoue i?ioeai?a-/ey ?aiannaina
oai , /oi

” ?aiannain yaeyaony ao?iui noieeiiaaieai aeaoo ia/ae ,

/oi a iai neeueiu e ia/aea ycu/aneea , e ia/aea o?enoe-

aineea . Ia ?aiannain iaeiaeeea naith ia/aoue aeaienaai-

iinoue niciaiey , oianeaaeiaaiiay io iiuoa n?aaeiaaa-

eiauey ni anaie aai ?acaeaiaieyie ia Aiaa e aeueyaiea , ia

iaai e caieth , ia aeoo e ieioue , – a iai ni/aoaaony

o?enoeaineia o?ainoeaiaeaioiia niciaiea , ?ac?uaathuaa

ana a?aie , n niciaieai aioe/iiai iaoo?aeecia . Aanue

?aiannain ie ia iaeii iaiiaaiea ia aue oeaeueiui , ia

iia auoue i?inoi aica?aoii e ycu/anoao “.

Aa?aeyaa iieaaaao , /oi aanue ?aiannain aue ia?a/ai ia aioo-?aiithth
iaoaea/o eiaiii aneaaenoaea oiai /oi ” iaaiciiaeii Aic?iaeaeaiea
niaa?oaiiuo caiiuo oi?i a o?enoeaineii ie-?a “. E aeaenoaeoaeueii ,
o?enoeainoai o/eo i iaaiciiaeiinoe

?ay ia caiea , a aeaaiay eaeay Aic?iaeaeaiey – yoi eiaiii aei-noeaeaiea
eaeaaea , i?e/ai aaci anyeiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa aun-oeo nee , a oieueei
eeoue naiei /aeiaaeii . Yoi aioo?aiiaa i?ioeai?a/ea , niaeanii Aa?aeyaao
, e iauyniyao anth neiae-iinoue yiioe . I?eia?u , auyaeythuea yoe
i?ioeai?a/ey , iiaeii iaeoe e a eneonnoaa . ?acaeaiaiiinoue o?enoeaineie
e ycu/aneie aeooe aeinoeaaao iaeaieaa i?ae?aniiai naiaai au-?aaeaiey a
oai?/anoaa Naiae?i Aiooe/aeee .

I Aiooe/aeee aiai?eee , /oi aai Aaia?u iieeioee caieth , a
Iaaeiiiu iieeioee iaai . Ethaeiue ooaeiaeiee Ei-?aioei Aaeeeieaiiiai ,
Aiooe/aee eae ieeoi ae?oaie oiae ai-ieioeoue a naieo ea?oeiao iaaeiinoue
e e?anioo , iaeiaei eiai-ii ii iineaaeiaae ca ?aeeaeiciui oaiaoeeii , e
, neiaii aea-oae , ian ia einoa? naie ea?oeiu .

Eaeei aea aeieaeii auei noaoue ie?iiuouaiea Ieeeiei Iaeeaaaeee ,
anee aua aei anooieaiey ia neoaeao Oei?aioee-neie ?anioaeeea ii iia
iaaethaeaoue aeai? Ei?aioei Iaaee/e , e

neooaoue i?iiiaaaee Naaiia?ieu ? Nae/an iu iiaeai noaeeoue ia yoii
oieueei ii aai eieaai . A oaeou aai aeecie oaeiau :

– 10 –

a 27 eao Iaeeaaaeee noaiiaeony nae?aoa?ai Oei?aioeeneie ?anioaeeee .
Aoaeo/e th?enoii ii ia?aciaaieth , aeeieiiaoii ii neeaaeo oia ,
?anioaeeeaioeai ii oaaaeaeaieyi e oeeini-oii ii aaeaieth aeooe ,
Iaeeaaaeee i?iaiaeeo 14 eao ia aino-aea?noaaiiie neoaeaa . Ca yoi a?aiy
ii oniaaaao i?iyaeoue naay n naiuo iaiaeeaeaiiuo noi?ii .

Ii iacaiaieiue , oiiue e oaioanoe/anee ?aaioinii-niaiue /eiiaiee
– a a?oeaao Oei?aioeee o?aieony aieaa ou-ny/e aai nianoaaiii?o/iuo
aeieoiaioia ( aeieeaaeia , ?anii?y-aeaieee , caienie , i?eeacia ) . Ii
aeanoyuee iieeoee e ii-nie ?anioaeeee a naiuo ioaaonoaaiiuo neo/ayo – ii
iiauaae n ienneyie e a ?eia , e o Oeaca?y Ai?aeaeea , eioi?iai
iaaeth-aeae n aieueoei eioa?anii , e ai O?aioeee , aaea e aai iiaieth ia
eoaeueyineeo aeaeao i?eneooeaaeenue naie o?aioeocu . Ia-eiiaoe ,
Iaeeaaaeee e iiuoiue aiaia/aeueiee , aieiaoaeueii eco/eaoee iiuo
ae?aaieo aiei e i?aaeeiaeeaoee naie eaeae a iaeanoe aieineiai eneonnoaa
, – ii e aieeaao a ieaiu oe?ai-eaiey Oei?aioeee , e i?aaieciauaaao
ai?iaeneia iiie/aiea , iieaaay /oi iii aoaeao eo/oae caueoie ai?iaea
iaaeaee iaai-iua nieaeaou . E?iia oiai , ii aue ia?aui aeinoieiui
oii-ieiaiey aiaiiui ienaoaeai iiaiai a?aiaie .

Ii a 1512 aiaeo n aica?auaieai e aeanoe naiuee Iaaee/e aeeciue
Iaeeaaaeee e?ooi eciaieeanue . Ii aue ioi?aaeai a ecaiaiea e eeoai
aiciiaeiinoe caieiaoueny noieue iaiaoiaee-iie aio ao?iie iauanoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth . Aa?iaa , ii aue ioeo/ai io neoaeau Oei?aioeee , a
ieeiio ae?oaiio ii neoaeeoue ia oioae . Aai iao?eioeci ia iicaieee aio
i?eiyoue i?aaeeiaeaiea ea?aeeiaea ?oaineiai, aaaeue oiaaea i?eoeinue au
ana neeu e niiniaiinoe ioaeaaaoue a?aao e caoaao/eeo naiae ?iaeeiu.
Eoae, eiaiii yoiio ia?eiaeo auioaeaeaiiiai aacaeaeno-aey iu e iaycaiu
i?aeoe/anee anai eeoa?aoo?iui ianeaaeeaue Iaeeaaaeee. Eiaiii oiaaea auee
iaienaiu e “Ainoaea?ue” aeey aa?oeiaa Noi?oea, e “Enoi?ey Oei?aioeee”,
caeacaiiay iaiie,

e “Iaiae?aai?a”, e eo/oea aai niiaou e ianie, e “Ia?aay aea-eaaea Oeoa
Eeaey”.

– 11 –

Aei 1527 aiaea i?iaeieaeaeinue aai ecaiaiea. Ii eiaaea ai
Oei?aioeee aiiaue iaiaaeieaa onoaiiaeeanue ?anioaeeea, e Iaeeaaaeee
niiaa iiiuoaeny aa?iooueny e iieeoeea e aeaaea aunoaaee naith
eaiaee?aeaoo?o ia iino eaioeea?a ?anioaeeee, aai iiiuoea ieii/eeanue
iaoaea/ae. Naia oeao?a yoiai oaaae-aeaiiiai ?anioaeeeaioea iuneeoaey,
ienaoaey oaea ia niioaao-noaiaaea eciaieaoaiony ai?iaeo e Niaaoo
Iyoenio. Ia neaiue-yo Niaaoa Iaeeaaaeee oaeaeae oaea ia naiaiaeiuo
a?aaeaeai aieueiiai ai?iaea , ia ethaeae Aic?iaeaeaiey, ii oeie/iuo
ao?-aeoa ( a iaeaeiii e iauaaoaeueneii niunea yoiai neiaa ),
oi?-aiaoeaa, ?acaiaaoaaoeo ia oei?aioeeneii noeia , ethaeae , i?eaueoeo
iiaeiiaaoueny, i?iiaiyaoeo naiaiaeo aeooe ia ooaie eioaeae. Aeey yoeo
ethaeae Ieeeiei Iaeeaaaaee aue neeoeii aaniieieiie oeao?ie, iie ia
aeiaa?yee aio.

Naia ii?aaeaiea Iaeeaaaeee ia?aaeee aoeaaeueii ia ianeieueei
ianyoeaa . A yoii aea 1527 aiaeo ii neii/aeny a aic?anoa 58 eao e aue
iioi?iiai a oea?eae Naioa-E?i/a , Iaioaiia Oei?aioeee . Nae/an aai i?ao
e iaoiaeeony oai ,

?yaeii n Ieeaeueaiaeaeaei e Aaeeeaai .

PAGE

– –

A-o- i , eae ieacaeinue- —i?i-?aai?a” ! Iaienaiiay a aeooa “Aea–eyuee
eae i?iaeaaeiuo nayuaiie-eia-oae e i?ioea ethaeneie aeiaa?/eain– — ,
oioa

Aeaaeai , eoi n iieiaeo aue iieiae -, iiiaino?a- , oi eaoieeee

ii

»-e-o-/ 7 ?&I&O&O&i-u-?.¬.*.ae.?/N/e2

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