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Наполеоновские войны 1799-1815 гг.

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Naieia?: Iaiieaiiianeea aieiu 1799-1815aa.

1.Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o: enoi?e/aneee ii?o?ao

Aiiaia?o Iaiieaii

15 aaaonoa 1769 aiaea — 5 iay 1821 aiaea

Iaiieaii o?aioeocneee ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue e iieeiaiaeaoe, ia?aue
eiinoe O?aioeocneie ?anioaeeee (1799—1804), eiia?aoi? o?aioeocia
(1804—14 e ia?o — ethiue 1815). ?iaeeeny a naiuea iaaiaaoiai
ei?neeaineiai aeai?yieia aaeaieaoa Ea?ei Aoiiaia?oa. A aeanyoeeaoiai
aic?anoa aue iiiauai a Ioaineee eieeaae ai O?aioeee, a caoai a oii aea
1779 ia?aaaae?i ia eac?iioth noeiaiaeeth a A?eaiineia aiaiiia o/eeeua. A
1784 oniaoii ieii/ee o/eeeua e ia?ao?e a Ia?eaeneoth aiaiioth oeieo
(1784—85). N ieoya?y 1785 a a?iee (a /eia ieaaeoaai eaeoaiaioa
a?oeeea?ee). Ainieoaiiue ia ia?aaeiauo eaeayo o?aioeocneiai I?inaauaiey,
iineaaeiaaoaeue AE. AE. ?onni, A. ?aeiaey, Aiiaia?o aini?eiye Aaeeeoth
o?aioeocneoth ?aaiethoeeth n ai?y/ei iaeia?aieai; a 1792 anooiee a
sseiaeineee eeoa. Aai aeayoaeueiinoue ?aca??ouaaeanue aeaaiui ia?acii ia
Ei?neea. Yoi iinoaiaiii i?eaaei Aiiaia?oa e eiioeeeoo n ei?neeaineeie
naia?aoenoaie ai aeaaa n Iaiee, e a 1793 ii auioaeaeai aue aaaeaoue n
Ei?neee. Ai a?aiy aeieaie e aaconiaoiie inaaeu ?anioaeeeaineie a?ieae
Ooeiia, caoaa/aiiiai iiia?oenoneeie iyoaaeieeaie e aiaeeeneeie
eioa?aaioaie, Aiiaia?o i?aaeeiaeee naie ieai iaeaaeaiey ai?iaeii. 17
aeaeaa?y 1793 Ooeii aue acyo ooo?iii. Ca acyoea Ooeiia 24-eaoiee eaieoai
aue i?iecaaae?i a a?eaaaeiua aaia?aeu. N yoiai a?aiaie ia/eiaaony
no?aieoaeueiia ainoiaeaeaiea Aiiaia?oa. Iinea e?aoeia?aiaiiie iiaeu e
aeaaea a?anoa a aeie oa?ieaei?eaineie ?aaeoeee ca aeecinoue n I.
?iaaniuea?ii, Iaiieaii aiiaue ia?aoee ia naay aieiaiea — oaea a Ia?eaea
— yia?aeae e ?aoeoaeueiinoueth i?e iiaeaaeaiee iiia?oenoneiai iyoaaea 13
aaiaeaiuea?a (5 ieoya?y) 1795. Aneaae ca oai ii aue iacia/ai
eiiaiaeothuei ia?eaeneei aa?ieciiii e a 1796 — aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei
a?ieae, nicaeaiiie aeey iia?aoeee a Eoaeee.

A Eoaeueyineie eaiiaiee 1796—97 i?iyaeeinue ia oieueei aiaiiia
aea?iaaiea Aiiaia?oa, ii e aai iiieiaiea nioeeaeueiiai aniaeoa aieiu:
no?aieaiea iiaeiyoue i?ioea iiaouanoa. Aano?ee aioeoaiaeaeueiua neeu e
i?eia?anoe aeey O?aioeee nithcieea a eoaeueyineii
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiii aeaeaeaiee. Oioy oaea ia?aay
eoaeueyineay eaiiaiey nii?iaiaeaeaeanue eiio?eaooeeyie, ia?aaeaieai
no?aiu, a? i?ia?anneaiia niaea?aeaiea iaania/eei o?aioeocneie a?iee
iiaeaea?aeeo eoaeueyineiai ianaeaiey. A iineaaeothueo aiaiiuo eaiiaieyo
Iaiieaiia an? aieaa oneeeaaeenue caaiaaaoaeueiua oaiaeaioeee.
Eaiiioi?ieeneee ie? 1797 auyaee aeeieiiaoe/aneea niiniaiinoe Iaiieaiia.
Aa?ioaoenue a Ia?eae iiaaaeeoaeai, ii aac o?oaea i?ia?e a Aee?aeoi?ee
?aoaiea ia i?aaiecaoeee iioiaea aeey caaiaaaiey Aaeioa. Iaeiaei
Aaeiaoneay yeniaaeeoeey 1798—1801, ianiio?y ia ioaeaeueiua iiaaaeu
, iinea ?aca?iia aiaee/aiaie o?aioeocneiai oeioa i?e Aaoee?a,
io?acaaoaai o?aioeocneoth a?ieth a Aaeioa io iao?iiieee, e iaoaea/iiai
iioiaea a Ne?eth auea ia?a/aia ia ii?aaeaiea. Ainiieueciaaaoenue eae
iiaiaeii aeioaaeoeie aei iaai naaaeaieyie i ii?aaeaiee a?iee Aee?aeoi?ee
e i iiaaaeao A. A. Noai?iaa, Iaiieaii naiiaieueii iieeioe
yeniaaeeoeeiiioth a?ieth e aa?ioeny a Ia?eae a ieoya?a 1799, eiaaea
e?ecen ?aaeeia Aee?aeoi?ee aeinoea oaea e?aeiae noaiaie. Neaainoue
Aee?aeoi?ee, a? iinoiyiiua eieaaaiey, iiaoaeeaoea ao?aeoaceth
no?aieoueny e «oa??aeie aeanoe», niinianoaiaaee inouanoaeaieth ee/iuo
/anoiethaeauo caiuneia Iaiieaiia. Iie?aynue ia aeeyoaeueiua e?oae
ao?aeoacee, ii 9—10 iiya?y 1799 (18—19 a?thia?a VIII aiaea) i?ieca?e
ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io, onoaiiaeaoee ?aaeei eiinoeuenoaa e
oaeoe/anee i?aaeinoaaeaoee aio, oioy e ia n?aco, anth iieiioo aeanoe.

Aeeeoaoi?neoth aeanoue, i?ee?uaaaioth aei 1804 ?anioaeeeaineie auaaneie,
Iaiieaii iai?aaee ia caueoo eioa?ania ao?aeoacee,
e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia e oe?aieaiea ao?aeoaciui ainoaea?noaa a oeaeii.
Ii eeeaeaee?iaae iaoeeiiaeueiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai aeaaea a oii
o?acaiiii aeaea, eioi?ue nio?aieeny i?e Aee?aeoi?ee, oie/oiaeee auai?iia
naiioi?aaeaiea, iacaaeneioth io i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia/aoue e ae?. inoaoee
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo caaiaaaiee ?aaiethoeee; eo caiaieea
/eiiaie/uea-iieeoeaeneay nenoaia i?aoaeoia, iy?ia e eo iiae/ei?iiuo,
iacia/aaoeony naa?oo. Caeeth/?iiue a 1801 eiiei?aeao n ?eineei iaiie
iaania/ee Iaiieaiio iiaeaea?aeeo eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Au?aaioaiiua i?e
ee/iii o/anoee Iaiieaiia a?aaeaeaineee, eiiia?/aneee e oaieiaiue
eiaeaenu onoaiaaeeaaee i?aaiaua ii?iu ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa. Oe?aieyy e
caueuay iniiaiua caaiaaaiey ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee a yeiiiie/aneie
noa?a e, a /anoiinoe, i?iecaaae?iiia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe,
Iaiieaii ?aoeoaeueii iiaeaaeye anyeea iiiuoee (eae neaaa, oae e ni?aaa)
eciaieoue yoio ii?yaeie. Ii iaiinee oaea?u e ii auaoei yeiaeioeai, e ii
aieinoaothuei ?iyeenoai. Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea iaiieaiiianeiai ?aaeeia
auea iai?aaeaia ia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee; a 1800 aue
iniiaai O?aioeocneee aaie. Iniaui iie?iaeoaeuenoaii Iaiieaiia
iieueciaaeanue i?iiuoeaiiinoue, a ?acaeoee eioi?ie ii aeaeae n?aaenoai
oe?aieaiey iiue ainoaea?noaa. Iaiieaii iianaeny ?aai/eo aieiaiee e
no?aieeny eo i?aaeioa?aoeoue eae i?aaiecaoeeae iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio (n
oeaeueth ia aeiionoeoue aac?aaioeoeu), oae e nio?aiaieai cai?auaaoaai
?aai/ea iauaaeeiaiey caeiia Ea Oaiaeuea (1791) e aaaaeaieai a 1803 oae
iacuaaaiuo ?aai/eo eieaeae.

A 1802 Iaiieaii aeiaeeny naiaai iacia/aiey iiaeeciaiiui eiinoeii, a a
1804 aue i?iaicaeaoai eiia?aoi?ii. *oiau oe?aieoue iiaoth, ao?aeoacioth
iiia?oeth e i?eaeaoue ae aiaoiee aeane, I. I nicaeae iiaia eiia?neia
aeai?yinoai, iuoiue eiia?aoi?neee aeai?, ?anoi?a a?ae n ia?aie aeaiie
AEicaoeiie e anooiee a 1810 a a?ae n Ia?eae Eoecie — aei/a?ueth
aano?eeneiai eiia?aoi?a O?aioea I. Iiaaaeiiiniua aieiu n eiaeeoeeyie
aea?aeaa, aeenoaoaeueiua iiaaaeu i?e Ia?aiai (1800), Aonoa?eeoea
(Aonoa?eeoeeia n?aaeaiea 1805), Eaia e Aoy?ooaaeoa ( Eaia-Aoy?ooaaeoneia
n?aaeaiea 1806), Aaa?aia (1809), ia?iiiia ?anoe?aiea oa??eoi?ee eiia?ee
e i?aa?auaiea I. I a oaeoe/aneiai iiaaeeoaey anae Caiaaeiie (e?iia
Aaeeeia?eoaiee) e Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu niinianoaiaaee iaiau/aeiie aai
neaaa. Noaeueaa I. I, aeinoeaoaai ca 10 eao aani?eia?iiai iiaouanoaa,
canoaaeyaoaai n/eoaoueny ni naiae aieae iiia?oia Aa?iiu, eacaeanue
iiiaei aai nia?aiaiieeai iaiauynieiie e aeaea ii/ao aeey ?aciiai ?iaea
«iaiieaiiianeeo eaaaiae». *aeiaae ia?iiiie ee/iie iaea??iiinoe,
eneeth/eoaeueiie ?aaioiniiniaiinoe, neeueiiai, o?acaiai oia e
iai?aeeiiiie aiee, aaniiuaaeiue a aeinoeaeaiee oeaee, I. I aue
auaeathueiny i?aaenoaaeoaeai ao?aeoacee a ii?o, eiaaea iia auea au?
iieiaeui, ainoiaeyuei eeannii; ii iaeaieaa iieii aiieioee ana i?enouea
ae oiaaea neeueiua /a?ou, a oaeaea a? ii?iee e iaaeinoaoee —
aa?anneaiinoue, naiaei?unoea, aaaioth?eci.

A iaeanoe aiaiiiai eneonnoaa I. I ?acaeaae e niaa?oainoaiaae oi iiaia,
/oi auei ?aiaa nicaeaii a?ieyie ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee. Caneoaa I. I
caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ii iao?e iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciia a aeaiiuo
enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo oaeoe/aneia e no?aoaae/aneia i?eiaiaiea
eieinnaeueiuo aii?oaeaiiuo iann, iiyaeaiea eioi?uo noaei aiciiaeiui
aeaaiaea?y ?aaiethoeee. Ii iieacae naay caia/aoaeueiui ianoa?ii
no?aoaaee e iai?a?aiiie oaeoeee. N?aaeaynue i?ioea /eneaiii
i?aainoiaeyuaai i?ioeaieea, I. I no?aieeny e ?acuaaeeiaieth aai nee e e
oie/oiaeaieth eo ii /anoyi. Aai i?eioeeiii auei: «/eneaiioth neaainoue
aiciauaoue auno?ioie aeaeaeaiee». Ia ia?oa I. I a?e aienea
?ann?aaeioi/aii, ii n oaeei ?an/?oii, /oiau eo iiaeii auei nia?aoue a
iaiaoiaeeiue iiiaio a ethaii ioieoa. Oae neeaaeuaaeny i?eioeei «ii?iciue
eaeoe, aianoa n?aaeaoueny». I. I niaa?oainoaiaae iiaoth iai?a?aiioth
oaeoeeo eieiii a ni/aoaiee n ?annuiiui no?iai, iniiaaiioth ia /?oeii
acaeiiaeaenoaee ?acee/iuo ?iaeia aiene. Ii oe?iei i?eiaiye auno?ue
iaiaa? a oeaeyo nicaeaiey i?aainoiaenoaa ia ?aoathueo iai?aaeaieyo, oiae
iaiineoue aiacaiiua oaea?u, inouanoaeyoue iaoiaeu e ioaaou, ia?aueaaoue
oneeey ia ?aoathueo o/anoeao n?aaeaiey. N/eoay naiae aeaaiie
no?aoaae/aneie caaea/ae ?aca?ii nee i?ioeaieea, I. I anaaaea no?aieeny
iaeaaeaoue no?aoaae/aneie eieoeeaoeaie. Iniiaiui niiniaii ?aca?iia
i?ioeaieea aeey iaai yaeyeinue aaia?aeueiia n?aaeaiea. Aeinoeaiooue a
aaia?aeueiii n?aaeaiee oniao I. I no?aieeny ?acaeoue, i?aaiecoy
ianoie/eaia i?aneaaeiaaiea iai?eyoaey. I. I i?aaeinoaaeye oe?ieoth
aiciiaeiinoue eieoeeaoeau eiiaiaee?ai /anoae e niaaeeiaiee. Ii oiae
iaoiaeeoue e auaeaeaaoue niiniaiuo, oaeaioeeauo ethaeae. Ii
no?aieoaeueiia aicauoaiea iaiieaiiianeie O?aioeee e iiaaaeu
o?aioeocneiai i?oaeey iauyniyeenue ia noieueei ee/iuie ea/anoaaie I. I e
aai ia?oaeia, neieueei oai, /oi a noieeiiaaiee n
oaiaeaeueii-aaniethoenoneie Aa?iiie iaiieaiiianeay O?aioeey
i?aaenoaaeyea enoi?e/anee aieaa i?ia?anneaiue, ao?aeoaciue iauanoaaiiue
no?ie. Yoi neacuaaeinue e a aiaiiie noa?a, aaea iieeiaiae/aneia
eneonnoai I. I eiaei ianiiiaiiue ia?aaan iaae ionoaeie, ?ooeiiie
no?aoaaeae e oaeoeeie a?iee oaiaeaeueiie Aa?iiu, e a i?aainoiaenoaa
nenoaiu ao?aeoaciuo nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, niaei aaiaeeiuo a no?aiao
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu iaiieaiiianeei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, iaae ionoaeuie
iao?ea?oaeueii-oaiaeaeueiuie ioiioaieyie. Iaeiaei n oa/aieai a?aiaie
iaiieaiiianeea aieiu oo?aoeee naienoaaiiua ei ?aiaa (ianiio?y ia eo
caaiaaaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?) i?ia?anneaiua yeaiaiou e i?aa?aoeeenue a /enoi
caoaaoie/aneea. A yoeo oneiaeyo ieeaeea ee/iua ea/anoaa e oneeey I. I ia
iiaee i?eianoe iiaaaeu. Aia?aua yoi iaia?oaeeeinue ai a?aiy ia/aaoaeny a
1808 aieiu a Eniaiee, aaea i?ioea o?aioeocneeo caaiaaaoaeae iiaeiyeny
ia?iae; yoi a iieiie ia?a e n eaoano?ioe/aneeie aeey iaiieaiiianeie
eiia?ee iineaaenoaeyie iiaeoaa?aeeeinue a iioiaea 1812 a ?inneth. Aieia
i?ioea ?innee yaeeanue, eae iicaeiaa i?eciae nai I. I, aai oaoaeueiie
ioeaeie. Iinea i?eoiaea e aeanoe I. I ia?aui ec o?aioeocneeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae iiiye an? cia/aiea aeey O?aioeee nithca n
?inneae. Aai oneeey e auee iai?aaeaiu ia aeinoeaeaiea yoie oeaee: a
ia?aaiai?ao n Iaaeii I ii iiaeio?e aieioioth e caeeth/aieth nithca n
?inneae. Oaeenoai Iaaea I a ia?oa 1801 iaaeieai ioiaeaeioei yoo
aiciiaeiinoue. Oeeueceoneea ia?aaiai?u n Aeaenaiae?ii I (1807) i?eaaee e
nicaeaieth o?aiei-?onneiai nithca, ioeaieaaaoaainy I. I aanueia auniei.
Ai a?aiy Y?oo?oneiai naeaeaiey I. I n Aeaenaiae?ii I (1808) i?iecioei
iaino?aiea o?aiei-?onneeo i?ioeai?a/ee a nayce n Eiioeiaioaeueiie
aeieaaeie, iieueneei aii?inii e ae?. ?aoaiea ia/aoue aieio i?ioea ?innee
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i oii, /oi, ineaieaiiue oniaoaie e no?aieaieai
onoaiiaeoue nai? ainiiaenoai iaae Aa?iiie, I. I ia/ae oa?youe /oanoai
?aaeueiiai, i?enouaa aio ?aiaa. Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1812 ia oieueei
oie/oiaeeea «aaeeeoth a?ieth» I. I, ii e aeaea iiuiue oie/ie
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa i?ioea iaiieaiiianeiai ai?oa a
Aa?iia. A eaiiaiee 1813 I. I i?eoeinue n?aaeaoueny ia oieueei i?ioea
a?iee aioeiaiieaiiianeie eiaeeoeee, ii e i?ioea iaiaeieeiie neeu —
ainnoaaoeo ia?iaeia Aa?iiu. Iaecaaaeiia a yoeo oneiaeyo ii?aaeaiea I. I,
caaa?oaiiia anooieaieai nithciuo aiene a Ia?eae (ia?o 1814), canoaaeei
aai io?a/ueny io i?anoiea (6 ai?aey 1814). Nithcieee-iiaaaeeoaee
nio?aieee I. I oeooe eiia?aoi?a e ioaeaee aio ai aeaaeaiea i. Yeueaa.
Aunaaeea I. I ai O?aioeee (1 ia?oa 1815) e «Noi aeiae» (20 ia?oa — 22
ethiy 1815) aoi?e/iiai aai oea?noaiaaiey niiaa iieacaee ia oieueei aai
oaeaio, ii a au? aieueoae ia?a cia/aiea noiyaoeo ca iei nioeeaeueiuo
nee. Aani?eia?iia «caaiaaaiea» ca 3 iaaeaee aac aaeeiiai auno?aea
O?aioeee noaei aiciiaeiui eeoue iioiio, /oi ia?iae n/eoae I. I niiniaiui
ecaiaoue ec O?aioeee iaiaaenoiuo ia?iaeiui iannai Ao?aiiia e
a?enoie?aoia. O?aaaaeey I. I caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ii ia ?aoeeny
iieiinoueth iia?aoueny ia iiaeaea?aeeaaaoee aai ia?iae. Yoi i?eaaei e
aai ii?aaeaieth i?e Aaoa?eii e aoi?e/iiio io?a/aieth (22 ethiy 1815).
Nineaiiue ia i. Na. Aeaiu, ii oia? /a?ac 6 eao ieaiieeii aiaee/ai. A
1840 i?ao I. I aue ia?aaac?i a Ia?eae, a Aeii eiaaeeaeia.

1) Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua iieiaeaiey Oeeueceoneiai ie?a?

2) *ai iauyniythony aiaiiua oniaoe Iaiieaiia?

3) A /ai i?e/eia nie?ooeoaeueiiai ii?aaeaiey Iaiieaiia a ?innee?

2.I?e/eiu e oa?aeoa? iaiieaiiianeeo aiei

IAIIEAIIIANEEA AIEIU 1799-1815, aaeenue O?aioeeae e aa nithcieeaie a
aiaeu Eiinoeuenoaa (1799-1804) e eiia?ee Iaiieaiia I (1804-1814,1815)
i?ioea eiaeeoeee aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa.

Oa?aeoa? aiei

O?iiieiae/anee iie i?iaeieaeaee aieiu Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee1789-99 e eiaee iaeioi?ua iauea n ieie /a?ou. Aoaeo/e
caoaaoie/aneeie, iie, oai ia iaiaa, niinianoaiaaee ?ani?ino?aiaieth a
Aa?iia ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eaeae, iiae?uao oaiaeaeueiuo ii?yaeeia e
?acaeoeth eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee. Iie aaeenue a eioa?anao
o?aioeocneie ao?aeoacee, no?aieaoaeny cae?aieoue naia
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneia e oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiia ainiiaenoai ia eiioeiaioa,
iooaniea ia aoi?ie ieai aiaeeeneoth ao?aeoaceth. Aeaaiuie i?ioeaieeaie
O?aioeee a oiaea iaiieaiiianeeo aiei auee Aiaeey, Aano?ey e ?inney.

2-y aioeo?aioeocneay eiaeeoeey (1798-1801)

Oneiaiie aeaoie ia/aea iaiieaiiianeeo aiei n/eoaaony onoaiiaeaiea ai
O?aioeee a oiaea ia?aai?ioa 18 a?thia?a (9 iiya?y) 1799 aiaiiie
aeeeoaoo?u Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa, noaaoaai ia?aui eiinoeii. A yoi a?aiy
no?aia oaea iaoiaeeeanue a ninoiyiee aieiu ni 2-ie aioeo?aioeocneie
eiaeeoeeae, eioi?oth ia?aciaaee a 1798-99 Aiaeey, ?inney, Aano?ey,
Oo?oeey e Iaaiieeoaineia Ei?ieaanoai (1-ay aioeo?aioeocneay eiaeeoeey a
ninoaaa Aano?ee, I?onnee, Aiaeee e ?yaea ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa
aiaaaea i?ioea ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee a 1792-93).

I?eaey e aeanoe, Aiiaia?o iai?aaee aiaeeeneiio ei?ieth e aano?eeneiio
eiia?aoi?o i?aaeeiaeaiea ia/aoue ie?iua ia?aaiai?u, eioi?ia auei eie
ioaa?aiooi. O?aioeey ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoue ia ainoi/iuo a?aieoeao e?oiioth
a?ieth iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea Ii?i. Iaeiia?aiaiii ia oaaeoea?neie
a?aieoea a ianoaiiaea nae?aoiinoe oei oi?ie?iaaiea oae iacuaaaiie
«?aca?aiie» a?iee, eioi?ay e iaianea ia?aue oaea? ii aano?eeneei aieneai
a Eoaeee. Niaa?oea o?oaeiue ia?aoiae /a?ac ia?aaae Nai-Aa?ia? a Aeueiao,
14 ethiy 1800 a aeoaa o Ia?aiai Aiiaia?o ?aca?iiee aano?eeoeaa,
aeaenoaiaaaoeo iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai oaeueaeia?oaea Iaeana. A aeaeaa?a
1800 ?aeineay a?iey Ii?i ?acaeea aano?eeoeaa i?e Aiaaieeiaeaia
(Aaaa?ey). A oaa?aea 1801 Aano?ey auea auioaeaeaia caeeth/eoue n
O?aioeeae ie? e i?eciaoue aa caoaaou a Aaeueaee e ia eaaii aa?aao ?aeia.
Iinea yoiai 2-ay eiaeeoeey oaeoe/anee ?aniaeanue, Aiaeey niaeaneeanue a
ieoya?a 1801 iiaeienaoue oneiaey i?aeeieia?iiai (o. a.
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai) niaeaoaiey, a 27 ia?oa 1802 aue caeeth/ai Aiueaineee
ie?iue aeiaiai? iaaeaeo Aiaeeae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e O?aioeeae, Eniaieae
e Aaoaaneie ?anioaeeeie — n ae?oaie.

3-y aioeo?aioeocneay eiaeeoeey

Iaeiaei oaea a 1803 aieia iaaeaeo ieie aiciaiiaeeanue, a a 1805 auea
ia?aciaaia 3-ay aioeo?aioeocneay eiaeeoeey a ninoaaa Aiaeee, ?innee,
Aano?ee e Iaaiieeoaineiai ei?ieaanoaa. A ioee/ea io i?aaeuaeoueo, iia
i?iaicaeaneea naiae oeaeueth ai?ueao ia i?ioea ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee,
a i?ioea caaiaaaoaeueiie iieeoeee Aiiaia?oa. Noaa a 1804 eiia?aoi?ii
Iaiieaiiii I, ii aioiaee aunaaeeo o?aioeocneie yeniaaeeoeeiiiie a?iee a
Aiaeeth. Ii 21 ieoya?y 1805 a O?aoaeueaa?neii n?aaeaiee aiaeeeneee oeio
ai aeaaa n aaeie?aeii Iaeueniiii oie/oiaeee iauaaeeiaiiue
o?aiei-eniaineee oeio. Yoi ii?aaeaiea iaanaaaea eeoeei O?aioeeth
aiciiaeiinoe niia?ie/aoue n Aiaeeae ia ii?a. Iaeiaei ia eiioeiaioa
iaiieaiiianeea aienea iaea?aeeaaee iaeio iiaaaeo ca ae?oaie: a ieoya?a
1805 aano?eeneay a?iey aaia?aea Iaea aac aiy eaieooee?iaaea i?e Oeueia;
a iiya?a Iaiieaii iiaaaeiui ia?oai anooiee a Aaio; 2 aeaeaa?y a
Aonoa?eeoeeii n?aaeaiee ii ?aca?iiee iauaaeeiaiiua neeu ?onneeo e
aano?eeoeaa. Aano?ey aiiaue auea auioaeaeaia iiaeienaoue ie? n
O?aioeeae. Ii I?anao?aneiio aeiaiai?o (26 aeaeaa?y 1805) iia i?eciaea
iaiieaiiianeea caoaaou, a oaeaea iaycaeanue auieaoeoue ia?iiioth
eiio?eaooeeth. A 1806 Iaiieaii i?eioaeee O?aioea I neiaeeoue n naay
oeooe eiia?aoi?a Nayuaiiie ?eineie eiia?ee aa?iaineie iaoeee.

4-y e 5-y aioeo?aioeocneea eiaeeoeee

Aieio i?ioea Iaiieaiia i?iaeieaeeee Aiaeey e ?inney, e eioi?ui anei?a
i?eniaaeeieeenue I?onney e Oaaoeey, iaaniieiaiiua oneeaieai
o?aioeocneiai ainiiaenoaa a Aa?iia. A naioya?a 1806 ia?aciaaeanue 4-ay
aioeo?aioeocneay eiaeeoeey aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa. Nionoy ianyoe, a
oiaea aeaoo n?aaeaiee, a iaeei e oio aea aeaiue 14 ieoya?y 1806 i?onneay
a?iey auea oie/oiaeaia: ieiei Eaiu Iaiieaii ?acaee /anoe eiycy Aiaaieiy,
a i?e Aoy?ooaaeoa ia?oae Aeaao ?aca?iiee iniiaiua i?onneea neeu ei?iey
O?eae?eoa-Aeeueaaeueia e aa?oeiaa A?aoioaaeaneiai. Iaiieaii
oi?aeanoaaiii auaoae a Aa?eei. I?onney auea ieeoie?iaaia. Aeaeaaaoayny
ia iiiiuue nithcieeai ?onneay a?iey ano?aoeeanue n o?aioeocneie nia/aea
aeec Ioeoonea 26 aeaeaa?y 1806, caoai o I?aeneo-Yeeao 8 oaa?aey 1807.
Ianiio?y ia e?iaii?ieeoiinoue, yoe n?aaeaiey ia aeaee ia?aaana ie iaeiie
ec noi?ii, ii a ethia 1807 a aeoaa i?e O?eaeeaiaea Iaiieaii iaea?aeae
iiaaaeo iaae ?onneeie aieneaie, eioi?uie eiiaaeiaae E. E. Aaieanai. 7
ethey 1807 iina?aaeeia ?aee Iaiai ia ieioo ninoiyeinue naeaeaiea
o?aioeocneiai e ?onneiai eiia?aoi?ia e aue caeeth/ai Oeeueceoneee ie?,
ii eioi?iio ?inney i?eciaaaea ana caaiaaaiey Iaiieaiia a Aa?iia e
i?eniaaeeiyeanue e i?iaicaeaoaiiie ei a 1806 «Eiioeiaioaeueiie aeieaaea»
A?eoaineeo ino?iaia. Aaniie 1809 Aiaeey e Aano?ey aiiaue iauaaeeieeenue
a 5-oth aioeo?aioeocneoth eiaeeoeeth, ii oaea a iaa 1809 o?aioeocu
anooieee a Aaio, a 5-6 ethey a n?aaeaiee o Aaa?aia aano?eeoeu aiiaue
iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea. Aano?ey niaeaneeanue oiea/eaaoue eiio?eaooeeth e
i?eniaaeeiyeanue e eiioeiaioaeueiie aeieaaea. Iiae aeanoueth Iaiieaiia
ieacaeanue cia/eoaeueiay /anoue Aa?iiu.

I?e/eiu aiaiiuo oniaoia O?aioeee

O?aioeey iaeaaeaea iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiie aeey naiaai a?aiaie aiaiiie
nenoaiie, ?iaeaeaiiie aua a aiaeu O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee. Iiaua
oneiaey ?ae?ooe?iaaiey a a?ieth, iinoiyiiia aieiaiea aiaia/aeueieeia, e
i?aaeaea anaai naiiai Iaiieaiia, e aiaaiio aeooo nieaeao, iiaeaea?aeaiea
o ieo aunieie aiaiiie iiaeaioiaee e aeenoeeieeiu, aaa?aeey,
noi?ie?iaaiiay ec nieaeao-aaoa?aiia, — ana yoi niinianoaiaaei iiaaaeai
O?aioeee. Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue nua?ae aiaiiue oaeaio ciaiaieouo
iaiieaiiianeeo ia?oaeia — Aa?iaaeioa, Aa?ouea, Aeaao, AEo?aeaia, Eaiia,
Iaeaeiiaeueaea, Iannaia, Ii?i, Ith?aoa, Iay, Noeueoa e ae?. Nai Iaiieaii
Aiiaia?o aue aaee/aeoei iieeiaiaeoeai e oai?aoeeii aiaiiiai aeaea.

Iio?aaiinoe iaiieaiiianeie a?iee iaania/eaaeenue iiei?aiiuie no?aiaie
Aa?iiu e ainoaea?noaaie, iaoiaeeaoeieny a iieeoe/aneie caaeneiinoe io
O?aioeee, — iie, iai?eia?, oi?ie?iaaee /anoe aniiiiaaoaeueiuo aiene.

Ia?aua ii?aaeaiey O?aioeee. Eiiaoe o?aioeocneie yeniainee

Ia?anoaaoaa a Aa?iia iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea
i?eia?aei iaeaieueoee ?aciao a Eniaiee e a Aa?iaiee. Iaeiaei noaeueaa
eiia?ee Iaiieaiia auea ?aoaia ai a?aiy aai iioiaea a ?inneth. Ai a?aiy
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu1812 no?aoaaey ?onneie a?iee, ?oeiaiaeeiie
oaeueaeia?oaeii I. E. Eooociaui, ia?oecaineia aeaeaeaiea niinianoaiaaee
aeaaee aieaa /ai 400-ouny/iie «Aaeeeie a?iee». Yoi aucaaei iiaue iiaeuai
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau a Aa?iia, a ?yaea ainoaea?noa
noaei nicaeaaaoueny ia?iaeiia iiie/aiea. A 1813 ia?aciaaeanue 6-ay
aioeo?aioeocneay eiaeeoeey, eoaea aioee ?inney, Aiaeey, I?onney,
Oaaoeey, Aano?ey e ?yae ae?. ainoaea?noa. A ieoya?a 1813 a ?acoeueoaoa
«aeoau ia?iaeia» iiae Eaeioeeaii io o?aioeocia auea inaiaiaeaeaia
oa??eoi?ey Aa?iaiee. Iaiieaiiianeay a?iey ioioea e a?aieoeai O?aioeee, a
caoai auea ?aca?iieaia ia naiae caiea. 31 ia?oa aienea nithcieeia
anooieee a Ia?eae. 6 ai?aey Iaiieaii I iiaeienae io?a/aiea io i?anoiea e
aue auneai ec O?aioeee ia ino?ia Yeueao.

Eiiaoe iaiieaiiianeeo aiei

A 1815, ai a?aiy ciaiaieouo «Noa aeiae» (20 ia?oa — 22 ethiy ), Iaiieaii
i?aaei?eiye iineaaeithth iiiuoeo aa?iooue naaa aueoth aeanoue.
Ii?aaeaiea a aeoaa i?e Aaoa?eii (Aaeueaey) 18 ethiy 1815, iaianaiiia aio
aieneaie 7-ie eiaeeoeee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aa?oeiaa Aaeeeiaoiia e
ia?oaea Aethoa?a, caaa?oeei enoi?eth iaiieaiiianeeo aiei. Aaineee
eiia?ann (1 iiya?y 1814 — 9 ethiy 1815) ?aoee noaeueao O?aioeee,
cae?aiea ia?aaeae oa??eoi?ee aa?iiaeneeo no?ai a eioa?anao
ainoaea?noa-iiaaaeeoaeae. Inaiaiaeeoaeueiua aieiu, eioi?ua aaeenue
i?ioea Iaiieaiia, auee iaecaaaeii naycaiu n /anoe/iui ainnoaiiaeaieai
oaiaeaeueii-aaniethoenoneeo ii?yaeeia a Aa?iia («Nayuaiiue nithc»
aa?iiaeneeo iiia?oia, caeeth/aiiue n oeaeueth iiaeaaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai e ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey a
Aa?iia).

1) Eaeea aeiaiai?aiiinoe auee aeinoeaioou i?e iiaeienaiee Aiueaineiai
ie?iiai aeiaiai?a?

2) A /ai caeeth/aeanue «Eiioeiaioaeueiay aeieaaea?»

3) Iauynieoa cia/aiea iiiyoey «aeoaa ia?iaeia»?

3.Ia?eiaeecaoeey iaiieaiiianeeo aiei. Iniiaiua aiaiiua eaiiaiee e
aaaeiaeoea n?aaeaiey

Aieia Ia?aie eiaeeoeee 1793–1797

Aiaiiua aeaenoaey ia/aeenue n aoi?aeaiey o?aioeocneeo aiene ai aeaaeaiey
aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa ia ?aeia, ca /ai iineaaeiaaei aoi?aeaiea aiene
eiaeeoeee a i?aaeaeu O?aioeee. Anei?a a?aae auee ioaeou e naia O?aioeey
ia/aea aeoeaiua aiaiiua aeaenoaey i?ioea eiaeeoeee — aoi?aeanue a
Eniaieth, Na?aeeineia ei?ieaanoai e a caiaaeiua aa?iaineea ainoaea?noaa.
Anei?a, a 1793 aiaeo i?iecioea aeoaa i?e Ooeiia, aaea aia?aua i?iyaee
naay iieiaeie e oaeaioeeaue iieeiaiaeaoe Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o. Iinea ?yaea
iiaaae a?aae auee auioaeaeaiu i?eciaoue O?aioeocneoth ?anioaeeeo e ana
a? caaiaaaiey (ca eneeth/aieai aiaee/ai), ii caoai, iinea oooaeoaiey
iieiaeaiey O?aioeee, aieia aiciaiiaeeanue.

Ia/aei aieiu

?aaiethoeey, i?ienoaaeoay ai O?aioeee a 1789 aiaeo, neeueii io?aceeanue
e ia niaaeiuo n iae ainoaea?noaao e iiaoaeeea eo i?aaeoaeuenoaa
i?eaaaiooue e ?aoeoaeueiui ia?ii?eyoeyi i?ioea oa?iaeaaoae iianiinoe.
Eiia?aoi? Eaiiieueae II e i?oneee ei?ieue O?eae?eo-Aeeueaaeuei II ia
ee/iii naeaeaiee a Ieeueieoea oneiaeeenue inoaiiaeoue ?ani?ino?aiaiea
?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?eioeeiia. E yoiio eo iiaoaeaeaee e ianoiyiey
o?aioeocneeo yiea?aioia, ninoaaeaoeo a Eiaeaioea ei?ion aiene iiae
ia/aeuenoaii i?eioea Eiiaea.

Aiaiiua i?eaioiaeaiey auee ia/aou, ii iiia?oe aeieai ia ?aoaeenue ia
ioe?uoea a?aaeaeaaiuo aeaenoaee. Eieoeeaoeaa iineaaeiaaea ni noi?iiu
O?aioeee, eioi?ay 20 ai?aey 1792 a. iauyaeea aieio Aano?ee ca a?
iai?eyciaiiua aeaenoaey i?ioea O?aioeee. Aano?ey e I?onney caeeth/eee
iaaeaeo niaie iai?iieoaeueiue e ianooiaoaeueiue nithc, e eioi?iio
iinoaiaiii i?eniaaeeieeenue ii/oe ana i?i/ea aa?iaineea ainoaea?noaa, a
oaeaea Eniaiey, Iueaiiio e Iaaiieeoaineia ei?ieaanoai.

1792

Eaoii 1792 a. nithciua aienea (a iauai — aei 250 oun.) noaee
nin?aaeioi/eaaoueny ia a?aieoeao O?aioeee. Aienea yoe a oaeoe/aneii
ioiioaiee (ii oiaaeaoiei iiiyoeyi) noiyee ai?acaei auoa o?aioeocneeo; ii
i?aaeaiaeeoaee eo, aieueoae /anoueth ethaee i?aeeiiiuo eao, oiaee
iiae?aaeaoue O?eae?eoo Aaeeeiio oieueei a iaei/ao e aiaoiae oi?ia:
i?eoii e ?oee o ieo auee naycaiu i?enoonoaeai i?e a?iee ei?iey i?onneiai
e oeacaieyie aaineiai aioe?ean?aoa. Iaeiiaoe, n naiiai ia/aea aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee iaia?oaeeeinue iieiia ianiaeanea a ninoaaeaiee iia?aoeeiiiiai
ieaia: ianooiaoaeueiue caaei? i?onnaeia noieeioeny n iaaeeeoaeueiinoueth
e i?aoaaee/aiiie inoi?iaeiinoueth aano?eeoeaa. O?aioeocneay ?aaoey?iay
a?iey ia i?aauoaea oiaaea 125 oun., iaoiaeeeanue a neeueiii ?anno?ienoaa
e eeoeeanue iiiaeo iiuoiuo aaia?aeia e ioeoea?ia, yiea?e?iaaaoeo a
/oaeea e?ay; aienea oa?iaee eeoaiey anyeiai ?iaea, iaoa?eaeueiay /anoue
aiaiiiai ono?ienoaa auea a iea/aaiii ninoiyiee. O?aioeocneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eiyei naiua yia?ae/aneea ia?u aeey oneeaiey a?iee e
iiaeiyoey a? aeooa. Eeiaeiie e oae iacuaaaiie ei?aeiiiie nenoaiai,
eioi?ui neaaeiaaee iieeiaiaeoeu nithcieeia, o?aioeocu aioiaeeenue
i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue nenoaio niieioouo iann (eieiii) e iaiiue
iiiai/eneaiiuo no?aeeia (ii i?eia?o aia?eeaioeaa a ai?ueaa ca
iacaaeneiinoue). Anyeiio i?inoiio ?yaeiaiio, aueacaaoaio aiaaua
ea/anoaa, ioe?uo aue iooue e aeinoeaeaieth aunoeo aeieaeiinoae a a?iee.
Aaniiuaaeii aianoa n oai ea?aeenue ioeaee e iaoaea/e. Nia/aea aoi?aeaiea
o?aioeocia a Aano?eeneea Ieaea?eaiaeu ieii/eeinue aeey ieo iieiie
iaoaea/ae; iie auioaeaeaiu auee ionooiaoue a naie i?aaeaeu e
ia?aie/eoueny iai?iieoaeueiuie aeaenoaeyie. 1 aaaonoa aeaaiua neeu
nithcieeia iiae ia/aeuenoaii aa?oeiaa A?aoioaaeaneiai ia?aoee /a?ac ?aei
e noaee nin?aaeioi/eaaoueny iaaeaeo E?eueiii e Iaeioeai. Oaa?aiiue
yiea?aioaie, /oi i?e anooieaiee nithcieeia ai O?aioeeth ana
eiina?aaoeaiua yeaiaiou no?aiu ainnoaioo aeey iiaeaaeaiey
?aaiethoeeiiiiai iaiueoeinoaa e aeey inaiaiaeaeaiey ei?iey, aa?oeia
?aoee ai?aaoueny a Oaiiaiue e caoai eaeoe i?yii ia Ia?eae. Ii ecaeae
a?icioth i?ieeaiaoeeth, eioi?ay eiaea oeaeueth ono?aoeoue o?aioeocia, ii
i?iecaaea ia?aoiia aeaenoaea: a? aucuaathuee oii aicaoaeee neeueiaeoaa
iaaiaeiaaiea; anyeee, eoi iia, acyeny ca i?oaeea, e iaiaa /ai /a?ac 2
ianyoea /eneaiiinoue o?aioeocneeo aiene i?aacioea oaea 400 oun. /aeiaae,
aeo?ii ono?iaiiuo e aii?oae?iiuo, ii i?iieeioouo aaee/aeoei
iaeooaaeaieai. Ianooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea nithcieeia auei caiaaeeaii
aeo?iuie aei?iaaie a A?aeaiiao e iaaeinoaoeii i?iaeiaieuenoaey;
o?aioeocneee aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee Aethio?uea oniae iiaeoyiooue
iiaee?aieaiey. 20 naioya?y i?iecioea iaeicia/eoaeueiay naia ii naaa, ii
aanueia aaaeiay ii naiei iineaaenoaeyi eaiiiaaea i?e Aaeueie,
iieiaeeaoay i?aaeae ianooieaieth nithcieeia. Aienea eo, niou?iiua
noieeinoueth iai?eyoaey, ecio??iiua aieaciyie e ?aciuie eeoaieyie,
i?aaeaeenue no?aoiiio ia?iae??noao, /ai au? aieaa ainnoaiiaeee i?ioea
naay ianaeaiea. Iaaeaeo oai o?aioeocu aaeaaeiaaii oneeeaaeenue, e
aa?oeia A?aoioaaeaneee, ia aeaey aiciiaeiinoe ie eaeoe aia??ae, ie
inoaaaoueny a ?aci??iiie Oaiiaie, ?aoeeny oaeaeeoueny ec o?aioeocneeo
i?aaeaeia. Iieuecoynue yoei, Aethio?uea aoi?aioeny a Aaeueaeth, 18
iiya?y ?acaee aano?eeoeaa i?e AEaiaiia e aei eiioea aiaea iaeaaeae anaie
aeaaiaeoeie ai?iaeaie no?aiu. Ia n?aaeiai ?aeia o?aioeocneee aaia?ae
Ethnoei, ?acaea aieneiaua eiioeiaaiou ?aciuo iaeeeo aa?iaineeo
aeaaeaoaeae, aoi?aioeny a Ioaeueoe e i?e niaeaenoaee ?aaiethoeeiiiie
ia?oee a Iaeioea iaeaaeae yoie aaaeiie e?aiinoueth. Aeaenoaey o?aioeocia
a Naaiea oaeaea oee oniaoii;

1793

1 oaa?aey 1793 a., oio/an iinea eacie Ethaeiaeea XVI, O?aioeocneay
?anioaeeea iauyaeea aieio Ieaea?eaiaeai e Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Iineaaeiyy n
yoiai a?aiaie noaea ai aeaaa aea?aeaa, aiaaaaoeo i?ioea ?aaiethoeeiiiie
O?aioeee, iiiiaaea ei noaneaeeyie e /anoiuie yeniaaeeoeeyie e a oi aea
a?aiy iin?aaenoaii naiaai oeioa iaiineea a?iiaaeiue a?aae eieiieyi e
oi?aiaea i?ioeaieea. A Ieaea?eaiaeao o?aioeocu noaee oa?iaoue iaoaea/e,
caaa?oeaoeany 18 ia?oa ii?aaeaieai i?e Iaa?aeiaeaia. Iinea eciaiu
Aethio?uea e aaanoaa aai e iai?eyoaeth o?aioeocneee Iaoeeiiaeueiue
Eiiaaio oneeee a?ieth iiauie iieeaie e ii?o/ee aeaaiia ia/aeuenoai
Aeaiiea?o, nei?i iiaeaoaio a aith i?e Eiiaea. Noieue aea iaei oniaoa
eiaee e iacia/aiiua aianoi iaai aaia?aeu Ethnoei, a iioii AEo?aeai.
Aeaenoaey ia N?aaeiai e Aa?oiai ?aeia oee n ia?aiaiiui oniaoii, ii a
iauai iaaeaaii?eyoii aeey ?anioaeeeaioeaa, eioi?ua iioa?yee Iaeioe e
ae?oaea aaaeiua ioieou. Io iieiiai ?aca?iia eo ecaaaeyei eeoue
ionoonoaea niaeaney a aeaenoaeyo i?ioeaieeia e acaeiiia iaaeiaa?ea
iaaeaeo aano?eeoeaie e i?onnaeaie. Aeaenoaey a Aeueiao, ia a?aieoea
Eoaeee, auee oaea/iu aeey o?aioeocia, eioi?uie eiiaiaeiaae aaia?ae
Eaeea?iai; na?aeeioeu, anooieaoea auei a Naaieth, auee ?acaeou i?e
Aeueaa?aooa 20 naioya?y e Aaeueiaie 14 ieoya?y e ionooieee e naiei
iiceoeeyi ia Iii-Naiena. Aieia a Ie?aiayo i?iaeieaeaeanue ayei, ii
nei?aa aeaaii?eyoii aeey o?aioeocia. Iaaeaeioniaiay aieia a Aaiaeaa
?acai?aeanue an? aieueoa e aieueoa, e ?anioaeeeaineea aienea oa?iaee oai
aeanoieea ii?aaeaiey io ?iyeenoia. A oii aea 1793 a. Ooeii aue caiyo
aiaee/aiaie e eniaioeaie, a caoai inaaeae?i e acyo aieneaie ?anioaeeee.

1794

A eaiiaieth 1794 a. aiaiiua aeaenoaey a Aieeaiaeee, ia/aaoeany a ai?aea,
nia/aea auee oniaoiu aeey nithcieeia. Ii oaea a ethia oniao neeiieeny ia
noi?iio o?aioeocia, eioi?ua ioiyee o i?ioeaieea ana caoaa/aiiua ei
ai?iaea e e?aiinoe e iaianee aio ianeieueei /oanoaeoaeueiuo ii?aaeaiee,
a e eiioeo aiaea canoaaeee Aieeaiaeeth, iacaaiioth Aaoaaneie
?anioaeeeie, caeeth/eoue n O?aioeeae nithc. A aeaenoaeyo ia ?aeia
n/anoea oiaea aeaaii?eyonoaiaaei o?aioeocneiio i?oaeeth; e eiioeo aiaea
ia eaaii aa?aao ?aee a ?oeao nithcieeia inoaaaeny iaeei eeoue Iaeioe. A
Eoaeee ?anioaeeeaioeu, aeaaaeaeu ?acaea aano?i-na?aeeineea aienea,
aoi?aeenue a Iueaiiio (a ai?aea), ii ?acaeoea iiaaeueiuo aieaciae e
iiyaeaiea aiaeeeneiai oeioa a Aaioycneii caeeaa i?eioaeeee eo
oaeaeeoueny. A naioya?a iie anooieee a n/eoaaoeany iaeo?aeueiuie
aaioycneea aeaaeaiey e ?aniieiaeeeenue oai ia ceiieo eaa?oe?ao. Oineaia
caeeth/eea n O?aioeeae ioaeaeueiue ie?, eioi?ui iaycuaaeanue i?eciaoue
O?aioeocneoth ?anioaeeeo e oieaoeoue ae ieeeeii o?aieia.

1795

Aneaae ca oai, a ai?aea 1795 aiaea, ei?ieue i?onneee, oaaaeeaoenue, /oi
aieia ?anno?aeaaao oeiainu I?onnee e ia aeinoaaeyao ae ieeaeeo auaiae,
caeeth/ee n ?anioaeeeie ie? a Aacaea e onooiee ae ana naie ca?aeineea
aeaaeaiey. Ii iiaeienaiiiio 11 iay aeiaiai?o ii/oe any naaa?iay /anoue
Aa?iaiee (ioaeae?iiay aeaia?eaoeeiiiie eeieae) auea iauyaeaia
iaeo?aeueiie. Eniaiey oiaea auoea ec eiaeeoeee, oae /oi oaao? aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee a Aa?iia ia?aie/eeny THaeiie Aa?iaieae e Naaa?iie Eoaeeae.
Aeaenoaey yoe aneaaenoaea ooiieaiey iaaeo aiththueo noi?ii
aiciaiiaeeenue eeoue a naioya?a 1795 a., eiaaea o?aioeocneea aienea iiae
ia/aeuenoaii AEo?aeaia e Ieoaa?th ia?aoee /a?ac ?aei o Iaeaeaea e aeec
Iaiaaeia. Iioa?iaa e?oiiua iaoaea/e a aiyo n aano?eeoeaie, iie iaa nei?i
aeieaeiu auee niiaa ionooieoue ia eaaue aa?aa ?aee; 31 aeaeaa?y iaaeaeo
aiththueie a?ieyie auei caeeth/aii ia?aie?ea. A Eoaeee aano?eeoeu
nia/aea auoanieee o?aioeocia ec Iueaiiioa, ii caoai, eiaaea i?eaue n
eniaineie a?aieoeu aaia?ae Oa?a? n ainoi/iiie?aiaeneie a?ieae,
aano?eeneee aaia?ae Aeaaain iioa?iae 23 iiya?y ii?aaeaiea i?e Eiaii. A
oa/aiea ia?aie?ey iaa aiththuea noi?iiu iieo/eee cia/eoaeueiua
iiaee?aieaiey e noaee aioiaeoueny e ?aoeoaeueiui aeaenoaeyi.

Eoaeueyineay eaiiaiey 1796

Ia enoi?e/aneie noeaia yaeeenue aeaa iieiaeuo iieeiaiaeoea, nei?i
ia?aoeaoea ia naay anaiauaa aieiaiea: Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o e y?oeaa?oeia
Ea?e. Ninoaaeaiea iia?aoeeiiiiai ieaia e niaaaeaiea aiene anai
iaiaoiaeeiui ii?o/aii auei ai O?aioeee oiiiio e eneoniiio Ea?ii, iaaeaeo
oai eae a Aano?ee an? ii-i?aaeiaio caaenaei io aioe?ean?aoa,
?anii?yaeaiey eioi?iai oieueei naycuaaee ?oee aeaaiieiiaiaeothueo. Ii
ieaio, ninoaaeaiiiio Ea?ii, ?aeineay e iicaeueneay o?aioeocneea a?iee
iiae ia/aeuenoaii aaia?aea Ii?i aeieaeiu auee aeaenoaiaaoue caiaeii n
naia?-iaanneie, i?aaeaiaeeiie AEo?aeaiii, i?iieeiooue aeaoiy eieiiiaie
ii iaiei aa?aaai Aeoiay aioo?ue Aa?iaiee e niaaeeieoueny iiae noaiaie
Aaiu n eoaeueyineie a?ieae, aaa?aiiie Aiiaia?oo. 31 ia?oa 1796 a.
ia?aie?ea auei i?a?aaii. Ia?aiia/aeueiua aeaenoaey o?aioeocneeo aiene,
ia?ai?aaeaoeony /a?ac ?aei, aaeenue aeenoaoaeueii; aano?eeoeu auee
iooaniaiu ia anao ioieoao, e oaea a eiioea ethey aa?oeia
Ath?oaiaa?aneee, ia?ea?ao Aaaeaineee e aanue Oaaaneee ie?oa auioaeaeaiu
auee caeeth/eoue ioaeaeueiue ie?, caieaoea O?aioeee 6 ieeeeiiia eea?ia
eiio?eaooeee e onooiea ae iiiaeanoai aeaaeaiee ia eaaii aa?aao ?aeia. A
aaaonoa i?eia?o eo iineaaeiaaee O?aieiineee e Aa?oianaeniineee ie?oaa,
oae /oi any oyainoue aieiu iaea ia iaeio Aano?eth. Anei?a, iaeiaei,
ianoiyoaeuenoaa eciaieeenue: y?oeaa?oeia Ea?e, ainiieueciaaaoenue oai,
/oi o?aioeocneea eieiiiu auee ?aciauaiu Aeoiaai, ia?aoeeny nia/aea
i?ioea AEo?aeaia, ?acaee aai a ianeieueeeo n?aaeaieyo e oaea a ia/aea
naioya?y canoaaee aai ionooieoue ca ?aei. Oa aea o/anoue iinoeaea e
eieiiio aaia?aea Ii?i. E eiioeo ieoya?y aanue i?aaue aa?aa ?aeia aue
niiaa i/euai io o?aioeocneeo aiene, iinea /aai ia ?aeia caeeth/aii
a?aiaiiia ia?aie?ea.

Eoaeueyineay eaiiaiey 1796 a. auea aanueia aeaaii?eyoia aeey o?aioeocia
aeaaiaea?y eneoniui aeaenoaeyi eo iieiaeiai aiaeaey. I?eiya ia/aeuenoai
iaae a?ieae, Aiiaia?o iao?e a? a naiii aeaeeii iaoa?eaeueiii iieiaeaiee,
aei eioi?iai aeiaaee a? iaa?aaeiinoue e eaciie?aaenoai i?aaeieo
ia/aeueieeia e eioaiaeaionoaa. Aeanoiie ?oeie ii ono?aiee ana
ceioiio?aaeaiey, iinoaaee iiauo ia/aeueieeia, nia?ae ioaeiua aeaiueae e
nuanoiua i?eianu e n?aco i?eia??e yoei aeiaa?ea e i?aaeaiiinoue nieaeao.
Iia?aoeeiiiue ieai naie ii iniiaae ia auno?ioa aeaenoaee e ia
nin?aaeioi/aiee nee i?ioea iai?eyoaeae, i?eaea?aeeaaaoeony ei?aeiiiie
nenoaiu e iani?acaia?ii ?anoyioaoeo naie aienea. Auno?ui ianooieaieai
aio oaeaeinue ?aciaueoue aienea na?aeeineiai aaia?aea Eieee io
aano?eeneie a?iee Aieue?. Na?aeeineee ei?ieue, enioaaiiue oniaoaie
o?aioeocia, caeeth/ee n ieie 28 ai?aey ia?aie?ea, eioi?ia aeinoaaeei
Aiiaia?oo ianeieueei ai?iaeia e naiaiaeiue ia?aoiae /a?ac ?aeo Ii. 7 iay
ii ia?ai?aaeeny /a?ac yoo ?aeo, e a oa/aiea ianyoea i/enoee io
aano?eeoeaa ii/oe anth Naaa?ioth Eoaeeth. Aa?oeiae Ia?ineee e Iiaeaineee
i?eioaeaeaiu auee caeeth/eoue ia?aie?ea, eoieaiiia cia/eoaeueiie noiiie
aeaiaa; n Ieeaia auea oiaea acyoa ia?iiiay eiio?eaooeey. 3 ethiy
Aiiaia?o anooiee a Aa?iio. A ?oeao aano?eeoeaa inoaeenue eeoue e?aiinoue
Iaiooy e oeeoaaeaeue Ieeaia. Iaaiieeoaineee ei?ieue oaeaea caeeth/ee
ia?aie?ea n o?aioeocaie, i?eia?o aai iineaaeiaae e Iaia, aeaaeaiey
eioi?iai auee iaaiaeiaiu o?aioeocneeie aieneaie: aio i?eoeinue
caieaoeoue 20 ieeeeiiia e i?aaeinoaaeoue o?aioeocai cia/eoaeueiia /enei
i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa. 29 ethey iaea ieeaineay oeeoaaeaeue, a caoai
Aiiaia?o inaaeee Iaiooth. Iiaay aano?eeneay a?iey Ao?ica?a, i?eauaoay ec
Oe?iey, ia iiaea iii?aaeoue iieiaeaiey aeae; iinea ?yaea iaoaea/ nai
Ao?ica? n /anoueth naieo nee i?eioaeae?i aue caia?aoueny a Iaiooa,
eioi?oth ia?aae oai ouaoii iuoaeny inaiaiaeeoue io inaaeu. A eiioea
ieoya?y a Eoaeeth auee aeaeioou iiaua aienea iiae ia/aeuenoaii
Aeueaeioee e Aeaaeaeiae/a; ii iinea n?aaeaiey i?e ?eaiee iie auee
ieii/aoaeueii iooaniaiu a Oe?ieue, iioa?iaa a?iiaaeiua iioa?e.

1797

Iieiaeaiea Iaiooe, aaea nae?ainoaiaaee iiaaeueiua aieacie e aieiae,
naeaeaeinue io/ayiiui, e Ao?ica? a ia/aea 1797 a. eaieooee?iaae, eiay a
?aniieiaeaiee 18 oun. /aeiaae. Eaiiaiey 1797 a. a Aa?iaiee ia auea
iciaiaiiaaia ie/ai iniaaiii aaaeiui. Ii ioauoee y?oeaa?oeiaa Ea?ea,
iacia/aiiiai aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei a Eoaeeth, o?aioeocu niiaa ia?aoee
/a?ac ?aei (a na?aaeeia ai?aey) e iaea?aeaee ianeieueei oniaoia iaae
aano?eeoeaie, ii ecaanoea i caeeth/aiee ia?aie?ey a Eaiaaia inoaiiaeei
aeaeueiaeoea aiaiiua aeaenoaey. A Eoaeee ia?aui oaea?ai o?aioeocia
iiaeaa?any Iaia, ia?ooeaoee aeiaiai? n O?aioeocneie ?anioaeeeie: ii
iiieaoeeny onooieie ianeieueeeo ai?iaeia e oieaoie 15 iei. o?aieia. 10
ia?oa Aiiaia?o aeaeioeny i?ioea aano?eeoeaa, ineaaeaiiua e ?anno?iaiiua
aienea eioi?uo oaea ia iiaee ieacuaaoue oii?iiai nii?ioeaeaiey. *a?ac
aeaaaeoeaoue aeiae o?aioeocu iaoiaeeeenue eeoue a ianeieueeeo ia?aoiaeao
io Aaiu. Y?oeaa?oeia Ea?e n ?ac?aoaiey eiia?aoi?a i?aaeeiaeee ia?aie?ea,
ia /oi Aiiaia?o ioioii niaeaneeny, oae eae e aai iieiaeaiea noaiiaeeinue
cao?oaeieoaeueiui aneaaenoaea ioaeae?iiinoe io enoi/ieeia aeiaieuenoaey
a?iee; e oiio aea ii aue icaai/ai ecaanoeyie i a?aaeaeaaiuo aio
aeaeaeaieyo a Oe?iea e Aaiaoeee. 18 ai?aey 1797 a. ia?aie?ea auei
caeeth/aii a Eaiaaia. Iaiaaeeaiii iinea yoiai Aiiaia?o iauyaee aieio
Aaiaoeeaineie ?anioaeeea ca ia?ooaiea iaeo?aeeoaoa e oia?uaeaiea
iiiaeanoaa o?aioeocia. 16 iay Aaiaoeey auea caiyoa aai aieneaie, a 6
ethiy iiaeiaea iiae o?aioeocneia aeaaeu/anoai e Aaioy, iaeiaiiaaiiay
Eeao?eeneie ?anioaeeeie. A eiioea ethiy Aiiaia?o iauyaee
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue Oeecaeueieineie ?anioaeeee, ninoaaeaiiie ec
Eiiaa?aeee, Iaiooe, Iiaeaiu e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo niaaeiuo aeaaeaiee. 17
ieoya?y a Eaiii-Oi?iei aue caeeth/?i ie? n Aano?eae, caeii/eaoee Aieio
Ia?aie eiaeeoeee, ec eioi?ie O?aioeey auoea iieiie iiaaaeeoaeueieoeae,
oioy Aaeeeia?eoaiey i?iaeieaeaea aiaaaoue. Aano?ey ioeacaeanue io
Ieaea?eaiaeia, i?eciaea a?aieoeae O?aioeee eaaue aa?aa ?aeia e iieo/eea
/anoue aeaaeaiee oie/oiaeaiiie Aaiaoeeaineie ?anioaeeee. Ooaoaaeueoa?o
Aieeaiaeee e eiia?neei aeaaeaeueoeai, eeoeaoeiny naieo ca?aeineeo
caiaeue, auei iaauaii aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ioo?i oi?acaeiaiey iacaaeneiuo
aeooiaiuo aeaaeaiee a Aa?iaiee. Aeey ?ac?aoaiey anao yoeo e?aeia
caiooaiiuo aii?inia iieiaeaii auei nia?aoue a ai?iaea ?aooaoa eiia?ann
ec oiieiiii/aiiuo O?aioeee, Aano?ee, I?onnee e ae?oaeo aa?iaineeo
aeaaeaiee.

Aieia Aoi?ie eiaeeoeee 1798—1802

eiaeeoeey n o/anoeai Aano?ee, Aiaeee, ?innee e Oo?oeee n oeaeueth
ia?aie/eoue ?anoe?aiea ciiu aeeyiey ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee ai a?aiy
?aaiethoeeiiiuo aiei 1791-1802 aa. Nicaeaia iinea ia?aoiaea Oaaeoea?ee
iiae o?aioeocneee eiio?ieue a 1798 aiaeo. A Eoaeee, iauaaeeiaiiua
?onnei-aano?eeneea aienea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai Noai?iaa iaea?aeaee a
ai?aea-aaaonoa 1799 aiaea /a?aaeo iiaaae iaae o?aioeocneie a?ieae iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai Ii?i, auoaniea aa ec aeieeiu ?aee Ii ai o?aioeocneea
Aeueiu e ie?anoiinoe Aaioe.

A Oaaeoea?ee 14-15 naioya?y o?aioeocneea aienea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai
Iannaiu (ieiei 75 oun. /aeiaae) a n?aaeaiee o Oeth?eoa iaianee
ii?aaeaiea aieneai eiaeeoeee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa
(ieiei 60 oun. /aeiaae, ec ieo 34 oun. ?onneeo). I?eauaoee /a?ac
ianeieueei aeiae a Oaaeoea?eth 23-ouny/iue io?yae Noai?iaa aianoi
nithciuo aiene ano?aoee a/aoaa?i i?aainoiaeyuea neeu o?aioeocia e aue
auioaeaeai i?i?uaaoueny ai?aie e Aea?ono. Oaaeoea?ey auea nithcieeaie
iioa?yia.

A Aieeaiaeee aunaaeaiiue a aaaonoa aiaei-?onneee yeniaaeeoeeiiiue ei?ion
aeaenoaiaae iaoaea/ii e a iiya?a aue yaaeoe?iaai. Anei?a iinea yoiai
?inney auoea ec eiaeeoeee.

9 iiya?y 1799 aiaea aa?ioaoeeny ec Aaeioa Iaiieaii a oiaea ia?aai?ioa 18
a?thia?a caoaaoee aeanoue ai O?aioeee. Iaiieaii ee/ii aicaeaaee
o?aioeocneea aienea a Eoaeee a eaiiaiee 1800 aiaea e a ethia 1800 aiaea
a aeoaa i?e Ia?aiai iaea?aeae ?aoeoaeueioth iiaaaeo iaae aano?eeneeie
aieneaie, /oi i?eaaei e yaaeoaoeee aano?eeneeo aiene ec naaa?iie Eoaeee
e caiaaeo io Oe/eii.

9 oaa?aey 1801 aiaea Aano?ey iiaeienaea Ethiaaeeueneee ie?,
caoeene?iaaaoee ioeoeeaeueiia i?eciaiea Aano?eae iacaaeneiinoe Aaoaaneie
e Aaeueaaoe/aneie ?anioaeee (Aieeaiaeee e Oaaeoea?ee, niioaaonoaaiii),
oaeoe/anee iiaeeiio?ieueiuo O?aioeee.

Auoiae Aano?ee ec aieiu icia/ae oaeoe/aneee ?aniaae Aoi?ie eiaeeoeee – a
ninoiyiee aieiu n O?aioeeae inoaaaeanue oieueei Aiaeey.

A 1801 a., a ?acoeueoaoa ?onnei-o?aioeocneiai naeeaeaiey, aioiaeeny
eiaeeeneee iioiae aienea Aeiineiai 1801. Iinea aeai?oeiaiai ia?aai?ioa
11 ia?oa 1801 aiaea, i?eaaaeoaai e aioea?aieth ia ?inneeneii i?anoiea
Aeaenaiae?a I, ieaiu iioiaea auee naa?ioou.

Inoaaoayny a iaeeii/anoaa Aiaeey, eeoeaoenue anao naieo nithcieeia ia
eiioeiaioa, 25 ia?oa 1802 aiaea iiaeienaea n O?aioeeae Aiueaineee ie?.

Aieia o?aoueae eiaeeoeee 1805

Aieia O?aoueae eiaeeoeee (oaeaea ecaanoiay eae
?onnei-aano?i-o?aioeocneay aieia 1805) — aieia iaaeaeo O?aioeeae,
Eniaieae, Aaaa?eae e Eoaeeae, n iaeiie no?iiu e O?aoueae
aioeo?aioeocneie eiaeeoeeae, a eioi?oth aoiaeeee Aano?ey, ?inney,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Oaaoeey, Iaaiieeoaineia ei?ieaanoai e Ii?ooaaeey — n
ae?oaie.

A 1805 ?inneae e Aaeeeia?eoaieae aue iiaeienai Iaoa?ao?aneee nithciue
aeiaiai?, caeiaeeaoee iniiao o?aoueae eiaeeoeee. A oii aea aiaeo
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aano?ey, ?inney, Iaaiieeoaineia ei?ieaanoai e Oaaoeey
noi?ie?iaaee O?aoueth Eiaeeoeeth i?ioea O?aioeee e nithciie ae Eniaiee.
A oi a?aiy eae oeio eiaeeoeee oniaoii ae?aeny ia ii?a, a?iee
aeaenoaiaaee aaconiaoii e auee ?acaeou, iiyoiio eiaeeoeey ?aniaeanue
aeiaieueii auno?i — a aeaeaa?a.

Iaiieaii ieaie?iaae aoi?aeaiea a Aiaeeth ia/eiay n Aiueaineiai ie?a 1802
aiaea, iiaeienaiiiai Ei?ioieeenii io Aiaeee e AEicaoii Aiiaia?oii io
O?aioeee. A yoi a?aiy (eaoi 1805) 180-ouny/iay a?iey Iaiieaiia («Aaeeeay
A?iey»)noiyea ia o?aioeocneii iiaa?aaeuea Ea-Iaioa, a Aoeiie, aioiaynue
aunaaeeoueny a Aiaeee. Yoeo nooiiooiuo nee auei aiieia aeinoaoi/ii, ii
aiaiiiai oeioa aeey i?ee?uoey aeanaioa Iaiieaiio ia oaaoaei, iiyoiio
o?aaiaaeinue iooyiooue a?eoaineee oeio iiaeaeueoa io Ea-Iaioa.

Aiaiiua aeaenoaey ia ii?a

Iiiuoea ioaea/ue a?eoaioeaa, oa?iaeay eo ainiiaenoao a Aano-Eiaeee
iioa?iaea iaoaea/o: o?aiei-eniaineee oeio iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai
o?aioeocneiai aaeie?aea Aeeuei?aa aue ?acaeo aiaeeeneie yneaae?ie ia
ia?aoiii iooe a Aa?iio o iuna Oeienoa??a, e ionooiee a Eniaieth, a ii?o
Eaaeen, aaea aue caaeiee?iaai.

Aaeie?ae Aeeuei?a, ianiio?y ia ieioia ninoiyiea oeioa, aei eioi?iai nai
aea aai e aeia?e, e ociaa, /oi aai niae?athony caiaieoue aaeie?aeii
?inneeuee, auoae, neaaeoy oeacaieyi Iaiieaiia, a eiioea ieoya?y a ii?a.
O iuna O?aoaeueaa? o?aiei-eniaineee oeio i?eiye aie n aiaeeeneie
yneaae?ie aaeie?aea Iaeueniia e aue iieiinoueth ?acaeo, ianiio?y ia oi,
/oi Iaeuenii aue nia?oaeueii ?aiai a yoii n?aaeaiee. O?aioeocneee oeio
oae e ia ainnoaiiaeeny iinea yoiai ii?aaeaiey, onooiea aiaeeeneiio oeioo
ainiiaenoai ia ii?a.

Aiaiiua aeaenoaey ia nooa

*oiau ieii/aoaeueii iaaciianeoue naay io o?aioeocneiai aoi?aeaiey,
Aiaeey niaoii neieioeea i/a?aaeioth aioeo?aioeocneoth eiaeeoeeth, a
ioee/ea io ia?aie e aoi?ie oaea ia aioe?anioaeeeaineoth, ii
aioeiaiieaiiianeoth.

Anooiea a eiaeeoeeth, Aano?ey, iieuecoynue oai, /oi aieueoay /anoue
a?iee Iaiieaiia auea neiioeaio?e?iaaia ia naaa?a O?aioeee, ieaie?iaaea
?acaycaoue aiaiiua aeaenoaey a naaa?iie Eoaeee e a Aaaa?ee. Ia iiiiuue
aano?eeoeai ?inney aeaeioea aeaa a?iee, iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aeia
Eooociaa e Aoenaaaaeaia niioaaonoaaiii.

Iieo/ea naaaeaiey i aeaenoaeyo nee eiaeeoeee, Iaiieaii auioaeaeai aue
ioeiaeeoue aunaaeeo ia A?eoaineea ino?iaa ia iaii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie e
aeaeiooue aienea a Aa?iaieth. Eiaiii oiaaea Iaiieaii neacae: «Anee y
/a?ac 15 aeiae ia aoaeo a Eiiaeiia, oi y aeieaeai auoue a na?aaeeia
iiya?y a Aaia»[4].

Oai a?aiaiai 72-ouny/iay aano?eeneay a?iey iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aa?iia
Ea?ea Iaeea oii Eaeaa?eoa aoi?aeanue a Aaaa?eth, ia aeiaeaeaaoenue
?onneeo aiene, au? ia aeinoeaoeo oaao?a aiaiiuo aeaenoaee.

Iaiieaii iieeioe Aoeiineee eaaa?ue e, niaa?oea ia?o-a?inie ia tha, a
e?ao/aeoea n?iee aeinoea Aaaa?ee. Aano?eeneay a?iey eaieooee?iaaea a
aeoaa iiae Oeueiii. Ecaaaeaoue ieaia oaeaeinue ei?iono aaia?aea Aea/e/a,
iaeiaei e ii aue aiineaaenoaee ianoeaioo o?aioeocneei ia?oaeii Iaea?i e
eaieooee?iaae.

Inoaaoenue a iaeeii/anoaa, Eooocia auioaeaeai aue ionooiaoue n
a?uea?aa?aeiuie aiyie (Aie o Ia?caaoa, aie i?e Oieeaa?oiia) ia
niaaeeiaiea n au? ia iiaeioaaeoae a?ieae Aoenaaaaeaia.

Iaiieaii aac na?ue?ciiai nii?ioeaeaiey caiye Aaio. Ec anae aano?eeneie
a?iee aieio i?iaeiaeaee eeoue niaaeeiaiey y?oeaa?oeiaa Ea?ea e
y?oeaa?oeiaa Eiaiia, a oaeaea iaiiiai/eneaiiua /anoe, oniaaoea
niaaeeieoueny n a?ieae Eooociaa.

?inneeneee eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? I e aano?eeneee eiia?aoi? O?aioe II
i?eauee e a?iee. Ii ianoiyieth Aeaenaiae?a I a?iey Eooociaa i?ae?aoeea
ionooieaiea e, ia aeiaeeaeaynue iiaeoiaea aiene Aoenaaaaeaia, anooieea a
n?aaeaiea n o?aioeocaie i?e Aonoa?eeoea, a eioi?ii iioa?iaea oyae?eia
ii?aaeaiea e a aanii?yaeea ionooieea.

Eoiae aieiu

Anei?a iinea Aonoa?eeoea Aano?ey caeeth/eea n O?aioeeae I?anao?aneee
ie?, ii eioi?iio eeoaeanue ?yaea oa??eoi?ee e noaiiaeeanue nithcieoeae
O?aioeee. ?inney, ianiio?y ia oyae?eua iioa?e, i?iaeieaeeea aiaiiua
aeaenoaey i?ioea Iaiieaiia a ninoaaa /aoa??oie aioeo?aioeocneie
eiaeeoeee, oaeaea i?aaieciaaiiie i?e aeoeaiii o/anoee Aiaeee.
Eiioeiaioaeueiay /anoue Iaaiieeoaineiai ei?ieaanoaa aeeth/ay noieeoeo —
ai?iae Iaaiieue auea caai?aaia Iaiieaiiii. Ia yoie oa??eoi?ee auei
ia?aciaaii ainoaea?noai-naoaeeeo O?aioeee n oai aea iacaaieai. Ino?iaiay
/anoue ei?ieaanoaa, oi anoue Neoeeeey nio?aieea iacaaeneiinoue, ii
aeoeaiiai o/anoey a aiaiiuo aeaenoaeyo ia i?eieiaea.

Aieia /aoa??oie eiaeeoeee 1806 – 1807

(oaeaea ecaanoiay a ?innee eae ?onnei-i?onnei-o?aioeocneay aieia) —
aieia iaiieaiiianeie O?aioeee e a? naooaeeoia a 1806-1807 a.a. i?ioea
eiaeeoeee aaeeeeo aea?aeaa (?inney, I?onney, Aiaeey). Ia/aeanue n
iaiaaeaiey ei?ieaaneie I?onnee ia O?aioeeth. Ii a aeaoo aaia?aeueiuo
n?aaeaieyo iiae Eaiie e Aoy?ooaaeoii Iaiieaii ?aca?iiee i?onnaeia e 27
ieoya?y 1806 a. anooiee a Aa?eei. A aeaeaa?a 1806 a. a aieio anooieea
eiia?aoi?neay ?onneay a?iey. Iaeanoi/?iiua n?aaeaiey iiae *a?iiaui,
Aieuieiii e Ioeooneii a aeaeaa?a 1806 a. ia auyaeee iiaaaeeoaeae.
Aaia?aeueiia n?aaeaiea ceiiae eiiiaiee i?iecioei iiae Yeeao a oaa?aea
1807a. A e?iaii?ieeoiii n?aaeaiee iaaeaeo aeaaiuie neeaie o?aioeocneie
Aaeeeie a?iee Iaiieaiia e ?onneie iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aai.
E.E.Aaiieanaia iiaaaeeoaeae ia ieacaeinue. Oae eae ii/ueth iinea aeoau
Aaiieanai ionooiee, Iaiieaii iauyaee naay iiaaaeeoaeai. Iaa noi?iiu auee
iaane?iaeaiu o??oiany/iie aac?acoeueoaoiie ai?ueaie e auee ?aaeu
ianooieaieth ?aniooeoeu, eioi?ay aei iay iieiaeeea eiiaoe aiaaui
aeaenoaeyi. E yoiio a?aiaie neeu ?onneie a?iee auee ioaea/aiu ia/aaoaeny
aieiie n Iooiiaineie eiia?eae, a iioiio Iaiieaii iieo/ee a?iiaaeiia
/eneaiiia i?aainoiaenoai. E ia/aeo aanaiiae eaiiaiee ii eiae 190 000
nieaeao i?ioea 100 000 ?onneeo. Iiae Aaeeuenaa?aii Aaiieanai oniaoii
io?acee aoaeo o?aioe. a?iee, iaeiaei iiae O?eaeeaiaeii /eneaiiia
i?aainoiaenoai Aaeeeie a?iee nua?aei ?aoathuoth ?ieue.Iaiieaii n 85 000
nieaeao iai?n oyae?eia ii?aaeaiea ?onneie a?iee ec 60 000 /aeiaae.

Aaaeiua n?aaeaiey

Aeoaa i?e Eaia e Aoy?ooaaeoa (ieoya?ue 1806)

Aeoaa i?e Aieuieia (ieoya?ue 1806)

N?aaeaiea i?e Aieuieia (aeaeaa?ue 1806)

N?aaeaiea i?e *a?iiai (aeaeaa?ue 1806)

N?aaeaiea i?e Ioeoonea (aeaeaa?ue 1806)

N?aaeaiea i?e Yeeao (oaa?aeue 1807)

Inaaea Aeaioeeaa (1807)

N?aaeaiea i?e Aoooooaaeoa (ethiue 1807)

N?aaeaiea i?e Aaeeuenaa?aa (ethiue 1807)

N?aaeaiea i?e O?eaeeaiaea (ethiue 1807)

Iiaiae e caeeth/aieth ie?a

Aeaenaiae?o I auea ynia iaaiciiaeiinoue aeey ?innee aanoe oniaoioth
aieio iaeiia?aiaiii n Iaiieaiiii e Oo?oeeae, iiyoiio oea?ue i?aaeii/?e
caeeth/eoue ie? n Iaiieaiiii e i?iaeieaeeoue aieio n Iniaineie eiia?eae.

Aieia Iyoie eiaeeoeee 9 ai?aey – 14 ieoya?y, 1809 aiaea (188 aeiae)
(oaeaea ecaanoiay eae aano?i-o?aioeocneay aieia) — aiaiiue eiioeeeo
iaaeaeo Aano?eeneie eiia?eae e Aaeeeia?eoaieae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
O?aioeocneie eiia?ee Iaiieaiia e aai nithcieeia. Aeaaiua aiaiiua niauoey
?acai?a/eaaeenue a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia n ai?aey ii etheue 1809 aiaea.
Aiaeey a yoi a?aiy auea aoyiooa a aieio ia Ie?aiaeneii iieoino?iaa, ii
iia, iiae aeaaeaieai aano?eeoeaa, aunaaeeea naie aeanaio a
Ieaea?eaiaeao. Yoi ia iiaeeyei ia ?acoeueoao aieiu. Iinea i?iaaaeaiee
aiaauo aeaenoaee a Aaaa?ee e aeieeia Aeoiay aieia caeii/eeanue oniaoii
aeey o?aioeocia iinea n?aaeaiey iiae Aaa?aiii. A ia/aea 1809 aiaea
Aaeeeia?eoaiee oaeaeinue nicaeaoue iiaoth eiaeeoeeth i?ioea O?aioeee.
E?iia Aiaeee a ia? aioee Aano?ey e Eniaiey. Yoi auea naiay
iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiay eiaeeoeey ca anth enoi?eth iaiieaiiianeeo aiei.

O?aioeey ia?aae aieiie

Iaiieaii aue inaaaeiie?i i oii, /oi Aano?ey, iiaeno?aeaaiay Aiaeeae,
aioiaeoueny e aieia. Ii ii an? aea niiiaaaeny, /oi Aano?ey anooieo a
aieio. Iaiieaii ieaie?iaae ia?aianoe aiaaua aeaenoaey a aeieeio Aeoiay,
eae e a 1805 aiaeo. Ii iaaa?iua naaaeaiey, eanathueany aano?eeneiai
ianooieaiey, (Iaiieaiio aeieiaeeee i oii, /oi aano?eeoeu aoaeoo
ianooiaoue aeaaiuie neeaie a naaa?iie /anoe Aeoiay) /ooue auei ia
i?eaaee e e?aoo o?aioeocneie a?iee. 140 000 o?aioeocneeo nieaeao
(iniiaiua neeu Iaiieaiia a yoie aieia) ieacaeenue ie?oaeaiiuie aieaa
i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie a?aaa. Ii aano?eeoeu ia ainiieueciaaeenue
caiaoaoaeuenoaii o?aioeocia. O?aioeocneee eiia?aoi? auno?i nia?ae naith
a?ieth a iaeei eoeae e ia/ae a? ?aca??ouaaiea.

Aiaaua aeaenoaey

9 ai?aey 1809 aiaea iineaiieea O?aioeee ecaanoeee i oii, /oi Aano?ey
iauyaeea aieio O?aioeee. ?aii oo?ii 10 ai?aey iniiaiua neeu aano?eeneie
a?iee ia?anaeee a?aieoeo ia ?aea Eii e aoi?aeenue a Aaaa?eth. Ieioea
aei?iae, ?aciuoua aeiaeae?i, caiaaeeeee aano?eeneia ianooieaiea a
ia?aoth iaaeaeth aieiu. Ii, oai ia iaiaa, aaaa?neea aienea, iinea
ianeieueeeo n?aaeaiee, ia/aee ionooieaiea. Aano?eeneia eiiaiaeiaaiea
oionoeei i?ae?anioth aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeaeeoue Aaeeeoth a?ieth iaaeaia.
Aano?eeoeu iaiaee i?eia?ii ia iaaeaeth ?aiueoa oiai, eae i?aaeiieaaae
Iaiieaii. Iinea ia?aa?oiie?iaee naieo aiene, o?aioeocneea aienea iaianee
?yae ii?aaeaiee aano?eeoeai i?e: Na/eea (16 ai?aey), ?aaainao?aa (19-23
ai?aey), Aaainaa?aa (20 ai?aey), Eaiaenoooa (21 ai?aey), Yeithea (21-22
ai?aey). Iioa?ya a yoeo aiyo aieaa 50 000 /aeiaae, y?oeaa?oeia Ea?e
ioa?e inoaoee a?iee e Aaia. Iinea iaaeaiey ?aaainao?aa aienea
aano?eeoeaa ia?ai?aaeeenue ia ae?oaie aa?aa Aeoiay. O?aioeocneee
eiia?aoi? ?aoee ia i?aneaaeiaaoue y?oeaa?oeiaa Ea?ea e 13 iay aioae a
Aaio, eioi?ay aac aiy ioe?uea ia?aae iei ai?ioa. E na?aaeeia iay aicea
Aaiu aano?eeoeu nia?aee 115 000 nieaeao i?ioea 80 000 o?aioeocia.
O?aioeocu ioeacuaaeenue anooiaoue a ethaua ia?aaiai?u. *oiau ?acaeoue
neeu aano?eeoeaa, ioaeai aue oi?ioee ieaoeaea?i ia naaa?iii aa?aao
Aeoiay. Nai??u Aaeeeie a?iee niaa?oeee /oaei, noiaa ca ii/ue n 20 ia 21
iay ia?aa?ineoue /a?ac ?aeo ianeieueei iinoia. Iaeiaei ianiao
?ac?aaioaiiue ieai i?iaaeeeny. Ieacaeinue, /oi iniiaiua neeu Ea?ea
iaoiaeyony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io ?aee. Oo?ii o?aioeocneee
aaaiaa?ae aue aoaeiaai. Ia/aeanue aeoaa i?e Ania?i-Ynneeiaa (21-22 iay).
Iaiieaii iioa?iae a i?i ii?aaeaiea. Iiiaea aa?iiaeneea ainoaea?noaa auee
ia?aaeiaaiu, eiaaea Iaiieaii i?iea?ae aeoao i?e Ania?i-Ynneeia. Yoi auei
ia?aia oioaeueiia ii?aaeaiea Iaiieaiia ia iiea aiy. O?aioeocu iioa?yee ?
aiene (oieueei oaeouie 7 000 nieaeao). Ii iioa?e aano?eeoeaa auee ia
iaiueoa (oieueei oaeouie 4 286 /aeiaaea + iiiai ?aiaiuo). Iaiieaii
iioa?ye a aeoaa ianeieueei oi?ioeo iieeiaiaeoeaa, a oii /enea ia?oaea
Eaiia. Yoa aeoaa ?acaayea ieo i iaiiaaaeeiinoe Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa.
O?aioeocneee eiia?aoi? iaauae, /oi aai neaaeothuaa oi?ne?iaaiea Aeoiay
iaa?iaony eaoano?ioie aeey aano?eeoeaa. A no?iaeaeoae nae?aoiinoe ia/aee
aicaiaeeoueny iiaua iinou. Iieo/ea iiaee?aieaiea, Iaiieaii oi?ne?iaae
Aeoiae. Aano?eeoeu iaoaea/ii ?aniieiaeeee naie iao?oee. Aeey ieo auei
iieiie iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth, eiaaea iie oaeaeaee Iaiieaiia ia nai?i
aa?aao. Caaycaeanue aeoaa, eioi?ay aioea a enoi?eth iiae iacaaieai aeoaa
iiae Aaa?aiii (5-6 ethey). A iauae neiaeiinoe a aeoaa iaei oieueei
oaeouie 12 800 nieaeao. Aano?eeoeu ionooieee. Iaiieaii oaea ia eiae nee
aeey i?iaeieaeaiey aieiu. Aeaenoaey ia aoi?inoaiaiiuo oaao?ao: a Eoaeee,
Aeaeiaoeee e Oe?iea (aaea aniuoioei aioeo?aioeocneia ainnoaiea ai aeaaa
n A. Aioa?ii), ?acaeaaeenue ia a iieueco aano?eeoeaa. Iiiuoee iaei?a
Oeeey a I?onnee e iieeiaieea Aea?iao?aa a Aannaia iiaeiyoue ainnoaiey
i?ioea O?aioeee oaeaea ieii/eeenue iaoaea/ae. A Ieaea?eaiaeao aiaeeeneee
ei?ion, iioa?ya 4 000 nieaeao oaeouie e ?aiaiuie, aeiaeeny
iacia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia. Ii yoi oaea ieeae ia iiaeeyei ia aieio. Aano?ey
e yoiio a?aiaie iioa?iaea ii?aaeaiea.

O?ia?oiineee ie?

14 ieoya?y 1809 aiaea aue iiaeienai O?ia?oiineee ie?iue aeiaiai? iaaeaeo
Aano?eae e O?aioeeae. Ii?aaeaiea aano?eeoeaa auei oaeanii ia oieueei a
aiaiiii ioiioaiee, neieueei a ii?aeueiii e iieeoe/aneii.

Aieia Oanoie eiaeeoeee 1813—1814

Iaiieaii aa?ioeny ec ?onneiai iioiaea a Ia?eae 18 aeaeaa?y 1812 e n?aco
aea yia?ae/ii i?enooiee e i?aaiecaoeee iiaie a?iee acaiai oie/oiaeaiiie
a ?innee. Aein?i/ii i?ecaaiu 140 oun. thiioae, iiaeeaaeaueo i?ecuao a
1813, au? 100 oun. ia?aaaaeaiu a ?aaoey?ioth a?ieth ec Iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaa?aeee. I?ecaaiu a?aaeaeaia noa?oeo aic?anoia, aeey aniiiiaaoaeueiie
neoaeau i?ecaaiu thiioe 1814 aiaea i?ecuaa. Ianeieueei iieeia ioicaaii
ec Eniaiee. ?yae eaoaai?ee eeoeeinue ion?i/ae, iao?inia ia?aaaee a
iaoioo. Iaiaeoth /anoue aiene oaeaeinue nia?aoue ii aa?ieciiai.

Iiea Iaiieaii oi?ie?iaae a?ieth, aai ianuiie Aaaaiee Aiaa?ia
[4]naea?aeeaae ii eeiee Yeueau aeaeueiaeoaa i?iaeaeaeaiea nithciuo
?onnei-i?onneeo aiene, iie?aynue ia oeaii/eo e?aiinoae e 60-ouny/ioth
a?ieth.

15 ai?aey 1813 Iaiieaii auaoae ec Ia?eaea e aiiaue noi?ie?iaaiiie a?iee
(ie. 130 oun.) a Iaeioe ia a?aieoea O?aioeee. A eiioea ai?aey ii
aeaeioeny a Naeniieth e Eaeioeeao, ioeoaea, niaaeeieaoenue n aieneaie
Aiaa?ia, ii iaia?aaaeny ioa?ineoue ?onneea aienea e i?eaanoe a
iiei?iinoue ainnoaaooth I?onneth. Anaai Iaiieaii ?aniieaaae a Aa?iaiee
aei 180 oun. nieaeao i?ioea 69 oun. ?onneeo e 54 oun. i?onneeo nieaeao,
anee ia o/eouaaoue o?aioeocneea aa?ieciiu e?aiinoae ia Iaea?a e Aenea e
inaaeaeathuea eo neeu. [5]

Eaiiaiey 1813 aiaea. Aieia a Aa?iaiee

Inaiaiaeaeaiea I?onnee. ssiaa?ue—Ai?aeue 1813

Oioy i?onneee ei?ieue O?eae?eo Aeeueaaeuei III oi?iaeueii nio?aiye
aa?iinoue nithco n Iaiieaiiii, anooieaiea ?onneeo aiene a Ainoi/ioth
I?onneth nicaeaei i?aaeiinueee aeey ?acai?ioa i?onneie iieeoeee. ?onneea
aienea aea?aeaeenue ae?oaeanoaaiii ia i?onneie oa??eoi?ee, ia
aiaoeaaynue ai aioo?aiiea aeaea I?onnee. 25 yiaa?y 1813 i?onneee ei?ieue
ia?aa?aeny ec ieeoie?iaaiiiai o?aioeocaie Aa?eeia a iaeo?aeueioth
Neeaceth (i?onneea aeaaeaiey ia a?aieoea n Aano?eae). 9 oaa?aey I?onney
aaaea anaiauoth aieineoth iiaeiiinoue, /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue ia?yaeo n
ae?oaeie ia?aie nicaeaoue e ia/aeo ia?oa 120 oun. a?ieth. I?onneea
?aaoey?iua /anoe noaee aeaenoaiaaoue niaeaniaaiii aianoa n ?onneeie
i?ioea o?aioeocia, ia anaaaea iieo/ay ia yoi naieoeeth i?onneiai ei?iey.
Iiiuoea o?aioeocia i?aaieciaaoue aoi?oth eeieth iai?iiu ii Iaea?o ia
oaai/aeanue oniaoii ec-ca ?onnei-i?onneiai nithca.

A?iey Eooociaa iinea caoaaoa Aa?oaau aeaeioeanue ia caiaae Iieueoe e
Eaeeoo. 13 oaa?aey ia?aaeiaie ?onneee io?yae (16 oun. ) iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai Aeioeeiaa?iaea ia?aoaaoee iiae Eaeeoai ionooiaaoee
10-ouny/iue naeniineee ei?ion ?aiuea, naeniioeu iioa?yee a aith 3 oun.
nieaeao. 24 oaa?aey ooaa Eooociaa ia?aa?aeny a Eaeeo. Ec Eaeeoa ?onneea
io?yaeu noaee niaa?oaoue aueacee a Aa?iaieth.

28 oaa?aey a Eaeeoa aue iiaeienai nithciue ?onnei-i?onneee aeiaiai?, a
27 ia?oa 1813 i?onneee ei?ieue iauyaee aieio O?aioeee. E yoiio a?aiaie
any oa??eoi?ey I?onnee (eneeth/ay ianeieueei aeiee?iaaiiuo e?aiinoae ia
Aenea e Iaea?a) aieioue aei Yeueau auea inaiaiaeaeaia io o?aioeocneeo
aiene. Ca Yeueaie e e thao io ia? ia/eiaeenue caiee aa?iaineeo eiyaeanoa
?aeineiai nithca, nio?aiyaoeo aa?iinoue Iaiieaiio.

Aeaaiay ?onneay a?iey (43 oun.), ?aniieiaeeaoenue ia caiaaeiie a?aieoea
Aa?oaaneiai Aa?oeianoaa, inoaiiaeea ia ianyoe nai? i?iaeaeaeaiea. Ii
iiaieth aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai Eooociaa ?onneei aieneai ia neaaeiaaei
o/anoaiaaoue a aieia ca inaiaiaeaeaiea Aa?iaiee, oae eae n?aaeaiey n
o?aioeocaie a Aa?iia ioaa/aee eioa?anai ia noieueei ?innee, neieueei
eioa?anai naieo aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa e Aiaeee. Iaeiaei Eooocia ia iia
ioe?uoi nii?ioeaeyoueny ieaiai eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a I, e iauaaeei?iiay
?onnei-i?onneay a?iey (ie. 70 oun.) a ianeieueei yoaeiiia aeaeioeanue ec
iieueneiai Eaeeoa a Naeniieth, caoaaoea 27 ia?oa Ae?acaeai, noieeoeo
oi?iaeueii iaeo?aeueiiai ei?ieaanoaa. 3 ai?aey aaaiaa?ae nithcieeia
aio?e a Eaeioeea.

*a?ac Naeniieth i?ioiaeee e?ao/aeoee iooue ec I?onnee ia Ia?eae. N
caoaaoii yoiai ainoaea?noaa ?aeineee nithc (aannaeueiia ia?aciaaiea
Iaiieaiia ec aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa) iaeeaeae ?aniaae, e eiaiii oai
?acaa?ioeenue iniiaiua n?aaeaiey Iaiieaiia a 1813 aiaeo n a?ieyie Oanoie
eiaeeoeee.

Aieaa yia?ae/ii, /ai Aeaaiay ?onneay a?iey, aeaenoaiaae naaa?iaa
ioaeaeueiue ei?ion Aeoaaiooaeia. Ia?aaeiaie io?yae ec aai ei?iona iiae
ia/aeii aaia?ae-aaeuthoaioa *a?iuo?aa aio?e 4 ia?oa a Aa?eei,
inoaaeaiiue iaeaioia o?aioeocneei aa?ieciiii. 11 ia?oa a
inaiaiaeae?iioth noieeoeo I?onnee n o?eoioii anooieee iniiaiua neeu
Aeoaaiooaeia. 17 ia?oa e aieneai Aeoaaiooaeia (20 oun.) a Aa?eeia
i?eniaaeeieeny i?onneee ei?ion Ei?ea (30 oun.), /oiau niaianoii
aeaenoaiaaoue a ?aieao ?onnei-i?onneiai nithca.

Caoai Aeoaaiooaei aianoa n i?onneeie /anoyie aeaeioeny e Iaaaeaao?ao ia
Yeueaa (iii?iay e?aiinoue o?aioeocia ia caiaaeiie a?aieoea I?onnee),
aaea nithcieee ioaeee iiiuoeo o?aioeocia naeaeaoue aueaceo ia Aa?eei.
Oaaaeeaoenue a ionoonoaee oa?icu aeey Aa?eeia n yoiai iai?aaeaiey,
Aeoaaiooaei a 20-o /eneao ai?aey aeaeioeny ia tha e Eaeioeeao aeey
niaaeeiaiey n a?ieae Eooociaa.

Io?yae aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioa Eaaeca (12 oun.) Aeoaaiooaei inoaaee
aeiee?iaaoue i?onneee Aeaioeea a onouea Aeneu (Aeaioeea eaieooee?iaae 24
aeaeaa?y 1813). Ei?ion *e/aaiaa, anei?a ia?aoaaeoee iiae ia/aei
Aa?eeay-aea-Oieee, inaaeaeae e?aiinoue Oi?i ia n?aaeiae Aenea. Oi?i
eaieooee?iaae 16 ai?aey, /oi aunaiaiaeeei ?onneee ei?ion (12 oun.) eae
?ac e ia/aeo n?aaeaiee n a?ieae Iaiieaiia a Naeniiee.

Ec-ca ionoonoaee aeinoaoi/iie eaaaea?ee Iaiieaii eiae niooiua naaaeaiey
i aeeneieaoeee i?ioeaieea, ia iiaeic?aaay i nin?aaeioi/aiee nithciuo nee
e thao io Eaeioeeaa. Aai a?iey ?anoyioeanue ia 60 ei io Eaiu aei
Eaeioeeaa, /ai ?aoee ainiieueciaaoueny iiaue aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee
nithcieeia ?inneeneee aaia?ae Aeoaaiooaei. Ii aai ieaio aienea
nithcieeia aeieaeiu auee iaianoe oeaiaiaue oaea? ii o?aioeocneei
ei?ionai a oi a?aiy, iiea iie auee ?aca?inaiu ia ia?oa. 2 iay 1813
i?iecioei n?aaeaiea i?e Ethooeaia. Iaiieaii noiae io?aceoue
iaiaeeaeaiiia ianooieaiea nithcieeia e, auno?i noyioa neeu, ia?ao?e a
eiio?ianooieaiea. A n?aaeaiee nithcieee iioa?yee aei 10 ouny/ nieaeao
(ec ieo 2 oun. ?onneeo), ii o?aioeocneea iioa?e ieacaeenue i?eia?ii a 2
?aca auoa. Iaaneo?aaeaiiua iaoaea/iui ?acaeoeai aeaea nithcieee ?aoeee
ionooieoue.

8 iay ?onneea inoaaeee Ae?acaeai e ia?ai?aaeeenue ca Yeueao. Naeniiey
iiaeiaea iiyoue iiae aeanoue Iaiieaiia.

12 iay nithcieee caiyee iai?iieoaeueioth iiceoeeth ia ainoi/iie ie?aeia
Naeniiee i?e Aaooeaia (40 ei ainoi/iaa Ae?acaeaia), oaea/ii oe?aie?iioth
naiie i?e?iaeie. 20—21 iay oai i?iecioei i/a?aaeiia n?aaeaiea, ecaanoiia
eae n?aaeaiea i?e Aaooeaia. Iaiieaii ?aniieaaae 143 oun. nieaeao i?ioea
93 oun. ?onneeo e i?onneeo. Ca aeaa aeiy ai?a ?onneea iioa?yee 6400
nieaeao, i?onnaee — 5600, o?aioeocneea iioa?e ieacaeenue a iieoi?a ?aca
oyaeaeaa (18—20 oun.). Auaeaaeaiiua n iiceoeee nithcieee ?aoeee
i?iaeieaeeoue ionooieaiea ia ainoie.

Anee aeey ?onneie a?iee iooiae i?aaenoaaeye niaie auaiaeiue oaeoe/aneee
iai?a?, aeey i?onnaeia iineaaenoaey auee oyaeaeaa, oae eae aiaaua
aeaenoaey ia?aiineeenue ia oa??eoi?eth I?onnee. Iinea aoi?iai iiae?yae
iaoaea/iiai aaia?aeueiiai n?aaeaiey oea?ue Aeaenaiae? I caiaiee 25 iay
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai Aeoaaiooaeia ia aieaa iiuoiiai e noa?oaai ii
auneoaa eao a /eia aaia?aea-io-eioaioa?ee Aa?eeay-aea-Oieee. Aienea
nithcieeia, ionooiay a Neeaceth, aeaee ?yae oaea/iuo a?ua?aa?aeiuo
n?aaeaiee (aeaea i?e ?aeoaiaaoa e Aaeiao), iaeiaei Aa?eeae ?aoeoaeueii
ia aeaeae aeaaaoue neaaeothuaai aaia?aeueiiai n?aaeaiey, iaaeaynue ia
enoiuaiea o?aioeocneie a?iee.

A oiaea i?aneaaeiaaiey a?iey Iaiieaiia niaa?oaiii ?anno?ieeanue,
o?aioeocu ooiieeenue io iai?a?uaiuo aac?acoeueoaoiuo aiaa, iioa?e io
aeaca?oe?noaa e aieaciae cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaee aiaaua iioa?e.
Niaaaeaiea o?aioeocneeo aiene auei iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui, i?iieoaiea
caaenaei io a?aaaaea ianoiiai ianaeaiey.

Aua 18 iay, aei n?aaeaiey i?e Aaooeaia, Iaiieaii i?inee i?eiyoue a
?onnei-i?onneie eaa?oe?a ia?eeca Eieaieo?a aeey ia?aaiai?ia n
Aeaenaiae?ii I, ii ia iieo/ee ioaaoa. 25 iay ia?aaiai?u aiciaiiaeeenue
ii eieoeeaoeaa o?aioeocneie noi?iiu. 4 ethiy 1813 aiaea Iaiieaii
caeeth/ee a Iieoaeoea ia?aie?ea n nithcieeaie aei 20 ethey (i?iaeeaii
caoai aei 10 aaaonoa 1813), iinea /aai aa?ioeny a Ae?acaeai. Iaa noi?iiu
iaaeayeenue eniieueciaaoue ia?aaeuoeo aeey iiaeeecaoeee nee.

Ia?aie?ea. Ethiue—aaaono 1813

Iaiieaii iacaae ia?aie?ea iaeiie ec aaee/aeoeo ioeaie a aai aeecie. A
?acoeueoaoa ia?aie?ey Oanoay eiaeeoeey cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeanue e
oneeeeanue, ia?aaan a neeao ia?ao?e ia noi?iio i?ioeaieeia Iaiieaiia.

A na?aaeeia ethiy Aiaeey iaycaeanue iiaeaea?aeaoue ?inneth e I?onneth
cia/eoaeueiuie noaneaeeyie ia i?iaeieaeaiea aieiu.

22 ethiy Oaaoeey anooieea a aioeo?aioeocneoth eiaeeoeeth, auoi?aiaaa
naaa Ii?aaaeth (aeaoneia aeaaeaiea).

A eiioea ethiy nithcieee e Iaiieaii i?eiyee i?aaeeiaeaiea Aano?ee i
iin?aaeie/anoaa, ii anee nithcieee oaeaea i?eiyee aano?eeneea oneiaey
ie?iiai aeiaiai?a, oi Iaiieaii ia aeaeae aea?oaiaaoue aeaaea /anoueth
naieo caoaa/aiiuo aeaaeaiee. A ia/aea ethey a ianoa/ea O?aoaiaa?a (e
naaa?o io A?aneaaey) ninoiyeinue niaauaiea nithciuo iiia?oia (?innee,
I?onnee, Oaaoeee) ii ninoaaeaieth iauaai ieaia aiaiiuo aeaenoaee i?ioea
Iaiieaiia. Aano?eeneee eiia?aoi? iaeia?ee O?aoaiaa?aneee ieai a ea/anoaa
iaaethaeaoaey. Iaeiia?aiaiii aaeenue ayeua ia?aaiai?u n o?aioeocneeie
oiieiiii/aiiuie a I?aaa.

A ia/aea aaaonoa Iaiieaii naeaeae iineaaeithth iiiuoeo ooi/ieoue
oneiaey, ia eioi?uo Aano?ey niaeaneony ia ie?. A iineaaeiee aeaiue
ia?aie?ey, 10 aaaonoa, ii iineae aeaiaoo, a eioi?ie niaeaneeny i?eiyoue
/anoue aano?eeneeo oneiaee, ii a?aiy auei oiouaii. 12 aaaonoa Aano?ey
ioeoeeaeueii anooieea a aieio ia noi?iia eiaeeoeee.

14 aaaonoa Iaiieaii i?eiye ana oneiaey aaineiai eaaeiaoa, iaeiaei
auioaeaeaiiay onooiea oaea ia iiaea eciaieoue ?aoaiey Aano?ee.
?onnei-i?onneay a?iey aeaeioeanue ec Neeacee a Aiaaieth, /oiau
i?eniaaeeieoueny e iiaui nithcieeai.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea Aa?iaiee. Aaaono—aeaeaa?ue 1813

N?aaeaiea iiae Ae?acaeaiii. Aaaono—naioya?ue.

Aiaaua aeaenoaey aiciaiiaeeenue ioi?aaeie Iaiieaiiii naiaai ia?oaea
Oaeeii n 70-oun. a?ieae ia Aa?eei. Iiaeaea?aeeo Oaeeii aeieaeiu auee
ieacaoue o?aioeocneea aa?ieciiu ec Iaaaeaao?aa e Aaiao?aa. Iaeiia?aiaiii
naiue ?aoeoaeueiue ec nithciuo iieeiaiaeoeaa Aethoa? aunooiee ec
Neeacee. Iaiieaii, iieaaay aeaeaoue ia?aae niaie aeaaiua neeu
nithcieeia, ono?aieeny ia Aethoa?a, eioi?ue 21 aaaonoa n?aco aea ioio?e
niaeanii O?aoaiaa?aneiio ieaio.

19 aaaonoa Aiaaineay a?iey nithcieeia iaiaeeaeaiii aeey Iaiieaiia
aeaeioeanue e Ae?acaeaio /a?ac ?oaeiua ai?u, oa?iaeay caeoe a oue
aeaaiie o?aioeocneie a?iee. Iaiieaii, ociaa ia iianiinoe aeey
Ae?acaeaia, i?ee?uoiai oieueei ei?ionii ia?oaea Nai-Ne?a, onei?aiiuie
ia?oaie iiniaoee ec Neeacee iacaae e aaaeiaeoaio iii?iiio ioieoo. I?ioea
Aethoa?a aue inoaaeai ia?oae Iaeaeiiaeueae n 80-ouny/iie a?ieae.

23 aaaonoa i?onneea ei?iona ec Naaa?iie a?iee nithcieeia ioa?ineee iiae
A?inaa?aiii (a 15 ei thaeiaa Aa?eeia) ia?oaea Oaeeii, ?aca?iiea
naeniineee ei?ion. Iiaaaea iaae o?aioeocaie, iaea?aeaiiay i?onnaeaie
i?aeoe/anee naiinoiyoaeueii, aucaaea iao?eioe/aneee iiaeuai a I?onnee.
Oaeeii ionooiee e Yeueaa iiae caueoo e?aiinoe ai?iaea Aeooaiaa?a e
anei?a aue caiaiai Iaiieaiiii ia ia?oaea Iay, eioi?iio noaaeeanue
i?aaeiyy caaea/a iaeaaeaoue Aa?eeiii.

25 aaaonoa Aiaaineay a?iey iiaeioea e Ae?acaeaio, ii eiiaiaeothuee
Oaa?oeaiaa?a ia ?eneioe acyoue ai?iae n oiaeo, ?aoea iiaeiaeaeaoue
ionoaaoea aienea. Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue, 26 aaaonoa, ii ia/ae ooo?i,
iaeiaei e Iaiieaii oniae aa?iooueny a yoio aeaiue n aaa?aeeae. 27
aaaonoa i?iecioei aaia?aeueiia n?aaeaiea, a eioi?ii nithcieee iioa?iaee
ii?aaeaiea e a ?anno?ienoaa ionooieee ia?aoii a Aiaaieth. Iniiaiua
iioa?e iiianee aano?eeneea aienea. Iaiieaii iuoaeny caia?aoue ai?iue
i?ioiae, /a?ac eioi?ue ono?aieeenue aienea nithcieeia, iai?aaea a iaoiae
neeueiue ei?ion Aaiaeaia. Iaeiaei Aaiaeai nai ieacaeny a ie?oaeaiee
aeaaiaea?y noieeinoe ?onneie aaa?aeee a aith iiae Eoeueiii, 30 aaaonoa
aai ei?ion aue niaa?oaiii ?aca?iieai.

26 aaaonoa, a aeaiue ia/aea Ae?acaeaineiai n?aaeaiey, Aethoa? ia?ao?e a
eiio?ianooieaiea a Neeacee ia ?a/ea Eaoeaao, aaea ai ano?a/iii n?aaeaiee
i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie eaaaea?ee ?acaee a?ieth ia?oaea Iaeaeiiaeueaea
(ni. N?aaeaiea o Eaoeaaoa). ?acaeoue ia?oae ionooiee a Naeniieth e
iniiaiui neeai.

Iaiieaii iinea iiaaaeu iaae Aiaaineie a?ieae nithcieeia aue auioaeaeai a
ia/aea naioya?y aiiaue aunooieoue i?ioea Neeacneie a?iee Aethoa?a.
Aethoa? ioio?e ca ?aeo Aiaa?, ?ac?ooea iinou. Oai a?aiaiai Aiaaineay
a?iey i?iaaea aeaiiino?aoeeth a noi?iio Ae?acaeaia, caiya Ie?io.
Iaiieaii iiniaoee aa?iooueny iacaae e Ae?acaeaio. Aeaci?aaieciaaiiue
aieiie ia aeaa o?iioa Iaiieaii oo?e a iai?iio, aai aienea auee eciioaiu
iai?a?uaiuie, aanieiaeiuie aeey o?aioeocia ia?oaie.

Naioya?ue 1813 aiaea i?io?e aac e?oiiuo n?aaeaiee, ca eneeth/aieai
i/a?aaeiiai iaoaea/iiai iioiaea o?aioeocneie a?iee iiae ia/aeii ia?oaea
Iay ia Aa?eei (ni. N?aaeaiea i?e Aeaiiaaeoea). 6 naioya?y i?onneea
ei?iona Naaa?iie a?iee ?acaeee Iay, ioa?inea aai aienea e Yeueaa.
Iiaaaeu nithcieeia ia iicaieeee Iaiieaiio ?acaeoue oniao Ae?acaeaineiai
n?aaeaiey e nio?aieee aioiaoth ?anianoueny eiaeeoeeth n Aano?eae. A
aiaauo aeaenoaeyo ia 3 iaaeaee ianooieea ia?aaeuoea, i?ioeaieee
niae?aeenue n neeaie e niaa?oaee aueacee ae?oa i?ioea ae?oaa
ia?aie/aiiuie neeaie.

No?aoaae/aneia iieiaeaiea Iaiieaiia oooaeoeeinue. A ?yaea ii?aaeaiee e
au? a aieueoae noaiaie io ecio?ythueo ia?oae e ieioiai niaaaeaiey ii
iioa?ye cia/eoaeueii aieueoa nieaeao /ai nithcieee. Ii ioeaiea
iaiaoeeiai enoi?eea O. Ia?eiaa ca aaaono e naioya?ue Iaiieaii iioa?ye
180 oun. nieaeao, aeaaiui ia?acii io aieaciae e aeaca?oe?noaa.

N?aaeaiea iiae Eaeioeeaii. Ieoya?ue—aeaeaa?ue.

Iauay neooaoeey e eiioeo oaa?aey 1814

Iauay ianoaiiaea e eiioeo oaa?aey 1814 aiaea neeaaeuaaeanue aeey
Iaiieaiia oyaeaei, ii ia aaciaae?aeii. Ii iinoaaee naaa caaea/o
caeeth/eoue ie? n nithcieeaie ia oneiaeyo nio?aiaiey a?aieoe O?aioeee e
ia/aeo yiioe iaiieaiiianeeo aiei, oi anoue ii ?aeio e Aeueiai. Iauaa
?aniieiaeaiea i?ioeaiai?noaothueo a?iee ia 26 oaa?aey 1814 aiaea auei
neaaeouei.

Iaiieaii iaaeaeo ?aeaie Naiie e Iaii ?aniieaaae ieiei 74 oun. nieaeao
i?e 350 i?oaeeyo. N oaeeie neeaie ii oniaoii naea?aeeaae nithciua a?iee
Aethoa?a e Oaa?oeaiaa?aa, /eneaiiinoue eioi?uo ii ioeaieai i?aauoaea 150
ouny/ nieaeao. Aethoa? (ieiei 45 oun. nieaeao) ioaeaeeeny io Aeaaiie
a?iee Oaa?oeaiaa?aa e aeaeioeny a noi?iio Ia?eaea. Ia aai iooe
iaoiaeeeenue oieueei neaaue caneii a aeaea o?aioeocneeo ei?ionia Ia?iiia
e Ii?ouea (aei 16 oun. nieaeao).

Ia thaeiii oeaiaa a Oaaeoea?ee iaiieaiiianeee ia?oae Iaea?i n 28 oun.
nieaeao ioa?inee aano?eeneee ei?ion Aoaiu e aioiaeeny acyoue AEaiaao,
iinea /aai aai caaea/ae auei ia?a?acaoue eiiioieeaoeeiiioth eeieth
Oaa?oeaiaa?aa.

A Eoaeee o?aioeocneee aaia?ae Aaaaiee Aiaa?ia n 48 oun. nieaeao oniaoii
i?ioeainoiye 75-ouny/iie aano?eeneie a?iee oaeueaeia?oaea Aaeueaa?aea, a
oaeaea naea?aeeaae auaoaai iaiieaiiianeiai ia?oaea, a oaia?ue
iaaiieeoaineiai ei?iey Ith?aoa n aai iaaiieeoaioeaie io aeoeaiuo
aeaenoaee i?ioea o?aioeocia.

A Eniaiee iaiieaiiianeee ia?oae Nthoa ?aniieaaae aei 40 oun. nieaeao.
Niaeanii aeiaiai?o ii ia aae aiaauo aeaenoaee, iaeeaeay aiciiaeiinoe
oaanoe aienea ai O?aioeeth. Ie?aiae caie?ae io?yae ia?oaea Noeueoa, ia
aeaaay aiaei-eniaineie a?iee aa?oeiaa Aaeeeiaoiia aoi?aiooueny ai
O?aioeeth n thaa.

Ia naaa?a a ?aeiia ?aeia e Aieeaiaeee o?aioeocu i?iaeieaeaee
nii?ioeaeaiea a iiiai/eneaiiuo e?aiinoyo.

Oniaoe nithcieeia. Ia?o 1814

27 oaa?aey Aethoa? iiaeio?e e Eaoa?oa-no-AEoa? (75 ei ainoi/iaa Ia?eaea)
ia Ia?ia, aaea ioa?inee neaaua caneiiu ia?oaeia Ia?iiia e Ii?ouea. Ociaa
i aeaeaeaiee Iaiieaiia, Aethoa? ia/ae ionooieaiea aaeieue ?aee O?e ia
naaa? e Noanniio ia Yia iaano?a/o aeaeaaaoeiny iiaee?aieaieyi (ei?ionai
Aeioeeiaa?iaea e Atheiaa). Oa?iaeay ooo?iii, nithcieee oaiai?eee
o?aioeocneee aa?iecii iieeiooue 3 ia?oa e?aiinoue Noanniia n i?oaeeai,
iinea /aai 4 ia?oa Aethoa? ia?ao?e ia i?aaue aa?aa Yiu, aaea aai a?iey,
niaaeei?iiay n ei?ionaie Aeioeeiaa?iaea e Atheiaa, oaaee/eeanue aaeaia e
noaea ian/eouaaoue aei 109 oun. nieaeao.

Iaiieaii aue auioaeaeai iaeuie neeaie (40—50 oun.) aoaeiaaoue Aethoa?a,
/oiau i?i?aaoueny e naaa?o ia ?aei e a Aieeaiaeeth, aaea ?ann/eouaae
aeaaeiee?iaaoue o?aioeocneea aa?ieciiu. Aa?ieciiu iiaee aeaoue aio aei
50 ouny/ nieaeao, /oi aeaei au iaaeaaeaeo o?aioeocneiio eiia?aoi?o
nie?ooeoue nithciua a?iee ai O?aioeee.

Iaiieaii ia ciae i niaaeeiaiee nithcieeia e iaia?aaaeny ia?a?acaoue
oeaio?aeueioth aei?iao Noannii—Eaii. 7 ia?oa Iaiieaii aoaeiaae iiceoeee
Aethoa?a ia E?aiineeo aicauoaiiinoyo, ia eioi?uo iai?iiyeenue aeaa
?onneea aeeaecee Ai?iioeiaa e No?iaaiiaa (16 oun. nieaeao) ec ei?iona
Aeioeeiaa?iaea. Caiunae Aethoa?a ninoiye a oii, /oiau aeaoue oayciooue
Iaiieaiio a n?aaeaiee, a caoai iaoiaeiui iaiaa?ii iaianoe oaea? aio a
oue. Iaeiaei neeueiue eaaaea?eeneee ei?ion ia niia niaa?oeoue yoio
iai?a?, e ?onneea ionooieee n ieaoi. N?aaeaiea i?e E?aiia
?anniao?eaaaony eae iaeii ec naiuo e?iaii?ieeoiuo ca anth eaiiaieth,
anee ioeaieaaoue oaeaeueiia /enei oaeouo e ?aiaiuo (i?ioeaio io
eiee/anoaa o/anoieeia n?aaeaiey). ?onneea aeeaecee iioa?yee ii/oe o?aoue
ee/iiai ninoaaa.

Aethoa? noyioe ana iaee/iua neeu (104 oun., ec ieo 22 oun. eaaaea?ee,
260 i?oaeee) e Eaiio, neeueii oe?aie?iiiio ai?iaeeo — ae?aaiae noieeoea
O?aioeee. Iaiieaii oiaea noyioe naie neeu a eoeae, aeiaaaey /eneaiiinoue
a?iee aei 52 oun. nieaeao ( aeeth/ay 10 oun. eaaaea?ee) i?e 180
i?oaeeyo. 9 ia?oa i?e Eaiia aienea nithcieeia, aeaaiui ia?acii i?onneea
aeeaecee, io?aceee ianooieaiea Iaiieaiia e caoai a ii/ue ia 10 ia?oa
iieiinoueth ?aca?iieee iaeei ec aai ei?ionia iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai ia?oaea
Ia?iiia. Oai ia iaiaa Iaiieaii i?iaeieaeee aoaee 10 ia?oa ia aaeaia
neeueiaeooth a?ieth Aethoa?a, iinea /aai e eiioeo aeiy aani?aiyonoaaiii
ionooiee ca ?aeo Yio .

Iinea ionooieaiey Iaiieaiia no?aoaae/aneay eieoeeaoeaa iiaea au ia?aeoe
e a?iee Aethoa?a, iaeiaei aai aienea inoaaaeenue iaiiaeaeaeiuie a
oa/aiee iaaeaee ec-ca aieacie i?onneiai oaeueaeia?oaea e o?oaeiinoae a
niaaaeaiee. Iaiieaii aeaeioeny ia ainoie e 13 ia?oa iaiaeeaeaiiie aoaeie
?acaee a ?aeina 14-ouny/iue ?onnei-i?onneee ei?ion a?aoa Nai-I?e. Caiya
?aein, Iaiieaii ia?a?acae eiiioieeaoeeiiioth eeieth iaaeaeo Neeacneie
a?ieae Aethoa?a e Aeaaiie a?ieae Oaa?oeaiaa?aa. Aiacaiiue oniao
Iaiieaiia ieacae ii?aeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia nithcieeia, eioi?ua a
caiaoaoaeuenoaa i?einoaiiaeee naie iia?aoeee, ia?aaeiaa?ea eieoeeaoeao a
aiaauo aeaenoaeyo o?aioeocneiio eiia?aoi?o.

A yoi a?aiy Aeaaiay a?iey nithcieeia iiae ia/aeii Oaa?oeaiaa?aa
iaaeeaiii i?iaeaeaaeanue e Ia?eaeo. Iaiieaiio, ineaaeaiiiio aieueoeie
iioa?yie a n?aaeaieyo n Aethoa?ii, ie/aai ia inoaaaeinue, eae niiaa
a?ineoueny ia Aeaaioth a?ieth. Iaiieaii ?ann/eouaae i?eiaieoue iau/ioth
oaeoeeo: aoaeiaaoue n oeaiaa ?annayiiua a ia?oa ei?iona nithcieeia ii
ioaeaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei a yoio ?ac nithcieee oniaee noyiooue ei?iona a
eoeae, oae /oi Iaiieaii ia iia iaaeayoueny ia iiaaaeo a n?aaeaiee n
iaiiiai i?aainoiaeyuei i?ioeaieeii. Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iia naeaeaoue
Iaiieaii, yoi inoaiiaeoue i?iaeaeaeaiea Aeaaiie a?iee, oa?iaeay ae n
oeaiaa eee ouea. Iaeiaei a oaeii neo/aa iooue ia Ia?eae inoaaaeny
ioe?uoui aeey a?iee Aethoa?a.

Iaiieaii eca?ae neaaeothuoth no?aoaaeth: aunoaaeoue caneiiu i?ioea
nithcieeia, a naiiio i?ieoe iaaeaeo a?ieyie Aethoa?a e Oaa?oeaiaa?aa e
naaa?i-ainoi/iui e?aiinoyi, aaea ii iia, aeaaeiee?iaaa e i?eniaaeeiea
aa?ieciiu, cia/eoaeueii oneeeoue naith a?ieth. Caoai o iaai iiyaeeanue
au aiciiaeiinoue i?eioaeeoue nithcieeia e ionooieaieth, oa?iaeay eo
oueiaui eiiioieeaoeeyi. Iaiieaii iaaeayeny ia iaaeeeoaeueiinoue nithciuo
a?iee e eo no?ao ia?aae a?ieae o?aioeocneiai eiia?aoi?a a eo oueo.
Ia?eae inoaaeyeny ia caueoo, aeaaiui ia?acii, naieo aeeoaeae e
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee.

E 20 ia?oa ei?iona Aeaaiie a?iee nin?aaeioi/eeenue iaaeaeo ?aeaie Naiie
e Iaii ieiei O?oa. Iaiieaii eca?ae ia?o?oo ia naaa?i-ainoie aaeieue
aeieeiu ?aee Ia /a?ac ai?iaeie A?ne-nth?-Ia e Aeo?e e aeaeaa ia ainoie.
20 ia?oa aai 25-ouny/iay a?iey noieeioeanue a A?ne n aieneaie
Oaa?oeaiaa?aa (aei 90 oun. nieaeao). 21 ia?oa iinea n?aaeaiey i?e
A?ne-nth?-Iaa Iaiieaii aue ioa?ioai ca ?aeo Ia e oo?e e Nai-Aeecuea,
aaea iaia?aaaeny o?aaiaeeoue nithciua a?iee n ouea. Aio oaeaeinue
/anoe/ii auiieieoue iinoaaeaiioth caaea/o: ianooieaiea ia Ia?eae
Oaa?oeaiaa?aa auei i?einoaiiaeaii.

Acyoea Ia?eaea e eiiaoe eaiiaiee. Ia?o 1814

A naith i/a?aaeue nithcieee 24 ia?oa niaeaniaaee ieai aeaeueiaeoeo
aeaenoaee a eaiiaiee, ?aoea iinea nii?ia aiciaiiaeoue ianooieaiea ia
Ia?eae. I?ioea Iaiieaiia auneaee 10-ouny/iue eaaaea?eeneee ei?ion iiae
ia/aeii ?inneeneiai aaia?aea Aeioeeiaa?iaea n oai, /oiau aaanoe
Iaiieaiia a caaeoaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueii iaia?aiee nithcieeia. Ei?ion
Aeioeeiaa?iaea aue ?acaeo Iaiieaiiii 26 ia?oa, ii yoi oaea ia iiaeeyei
ia oiae aeaeueiaeoeo niauoee.

25 ia?oa a?iee Aethoa?a e Oaa?oeaiaa?aa aeaeioeenue ia Ia?eae. A oio aea
aeaiue i?e Oa?-Oaiiaioaca nithciay eaaaea?ey a 2 ioaeaeueiuo n?aaeaieyo
?acaeea ei?iona ia?oaeia Ia?iiia e Ii?ouea (16—17 oun. nieaeao) e ii/oe
iieiinoueth oie/oiaeeea aieueoie io?yae Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee.
O?aioeocneea ei?iona niaoeee ia niaaeeiaiea n Iaiieaiiii, iinea
ii?aaeaiey iie ioeaoeeenue e Ia?eaeo.

Eiaaea 27 ia?oa Iaiieaii ociae i ianooieaiee ia Ia?eae, oi auniei
ioeaiee ?aoaiea i?ioeaieea: «Yoi i?aainoiaeiue oaoiaoiue oiae. Aio
ieeiaaea au ia iiaa?ee, /oi eaeie-ieaoaeue aaia?ae o nithcieeia niiniaai
yoi naeaeaoue». Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue ii io Nai-Aeecuea (i?ei. 180 ei
ainoi/iaa Ia?eaea) a?ineeny ia nianaiea noieeoeu, iaeiaei i?eaue neeoeii
iicaeii.

29 ia?oa nithciua a?iee (ieiei 100 oun. nieaeao, ec ieo 63 oun. ?onneeo)
iiaeioee aieioioth e ia?aaeiaie eeiee iai?iiu Ia?eaea. Ii ?aciui aeaiiui
o o?aioeocia auei 22—26 oun. ?aaoey?iuo aiene, 6—12 oun. iiie/aioeaa
Iaoeeiiaeueiie Aaa?aeee e ieiei 150 i?oaeee. Iaoaaoea aiene /anoe/ii
eiiiaine?iaaeanue aunieei aiaaui aeooii caueoieeia noieeoeu e eo
iaaeaaeaeie ia nei?ia i?eauoea Iaiieaiia n a?ieae.

30 ia?oa ?onneea e i?onneea ei?iona aoaeiaaee e iinea iaeanoi/?iiuo ai?a
caoaoeee i?eai?iaeu Ia?eaea. AEaeay nianoe iiiaiouny/iue ai?iae io
aiiaa?aee?iaee e oee/iuo ai?a, eiiaiaeothuee i?aaui oeaiaii o?aioeocneie
iai?iiu ia?oae Ia?iii e 5 /anai aeiy ioi?aaee ia?eaiaio??a e ?onneiio
eiia?aoi?o. Aeaenaiae? I aeae oaeie ioaao: «Ii i?eeaaeao inoaiiaeoue
n?aaeaiea, anee Ia?eae aoaeao naeai: eia/a e aa/a?o ia ociatho ianoa,
aaea auea noieeoea.» N?aaeaiea ca Ia?eae noaei a eaiiaiee 1814 aiaea
iaeiei ec naiuo e?iaii?ieeoiuo aeey nithcieeia, iioa?yaoeo ca iaeei
aeaiue ai?a aieaa 8 ouny/ nieaeao (ec ieo aieaa 6 oun. ?onneeo).

31 ia?oa a 2 /ana oo?a eaieooeyoeey Ia?eaea auea iiaeienaia. E 7 /anai
oo?a, ii oneiaeth niaeaoaiey, o?aioeocneay ?aaoey?iay a?iey aeieaeia
auea iieeiooue Ia?eae. A iieaeaiue 31 ia?oa ?onneay e i?onneay aaa?aeey
ai aeaaa n eiia?aoi?ii Aeaenaiae?ii I o?eoioaeueii anooieee a noieeoeo
O?aioeee.

A ia?auo /eneao ai?aey Naiao O?aioeee ecaeae aeae?ao i ieceiaeaiee
Iaiieaiia e o/?aaeee a?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai. Oai ia iaiaa ia aieueoae
/anoe O?aioeee ia?iae i?eciaaae eiia?aoi?neoth aeanoue, oi anoue
aicieeei aeaiaaeanoea.

Iaiieaii ociae i eaieooeyoeee Ia?eaea a oio aea aeaiue ia iiaeuacaea e
noieeoea. Ii ioi?aaeeny a naie aeai?aoe a Oiioaaei, aaea iiaeaeeaeae
iiaeoiaea naiae ionoaaoae a?iee. Iaiieaii noyioe ana eiathueany aienea
(aei 60 oun.) aeey i?iaeieaeaiey aieiu. Iaeiaei iiae aeaaeaieai
nianoaaiiuo ia?oaeia, o/eouaathueo iano?iaiey ianaeaiey e o?acai
ioeaieaathueo niioiioaiea nee, 4 ai?aey Iaiieaii iaienae cayaeaiea ia
oneiaiii io?a/aiee a iieueco naiaai nuia Iaiieaiia II iiae ?aaaionoaii
aeaiu Ia?ee-Eoecu. Iiea oee ia?aaiai?u, /anoue o?aioeocneie a?iee
ia?aoea ia noi?iio nithcieeia, /oi aeaei iiaiae oea?th Aeaenaiae?o I
oaeanoi/eoue oneiaey io?a/aiey.

6 ai?aey Iaiieaii iaienae aeo io?a/aiey ca naay e naieo ianeaaeieeia io
i?anoiea O?aioeee. A oio aea aeaiue Naiao i?iaicaeanee ei?ieai
Ethaeiaeea XVIII. Nai Iaiieaii 20 ai?aey ioi?aaeeny a ii/?oioth nnueeo
ia ino?ia Yeueao a N?aaeecaiiii ii?a.

30 iay 1814 aiaea aue iiaeienai ie?, aa?ioaoee O?aioeeth a a?aieoeu 1792
aiaea e ainnoaiiaeaoee oai iiia?oeth.

1) N eaeie oeaeueth Iaiieaii aoi?any a Eniaieth?

2) *oi iineoaeeei iiaiaeii ia/aea aieiu Aano?ee e O?aioeee a 1792a.?

3) Ii/aio iinea ieceiaeaiey Iaiieaiia n o?iia ia?iae i?iaeieaeae
i?eciaaaoue aai eiia?aoi?neoth aeanoue?

4. Aiaiiia eneonnoai iaiieaiiianeeo aiei. Ia?oaeu iaiieaiiianeie eiia?ee

26 ia?oaeia Ia?aie eiia?ee (1804-1814 aa.) ai O?aioeee – yoi
enoi?e/aneee oaiiiai. Iiyaeaiea oaeiai eiee/anoaa aiaia/aeueieeia
aia?aua noaei aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y ia noieueei Iaiieaiio, neieueei
Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee. Ieeiaaea ?aiaa ie? ia aeaeae noieue
y?eiai nicaacaeey aiaia/aeueieeia, iiaeiyaoeony ec ia?iaeiuo iecia
eneeth/eoaeueii ii naiei aea?iaaieyi e iacaaeneii io ?iaenoaa,
i?ioaeoeee eee iiia?oaai eai?eca. Caaiea ia?oaea ai O?aioeee
nouanoaiaaei eae i?eaeai?iia aeinoieinoai n ia/aea XIII a., a eae aunoee
aieineee /ei – n 1627 a., eiaaea ea?aeeiae A. AE. ?eoaeuea oi?acaeiee
aeieaeiinoue eiiiaoaaey – aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai a?ieae. Ethaeiaee XIV
eiae oaea 20 ia?oaeia O?aioeee, n?aaee eioi?uo auee e?oiiaeoea
iieeiaiaeoeu naiaai a?aiaie – A. Oth?aii, N. Aiaai, E. Aeeea?. Caaiea
ia?oaea n aai ioee/eoaeueiui ciaeii – ia?oaeueneei aeaceii –
i?enaaeaaeinue ii oeaco ei?iey. Oae auei aei oao ii?, iiea
?aaiethoeeiiiue Eiiaaio 21 oaa?aey 1793 a. ia oi?acaeiee ia?yaeo n
ae?oaeie “noa?i?aaeeiiuie” oeooeaie e aieineia caaiea ia?oaea. Iaiieaii
ainnoaiiaee caaiea ia?oaea O?aioeee, eae oieueei O?aioeey iinea
12-eaoiaai ?aaeeia Ia?aie ?anioaeeee auea i?iaicaeaoaia 18 iay 1804 a.
eiia?eae. Yoio aeo Iaiieaiia aue iaeiei ec iiiaeo aai oaaia ii
aica?auaieth – i?aaaea, oaea a oneiaeyo iiaie ao?aeoaciie O?aioeee –
noa?uo caaiee e oeooeia, eioi?ua i?ecaaiu auee i?eaeaoue iaiieaiiianeiio
aeai?o iiia?oe/aneee eiei?eo. Aianoa n ia?oaeueneei caaieai aue
ainnoaiiaeai e noa?ue ii?yaeie aai i?enaiaiey – ii aiea e ca iiaeienueth
iiia?oa.

Iniiaiiieaaathuea i?eioeeiu eiiieaeoiaaiey e niaea?aeaiey a?iee Iaiieaii
– oianeaaeiaae io ?aaiethoeee. Aeaaiaea?y oniaoai o?aioeocneie yeiiiieee
e ca n/ao ?ano?nia iiaaaeaeaiiuo ainoaea?noa Aa?iiu ii eo/oa, /ai
eoi-eeai ec aai i?ioeaieeia, iaania/eaae naith a?ieth iaoa?eaeueii, ii
aua aieueoa iia i?aainoiaeeea ana ae?oaea a?iee, anee iiaeii oae
au?aceoueny, a nioeeaeueiii ioiioaiee. Oi auea ianniaay a?iey iiaiai
oeia. Iia eiiieaeoiaaeanue ia iniiaa anaiauae aieineie iiaeiiinoe,
aeae?aoe?iaaiiie a 1793 a. e /a?ac iyoue eao ianeieueei noaeaiiie a
aeaea oae iacuaaaiie eiine?eioeee. Ii/oe ana eo/oea ia?oaeu Iaiieaiia –
Eaii, Iannaia, Iae, Ith?ao, Aannuea?, Eaoaa?, Nthoa, AEo?aeai, Noeueo –
auoee ec i?inoiia?iaeuey. Neoaeao iie ia/eiaee nieaeaoaie. Ii ?yaeii n
ieie auee e ia?oaeu-a?enoie?aou: Aeaao, Iaeaeiiaeueae, Na??th?uea,
Ia?iii, A?ooe. AEaeoy ei ia?oaeueneea aeaceu. Iaiieaii o/eouaae aeaaiui
ia?acii eo aieineea aeinoieinoaa. Naiaai aeeaeaeoaai ae?oaa, aaia?aea
Aiaeioa AEthii, eiia?aoi? naeaeae aa?oeiaii, – a aa?oeianeee oeooe eiae
oiaaea ia eaaeaeue ia?oae – ii oae e ia i?iecaae aai a ia?oaeu, aeaey,
/oi ii eae aiaia/aeueiee ana aea ia aeioyaeaaao aei o?iaiy ia?oaea.
Oi/ii oae aea ia aeae ii ia?oaeueneiai aeacea Ae. Aaiaeaio, oioy oeaiee
aai eae aaia?aea ianoieueei, /oi aeaaea i?inoee aio neoaeaaiua
ceioiio?aaeaiey, neacaa aai oee/eoaeyi: “Anee au o iaiy auei aeaa
Aaiaeaia, oi iaeiiai ec ieo y iiaanee au ca yoi!” Ia?auie ia?oaeaie
Ia?aie eiia?ee noaee 18 aaia?aeia, eioi?ui Iaiieaii i?enaiee
ia?oaeueneea caaiey aeae?aoii io 19 iay 1804 a., ia neaaeothuee aeaiue
iinea oiai, eae ii nai caiye eiia?aoi?neee o?ii. Ec ieo /aou?a noa?aeoeo
auee iauyaeaiu ii/aoiuie ia?oaeaie. Iiaeaeoe, naiia a?iieia eiy oiaaea
eiae oaea ii/oe 70-eaoiee O?ainoa Youeai E?enoio Eaeea?iai –
iiaaaeeoaeue a enoi?e/aneie aeoaa i?e Aaeueie 20 naioya?y 1792 a., aaea
O?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey iaea?aeaea ia?aoth iiaaaeo iaae aiaoiei a?aaii.
I/aaeaeaoe yoiai niauoey Aaoa neacae a oio aa/a?: “Naaiaeiy caeanue
ia/aeanue iiaay yiioa enoi?ee”. Ii/aoiui ia?oaeii noae e AEai-Iaouea
Oeeeaa? Na??th?uea – o/anoiee aua Naieeaoiae aieiu, aa?ie eoaeueyineie
eaiiaiee 1796-1797 aa., i?eiyaoee a Iaiooa eaieooeyoeeth ciaiaieoiai
aano?eeneiai oaeueaeia?oaea N. Ao?ica?a, n 1802 a. – aeoea-i?aceaeaio
Naiaoa. Iaeiiaoe, aeaceu ii/aoiuo ia?oaeia iieo/eee aua aeaa aeaeaei ia
i?anoa?aeuo aaia?aea. Iaeei ec ieo – 50-eaoiee Aeiieiee Ia?eiueii, aeane
iiaaae eioi?iai iaae aano?eeoeaie e i?onnaeaie 1794-1795 aa. ia caoiee
aeaaea oio ia/aeueiue aeey iaai oaeo, /oi a 1799 a. ii aue acyo a ieai
i?e Iiae A.A. Noai?iaui, – n 1802 a. aue, eae e Na??th?uea,
aeoea-i?aceaeaioii Naiaoa. Ae?oaie, O?ainoa AEicao Eaoaa?, eioi?iio a
iaa 1804 a. ia auei aua e 49 eao, caneoaeeaaao iniaiai i?aaenoaaeaiey.

Anee Eaeea?iai, Na??th?uea e Ia?eiueii, oaai/aiiua ia?oaeueneeie eaa?aie
ca i?ioeua caneoae, aieueoa a n?aaeaieyo ca ana a?aiy Ia?aie eiia?ee ia
o/anoaiaaee, oi Eaoaa? i?eieiae aeoeaiia o/anoea ai anao aieiao Eiia?ee
1805-1814 aa., aeeth/ay iaoanoaea Iaiieaiia ia ?inneth, aaea ii aue
ia/aeueieeii i?ineaaeaiiie Noa?ie aaa?aeee. Aieiioa? ?aaiethoeee i?yii
io nioe, iieo/eaoee io Iaiieaiia naa?o ia?oaeueneiai aeacea aua e oeooeu
a?aoa e aa?oeiaa Aeaioeeaneiai, iaeia?aiioiue, ii caoi neeueiue
i?e?iaeiui oiii, e?anoueyineie niaeaeeie e nieaeaoneie aeiaeanoueth,
Eaoaa? auaeaeioeny a ?yae eo/oeo iaiieaiiianeeo ia?oaeia. N?aaee
inoaeueiuo 14 ia?oaeia “ia?aiai i?ecuaa”, ia?yaeo n i?aaeaiiuie Eaiiii,
Aa?ouea, Ith?aoii, Aeaao, Iaai, Aannuea?ii, Noeueoii, Iienaai, Ii?ouea,
Iaiieaii aeeth/ee e oao, eoi ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai iaoiaeeeny a
iiiiceoeee ?aaeeio aai ee/iie aeanoe: Iannaia, Aa?iaaeioa, AEo?aeaia,
A?thia, Iaea?i. Ana iie, e?iia Aa?ouea e Iienay, auee iieiaea ethaiai ec
ii/aoiuo ia?oaeia, a iieiaeia ec 14 ia aeinoeaea e 40 eao: Aeaao auei 34
aiaea, Eaiio, Iath, Aannuea?o e Noeueoo – ii 35. Ec eo/oeo aaia?aeia
?anioaeeee inoaeenue oiaaea aac ia?oaeueneiai caaiey eeoue /aoaa?i:
o?iiaea?u Iaeaeiiaeueae, Nai-Ne? (yoe aeaia – a?aiaiii) e oaaaeaeaiiua
?anioaeeeaioeu AE.-E. Eaeo?a e auaoee oaea a oth?ueia AE.-A. Ii?i. A
aeaeueiaeoai noaee ia?oaeaie Eiia?ee aua ainaiue aaia?aeia: a 1807 a. –
Aeeoi?, a 1809 – Iaeaeiiaeueae, Oaeeii, Ia?iii, a 1811- Nthoa, a 1812 –
Nai-Ne?, a 1813 – Iiiyoianeee, a 1815 – A?ooe.

Nui eiithoa, nieaeao ?aaiethoeee AEai Eaii, aoaeouee aa?oeia Iiioaaaeei
aue caia/ai Iaiieaiiii aua eae aaoaeueiiiue ioeoea? a aith i?e Aeaai 15
ai?aey 1796 a. e n oiai aeiy no?aieoaeueii iioae aaa?o, caeii/ea
eoaeueyineoth eaiiaieth oaea aaia?aeii. A Aaeioa ii noae iaeiei ec
aeeaeaeoeo ni?aoieeia Iaiieaiia, a a iioiaeao 1805-1809 aa. – aai i?aaie
?oeie e aeaaiie iaaeaaeaeie. Ii ia oieueei eniieiye caiuneu Iaiieaiia,
ii e nai ?oeiaiaeee iia?aoeeyie, auea?uaae aeoau: i?e Iiioaaaeei 10
ethiy 1800 a. n 8-ouny/iui aaaiaa?aeii ?annaye 20-ouny/iue ei?ion
aano?eeneiai oaeueaeia?oaea I.E. Iooa, a i?e Ooaeaea 23 iiya?y 1808 a.
ai aeaaa 20-ouny/iiai ei?iona ?aca?iiee 45-ouny/ioth a?ieth eo/oeo
eniaineeo aiaia/aeueieeia X. Iaeaoiena e O. Eanoaiueina. I?eia/aoaeueii,
/oi iineaaeiee /aou?ueiy ianyoeaie ?aiaa ii?acee anth Aa?iio, canoaaea
eaieooee?iaaoue a /enoii iiea o Aaeeaia o?aioeocneee ei?ion aaia?aea I.
Aethiiia. A oaa?aea 1809 a. eiaiii Eaii acye ooo?iii eaaaiaea?ioth e
?aiaa iai?enooiioth Na?aaino, iinea /aai iaienae Iaiieaiio i naiai
iai?eyoee oaeie aieiu, eiaaea i?eoiaeeony oaeaaoue ie?iuo aeeoaeae.
Enoi?ee AE.Ieoea n/eoae Eaiia “aaeeeei nieaeaoii” e “aaeeeei
iieeiaiaeoeai” [18]. Nai Iaiieaii oeaiee Eaiia ca “aaee/aeoea
aea?iaaiey”, iacuaae aai “Aoeeeii” e “?ieaiaeii” o?aioeocneie a?iee e
aniiieiae i iai ia ino?iaa Nayoie Aeaiu oae: “ss iaoae aai ieaiaai, a
iioa?ye aeaaioii”

Aiae?a Iannaia, iaeia?aiioiue, eae e Eaoaa?, nui e?anoueyieia, aa?oeia
?eaiee e eiycue Ynneeianeee, iiaeao auoue, i?aainoiaeee anao ia?oaeia
aea?ii iieeiaiae/aneie eii?iaecaoeee e aiiaua eae aiaia/aeueiee aue anai
oi?io. A 1775 a. Iannaia noae nieaeaoii ei?ieaaneie a?iee e e ia/aeo
?aaiethoeee aeineoaeeeny ca 14 eao aei na?aeaioa. Iinea ?aaiethoeee
anooiee a Iaoeeiiaeueioth aaa?aeeth e a 1792 a. noae eaieoaiii, a a 1793
– aaia?aeii. Eiaiii ii, ?aca?iiea 26 naioya?y 1799 a. a aeoaa iiae
Oeth?eoii ?onneee ei?ion A.I. ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa, canoaaee A.A. Noai?iaa
oeoe ec Oaaeoea?ee e oai naiui nian O?aioeeth io a?iceaoaai ae
?onnei-aano?eeneiai iaoanoaey. Ii yoio oieeaeueiue naii?iaeie “eiae
cein/anoioth neeiiiinoue e ai?ianoao”, i?e/ai “ai?iaae, eae ni?iea,
einoeieoeaii” [23] a aeaaiia – i/aiue iiiai. Yoi iiaei?aaei ?aiooaoeeth
ia?oaea e a eiioea eiioeia i?eaaei e e?aoo, enii?oeei aio ea?uea?o.
Eiaaea Iaiieaii ia?oaae aai: “Au naiue aieueoie a?aaeoaeue a ie?a!”, –
Iannaia aae?oa aic?acee, ii/oeoaeueii eeaiyynue: “Iinea aan,
ainoaea?ue…”. Ca oaeoth aea?cinoue ii ia?aae iioiaeii a ?inneth
ieacaeny a iiaea.

Eoe Ieeiey Aeaao, aa?oeia Aoy?ooaaeoneee e eiycue Yeitheueneee,
ioee/aeny ?aaeeei aeey ia?oaea eiia?ee aanei?unoeai, ?anioaeeeaineie
/anoiinoueth e i?yiioie. Iaiieaii, aoaeo/e oaea a ecaiaiee, aai
ioa?aeoa?eciaae oaeei ia?acii: “Yoi iaeei ec naiuo neaaiuo e /enouo
aa?iaa O?aioeee”. Eae iieeiaiaeaoe Aeaao aeenoaoaeueii i?iyaee naay 14
ieoya?y 1806 a. a aeoaa iiae Aoy?ooaaeoii, aaea ii oie/oiaeee iieiaeio
100-ouny/iie ?onneie a?iee ai aeaaa n ei?ieai, aeaoiy i?eioeaie e
oaeueaeia?oaeii I?onnee, iiea Iaiieaii a ae?oaii n?aaeaiee, i?ienoaaeoai
a oio aea aeaiue iiae Eaiie, eeeaeaee?iaae ae?oaoth aa iieiaeio. Iiaaaea
Aeaao i?e Aoy?ooaaeoa auea oai ii?aceoaeueiaa, /oi ii eiae anaai 27 oun.
aieoeia i?ioea 53 oun. o i?ioeaieea. A. AEiieie ii yoiio iiaiaeo ?aciiii
caiaoee, /oi “ie iaeia ec ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aiei ia i?aaenoaaeyao noieue
iani?acia?iiai aiy ni noieue oaeeaeoaeueiui oniaoii”. ?aciinoi?iiia
iaea?aiiue no?aoaa, aaeieieno?aoi?, iieeoee, “aaeeeee /aeiaae, aua ia
ioeaiaiiue ii aeinoieinoao”, eae ienae i iai a 1818 a. Noaiaeaeue. Aeaao
aue eneeth/eoaeueii o?aaiaaoaeai e naaa e ae?oaei, a ethauo oneiaeyo
aeaeaciie ?oeie iiaeaea?aeeaae ii?yaeie e aeenoeeieeio. Iiyoiio iaeia ec
eo/oeo aai aeia?aoee oae e iacuaaaony – “AEaeaciue ia?oae”.

?yaeii n Aeaao, onooiay aio eae no?aoaa, ii i?aainoiaey aai eae oaeoee,
aeenoae a nicaacaeee eo/oeo iaiieaiiianeeo ia?oaeia Ieoaeue Iae, nui
ai/a?a, aa?oeia Yeueoeiaaineee e eiycue Iineianeee (iineaaeiaai oeooea
ii aue oaeinoiai ca aeiaeanoue a Ai?iaeeineie aeoaa), aa?ie anao
eaiiaiee Iaiieaiia, /aeiaae eneeth/eoaeueii iiioey?iue a a?iee. “Yoi aia
Ia?n, – aniiieiae i iai aa?ii I. Aeaiuea. – Aai aeae, acaeyae,
oaa?aiiinoue iiaoo aiiaeooaaeoue naiuo ?iaeeo”.

Aiei ?uoea?neiai oa?aeoa?a e iaoe?ioeiiai oaiia?aiaioa, “iaiaaeuoauee
Iae”, eae iacaae aai aa?ie Ai?iaeeia Oaaei? Aeeiea, ii aue aeeaui
ieeoeaoai?aieai aiaaiai aeooa “Aaeeeie a?iee”. Ia c?y eiaiii aio
Iaiieaii, i?aaaea oaea iinea nia?oe Eaiia, aeae i?icaeua, eioi?ia a?iey
noaaeea auoa anao aai oeooeia – “O?aa?aeoee ec o?aa?uo”.

E iiiuia ia oaanathuee eioa?an e ee/iinoe Iay iiaeia?aaaaony nii?aie i
oii, eae eii/ee aeeciue yoio iaiieaiiianeee ia?oae. 7 aeaeaa?y ai a?aiy
“Noa aeiae” ii, iineaiiue ai aeaaa ei?ieaaneeo aiene i?ioea Iaiieaiia,
ia?aoae aianoa n aieneaie ia noi?iio auaoaai eiia?aoi?a. Oaia?ue a
Ia?eaea, ia ieiuaaee Iana?aaoi?ee, aaea o?aioeocu eacieee naiaai
“O?aa?aeoaai ec o?aa?uo”, noieo iaiyoiee aio. A ie?iaie aea eeoa?aoo?a
auooao ?iiaioe/aneay, ii niiieoaeueiay aa?ney i oii, /oi Ieoaeue Iae a
1815 a. nianny e oaoae a NOA, aaea i?iaeee aei 1846 a. iiae eiaiai
Ieoa?a Notha?oa Iay – oeieueiiai o/eoaey.

Aeaeaei ia naiue oaeaioeeaue, ii naiue e?aneaue e noaoiue, caiue
iiioey?iue a eeoa?aoo?a ec ia?oaeia Iaiieaiia – yoi, eiia/ii, Eiaoei
Ith?ao, o?aeoe?iue neoaa, noaaoee eiia?neei i?eioeai, aaeeeei aa?oeiaii
Aa?aneei, ei?ieai Iaaiieeoaineei e, enoaoe, ioaeai nano?u Iaiieaiia
Ea?ieeiu Aiiaia?o, i?ineaaeaiiui ia/aeueieeii anae eaaaea?ee Iaiieaiia e
aiiaua iaeiei ec eo/oeo eaaaea?eeneeo aiaia/aeueieeia Caiaaea.

Ith?ao ia aue ie iieeoeeii, ie no?aoaaii. Iaiieaii aiai?ee i iai ia aac
niaeaeaiey: “O iaai oae iaei a aieiaa!”. Anaaaea a aaaiaa?aea, anaaaea
oai, aaea iaeaieueoay iianiinoue e o?aaoaony auni/aeoaa ioaeanoai. Ii
a?oaiaaoi iiaeaaae?eaae n?aaeaaoeony: “Neaaii, aeaoe! Ii?ieeiueoa yoo
naiei/ue! Au no?aeyaoa, eae aiaaeu!” A e?eoe/aneee iiiaio nai ia?oae aae
a aoaeo naie eaaaea?eeneea eaau – aunieee aieoaiaeacue aoeao, e?anaaaoe
n eoae?yie aei iea/ ?aciaeaoue a oaeea, aa?oao, no?aoniaua ia?uey, ni
anaie ?aaaeeyie e n iaeiei oeunoii a ?oea. E i?e yoii ii ie ?aco iinea
naaaeueiiai oaea?a iiae Aaoee?ii a 1799 a. ia aue ?aiai.
Aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiay ea?uea?a Ith?aoa iai?aaeanue o?aae/anee. A 1813 a.
iinea aeoau iiae Eaeioeeaii ii eciaiee Iaiieaiio, /oiau nio?aieoue ca
niaie iaaiieeoaineee i?anoie, iaeiaei ai a?aiy “Noa aeiae” aiiaue
aunooiee ia noi?iia eiia?aoi?a, aue ?acaeo aano?eeoeaie, acyo a ieai e
ii i?eaiai?o aiaiiiai noaea ?anno?aeyi.

Eoe Aeaenaiae? Aa?ouea, nui o/aiiai-aaia?aoa, n iaeuo eao i?eaueoee
?aaioaoue iaae ea?oie, neoaeee ooaaiui ioeoea?ii a aieiao aeaoo
?aaiethoeee – aia?eeaineie e o?aioeocneie. A 1796 a. ii naeeceeny n
Iaiieaiiii e noae aai iacaiaieiui iiiiuieeii, aiaiiui ieieno?ii, a n
1807 a. ii 1814 a.- aanniaiiui ia/aeueieeii Aeaaiiai ooaaa. Ii iocuao
naiiai Iaiieaiia, Aa?ouea “oa?aeoa? eiae ia?aoeoaeueiue, iaei i?eaiaeiue
aeey eiiaiaeiaaiey a?ieae, ii iaeaaeae anaie ea/anoaaie oi?ioaai
ia/aeueieea ooaaa”. a eiaiii – oaiiiaiaeueiie iaiyoueth,
iia?aoeaiinoueth iuoeaiey, ?aaioiniiniaiinoueth, aeeo?aoiinoueth,
oi/iinoueth e auno?ioie eniieiaiey. Iiiyoii, ii/aio eiia?aoi? oae
aeiaa?ye Aa?ouea, inuiae aai iaa?aaeaie – ieeeeiiiia ninoiyiea, aeace
ia?oaea, oeooeu aa?oeiaa Aaeaiaeaineiai, eiycy Iaaoaoaeueneiai, eiycy
Aaa?aineiai – e oae niaeaeae, /oi Aa?ouea ia auei n iei i?e Aaoa?eii:
“Aoaeue o iaiy Aa?ouea ia/aeueieeii ooaaa, y ia i?iea?ae au aeoao”.
I/aaeaeoeu canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee, /oi a ?acaa? aeoau i?e Aaoa?eii
Iaiieaii, aeaey, /oi naaaeee ei?ion ia?oaea A?ooe iiacaeuaaao, ni?inee
naiaai aiiaue iacia/aiiiai ia/aeueieea ooaaa I.AE. Noeueoa: “Au iineaee
aiioeia e A?ooe?” Noeueo ioaaoee: “ss iineae iaeiiai”. “Ieeinoeaue
ainoaea?ue! – aiciooeeny Iaiieaii, – Aa?ouea iineae au iyoa?uo!”
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia?aae aeoaie i?e Yeeao Aa?ouea iineae e ia?oaeo
Aa?iaaeioo aeey n?i/iie nayce n iei ?aciuie aei?iaaie iyoue aaeuthoaioia
n iaeiei e oai aea i?eeacii, e, ieacaeinue, ia c?y: aeioae oieueei iaeei
ec iyoe. AEai-Aaoeno AEtheue Aa?iaaeio, eiycue Iiioa-Ei?ai, oiiue e
eiaa?iue aaneiiaoe, auaoee aiaiiue ieieno? Aee?aeoi?ee, iaiaaeaeae
Iaiieaiia, oioy iieo/ee io iaai ana: ia?oaeueneee aeace, eiyaeaneee
oeooe, aeaaea oaaaeneee i?anoie. Ii nai iaoee a “iaiieaiiu”, a Iaiieaiia
ia i?i/ue aue au naeaeaoue naiei “aa?iaaeioii”. Aei 1810 a., eiaaea
Iaiieaii aeae niaeanea iiaeaeaaoei oaiaeeoue aio ia?eaiaioa?eyi Oaaoeee
ia eca?aiea Aa?iaaeioa ianeaaeieeii oaaaeneie ei?iiu, aai ioiioaiey n
Aa?iaaeioii auee neiaeiuie. ” Eae au oi ie auei, noaa
i?anoieiianeaaeieeii e oaeoe/aneei i?aaeoaeai Oaaoeee, Aa?iaaeio anei?a
ii?aae ioiioaiey n O?aioeeae e caeeth/ee nithc n ?inneae, a a 1813-1814
aa. ai aeaaa oaaaeneeo aiene n?aaeaeny i?ioea naieo niioa/anoaaiieeia ia
noi?iia oanoie aioeiaiieaiiianeie eiaeeoeee.

1) Ii/aio Iaiieaii iaaeiaa?ye Aa?iaaeioo?

2) *ai i?ineaaeeny E.Ith?ao?

3) *ai caneoaeee Iae aieiaiea Iaiieaiia?

5. Eoiae e cia/aiea iaiieaiiianeeo aiei

Iiaaaeu, iaea?aeaiiua O?aioeeae a I. a. iaae a?ieyie
oaiaeaeueii-aaniethoenoneeo ainoaea?noa, iauyniyeenue, i?aaeaea anaai
oai, /oi ao?aeoaciay O?aioeey, i?aaenoaaeyaoay aieaa i?ia?anneaiue
iauanoaaiiue no?ie, eiaea ia?aaeiaoth aiaiioth nenoaio, nicaeaiioth
Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeeae. Auaeathueeny iieeiaiaeaoe, Iaiieaii I
aeia?e aei niaa?oainoaa no?aoaaeth e oaeoeeo, au?aaioaiiua a oiaea
?aaiethoeeiiiuo aiei. Iaiieaiiianeay a?iey ninoiyea a iniiaiii ec
naiaiaeiuo e?anoueyi, n?ie aiaiiie neoaeau ninoaaeye 5 eao. A ninoaa
a?iee aoiaeeee oaeaea aienea iiae/ei?iiuo Iaiieaiio I ainoaea?noa e
eiino?aiiua ei?iona, aunoaaeyaoeany nithciuie no?aiaie. Auee
noi?ie?iaaiu e?oiiua niaaeeiaiey — ei?iona (a oii /enea eaaaea?eeneea),
oneeaia a?oeeea?ey, eioi?ie Iaiieaii i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea. ?ieue
iiuiiai oaea?iiai ?aca?aa ea?aea aaa?aeey, eiiieaeoiaaaoayny ec
nieaeao-aaoa?aiia (a 1804 — 10 oun. /ae., a 1812 — 60 oun. /ae.), a
eioi?ie auee i?aaenoaaeaiu ana ?iaea aiene. Iaiieaiiianeay a?iey,
iniaaiii aei ?aca?iia a? eo/oeo nee a ?innee a 1812, oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue
aunieie aiaaie iiaeaioiaeie e aeenoeeieeiie. Ioee/eaoeiny nieaeaoai
i?enaaeaaeenue ioeoea?neea caaiey. Iaiieaiia I ie?oaeaea oeaeay ieayaea
oaeaioeeauo ia?oaeia e iieiaeuo aaia?aeia (E. Aeaao, E. Ith?ao, A.
Iannaia, I. Iae, E. Aa?ouea, AE. Aa?iaaeio, I. Noeueo e ae?.), iiiaea ec
eioi?uo auee auoiaeoeaie ec nieaeao eee ec iecoeo neiaa iauanoaa.
Iaeiaei an? aieueoaa i?aa?auaiea o?aioeocneie a?iee a oiaea I. a. a
i?oaeea inouanoaeaiey caoaaoie/aneeo ieaiia Iaiieaiia I, ia?iiiua iioa?e
(ii i?eia?iui iiaen/?oai, a 1800—15 ia aiaiioth neoaeao ai O?aioeee auei
i?ecaaii 3153 oun. /ae., ec ieo oieueei a 1804—14 iiaeaei 1750 oun.
/ae.) i?eaaee e cia/eoaeueiiio nieaeaieth a? aiaauo ea/anoa.

A ?acoeueoaoa iai?a?uaiuo aiei e caoaaoia ia?aciaaeanue ia?iiiay
iaiieaiiianeay eiia?ey, aeiiieiaiiay nenoaiie i?yii eee einaaiii
iiaeaeanoiuo O?aioeee ainoaea?noa. Iaiieaii I iiaeaa?aae caai?aaiiua
no?aiu ia?aaeaieth. Niaaaeaiea a?iee a iioiaea i?iaiaeeeinue aeaaiui
ia?acii n iiiiuueth ?aeaeceoeee eeai i?yiiai a?aaaaea (ii i?eioeeio
«aieia aeieaeia ei?ieoue aieio»). Aieueoie oua?a no?aiai, iaoiaeeaoeiny
a caaeneiinoe io iaiieaiiianeie eiia?ee, iaiineee auaiaeiua aeey
O?aioeee oaiiaeaiiua oa?eou. I. a. auee iinoiyiiui e aaaeiui enoi/ieeii
aeioiaea aeey iaiieaiiianeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, o?aioeocneie ao?aeoacee,
aa?oooee aiaiueiu.

Aieiu Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee ia/aeenue eae iaoeeiiaeueiua.
«Yoe aieiu auee ?aaiethoeeiiiu: caueoa aaeeeie ?aaiethoeee i?ioea
eiaeeoeee eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo iiia?oee. A eiaaea Iaiieaii nicaeae
o?aioeocneoth eiia?eth n ii?aaiuaieai oeaeiai ?yaea aeaaii neiaeeaoeony,
e?oiiuo, aeecianiiniaiuo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noa Aa?iiu, oiaaea ec
iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aioeocneeo aiei iieo/eeenue eiia?eaeenoneea,
ii?iaeeaoea a naith i/a?aaeue iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiua aieiu
i?ioea eiia?eaeecia Iaiieaiia»

Ia/aei iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa oaiao?iiuo ia?iaeia
i?ioea iaiieaiiianeiai ainiiaenoaa auei iieiaeaii a Eniaiee (Eniaineay
?aaiethoeey 1808—14). A 1809 aniuoioei ainnoaiea i?ioea o?aioeocneeo
ieeoiaioia a Oe?iea. A iaeioi?uo aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noaao aicieeee
ioaeaeueiua i/aae nii?ioeaeaiey iaiieaiiianeiio ai?oo. ?aoathuee oaea?
iaiieaiiianeie eiia?ee aue iaian?i a ?innee. I?aaei?eieiay a 1812 iioiae
i?ioea ?innee, eioi?iio i?aaeoanoaiaaea oe?ieay no?aoaae/aneay e
aeeieiiaoe/aneay iiaeaioiaea, Iaiieaii I yaii iaaeiioeaiee neeu
i?ioeaieea. Ii ?ann/eouaae ?aca?iieoue aeaaiua neeu ?onneie a?iee a
aaia?aeueiii n?aaeaiee aaeece io a?aieoeu, caoai auno?i caiyoue Iineao e
i?iaeeeoiaaoue oai naie oneiaey ie?a. Yoio ieai iioa?iae iaoaea/o. A
?acoeueoaoa aa?ie/aneie ai?ueau ?onneiai ia?iaea e ?onneie a?iee iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai oaeueaeia?oaea I. E. Eooociaa aoi?aioaoayny a ?inneth
«aaeeeay a?iey» Iaiieaiia auea oie/oiaeaia (Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1812).
Nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea iaiieaiiianeeo aiene ?acei eciaieei
niioiioaiea nee a Aa?iia e ieacaei ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia aanue
iineaaeothuee oiae niauoee. Ia/aeny iiuiue iiaeu?i inaiaiaeeoaeueiie
ai?ueau aa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia. A Aa?iaiee e iniaaiii a I?onnee
?acaa?ioeanue inaiaiaeeoaeueiay aieia i?ioea ainiiaenoaa Iaiieaiia I,
eioi?ay a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aaeanue iaoiaeaie iianoai/aneie aieiu. Iiae
aeaaeaieai ia?iaeii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey i?onneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ieacaeinue auioaeaeaiiui aunooieoue i?ioea O?aioeee e
caeeth/eoue a oaa?aea 1813 Eaeeoneee nithciue aeiaiai? n ?inneae,
iieiaeeaoee ia/aei 6-e aioeo?aioeocneie eiaeeoeee (?inney,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, I?onney, Oaaoeey, n aaaonoa 1813 — oaeaea Aano?ey e ?yae
ae?. ainoaea?noa). A aiaiiuo eaiiaieyo iinea 1812 (ni. Caa?aie/iua
iioiaeu ?onneie a?iee 1813—14) ?onneay a?iey yaeyeanue yae?ii
eiaeeoeeiiiuo aiene. Ianoaiiaea ia?iaeiie aieiu i?ioea iaiieaiiianeie
O?aioeee a aieueoie noaiaie iiauoaea aianiiniaiinoue ?aaoey?iuo a?iee
ainoaea?noa, aoiaeeaoeo a aioeiaiieaiiianeoth eiaeeoeeth. A ?acoeueoaoa
Eaeioeeaneiai n?aaeaiey 1813 io ainiiaenoaa Iaiieaiia auea inaiaiaeaeaia
any oa??eoi?ey Aa?iaiee.

Ianiio?y ia ?yae /anoiuo iiaaae, iaea?aeaiiuo a ia/aea 1814 o?aioeocneie
a?ieae iaae aieneaie nithcieeia, anooieaoeo ia oa??eoi?eth O?aioeee, iia
a eiia/iii eoiaa auea ?aca?iieaia; a eiioea ia?oa 1814 nithciua aienea
anooieee a Ia?eae. Iaiieaii aue auioaeaeai io?a/ueny io i?anoiea
(ai?aeue 1814) e ioi?aaeai ia i. Yeueaa. A iaa aue iiaeienai Ia?eaeneee
ie?iue aeiaiai? 1814, ii eioi?iio O?aioeey eeoaeanue anao caaiaaaiee,
naeaeaiiuo a eiioea 18 — ia/aea 19 aa. Aii?in ia yoeo oa??eoi?eyo
iiaeeaaeae ?aoaieth ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eiia?anna (ni. Aaineee eiia?ann
1814—15). Niiaa aa?ioa naaa i?anoie a 1815 a ia?eiae «Noa aeiae»,
Iaiieaii iioa?iae ii?aaeaiea io aiaeeeneeo aiene A. Aaeeeiaoiia e
i?onneeo aiene A. Aethoa?a i?e Aaoa?eii — a iineaaeiai n?aaeaiee I. a. 6
ethey 1815 aienea no?ai — o/anoieoe ia?aciaaaoaeny aaniie 1815 7-e
aioeo?aioeocneie eiaeeoeee (?inney, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aano?ey, I?onney e
ae?.) anooieee a Ia?eae. 20 iiya?y aue iiaeienai Ia?eaeneee ie?iue
aeiaiai? 1815 iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie eiaeeoeee e O?aioeeae, a eioi?ie
aiiaue auea ainnoaiiaeaia aeanoue Ao?aiiia.

«Anai aieiai ca iacaaeneiinoue, eioi?ua aaeenue i?ioea O?aioeee,
naienoaaiii ni/aoaiea aeooa aic?iaeaeaiey n aeooii ?aaeoeeiiiinoe…».
Aieiu, ?acaa?ioaoeany i?ioea iaiieaiiianeie O?aioeee, eiaee
i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?. Ai?ueaa ia?iaeia ca iacaaeneiinoue, i?ioea
/oaeacaiiiai ai?oa aeaeaea eo inaiaiaeeoaeueiuie; a oi aea a?aiy oeaee e
iieeoeea iiia?oe/aneeo i?aaeoaeuenoa e i?aayueo eeannia ainoaea?noa,
aoiaeeaoeo a aioeo?aioeocneie eiaeeoeee, i?eaeaaaee yoei aieiai
?aaeoeeiiiua /a?ou. E anee a 1813 aieia i?ioea Iaiieaiia I a iniiaiii
eiaea inaiaiaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, oi iinea oiai eae ainoaea?noaa,
aaaeoea «… n Iaiieaiiii ioithaeue ia inaiaiaeeoaeueioth, a
eiia?eaeenoneoth aieio…» , ia?aianee a? a 1814 ia oa??eoi?eth
O?aioeee, noaay naiae oeaeueth ainnoaiiaeaiea oaiaeaeueiuo ii?yaeeia e
aeeianoee Ao?aiiia, ?aaeoeeiiiua /a?ou yoie aieiu ?acei oneeeeenue.
Iinea ?aca?iia Iaiieaiia ai iiiaeo no?aiao Aa?iiu onoaiiaeeanue
oaiaeaeueiay ?aaeoeey. Iaeiaei aeaaiui ?acoeueoaoii iaeanoi/?iiuo aiei
auea ia a?aiaiiay iiaaaea ?aaeoeee, a inaiaiaeaeaiea no?ai Aa?iiu io
ainiiaenoaa iaiieaiiianeie O?aioeee, /oi a eiia/iii n/?oa niinianoaiaaei
naiinoiyoaeueiiio ?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a ?yaea aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa.

1) Eae iiaeeyee iaiieaiiianeea aieiu ia no?aiu Aa?iiu?

2) Eaeoth oeaeue i?aneaaeiaae Iaiieaii, aaaey iiiai/eneaiiua aieiu?

3) Eaeei inoaeny Iaiieaii a oiao o?aioeocia?

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