.

НЭП

Язык: русский
Формат: контрольна
Тип документа: Word Doc
68 1466
Скачать документ

Oaia: Iiaay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea A. E. Eaieia.

Ieai:

I. I?e/eiu ia?aoiaea e IYIo

II. IYI: nouiinoue, iniiaiua oeaee, ia?niaeoeau.

III. IYI a naeueneii oicyenoaa, i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oeiainao.

IV. E?ecenu iyiianeie yeiiiieee e aa i?ioeai?a/ey.

V. Naa?ouaaiea IYIa.

VI. Ia?aciaaiea NNN?.

VII. Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

I?e/eiu ia?aoiaea e IAIo.

Iinea ieii/aiey a?aaeaeaineie aieiu no?aia ieacaeanue a oyaeaeaeoai
iieiaeaiee, noieeioeanue n aeoaieei yeiiiie/aneei e iieeoe/aneei
e?ecenii. A ?acoeueoaoa ii/oe naie eao aieiu ?inney iioa?yea aieaa
/aoaa?oe naieo iaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaaonoa. Iniaaiii e?oiiue o?ii iiianea
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Iauai aa aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee oiaiueoeeny a 7 ?ac.
Caianu nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e 1920 aiaeo auee a iniiaiii en/a?iaiu. Ii
n?aaiaieth n 1913 aiaeii aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
nie?aoeeinue ii/oe ia 13%, a iaeeie aieaa /ai ia 44%.

Ia?iiiua ?ac?ooaiey auee iaianaiu o?ainii?oo. A 1920 a iauai ia?aaicie
aeaeaciuo aei?ia ninoaaee 20% ii ioiioaieth e aeiaiaiiiio. Oooaeoeeinue
iieiaeaiea a naeueneii oicyenoaa. Nie?aoeeenue iinaaiua ieiuaaee,
o?iaeaeiinoue, aaeiaua nai?u ca?iiauo, i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Naeueneia oicyenoai ana aieaa i?eia?aei
iio?aaeoaeueneee oa?aeoa?, aai oiaa?iinoue oiaea a 2,5 ?aca. I?iecioei
?aceia iaaeaiey aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy e o?oaea ?aai/eo. A ?acoeueoaoa
cae?uoey iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee i?iaeieaeaeny i?ioeann aeaeeanne?iaaiey
i?ieaoa?eaoa. Ia?iiiua eeoaiey i?eaaee e oiio, /oi n inaie 1920 aiaea a
n?aaea ?aai/aai eeanna noaei oneeeaaoueny iaaeiaieuenoai. Iieiaeaiea
ineiaeiyeinue ia/aaoaeny aeaiiaeeecaoeeae E?aniie A?iee. Ii ia?a oiai,
eae o?iiou a?aaeaeaineie aieiu ionooiaee e a?aieoeai no?aiu,
e?anoueyinoai ia/aei ana aieaa aeoeaii aunooiaoue i?ioea
i?iae?acaa?noee, eioi?ay ?aaeeciauaaeanue ianeeuenoaaiiuie iaoiaeaie n
iiiiuueth i?iaeio?yaeia.

Iieeoeea “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia” i?eaaea e oie/oiaeaieth
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee. Ia?aie/eaaeanue i?iaeaaea
i?iaeiaieuenoaey e i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia, iie ?ani?aaeaeyeenue
ainoaea?noaii a aeaea iaoo?aeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou. Auea aaaaeaia
o?aaieoaeueiay nenoaia iieaou o?oaea n?aaee ?aai/eo. Yoi ii?iaeaeaei o
ieo eeethceth nioeeaeueiiai ?aaainoaa. Ianinoiyoaeueiinoue yoie iieeoeee
i?iyaeeanue a ia?aciaaiee “/a?iiai ?uiea” e ?anoeaaoa niaeoeyoeee. A
nioeeaeueiie noa?a iieeoeea “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia” iie?aeanue ia i?eioeei
“Eoi ia ?aaioaao, oio ia ano”. A 1918 a. auea aaaaeaia o?oaeiaay
iiaeiiinoue aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae auaoeo yenieoaoaoi?neeo eeannia, a a
1920 a. – anaiauay o?oaeiaay iiaeiiinoue. I?eioaeeoaeueiay iiaeeecaoeey
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia inouanoaeyeanue n iiiiuueth o?oaeiauo a?iee,
iai?aaeyaiuo ia ainnoaiiaeaiea o?ainii?oa, no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou e ae?.
Iaoo?aeecaoeey iieaou o?oaea i?eaaea e aanieaoiiio i?aaeinoaaeaieth
aeeeuey, eiiioiaeueiuo, o?ainii?oiuo, ii/oiauo e oaeaa?aoiuo oneoa. A
ia?eiae “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia” a iieeoe/aneie noa?a onoaiiaeeanue
aac?acaeaeueiay aeeeoaoo?a ?EI(a), /oi oiaea a iineaaenoaee yaeeinue
iaeiie ec i?e/ei ia?aoiaea e IAIo. Ia?oey aieueoaaeeia ia?anoaea auoue
/enoi iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae, aa aiia?ao iinoaiaiii n?anoaeny n
ainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie. Iia ii?aaeaeyea iieeoe/aneoth,
eaeaieiae/aneoth, yeiiiie/aneoth e eoeueoo?ioth neooaoeeth a no?aia,
aeaaea ee/ioth aeeciue a?aaeaeai. . Ii nouanoao ?a/ue oea i e?ecena
iieeoeee “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia”.

A 1920 aiaeo eciaiaiea neooaoeee a no?aia ia auei naiaa?aiaiii o/oaii, e
i?iaeieaeaeanue aiieiuaoueny a aeeciue iieeoeea “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia”. A
oa/aiee 20 aiaea ?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee iuneeeinue e
inouanoaeyeinue a iniiaiii ia iniiaa neiaeeaoeony i?aaenoaaeaiee i
aiciiaeiinoe iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ia?aoiaea io eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecio n
eniieueciaaieai aiaiii–eiiioienoe/aneeo iaoiaeia. IX nuacae ?EI(a),
ninoiyaoeeny a ia?oa – ai?aea 1920 aiaea ii nooe ocaeiiee “aiaiiue
eiiioieci ”. Iniiaiay noaaea a ?aoaiee yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/ auea
naeaeaia ia «ia?iaeiue yiooceaci», ia aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiua
iaoiaeu ?aaiou. ?aoaiey nuacaea oe?aieyee ii?yaeie i?eioaeeoaeueiiai
ecuyoey i?iaeoeoia o e?anoueyi, naa?ouaaiey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee. Oaeaea a yoio aiae ecaeaaony iinoaiiaeaiea i iaoeeiiaeecaoeee
anae iaeeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. ?anoe?eeny anni?oeiaio i?iaeoeoia naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, iiaeeaaeaueo i?iae?acaa?noea. Aioiaeeny aeae?ao ia ioiaia
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Iaeiaei yoe ia?ii?eyoey anooiaee a i?ioeai?a/ea n
o?aaiaaieyie ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi. Ia?aeeaeueii n yeiiiie/aneei a no?aia
ia?anoae nioeeaeueiue e?ecen. ?aai/eo ?acae?aaeaee aac?aaioeoea e
iaoaaoea i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey. Iie auee iaaeiaieueiu ouaieaieai i?aa
i?ionithcia, aaaaeaieai i?eioaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea e aai o?aaieoaeueiie
iieaou. Iiyoiio a ai?iaeao a eiioea 1920 – ia/aea 1921 a. ia/aeenue
caaanoiaee, a eioi?uo ?aai/ea aunooiaee ca aeaiie?aoecaoeeth
iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu no?aiu, nicua O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey, ioiaio
niaoe?ani?aaeaeeoaeae e iaeeia. E?anoueyia, aiciouaiiua aeaenoaeyie
i?iaeio?yaeia, ia?anoaee ia oieueei naeaaaoue oeaa ii i?iae?acaa?noea,
ii e iiaeiyeenue ia aii?oaeaiioth ai?ueao. Ainnoaiey ioaaoeee
Oaiaiaueio, Oe?aeio, Aeii, Eoaaiue, Iiaieaeuea e Neae?ue. E?anoueyia
o?aaiaaee eciaiaiey aa?a?iie iieeoeee, eeeaeaeaoeee aeeeoaoa ?EI(a),
nicuaa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey ia iniiaa anaiauaai ?aaiiai
ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa. A eiia/iii eoiaa ana yoe i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiua
iai?iaeoiaiiua oaae i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?eaaee e iieeoe/aneiio e?eceno ceiie
1921 aiaea. Eiaiii a yoeo oneiaeyo 8 oaa?aey 1921 aiaea ia canaaeaiee
Iieeoath?i A. E. Eaiei aian i?aaeeiaeaiea ioeacaoueny io
i?iae?acaa?noee.

A oai a?aiaiai iieiaeaiea i?iaeieaeaei oooaeoaoueny: i?eoeinue
nie?aoeoue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua iaeee, oaeoaeeny oiieeaiue e?ecen,
eioi?ue iniaaiii neeueii cao?iioe Iao?ia?aae. ?aai/ea auee auioaeaeaiu
iieeaeaoue ai?iaea e oacaeaee a aea?aaith. Iao?ia?aae iioa?ye 60%
?aai/eo, eiaaea cae?ueenue Iooeeianeee, Iaooianeee e ae?oaea
i?aaei?eyoey, Iineaa – 50%. I?ae?aoeeinue aeaeaeaiea ia 30 aeaeaciuo
aei?iaao. Aacoaea?aeii ia?anoaea eioeyoeey. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaeeeinue oieueei 60% aeiaiaiiiai iauaia. Iinaaiua
ieiuaaee nie?aoeeenue ia 25%, oae eae e?anoueyia ia auee caeioa?aniaaiu
a ?anoe?aiee oicyenoaa. A 1921 a. ec-ca iao?iaeay ianniaue aieiae
ioaaoee ai?iae e aea?aaith. A eoiaa ia/aeinue ainnoaiea a E?iiooaaeoa. A
ia?oa 1921 a. ii?yee e e?aniia?iaeoeu aiaiii-ii?neie e?aiinoe E?iiooaaeo
iio?aaiaaee inaiaiaeaeaiey ec caeeth/aiey anao i?aaenoaaeoaeae
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ia?oee, i?iaaaeaiey ia?aauai?ia Niaaoia e ecaiaiey eo
ieo eiiioienoia, i?aaeinoaaeaiey naiaiaeu neiaa, nia?aiee e nithcia anai
ia?oeyi, iaania/aiey naiaiaeu oi?aiaee, ?ac?aoaiey e?anoueyiai naiaiaeii
iieueciaaoueny caieae e ?anii?yaeaoueny i?iaeoeoaie naiaai oicyenoaa,
o.a. eeeaeaeaoeee i?iae?acaa?noee. Eo aeoeaii iiaeaea?aeaee ?aai/ea. A
ioaao i?aaeoaeuenoai aaaei inaaeiia iieiaeaiea a Iao?ia?aaea, iauyaeei
ainnoaaoeo iyoaaeieeaie e ioeacaeinue aanoe n ieie ia?aaiai?u. Iieee
E?aniie A?iee, oneeaiiua io?yaeaie A*E e aeaeaaaoaie O nuacaea ?EI(a),
niaoeeaeueii i?eauaoeie ec Iineau, ooo?iii acyee E?iiooaaeo. 2,5 oun.
iao?inia auei a?anoiaaii, 6-8 oun. yiea?e?iaaei a Oeieyiaeeth.

?ac?ooa e aieiae, caaanoiaee ?aai/eo, ainnoaiey e?anoueyi e iao?inia –
ana naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i oii, /oi a no?aia iac?ae aeoaieee
yeiiiie/aneee e nioeeaeueiue e?ecen. E?iia oiai, e aania 1921 a. auea
en/a?iaia iaaeaaeaea ia nei?oth ie?iaoth ?aaiethoeeth e
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneoth iiiiuue aa?iiaeneiai i?ieaoa?eaoa. Iiyoiio
A.E. Eaiei ia?aniio?ae aioo?eiieeoe/aneee eo?n e i?eciae, /oi oieueei
oaeiaeaoai?aiea o?aaiaaiee e?anoueyinoaa iiaeao nianoe aeanoue
aieueoaaeeia.

Eoae, aeaoiy iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie ia?aoiaea e IYIo noaee:

1. Iieeoe/aneee e?ecen a no?aia, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao “E?iiooaaeneee
iyoaae” a ia?oa 1921 aiaea e, eae neaaenoaea: iaiaoiaeeiinoue nithca n
e?anoueyinoaii e oaeanoi/aiey ai?ueau n iiiiceoeeae.

2. Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, aucaaiiue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iieeoeeie
“Aiaiiiai eiiioiecia”, eoiaaie eioi?ie yaeeenue:

-iaaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiiai e n/o i?iecaiaenoaa;

-aieiae 1921 aiaea;

-aeaoneay aani?eci?iinoue.

IYI: nouiinoue, iniiaiua oeaee, ia?niaeoeau.

Nouiinoue IYIa auea iiiyoia ia anai. Iaaa?ea a IYI, aai
nioeeaeenoe/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue ii?iaeaeaei nii?u i iooyo ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee no?aiu, i aiciiaeiinoe iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia. I?e naiii
?acee/iii iiieiaiee IYIa iiiaea ia?oeeiua aeayoaee noiaeeeenue a oii,
/oi a eiioea a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a Niaaoneie ?innee nio?aieeinue aeaa
iniiaiuo eeanna ianaeaiey: ?aai/ea e e?anoueyia, a aia/aea 20 aiaeia
iinea aaaeaiey IYIa, iiyaeeanue e iiaay ao?aeoacey, iineoaeueieoea
?anoaa?aoi?neeo oaiaeaioeee. Oe?ieia iiea aeayoaeueiinoe aeey iyiiaineie
ao?aeoacee ninoaaeee io?anee, ianeoaeeaathuea iniiaiua aaaeiaeoea
iio?aaeoaeueneea eioa?anu ai?iaea e aea?aaie. A. E. Eaiei iiieiae
iaecaaaeiua i?ioeai?a/ey, iianiinoe ?acaeoey ia iooe IYIa. Ii n/eoae
iaiaoiaeeiui oe?aieaiea Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa aeey iaania/aiey iiaaaeu
iaae eaieoaeeciii.

A oeaeii iyiianeay yeiiiieea i?aaenoaaeyea niaie neiaeioth e
iaeionoie/eaoth ?uii/ii-aaeieieno?aoeaioth eiino?oeoeeth. I?e/ai
aaaaeaiea a iaa ?uii/iuo yeaiaioia iineei auioaeaeaiiue oa?aeoa?, a
nio?aiaiea aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiuo – i?eioeeieaeueiue e
no?aoaae/aneee. Ia ioeacuaaynue io eiia/iie oeaee (nicaeaiey ia?uii/iie
nenoaiu yeiiiieee) IYIa, aieueoaaeee i?eaaaee e eniieueciaaieth
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nio?aiaiee a ?oeao
ainoaea?noaa “eiiaiaeiuo aunio”: iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiie caiee e iaae?,
e?oiiie e aieueoae /anoe n?aaeiae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa,
aaieianeiai aeaea, iiiiiieee aiaoiae oi?aiaee. I?aaeiieaaaeinue
ioiineoaeueii aeeeoaeueiia ninouanoaiaaiea nioeeaeenoe/aneiai e
ianioeeaeenoe/aneiai (ainoaea?noaaiii-eaieoaeenoe/aneiai,
/anoiieaieoaeenoe/aneiai, iaeeioiaa?iiai, iao?ea?oaeueiiai) oeeaaeia n
iinoaiaiiui auoaniaieai iineaaeieo ec oicyenoaaiiie aeecie no?aiu i?e
iii?a ia “eiiaiaeiua auniou” e eniieueciaaieai ?u/aaia yeiiiie/aneiai e
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia e?oiiuo e iaeeeo nianoaaiieeia
(iaeiae, e?aaeeou, oeaiiaay iieeoeea, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e o. ae.).

N oi/ee c?aiey A. E. Eaieia nouiinoue iyiianeiai iaiaa?a caeeth/aeanue a
iiaeaaaeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai ooiaeaiaioa iiae “nithc ?aai/aai eeanna e
o?oaeyuaainy e?anoueyinoaa”, eia/a aiai?y – i?aaeinoaaeaiey ecaanoiie
naiaiaeu oicyenoaiaaiey i?aiaeaaeaaoae a no?aia n?aaee iaeeeo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae n oai, /oiau niyoue eo ino?ia iaaeiaieuenoai
aeanoueth e iaania/eoue iieeoe/aneoth noaaeeueiinoue a iauanoaa. Eae ia
?ac iiae/a?eeaae aieueoaaenoneee eeaea?, IYI yaeyeny iaoiaeiui,
iiin?aaeiaaiiui iooai e nioeeaeecio, aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiui iinea
i?iaaea iiiuoee i?yiiai e auno?iai neiia anao ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?. I?yiie
iooue e nioeeaeecio, ai?i/ai, ia ioaa?aaeny ei a i?eioeeia: Eaiei
i?eciaaae aai aiieia i?eaiaeiui aeey ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ainoaea?noa iinea iiaaaeu oai i?ieaoa?neie ?aaiethoeee.

E inaie 1922 a. Eaiei a iniiaiii caaa?oee ?ac?aaioeo IYIa. E aa iniiaiui
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei oeaeyi iiaeii ioianoe:

– aeiiouaiea ieth?aeecia nioeeaeenoe/aneeo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e eo
eiiia?e?iaaiea:

– caiaia i?iae?acaa?noee i?iaeiaeiaii;

– anaia?iia eniieueciaaiea caeiia noieiinoe e oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee;

– i?eioeei iieaou ii eiee/anoao e ea/anoao oo?aea, ia?aaiae
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia oic?an/ao e ?aioaaaeueiinoue;

– a?aiaiiia aeiiouaiea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo yeaiaioia a eioa?anao
iaeeaeaiey yeiiiieee i?e nio?aiaiee a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa aeaaiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo aunio. Iineaaeothuaa auoaniaiea eo ainoaea?noaaiiui
naeoi?ii iin?aaenoaii yeiiiie/aneiai ni?aaiiaaiey;

– niaa?oainoaiaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e ieaie?iaaiey
ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii ia iniiaa aeaiie?aoecaoeee Niaaoneie aeanoe.

Yoi auea ?aaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea, ?ann/eoaiiay ia iino?iaiea
nioeeaeecia iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciuie, aeinooiiuie iooyie. I IYIa auei
i?eiyoi ?aoaiea ia O1 nuacaea ia?oee. Nuacae iinoaaee caaea/o
ieii/aoaeueiiai ia?aaiaea Aini?aaei?eyoee ia eiiia?/aneea iniiau e
oeacae, /oi ia?aaiae aini?aaei?eyoee «Ia oae iacuaaaiue oicyenoaaiiue
?an/ao iaecaaaeii e ia?ac?uaii naycai n iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeeie, e
a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iaieioaii yoio oei noaiao i?aiaeaaeathuei, anee ia
eneeth/eoaeueiui».

N i?eiyoeai i?ia?aiiu iyia aeeciue a Niaaoneie ?innee ianeacaiii
eciaieeanue. Aiiaue anooieea a naie i?aaa /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue.
Iaecaanoii ioeoaea iiyaeaoeany iyiiaiu n ia?iiiuie eaieoaeaie
iaiiiyoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey («iiaua ?onneea» oiai a?aiaie)
oi?aeanoaiaaee, niaeoee?iaaee, eooeee a ?anoi?aiao e ana aieueoa
/oanoaiaaee naay «nieueth caiee» e oicyaaaie aeecie. Iioaeay eo aeonai,
i?ioeaaoaea iioeay «ianniaay eoeueoo?a». A aea?aaia, noaaoae iinea
Ieoya?y ii/oe nieioue na?aaeiyoeeie, niiaa au?in e noae caaeaaaoue oii
aeecie «eoeae».

Iaoe nia?aiaiieee a aieueoeinoaa naiai ieioi i?aaenoaaeytho naaa, /oi
oaeia iyi. Aeaaea oaaaeaeaiiua noi?iiieee nioeeaeecia iiae/an ?enotho
ea?oeiu /oaeaniiai aic?iaeaeaiey ?aci?aiiie aieiie no?aiu, eiaaea iinea
iianaianoiiai aieiaea aae?oa neiaii ii iaiiaaieth aieoaaiie iaei/ee
aioea?eeinue eciaeeea, e i?eeaaee iaaaceiia, aeaaii ia aeaeaaoea ieeaeeo
oiaa?ia, noaee eiieoueny io eo eciaeeey. Aea, yoi oae, ii naaiaeiy,
eiaaea a ?acoeueoaoa eeaa?aeueiuo ?aoi?i iu oiaea eiaai aiciiaeiinoue
iiethaiaaoueny i?eeaaeaie n aeanyoeaie ni?oia eieaanu, ii a?yae ee
niiaeai ath iieaeiieoueny ec-ca ionoonoaey aeaiaa, ian oaea oaeia /oaei
ia oaeeaeo. Aio e a iyiianeie ?innee 20-o aiaeia iiaeyaeaoue ia aiacaiii
iauyaeaoaany eciaeeea oiaa?ia iia eaaeaeue aeeoaeue noieeoeu, ii eoieoue
eo iiaee iaiiiaea. Oae /oi ia?niaeoeau IYIa ieacaeenue ia naiuie
?aaeoaeiuie. A no?aia oea?eee ?ac?ooa, aac?aaioeoea, ieuaoa,
aaci?eci?ueia.

IYI a naeueneii oicyenoaa, i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oeiainao.

Iinoaiiaeaiea X nuacaea ?EI(a) i caiaia ?acaa?noee i?iaeiaeiaii,
iieiaeeaoaa ia/aei iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea, caeiiiaeaoaeueii auei
ioi?ieaii aeae?aoii AOeEE a ia?oa 1921 aiaea. ?acia? iaeiaa nieceeny
ii/oe a aeaa ?aca ii n?aaiaieth n i?iae?acaa?noeie, i?e/ai iniiaiay aai
oyaeanoue iaaeaea ia caaeeoi/iuo naeueneeo e?anoueyi. Aeae?ao
ia?aie/eaae naiaiaeo oi?aiaee inoathuaeny o e?anoueyi iinea oieaou
iaeiaa i?iaeoeoeeae “i?aaeaeaie ianoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa”. Oaea e
1922 aiaeo iaicia/eeny caiaoiue ?ino naeueneiai oicyenoaa. No?aia auea
iaei?ieaia. A 1925 a. iinaaiay ieiuaaeue aeinoeaea aeiaiaiiiai o?iaiy.
E?anoueyia canayee ii/oe oaeoth aea ieiuaaeue, eae a aeiaiaiiii 1913 a.
Aaeiaie nai? ca?ia ninoaaee 82% ii n?aaiaieth n 1913 a. Iiaieiauea neioa
i?aauneei aeiaiaiiue o?iaaiue.13 iei. e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa yaeyeenue
/eaiaie naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee. A no?aia auei ieiei 22 oun.
eieoicia. Inouanoaeaiea a?aiaeeiciie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee o?aaiaaei
ei?aiiie ia?ano?ieee aa?a?iiai naeoi?a. A caiaaeiuo no?aiao aa?a?iay
?aaiethoeey, o.a. nenoaia niaa?oainoaiaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeoanoaiaaea ?aaiethoeeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a iioiio
a oeaeii auei eaa/a niaaaeaoue i?iaeoeoaie ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea. A NNN?
iaa yoe i?ioeanna i?eoiaeeeinue inouanoaeyoue iaeiia?aiaiii. I?e yoii
aea?aaiy ?anniao?eaaeanue ia oieueei eae enoi/iee i?iaeiaieuenoaey, ii e
eae aaaeiaeoee eaiae iiiieiaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aeey ioaeae
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee.

17 iay 1921 aiaea i?eieiaaony iinoaiiaeaiea Niaia?eiia, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui i?aaeeaaaeinue i?eiyoue ia?u e ?acaeoeth eonoa?iie e iaeeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eae a oi?ia /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, oae e a eiiia?aoeaiie.
Ioiaiyeenue ?aiaa i?eiyoua iinoaiiaeaiey i iaoeeiiaeecaoeee
i?aaei?eyoee, ia eioi?uo o?oaeeeinue nauoa iyoe ?aai/eo. Iie auee
aica?auaiu i?aaeiei aeaaeaeueoeai. Aieaa o?aoe anao i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee i?aeiouanoaaiii iaeeeo e n?aaeieo auee naeaiu a a?aiaeo.
I?e/ai aieaa iieiaeiu ec ieo iieo/eee /anoiua eeoea. N 1921 aiaea auea
?ac?aoaia a?aiaea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. *anoue i?aaei?eyoee (a
iniiaiii ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe) acyee a a?aiaeo eiiia?aoeau. A oi aea
a?aiy iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaanoe ?aoi?io oi?aaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth. 9 aaaonoa 1921 aue i?eiyo “Iaeac NIE
i i?iaaaeaiee a aeeciue iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee”. A yoii aeieoiaioa
auei i?aaeoniio?aii aaaaeaiea oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo. I?aaeeaaaeinue nie?aoeoue /enei i?aaei?eyoee,
iaoiaeyueony a aaaeaiee ANIO e aai ianoiuo i?aaiia, i?eaanoe eo
eiee/anoai a niioaaonoaee n eiaaoeieny o ainoaea?noaa ?ano?naie, a
inoaeueiua naeaoue a a?aiaeo eee cae?uoue. Iaeiia?aiaiii oeacuaaeinue ia
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea e aeaiaaeiie oi?ia iaiaia e iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aaaaeaiey ieaoiinoe anao naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oneoa. A aaaonoa –
naioya?a 1921 aiaea aue i?eiyo ?yae ae?oaeo aeae?aoia, ?anoe?yaoeo
naiaiaeo iaiaa?a ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ia/ae inouanoaeyoueny
eo?n ia ioeac io i?eioaeeoaeueiiai i?eaea/aiey ?aai/ae neeu e ia?aoiae e
aeia?iaieueiiio iaeio. Oi?acaeiyeanue o?aaieoaeueiay iieaoa o?oaea,
nouanoaiaaaoay a aiaeu “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia”. ?aai/ea noaee iieo/aoue
ca?aaioioth ieaoo a caaeneiinoe io naiae eaaeeoeeaoeee e eiee/anoaa
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Aeey oaeoaeaiey yoeo ?aoi?i aue onoaiiaeai
ii?yaeie a?aiaeu i?aaei?eyoee. A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo ia? e na?aaeeia 20
aiaeia a i?iiuoeaiiinoe eiiia?e?iaaiu ieiei 18% i?aaei?eyoee. Aianoa n
oai ?ac?aoaeinue aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey e i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea. N yoie oeaeueth ?ac?aoaeanue a?aiaea ?inneeneeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ca?oaaaeiuie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie.

A ea/anoaa noeioeia a ?acaeoee niaaoneie yeiiiieee ia ia?aue ieai
auaeaeaaeenue yeiiiie/aneay caeioa?aniaaiiinoue e oicyenoaaiiue ?ino.
Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue eiiia?aoeaai.

*anoiue naeoi? i?iiuoeaiiinoe ninoiye aeaaiui ia?acii ec i?aaei?eyoee,
?aaioathueo ia ianoiii nu?uea e ianeoaeeaathueo iio?aaeoaeueneee ?uiie.
*anoiua i?aaei?eyoey i?iecaiaeeee i?aeoe/anee 90% i?iaeoeoeee anae
iaeeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa aiieiuaiey a aeeciue iiaie
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee a no?aia ia/aeny oicyenoaaiiue iiaeuai. Ca
ia?eiae 1921-1924 aiaeia aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey e?oiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aic?inea aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca. Ia aeaenoaiaaaoeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo oaeaeinue nio?aieoue iniiaiua eaae?u ?aai/eo. Aeaaiaea?y
aa?ie/aneiio, naiiioaa?aeaiiiio o?oaeo ?aai/aai eeanna i?iiuoeaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai a no?aia ca aiae oaaee/eeinue aaeaia. O?oaeiaie iiaeu?i
?aai/aai eeanna onei?ye oaiiu ainnoaiiaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe. N 23 aiaea
ia/aeny auno?ue ?ino /enea ?aai/eo, caiyouo a ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai oaeaeinue aeinoeaiooue aeiaiaiiiai
o?iaiy ii auioneo aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee a e?oiiie e iaeeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A 1925 a. iau?i i?iecaiaenoaa a no?aia ninoaaee 75%
aeiaiaiiie au?aaioee i?iaeoeoeee. O?oaeiaeoay caaea/a ainnoaiiaeaiey
?ac?ooaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe auea ?aoaia a aeiaieueii ei?ioeee n?ie.
Ainnoaiaaeeaaeny o?ainii?o, iaeaaeeaaeanue aai ?aaioa.

A oeaeii ainnoaiiaeaiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa no?aiu ino?i iinoaaeei
aii?in ia eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e i?aiaeieaiee oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneie
ionoaeinoe no?aiu. Ia?aoiae io aeieiaeono?eaeueiiai e eiaeono?eaeueiiio
oaoiieiae/aneiio niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa a ?innee ia/aeny aua a XIX aaea.
Ii oaiiu yoiai i?ioeanna auee oaeiau, /oi aieioue aei ?aaiethoeee ?inney
inoaaaeanue aa?a?iie no?aiie, a eioi?ie i?aiaeaaeaee iaeeia
i?iecaiaenoai e aeiiaoiea oi?iu o?oaea. E enoiaeo ia?aiai aeanyoeeaoey
niaaoneie aeanoe ?inney ieacaeanue ia oie aea ia/aeueiie noaaeee
eiaeono?eaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaiey, eioi?iai aeinoeaea iaeaioia ia?aie
ie?iaie aieiu e ?aaiethoeee. O?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa ia aeooo ianaeaiey a
iaoae no?aia aue iaiueoa a 5-10 ?ac e aieaa, /ai a eiaeono?eaeueii
?acaeouo no?aiao. Iiyoiio aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae a yoe aiaeu noaea caaea/a
?acaeoey oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ay ioaeaeaeanue a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaneaeeyo.

A ianooaaao anae no?aiu ia ia?aia ianoi, eae e aaniie 1918 aiaea,
auaeaeaaeny aacaeaiaaeiue oiaa?iiaiai iaaeaeo ai?iaeii e aea?aaiae /a?ac
ainoaea?noaaiiua e eiiia?aoeaiua oi?aiaua o/?aaeaeaiey. Ii oaea a
ieoya?a 1921 aiaea Eaiei n ai?a/ueth eiinoaoe?iaae, /oi “n oiaa?iiaiaiii
ie/aai ia auoei, /anoiue ?uiie ieacaeny neeueiaa ian, e aianoi
oiaa?iiaiaia iieo/aeanue iaueiiaaiiay eoiey-i?iaeaaea, oi?aiaey”.
Aaaeiaeoae ninoaaiie /anoueth IYIa yaeyeinue aic?iaeaeaiea oaeoe/anee
?aniaaoaeny aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaa. Ia?yaeo n Ainoaea?noaaiiui
aaieii a 1922 aiaeo auee ioe?uou io?aneaaua aaiee: Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiue,
?inneeneee eiiia?/aneee aaie, Aaie iio?aaeoaeueneie eiiia?aoeee e o. ae.
, a oaeaea ianoiua eiiioiaeueiua aaiee. Nenoaia aaieianeeo o/?aaeaeaiee
aeiiieiyeanue a aea?aaia e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeeae, ?oeiaiaeeiie ianoiuie
e oeaio?aeueiuie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie aaieaie, a a ai?iaea –
iauanoaaie acaeiiiai e?aaeeoa, ianeoaeeaathueie /anoiua i?iiuoeaiiua e
oi?aiaua i?aaei?eyoey. N inaie 1921 aiaea a no?aia ia/aeinue i?iaaaeaiea
aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu. A 1922 aiaeo Ainaaie auionoee a iai?io aaieianeee
aeeao (/a?aiiaoe), eiaaoee oaa?aeia iaania/aiea. E aania 1924 aeaiaaeiay
?aoi?ia auea oaea/ii caaa?oaia. Oi?aiaue iai?io ia/ae no?ieony ia iniiaa
oaa?aeie niaaoneie aaethou, eioi?ay auea i?eiyoa ia aaethoiuo ae?aeao,
eae eiiaa?oe?oaiay.

I?ioeai?a/ea iyiianeie yeiiiieee, aa e?ecenu.

IYI, eniuouaathuee oi a iaiueoae, oi a aieueoae noaiaie
aaeieieno?aoeaii- eiiaiaeiia aeaaeaiea, aue ia?a/?i ia e?ecenu. Oi e
aeaei iaiiieiaaoee i naaa i?ei?eoao iieeoeee iaae yeiiiieeie aiinee naie
a iaoaieciu IYIa. Neacuaaeenue e i?in/?ou a ?oeiaiaenoaa yeiiiieeie.

Ia?aue e?ecen IYIa a 1923 a., eae e iineaaeothuea (1925-1926aa.
1928-1929aa), aue aucaai eae iauaeoeaiuie, oae e noauaeoeaiuie
i?e/eiaie. Ii ioaaoee ana noi?iiu aeecie iauanoaa. *?acau/aeiie noaea
yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey.

A yeiiiieea aiciee e?ecen nauoa. 100 iei. e?anoueyi, iieo/eaoeo
yeiiiie/aneoth naiaiaeo, iaiieieee ai?iaeneie ?uiie aeao?aie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae. *oiau noeioee?iaaoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe (5 iei. ?aai/eo),
ainoaea?noai eneonnoaaiii caauoaao oeaiu ia i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u. E inaie
1923 a. ?acieoea oeai ninoaaeea aieaa 30%. Yoi yaeaiea n iiaea/e
E.O?ioeeiai noaee iacuaaoue «iiaeieoeaie» oeai. E?ecen, oa?iaeay
«niu/ea» ai?iaea e aea?aaie, onoaoaeyeny nioeeaeueiuie eiioeeeoaie. A
?yaea i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia ia/aeenue ?aai/ea caaanoiaee. Aeaei a oii,
/oi e?aaeeou, iieo/aaiua i?aaei?eyoeyie ?aiaa io ainoaea?noaa, auee
cae?uou. Ieaoeoue ?aai/ei noaei ia/ai. I?iaeaia ineiaeieeanue ?inoii
aac?aaioeoeu. N yiaa?y 1922 a. ii naioya?ue 1923 a. eiee/anoai
aac?aaioiuo oaaee/eeinue n 68 oun. aei 1 iei. 60 oun.

Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen oanii ia?aieaoaeny n e?ecenii eaeaieiaee e
iieeoeee. A ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu aiiaue ia/eiaao iac?aaaoue ?aneie. Aai
oaeoaeyao aieaciue iauai?eciaiiiai eeaea?a – A.E.Eaieia. E e?eceniui
oaeoi?ai aeiaaaeyaony ai?ueaa ca aeanoue, eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue,
i?eaea?o naiaia?acea ia?aaeeaaaiui no?aiie o?oaeiinoyi.

Aieueoeinoai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae n/eoaee, /oi oeaio? i?iaeaiu – ii?iaeecaoeey
?uiea, nieaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo oeai, i?eiaiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?aca?aia. Yoe acaeyaeu au?aaeaee i?aaenoaaeoaee eaaie iiiiceoeee: I.
Ineineee, A.I?aia?aaeaineee, E.O?ioeeee, A.Iyoaeia e ae?. Iie aeaeaee
«ei?aiue cea» a ionoonoaee ieaia, neo/aeiinoe e aannenoaiiinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe ?oeiaiaeyueo i?aaiia. Oaeei ia?acii, a aeecie iauanoaa
e?ecenu: yeiiiie/aneee, iieeoe/aneee, aioo?eia?oeeiue oanii
ia?aieaoaeenue. Iiyoiio aiieia caeiiiia?ii, /oi ia noaeueao no?aiu oae
aeeyee aeeneonnee aioo?e i?aayuae (e oiio aea aaeeinoaaiiie eaaaeueiie)
ia?oee. I?aaaea, aioo?eia?oeeiay aeeneonney oea ia oieueei aie?oa
yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai. Iia ioaaoeea oe?ieee niaeo? aii?inia: i ?aai/ae e
ia?oeeiie aeaiie?aoee, i ath?ie?aoecia e aiia?aoa, i noeea e iaoiaeao
?oeiaiaenoaa. A aeeneonnee 1923 a. i?ioeainoiyee ae?oa ae?oao: oae
iacuaaaiue «o?eoiae?ao», nicaeaiiue Ceiiaueaaui, Eaiaiaaui, Noaeeiui, e
a?oiia O?ioeeiai. Iineieueeo ca O?ioeeei oei iaiueoeinoai, iii
ieacaeinue a iieiaeaiee iiiiceoeee.

Aoi?ie e?ecen: a 1925 a. E.O?ioeeee iaiaeeaeaiii i?aaeeaaaao ?aoeoue
i?iaeaio caeoiee eiii?oiiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey ?acaeoey oa?ia?neeo
oicyenoa a aea?aaia, iieaaay, /oi oaeie iooue iiiiaeao noaoue
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia iiae, a caoai n a? iiiiuueth eieeaeoeaece?iaaoue
naeueneia oicyenoai. O?ioeeee oae aea iaiaeeaeaiii ioeacaeny io naiae
?iee iie?iaeoaey oa?ia?ia e auneacuaaeny ca i?eioaeeoaeueiia ecuyoea o
eoeaea oeaaa. *oi icia/aei i?eiaiaiea a aea?aaia iaoiaeia «aiaiiiai
eiiioiecia». Iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue O?ioeeiai iiaea auoue aucaaia
n?uaii ainoaea?noaaiiuo iinoaaie oeaaa a 1925a. Ii yoi iia auoue e
i/a?aaeiie iieeoe/aneee iaiaa?.

1925 a. i?ei?n iiaua yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu e o?oaeiinoe. Anee a oiaea
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea no?aia n?aco iieo/aea ioaea/o a aeaea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia, oi i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa
iiauo e ?anoe?aiee noa?uo i?aaei?eyoee ioaea/a ianooiaea /a?ac 3-6 eao,
a ieoiaeinue no?ieoaeuenoai au? aeieueoa. Oiaa?ia no?aia iieo/aea iiea
iaei, a ca?ieaoo ?aai/ei iaaei auei auiea/eaaoue ?aaoey?ii. Aaea acyoue
aeaiueae, iaania/aiiua oiaa?aie? Eo iiaeii «auea/aoue» ec aea?aaie,
iiaunea oeaiu ia i?iioiaa?u, eeai aeiia/aoaoue. Ii iiauneoue oeaiu ia
i?iioiaa?u au? ia icia/aei iieo/eoue aieueoa i?iaeoeoia ec aea?aaie.
E?anoueyinoai i?inoi ia iieoiaei yoe oiaa?u, aaaey iaoo?aeueiia
oicyenoai; noeioeia i?iaeaaaoue oeaa o iaai noaiiaeeinue an? iaiueoa.
Yoi a?iceei nie?auaieai yenii?oa oeaaa e eiii?oa iai?oaeiaaiey, /oi a
naith i/a?aaeue naea?aeeaaei no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo e ?anoe?aiea noa?uo
i?iecaiaenoa.

A 1925-1926 aa. auoee ec cao?oaeiaiee ca n/?o ?aca?aia aaethou e
?ac?aoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie i?iaeaaee nie?oiiai. Iaeiaei ia?niaeoea ia
oeo/oaiea iieiaeaiey auei an? iaiueoa. E oiio aea oieueei ca iaeei aiae
aac?aaioeoea a no?aia aneaaenoaea aa?a?iiai ia?aianaeaiey oaaee/eeanue
ia 300 oun. /ae. e ninoaaeea a 1926-1927aa. 1 iei. 300 oun./ae.

O?aoee e?ecen IYIa aue naycai n eiaeono?eaeecaoeeae e eieeaeoeaecaoeeae.

Eiaeono?eaeecaoeey – nicaeaiea e?oiiiai iaoeiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?aaeaea anaai oyae?eie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (yia?aaoeee, iaoaeeo?aey,
iaoeiino?iaiey, iaooaoeiee e ae?oaeo aaciauo io?aneae), i?aa?auaiea
no?aiu ec aa?a?iie a eiaeono?eaeueioth, iaania/aiea a? yeiiiie/aneie
iacaaeneiinoe e oe?aieaiea iai?iiiniiniaiinoe; oaoie/aneia ia?ainiauaiea
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. I?iaeaiu eiaeono?eaeecaoeee a ea/anoaa
ia?aii/a?aaeiie caaea/e ?acaeoey niaaoneie yeiiiieee auee iinoaaeaiu a
eiioea 1925 a.

Oiaaea aea auee ii?aaeaeaiu e a? iniiaiua oeaee: eeeaeaeaoeey
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneie ionoaeinoe no?aiu; o aeinoeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneie
iacaaeneiinoe; nicaeaiea iiuiie iai?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe;
ia?aii/a?aaeiia ?acaeoea aaciauo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe (oiieeaiie,
oeie/aneie, iaoeiino?iaiey).

Auiieiaiea yoeo caaea/ oi?iiceeinue ionoonoaeai iaiaoiaeeiuo
iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, /oi auioaeaeaei ?oeiaiaenoai eaeoe
ii iooe anae aieueoae oeaio?aeecaoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiaaoeony a no?aia
?ano?nia. E oaeiio ?aoaieth iiaeoaeeeaae ia oieueei iiuo a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu, ii e ia?enenoneea onoaiiaee ia nouanoaiaaiea i?e nioeeaeecia
ieaiiaie yeiiiieee.

7 iiya?y 1929 a. a «I?aaaea» iiyaeeanue noaouey Noaeeia «Aiae aaeeeiai
ia?aeiia», aaea aiai?eeinue «i ei?aiiii ia?aeiia a ?acaeoee iaoaai
caieaaeaeey io iaeeiai e ionoaeiai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai oicyenoaa e
e?oiiiio e ia?aaeiaiio eieeaeoeaiiio caieaaeaeeth». Iaae?aaoee neeo ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 20-o aa. Aieueoie nea/ie a eiaeono?eaeecaoeee iiae?e ca
niaie e?ooie ia?aeii iieeoeee a aea?aaia – eieeaeoeaecaoeeth.

Eieeaeoeaecaoeey noaea /aoa??oie aieueoie e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iie a
no?aia. Ia/aeanue iia a 1928-1929 aa. Eiaeono?eaeecaoeey o?aaiaaea
e?oiiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee. Eo iiaee aeaoue oiaa?iua oicyenoaa
e?aieeo e?anoueyi, a oii /enea eoeaoeeea. Eoeae, ii naiae i?e?iaea
yeiiiie/anee naiaiaeiue oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeue, ia «aienuaaeny» a ?aiee
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiey yeiiiieee. A nai?i oicyenoaa ii
eniieueciaae ia?iioth ?aai/oth neeo, o.a. aue yenieoaoaoi?ii, a iioiio
?anniao?eaaeny eae eeanniaue a?aa. Oneeaiea «aioeeoeaoeeie eeiee» ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 20-o aa. noaaeei eoeaea ia?aae aii?inii: ca/ai
?acaiaeeoue neio, ca/ai ?anoe?youe caiaoeo, anee «eceeoee» a ethaie
iiiaio iiaoo ioia?aoue? Eae neaaenoaea, a 1927-1928 aa. oeaaiue yenii?o
ca?ia nie?aoeeny aieaa /ai a 8 ?ac ii n?aaiaieth n 1926-1927 aa.
Oeaaicaaioiaeoaeueiue e?ecen noaaee iiae oa?ico ieaiu
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee. E?ecen iiaeii auei i?aiaeieaoue, naaeaine?iaaa
oeaiu, ii aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeenue yeiiiie/aneea ciaiey e aeaeaiea
iiaeaea?aeaoue e?anoueyieia eae iaeeiai nianoaaiieea. Noaeei i?aaeii/?e
aaeieieno?aoeaiua ia?u. E?anoueyi iaycaee naeaaaoue eceeoee oeaaa ii
ieceei ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiai. A neo/aa ioeaca e?anoueyi ioaeaaaee iiae
noae, a oeaa eiioeneiauaaee.

Iiacaeea Noaeeia a Neae?ue iciaiaiiaaea i/a?aaeiie e?ooie iiai?io a
iieeoeea ?oeiaiaenoaa: naa?oeiaeono?eaeecaoeey ca n/?o aea?aaie. Noaeei,
au? aiae iacaae inoaeeaoee naa?oeiaeono?eaeecaoeeth, eaaoth iiiiceoeeth,
nai noaiiaeony noi?iiieeii yoie eaeae.

Naa?ouaaiea IYIa, aai eoiae.

IYI ioeoeeaeueii ieeiaaea ia aue ioiai?i. Ii aue caaeaaeai, oae e ia
oniaa ?ane?uoue naieo ea/anoa a iieiie ia?a. Ii nouanoaiaaaoea a ia?eiae
IYIa ao?aeoaciua ioiioaiey iaoa?eaeueioth iniiao aeey iiaeu?ia
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia iniiaa
caei?iaie eieoeeaoeau. Nooue IYIa caeeth/aeanue a yeiiiie/aneii e
iieeoe/aneii ieth?aeecia, iiiaioeeaaeiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. IYI
iieacae, /oi ieth?aeeci a yeiiiieea e iieeoeea, aeaaea a oaeii
ia?aie/aiiii aeaea, ioe?uaaao iooue e iiauoaieth aeaaininoiyiey ethaeae,
oai aieaa a oneiaeyo ie?iiai ninouanoaiaaiey. IYI a iieeoe/aneii
ioiioaiee niinianoaiaae niei/aieth aeaoo eeannia – i?ieaoa?eaoa e
e?anoueyinoaa, oniieiaieth ia?iaea ia iniiaa a?aaeaeaineiai ie?a. Ii
aeey ia?oee ii yaeeny anaai eeoue ia?aaeuoeie ia?aae iiaui ?uaeii e
nioeeaeecio a oii aeaea, eae aai iiieiaee ia?oeeiay aa?oooea e
nicaeaiiay ath aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiay nenoaia. Iinea XIV nuacaea
ia/aeinue nai?a/eaaiea IYIa. Ia neiaao ia?oey aunooiaea ca IYI, a ia
aeaea no?aieeanue i?eaeeceoueny e i?aaeiaio aeanoeiio eo?no.
Iiaeaa?aeenue nie?auaieth ecae?aoaeueiua i?aaa caaeeoi/iuo e?anoueyi,
o?acaeenue e?aaeeou naeueoiceiiia?aoeee e /anoiui eaieoaeenoai, auno?i
?inea ie/ai ia iaania/aiiay aeaiaaeiay yienney. Eiie?aoii eiaeea
nai?a/eaaiey iyia auaeyaeaea neaaeothuei ia?acii. Oneeaiea eiio?iey e
iiae/eiaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee ia/eiaaony i?eia?ii n 1925a., eiaaea, eae
ecaanoii, ?acei oiaee oaiiu ?inoa iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a nayce n
caaa?oaieai a iniiaiii ainnoaiiaeaiey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e ?ac?aaioeie
eo?na ia eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth.

Iiene n?aaenoa ia i?iaaaeaiea iineaaeiae i?eaae e ia?ooaieth
yeaeaaeaioiinoe oiaa?iiaiaia ia noieiinoiie iniiaa e iinoaiaiioth aai
caiaio ainoaea?noaaiiui ?ani?aaeaeaieai, /oi oneeeaaei oaiaeaioeeth e
oeaio?aeecaoeee oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie e no?aiie a oeaeii. A 1927a. iiaay
eeiey ii?aaeaeeeanue a ?aoaieyo

XV nuacaea AEI(a), a eioi?uo auea auaeaeiooa i?ia?aiia ia
«?aeiino?oe?iaaiea» iyia aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa, ?anoe?aiey ieaiiauo ia/ae a yeiiiieea, aeoeaiiai
ianooieaiey ia eaieoaeenoe/aneea yeaiaiou ai?iaea e aea?aaie.
Aeaeueiaeoea oaae ii ?aaeecaoeee yoie i?ia?aiiu e i?eaaee e caaa?oaieth
ainnicaeaiey aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu, eioi?ay, anoanoaaiii,
ioee/aeanue ii oi?ia io aiaiii-eiiioienoe/aneie.

Iieeoe/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue, ionoonoaea aa?aioee /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, neeoeii aeanoeee eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa iaae
yeiiiieeie, iaeiiaoe, ioe?iaaiii a?aaeaeaaiia ioiioaiea e “iyiiaiai” ni
noi?iiu, eae ainoaea?noaa, oae e ni noi?iiu cia/eoaeueiie /anoe iiaiai
iauanoaa i?eaaee e oiio, /oi iniiaiie /anoiue eaieoae iioae a iniiaiii a
niaeoeyoeaiua iin?aaeie/aneea iia?aoeee, ii ia a aeieain?i/iua
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?iaeou, eioi?ua auee aeaenoaeoaeueii iaiaoiaeeiu
yeiiiieea.

No?aia, acyaoay eo?n ia i?iaeieaeaiea eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, ieacaeanue
ia?aae ia?aie/aiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie auai?a iooae a? inouanoaeaiey. E
1925 a. noaee oe?aieyoueny aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiua ia/aea a
yeiiiieea. I?ei?eoao eaeaieiaee iaae yeiiiieeie a?e iaecaaaeii e
?ac?ooaieth iaoaiecia IYIa a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A yoeo oneiaeyo
aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiui noaiiaeeny iooue inouanoaeaiey
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee ca n/?o aea?aaie e yiooceacia ?aai/eo. Anee
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiua iaoiaeu i?iaaaeaiey eiaeono?eaeecaoeee
i?eaaee e na??ouaaieth IYIa, oi a i?iaaaeaiee eieeaeoeaecaoeee – e
ieii/aoaeueiiio aai neiio. Ia oiia e?eceniuo yaeaiee a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
no?aiao oniaoe NNN? auee i/aaeaeiu, iniaaiii a i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iiceoeaiua eoiae IYIa.

1. Oaeaeinue ainnoaiiaeoue ia?iaeiia oicyenoai e aeaaea i?aacieoe
aeiaiaiiue o?iaaiue ca n/?o aioo?aiieo ?aca?aia.

2. Iieo/eeinue aic?iaeeoue naeueneia oicyenoai, iicaieeaoaa iaei?ieoue
ianaeaiea no?aiu.

3. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae oaaee/eeny ia 18% a aiae e e 1928a. – ia 10% a
ia?an/?oa ia aeooo ianaeaiey, /oi i?aauneei o?iaaiue 1913a.

4. ?ino i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeye 30% aaeaaiaeii, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i auno?ii ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

5. Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaethoa no?aiu noaea e?aieie e noaaeeueiie.

6. Auno?i ?inei iaoa?eaeueiia aeaaininoiyiea ianaeaiey.

Iaaaoeaiua eoiae IYIa.

1. Eiaei ianoi iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiia ?acaeoea iniiaiuo io?aneae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

2. Ionoaaaiea oaiiia aic?iaeaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe io
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aaei iyi /a?ac iieino yeiiiie/aneeo
e?ecenia.

3. A aea?aaia oea nioeeaeueiay e eiouanoaaiiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
e?anoueyinoaa, /oi i?eaaei e ?inoo iai?yae?iiinoe iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
iiethnaie.

4. A ai?iaea ia i?ioyaeaiee anao 20-o aiaeia oaaee/eaaeanue /eneaiiinoue
aac?aaioiuo, eioi?ay e eiioeo iyia ninoaaeea aieaa 2 iei. /aeiaae.

5. Oeiainiaay nenoaia ie?aiea eeoue ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy. Ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia

20-o aiaeia a nayce n aeoeaiui oeiaine?iaaieai oyae?eie eiaeono?ee auei
ia?ooaii ?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea, ia/aeanue eioeyoeey, /oi iiaei?aaei
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoioth nenoaio.

Ia?aciaaiea NNN?.

I?iaeou iauaaeeiaiey niaaoneeo ?anioaeee.

Aaniie e eaoii 1922 a. ia?oeeiua i?aaiecaoeee Oe?aeiu, Aaei?onnee e

Caeaaeacuey, ianoaeaeay iooe aieaa oaniiai iauaaeeiaiey n ?NON?,
ia?aoeeanue a

OeE ?EI(a) n i?inueaie au?aaioaoue i?eioeeiu e oi?iu aaeeiiai Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa. Auea nicaeaia eiienney I?aath?i OeE ?EI(a) ec
i?aaenoaaeoaeae OeE

?EI(a) e OeE eiiia?oee ?anioaeee. I?aaenaaeaoaeai eiiennee aue E. A.
Noaeei, eioi?ue aua n iiiaioa nicaeaiey ia?aiai niaaoneiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aicaeaaeye ia?eiiao ii aeaeai iaoeeiiaeueiinoae.

A i?ioeanna ?aaiou eiiennee E. A. Noaeei auaeaeioe ieai
“aaoiiiiecaoeee”, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaae aoiaeaeaiea niaaoneeo
?anioaeee a ninoaa ?NON? ia i?aaao aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee. I?e yoii
aunoeie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey inoaaaeenue AOeEE,
NIE e NOI ?NON?.

Noaeeineee ieai “aaoiiiiecaoeee” aue caeiiiia?iui eoiaii ai?ueau iaaeaeo
oaie, eoi iiae eiiioienoe/aneei oeaaii oae e ecieyoeeiiecio e
naia?aoecio e oaie, eoi no?aieeny aeiaeoueny aaeeinoaa ?anioaeee iiae
yaeaeie oeaio?aeueiiai iineianeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ii ia?a oiai, eae
oneeeaaeenue naia?aoenoneea iano?iaiey n?aaee iaoeeiiae-eiiioienoia,
cia/eoaeueii ie?aiee iiceoeee oeaio?aeenoneiai e?uea ia?oee. Eaeay
iauaaeeiaiey ?anioaeee ia i?aaao aaoiiiiee a ninoaaa ?NON?, eioi?oth
iiieii E. A. Noaeeia ionoaeaaee A. I. Iieioia, A. E. I?aeaeiieeeaeca, A.
ss. Nieieueieeia, A. A. *e/a?ei e ae?oaea, nic?aea ia oieueei a aunoeo
yoaeiiao aeanoe, ii e auaeaeaaeanue ia aieaa ieceeo nooiaiyo
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa e eiaea iaiaei noi?iiieeia n?aaee eiiioienoia
ie?aei. I?iaeo aue iaeia?ai ia?oeeiui ?oeiaiaenoaii Aca?aaeaeaeaia,
A?iaiee e

Caeaaeacneei e?aeeiiii ?EI(a). OeE EI A?ocee aunooiee i?ioea, cayaea,
/oi iauaaeeiaiea a oi?ia aaoiiiiecaoeee i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii, iauaaeeiaiea
oicyenoaaiiie e iauae iieeoeee iaiaoiaeeii, ii n nio?aiaieai anao
ao?eaooia iacaaeneiinoe. Oaeoe/anee yoi icia/aei ioi?ieaiea
eiioaaea?aoeee niaaoneeo ?anioaeee, iniiaaiiie ia aaeeinoaa aiaiiie,
iieeoe/aneie, aeeieiiaoe/aneie e /anoe/ii – oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A oeaeii, ia aic?aaeay i?ioea ?aciethoeee, Oeaio?aeueiia
ath?i EI Aaei?onnee auneacaeinue ca i?aaeii/oaiea aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo iacaaeneiuie nithciuie ?anioaeeeaie. OeE EI Oe?aeiu i?iaeoa ia
ianoaeaeae, ii cayaee, /oi enoiaeeo ec i?eioeeia iacaaeneiinoe Oe?aeiu.

Iaeiaei A. E. Eaiei, eioi?ue aue aieai e ia iia i?eieiaoue o/anoea a
?aaioa eiiennee, eaeath aaoiiiiecaoeee ioaa?a. 26 naioya?y 1922 a. ii
iai?aaee /eaiai Iieeoath?i ienueii, a eioi?ii iiaeaa?a ?aceie e?eoeea
i?iaeo “aaoiiiiecaoeee” e noi?ioee?iaae eaeath nicaeaiey nithca
?aaiii?aaiuo niaaoneeo ?anioaeee. Oi?ioeo “anooieaiey” ?anioaeee a ?NON?
ii i?aaeeiaeee caiaieoue i?eioeeiii eo “iauaaeeiaiey aianoa n ?NON?” a
nithciii Niaaoneii nioeeaeenoe/aneii ainoaea?noaa ia iniiaa iieiiai
?aaiii?aaey. Eaiei iiae/a?eeaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey iauanithciuo
i?aaiia, noiyueo iaae ?NON? a oaeie aea ia?a, eae e iaae ae?oaeie
?anioaeeeaie. Ionoaeaay i?eioeei iieiiai ?aaainoaa iauaaeeiythueony
niaaoneeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?anioaeee, ii ienae: “…iu i?ecia?i naay
?aaiii?aaiuie n Oe?aeineie NN? e ae?. e aianoa e ia?aaia n ieie aoiaeei
a iiaue nithc, iiaoth oaaea?aoeeth, “Nithc Niaaoneeo ?anioaeee Aa?iiu e
Acee”[1]. E. A. Noaeei auioaeaeai aue i?eciaoue naie ieai aaoiiiiecaoeee
ioeai/iui.

6 ieoya?y 1922 aiaea Ieaioi OeE iaeia?ee iiceoeeth A. E. Eaieia e i?eiye
ia aa iniiaa iiaoth ?aciethoeeth.

18 aeaeaa?y 1922 aiaea Ieaioi OeE i?eiye i?iaeo Nithciiai aeiaiai?a.

A oa/aiea aeaeaa?y 1922 aiaea nuacaeu Niaaoia Aaei?onnee, Oe?aeiu e
CNON? i?eiyee iinoaiiaeaiey ia ia?aciaaiee NNN? e eca?aee aeaeaaaoeee ia
I Ananithciue nuacae Niaaoia. O Ana?inneeneee nuacae Niaaoia nia?aeny 23
aeaeaa?y 1922 aiaea. Ia iai i?enoonoaiaaee nauoa aeaoo ouny/ aeaeaaaoia
n ?aoathuei e niaauaoaeueiui aieinaie.

N aeieeaaeii ia ia?aciaaiee NNN? aunooiee E. A. Noaeei. Ii iaeanee
i?iaeo ?aciethoeee, iaeia?aiiie I?aceaeeoiii AOeEE e aeeth/athuae oa
iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua auee i?eiyou nuacaeaie ae?oaeo ?anioaeee:
aeia?iaieueiinoue e ?aaiii?aaea ?anioaeee n nio?aiaieai ca eaaeaeie ec
ieo i?aaa naiaiaeiiai auoiaea ec Nithca. 27 aeaeaa?y 1922 aiaea O
Ana?inneeneee nuacae Niaaoia i?eiye i?aaeeiaeaiiia I?aceaeeoiii AOeEE
iinoaiiaeaiea ia ia?aciaaiee NNN?. Nuacae caeii/eeny acaieiiaaiiuie
neiaaie I. E. Eaeeieia, ano?a/aiiuie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuie
aieiaeeniaioaie: “ss aeaeo, eae iaae iaie ?acaaaaaony e?aniia ciaiy n
iyoueth nayuaiiuie aoeaaie – ?NON?. E iu, aeaeaaaou O nuacaea Niaaoia,
iieiiii/iua i?aaenoaaeoaee anae Niaaoneie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee,
neeiiyai yoi aei?iaia, iaayiiia aeoaaie e iiaaaeaie, oe?aie?iiia
aea?oaaie ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi ciaiy ia?aae Nithcii Niaaoneeo ?anioaeee.
Iu aeaeei, eae oaea iiaeieiaaony iiaia e?aniia ciaiy Nithca Niaaoneeo
?anioaeee. ss aeaeo, oiaa?eue, noya yoiai ciaiaie a ?oeao oiaa?eua
Eaieia”

Ia yoii any iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay ?aaioa ii ia?aciaaieth Nithca auea
caaa?oaia. Iineaaeiaa neiai inoaaaeinue ca I Ananithciui nuacaeii
Niaaoia. I?eiyoea Aeaeea?aoeee e Aeiaiai?a ia ia?aciaaiee NNN? 29
aeaeaa?y 1922 aiaea a Iineaa nia?aeanue eiioa?aioeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae
iieiiii/iuo aeaeaaaoeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, Oe?aeiu, Aaei?onnee e

Caeaaeacneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iie ianoaeeee e iaeia?eee i?iaeou Aeaeea?aoeee
e

Aeiaiai?a ia ia?aciaaiee NNN?, a oaeaea ii?yaeie ?aaiou I Ananithciiai
nuacaea

Niaaoia. 30 aeaeaa?y 1922 aiaea ioe?ueny I Ananithciue nuacae Niaaoia. A
?aaioa nuacaea i?eiyee o/anoea aieaa aeaoo ouny/ aeaeaaaoia. Nuacae
ioe?ue noa?aeoee aeaeaaao, /eai I?aceaeeoia AOeEE Iao? Aa?iiaaiiae/
Nieaeiae/, o/anoiee o?ao ?inneeneeo ?aaiethoeee, /eai ia?oee n 1898 a.
A. E. Eaiei, ia i?enoonoaiaaaoee ia nuacaea ec-ca aieacie, aue eca?ai
aai ii/?oiui i?aaenaaeaoaeai. ?aai/ei i?aaenaaeaoaeai nuacaea noae

I. E. Eaeeiei. Ii i?aaeinoaaee neiai aeey aeieeaaea ia ia?aciaaiee NNN?

E. A. Noaeeio, eioi?ue iaeanee Aeaeea?aoeeth e Aeiaiai? ia ia?aciaaiee
NNN?, iaeia?aiiue iaeaioia aeaeaaaoeeyie /aou??o iauaaeeiythueony
?anioaeee.

Caoai neiai auei i?aaeinoaaeaii I. A. O?oica, eioi?ue i?aaeeiaeee
i?eiyoue

Aeaeea?aoeeth e Aeiaiai? ca iniiao, ii?o/ea OeEE NNN? ia?aaeaoue yoe
aeieoiaiou aeey aeiiieieoaeueiiai ianoaeaeaiey OeEE nithciuo ?anioaeee,
n oai /oiau, o/oy eo iii?aaee e i?aaeeiaeaiey, ?ac?aaioaoue
ieii/aoaeueiue oaeno iniiaiiai caeiia nithciiai ainoaea?noaa e aianoe
aai ia ooaa?aeaeaiea II Ananithciiai nuacaea Niaaoia. I?aaeeiaeaiea auei
i?eiyoi.

A Aeaeea?aoeee ia?a/eneyeenue o?e i?e/eiu nicaeaiey Nithca NN? –
yeiiiie/aneay, aiaiiay e eaeaieiae/aneay: “?aci?aiiua iiey,
inoaiiaeaoeany caaiaeu, ?ac?ooaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu e enoiuaiiua
oicyenoaaiiua ?ano?nu, inoaaoeany a ianeaaenoai io aieiu, aeaeatho
iaaeinoaoi/iuie ioaeaeueiua oneeey ioaeaeueiuo ?anioaeee ii
oicyenoaaiiiio no?ieoaeuenoao. Ainnoaiiaeaiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
ieacaeinue iaaiciiaeiui i?e ?acaeaeueiii nouanoaiaaiee ?anioaeee.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaonoie/eainoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iieiaeaiey e
iianiinoue iiauo iaiaaeaiee aeaeatho iaecaaaeiui nicaeaiea aaeeiiai
o?iioa niaaoneeo ?anioaeee ia?aae eeoeii eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?oaeaiey.

Iaeiiaoe, naii no?iaiea Niaaoneie aeanoe, eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie ii naiae
eeanniaie i?e?iaea, oieeaao o?oaeyueany iannu niaaoneeo ?anioaeee ia
iooue iauaaeeiaiey a iaeio nioeeaeenoe/aneoth naiueth.

Ana yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa iiaaeeoaeueii o?aaotho iauaaeeiaiey niaaoneeo
?anioaeee a iaeii nithciia ainoaea?noai, niiniaiia iaania/eoue e
aiaoithth aaciianiinoue, e aioo?aiiaa oicyenoaaiiia i?aoniaaaiea, e
naiaiaeo iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey ia?iaeia”.

30 aeaeaa?y 1922a – ia?aciaaiea NNN?.

1924a – i?eiyoea ia?aie eiinoeoooeee NNN?.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. I?eia A. N., Aai?aeaa A. A., Aai?aeaaa I.A., Neaioeia O.A. “Enoi?ey
?innee.” O/aaiee.- I.:”I?INIAEO”, 2001a.

2. Ioi/aaa O. I., Onoeiia A. I. “Enoi?ey ?innee” o/aaiee aeey aocia I:
Ecaeaoaeueneay a?oiia EIOA-I-II?IA, 2005a.

3. Ieeiyi A. E. “A ia/aea aeaaaeoeaouo…” – I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1975a.

4. Iiaaeoay enoi?ey Ioa/anoaa: OO aae: O/aa. Aeey nooae. auno. o/aa.
caaaaeaiee: A 2

o. / Iiae ?aae. A. O. Eenaeaaa, Y. I. Uaaeia. – I.: Aoiaieo. ecae.
oeaio? AEAAeIN, 2002. – O. 1

5. Coaa I.I. Enoi?ey ?innee n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei ia/aea XXIaaea –
5-a ecaeaiea – I: Ae?ioa, 2002a.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Курсовые, Дипломы, Рефераты на заказ в кратчайшие сроки
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020