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Международные отношения Кавказского региона XVI–XVII вв

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«I?????? ????y E????? ???a XVI–XVII ?.»

1. E????e ??? a ??? E??-O???o ??

Ia ??y??e XVI e XVII ??a E??c y?y?y ??? ??? ??o ??y ?????e ????e A??? —
I???? ???? e E??i. A? a 1501 ?? ?i ????i ???a I??ae ????ye ???th y????th
??? ???, ???, ??a ????? ??e a ????? 300 ???e, a ?? ??oa??e ?a ??e
i????-????, ????o a ???? ??e, a ??a ?i ????i ?? e ???? ???. Ec ???????e
????e ??o I??? e N???? ???ii, ?i ??ae Ia??a i???ny ????? ????o ?e, ???
?i ????i ?? a?a ??ny ????.

E???, ??ay ???a ? ??a ????? i???? y????, e ???e ??e ????ueny ? N???i
E???, ??ay? ? ????o ???? ???u e ????y ????? ????? ?????ey, ??????. A
1516 — 1519 ??o ??? ??? ????? ???e ???? a ??a E??e, ??? a ???? ????a ??
?? ????? 8 ?n. ???. N??? ????, ?i E???a ??o? a ??? ??? ?? ? ??, ??ii
?th????? ???y a ???o ???eyo I???? ???e, ????? a ??iy?e ??iy?? ??u n
????e (o.a. n ???? ????), ?a ??? ???ey ???????ue ??? ?? e ???? ??e. Ei??
??? ? N???e E??c ??????ue aeey ???? ??? ??? ????. O?, a 1519 ?? a E?i
a???? ??? ??ue ??????y a ??ae ???. A???, ??i? ?????ey ? ??? ???? ???
??th?? ?th? ?y ??e ???. I????, a ?aea ???????e ????e ???? ?i ????y ?????
???? e ?th?? n ?ie ??? ? ???? O??a ?y ??ay??ny ??? ??? A?????? ???a.

I?????a ??? ???? ?????? ?????, e a 20-o ??o XVI ?? E???a ???i ??? ?y?
?ae ???? ????a ????? ???y ? ???-??aea E???, ? y? ? ???? ???? A??a (??y?y
a E?? ???y ???y) ?????y n ???? ?y?y?, a ??a ??th?? n ?? ??????? ???a
?th? ??? ??a ????th?? ? ???? ?ae N???i E???i E??. E???oy a ???? ??
????eth A??a???, ?? O??? ?a a 1487 ?? ?????e ???a ???a ????a ? N??i?
E??c, ??? ??? ?th ?i ????eth ? *??? ??y e ??? ??? ?a??uey ??, ???oe,
?????u ??????e ??? ???o ???. I???? ??????oth ???? ??a O??? ?i ?i E??e
(???????e a 1502 a. ?ay o??), ???e a 1507 ?? ?????e A??eth, a 1509 ??
???? O??i e Ae???, a a 1519 ?? ???? ?? A??th n y?? ????? y?i ? ?????ny e
???youe ???? ???u ? ?o ??, ?? ?e ? ???? n ????e E???.

I???a ?? C????a e ??? ?i ??i ???? ?y ?????i ?????y ? ???, E??e ??, a ??
e ???th ??? ?????e O??? I (1524—1576), ?????? ???? ???a e ???o y????e, a
???o ???i ???? ?????y n ????? e ?????th?? ? ??y?? ? Ae????. A ????? ???o
???? O???o I ???ue ?????? ????? ???? ?ae O????i ???? e i? Ae????. Ae?i a
?i, ?i ?oy ??a ???i ??? ? O??i (1500—1501 ?.) ???a-????a ???? a ?th
O??i-?o O??o-ss?? ??a, a ?i ???ey ????ue ?? E???. N? ????i O??i-??
O?o-?o ????y ???y?ny E??, ?i ?????i ? E??? ??? ??? a 1509 ??. N???u ??a
???? ???, ? e ??a ?a O??? I ?a ?c ???? O??i e ?????. A????i ?????ue ???y
e a Ae???a, ?a ????e ss?-A?? e A? I???ae-?e ??????, ?i ?????? n?? ??aeyo
? ? ???i? ???. I?? Ae???a a 1510 ?? ????? ??? ????, ??a ?? ?o E??e ????e
nth? 500 ???? ??e e ???? ????? ??? ?????a I????a.

?????y, ??? E??? ? ??e ?????y I???? ???e, ???y ????a ?????? ? E??c
?????a ????a. I??ay, ?i ???i ?????i ???a y?y?ny E?i, ??? N?? I ????ny ?y
?/?a ????ny ????? ?e ?oy ? ?e????? ???o ?y?e, n ??th ?? ???e n ?? a
???????a ???i??, a ??a ?iy?y ??? ???????? ????? i ???i ?????. I?? ???
??n ?? ? ?????i ?o O??i??-???, ??ay?, ?i a ?????? E??i ? ????o ??o ????
?????a. I???? ??, ??i ???i, ?ci???? a ??, N?? ?y?e e ???? E??
200-?ny?oth ??th e ??e ???a ???ey. ?????? ???? ????i ? *?????e ???a ???
I?o 23 ???a 1514 ?? e ?????ue ????? ???a-??a??, ??a ?? O??i e Ae???i
?i???i ????? ???o E?? ??, ?e e ??? ???? ???ey ? N???i E??? (Ae???, O????
e ?.).

E???, ???? ?o ???i ???y n ???? ????? e, ???y? ?i, ?i ??y ???a N??a I
????ue ?iy?e ??? a A??a, ???y ? E??c. A 1517 ??, ??? ???a ??????a ??e
???o ?????, ???? ??a ????e ?? O??i e ????ue a A??th, ???yy ?a ? ??i ??.
A? ?yo e Ae???, ????? ???? ?uy?? cyoy ?a??? ?? I???-?eo?a. A???? ??o
???a ? ????e ??? ????, e a ??? 30-o ??a XVI ?? I???ay ???y ??ue ????y?
???e ?y? ???. Y?i ? ????e ?????a?ny ??? Ae???a, ????a ???? ???? e a
????e ?c ?????ea ???ue ?? E??. Ia y?i ??ey??? ????i ?? ? ?????ue: a 1547
?? ??? a ?i ??o ???? ???ue e O??i, y?o ??c ??????y ?????? ????? ?ae
?????? ?????i ????y A??-??u, ??????ny ?? ?ae?i ???. Ae????u n ???ueth
????? iy???i ??????, a ??a ????a ?a-?? ?? ????i, ???e A??-??a ??? ???a a
???a O???, a ??i e ???o E??o I???o.

I??i ???i iy???i ??a ?? e ????? ? ?i ??i ???i ????? ? ???e ???e E?? a
???a a?? ?????e. A??? ???? ??? E??? ? ??? ??ue ?ae ??e ?????i ????y e
???ny n ?i ??? ae???e. E ???, ?? ??o E??i e ???e ??a ????e ???ia?ey,
O??i, Ae??? e E??a ????? ?????? n ?????i ?? e ??ue ??i???? ?ith
??????ue. Ia y?o ?c a???? ????? A??i-??a e ????? ??e O??-?e, ???
???????? a ?e????? ??? ????y: ? ?e???? ???ue a ???th ??o ???? ???a ???.
E???e ??yae, ????i?e ? ????a iy??, ?e ??? a ??a ?e E??a, ??? ???? ?????
a ??. A???i, ? y?o ?c ??? E?? ????ue ? ??a ???e, ? ???? ???ei ??i ????
???? ??i ?-? ?????e ????o ?e. A???????ue y?i, ??? E??? a 1549 ?? ?iy?
O??i e ??e ????? a?? ???e ??????e. Ia y?o ?c ?o ? ?? ???? ??? e ????
?????a: ?i ?? ?? n??? I???? ???? e ?????e ??y?? *?yE???a (1534-1538).

1554 ?ae ?e ?????i ?i, ?i ???? ? N???i I E??e ???y a A????? e ?iye
I????ue. I??e ???e ??o ?a ? ??, ???, ?????y, ????o ???ay a?ey, ???ya a
I????a, ?/?a ????? ????e ? ????? ???????i A ????? N???i ???? ?e ??? ???
?????, ???? o ????i ??, ??aey??ny a ?????? ??ae??, y????th ????o. ??????
?????? a 1555 ?? a a. A??e ?? ??? ????, ? ???? I???? e??? ???? E?????a
???i ?y??? A?ey e I???y, ???ay ??ue I?-?? (A??y), a ??a ???e A????i,
A?u-??o e Aay?o (A??ey), E?i ? ???e A???oth A??eth (E??e e E??eth),
A???oth A??eth e ?? A?????. Ie ?, ? ??ay ???a ? ?? ???o??? ??? ????i,
?y?? ??????i, ?i ???y ?i ??th??? ???i. I?? ????e ??? I?? II (1574 —
1590) ???? ?i?a E??, ??? ??ae ???i ???o ???? ? ????y e ?????? ?y?yi n
????i, a ???i ????? ?a??e ? ???y a ??a ? ??e ?i??.

O?? ??????a ???? ??e: ??a ?y? ????? ?? a A?????a e TH?? Ae???? ??iu
?????? a O??? e Ae???a ??????i, ???? ?i ????u e ?ae ????????i Ae?a-??
????ue a A???th. O??, ?i ??e ???? ???u E???, ?o ??? O??o, ??? ??? ??ue
???? Ae?a-?? n ??? ? ??? ??on?? ????o. I?????i ? ???e ??? ???o ????o ??
I???ae-A?ath ????i??y e ???i ???eyi ??? E??. A ??a E??e ???? ??y? ???e a
1582 ?? ? ???yo n ?i, ??u ??c Ae???i ???ue Ae???a. Y? ??? /a?c N???e
E??c ?iy? o ????a 80 ??. I? ?????ue n 200-?ny?ui ???? Ae?a-?? e a ?a
1583 ?? ??????e ?e?y? ????? N???? a ??a ? ?ea N??. N????i ???? ????
????o ??e ??a ???a ?????? a?????? ??????? ???a o E?? ?????, ??? ???n y?o
????? ?????y ? a???a ???????a ? ???u ???o ???e a Ae????, O??? e a A??e.
E????? ? ????i ?????y, ??u ia ????? ???ny n ????i ??a?i.

A ??o ? ??????a ??e ??????? ??????a ?????a y????e a Ae???i, ?a ??
???oth?? ????e ???? I??-?? ?????? n ??y?? ???? ????y. A 1588 ?? ??????
??e, ??iy?? ? ???, ???a e ????a, ???ue ???ue ???? ??, ? ????u ?? ?????ue
o N???a ??????. I???? ??? ???, ???, ??e ? ?????e a ?yo: ??o ?e ?? ??????
a E?i. I??-?? ???e ??? ? ???a ??i?ue N???e E??c e ????ue ?? ? E?? a
?e??? I???ae-A?ath ? ???th??a ?th????o ?y????a. Ae??th?yny ??c ?? a
i????? ??????i ????y ???ay ??y ?? ?e y?i ?????? ????a ?e ????e, ?e e
??ai??e e ???? ????.

I?? ?????y ? E?? I??-?? ???e ????a e a 1584 ?? ?e ???? i??i ???i I?? e
??????oth?i ?????? ???. N??y? ??? ???a-????a, ??? ??? ??? ????ue ???
???eth ???th ??ue A?????a n A?o, O???i e ???e ????. A ???eth 1585 ??
I??-?? ?????e ????a a TH?? Ae???i e ???e ? ?? ???ey ?i? ?e eth???a ??.
I???a ?????y ??? e ????y ???a ???y?? ?i??e ia ??y??e ?? ??? ??a?u XVI
??, ???? ?????ue Ae???, E?oo, O??o, N???ue, a ??a ??? ???n?a e ??????
??, ?i ? ????i ???i ??ey??? ??e ???? ????y. A???e? a Ae???, ??? ???? ?i
???? ???e, a ????o ????e ????ue ?? ???? e ???y? ??? ??? ?y ???? ??e.

A???i, ???? ????a ??e n ????ie ??i ???? ??, ?i ?????y ?c ????e ???o ?y?e
e ????y ????y ??y ??? ???ue ????y. A 1585 ?? ??? ????i ?? ??? ????ue
????e ????? n ???????e ?????, e ??? ??c ?e ??, a 1588 ??, ??e
??????oth?e ???? ??e a C????a O??ae-?? (I??-?? e y?? ???e ??) n?? ??????
a A?????a ????a ?????a. I??i ????a, ????? ?e N????, ? ?????i ???a ?
?????e ???? ??e?ey, ???a ????? ????ue e ??? ?o, e ??? y?o «???????. A
??a XVI ?? ???a? TH??i Ae???? ?????? n ???????? ????e e a ???? ??a ???y
A?ae ???e ????? ???. ??????a ??? ???e ???a ?? e ????ue ? E?o, ?a ???e
??? ???i. I??i ?? y?i, ?i ???y? y?? ??yie ???? ? ????ny: ???? ???e ?? e
???y??, ?? ??aey? ?ae ??iy?? ???e. N??i ??? ?oy ? ????i ??, ?y??? e ???
?o ? ?uy?y? ?ay ?????. *?? ???ue ? E??? ???a ?? ?y ???ey ? ?????y? e ?y
?????i ?????y ? ???, ??e ????? a ???e E??u e ????a ???e ???? n ???i
?????. I?????i ?a ????? e ????a ?a ??e ???? ? O??a, o. a. ? ??e ???a
????i ?????a.

A??ay ??a ?????? ?????ue ? N????, e ??a ?y? ????e ???? ?o ??e ? ??th??a
??????i ?? n I???? ????. N?????e ??? ???? 1590 ?? ??????? ???? ?ae ????
???? ???e ??e C???cuey, a ??a TH??i Ae????. Ii ????, a ????? ??u 1578 —
1590 ??a E?i ???ye ?a C????a. A???????ue ??i ????? ?????e, ??e ???e a
Ae???a ??a ????ey, ?????? ? ???a ??? ???a A?????a e ????? e ?c??th ?
E????i ?? ?????? ??a, ?????? a???ay ??u ??a ????????i ????y a Ae???i e ?
N???e E??c. N?e???? ??ue n ??iy?? ??????? ???o ?????, ??? ??y? ???th
???????th ??, oe?ueth ???e ??, ??y ???u a n?? ????? ?????, ???? ??o ? ?o
????ue ? ???a I?? ??? ???, ?i ???? ??? e ???ue a?? ????i ?y ????e y????.

I???a ????a ? E???, E?i ? ?i?? ?e ????y e, ??????? n?e ?? ??a ???a
?????oe, ??ue ???e a ??? ? y? ?????. A ????? ?????ny ?ny? ?o ??u (1603 —
1612 ?.) ?? A??o I ???ue ??? o ??e ????? ??e e ?????? ???? ???ey a ???ao
1555 ??. C?eth??? a 1612 ?? ??o I???? ???? e E??i ??? ???? ??th??y ???i
e ??? ?e ???i ??e ?oy?? ???, ??????ny n ??? ???ueth ??????e ? 1639 ??,
??? ? ?y O??e, ? ?y E?? ????? y?e ??u ? ????ue ??th??. I??a, N???u ???
??????? ?? ???? ? ?e??th?th e E????? ??th ???ue Ae????. I???? ???e n
???th ???? ?i? ???ue y?????e ?ey? ? ?????a??o ????, ???a ??ie?? ?????ny
eth?e ?????ueth, ??u ???? ??? ??.

I????ue ????i ???? ??a ?? ???i? ?????a, ????? ?y??? ?aee ?????ue ???y?
??????ue ?? a ?o ????, ??a ?????y?? ? a ??? ???e ??e ?e ????a I???? ???e
E??. I?????y ??????? ? E??? ???ey?? ??????e ???????, ?i ??? ?????
??ae??? ???? oy???e ?y ????y. A????a ??? ???e a ??? XVI ?? e ??, ?i A??y
?????? ????ue ? ?e ?????o ???a: E?????a, Ea????a e E?????, a ??a ? ????i
?y??a — A?ey, I???y, A??ey e ae??a, ??? ???y ?????y ??? a y?o ?y???o ??
?????? ??i ?????. A ????? e ???o A??e ? ????a ???a ???o ????, ?i a??e
???i ? ????? ????? ?????e ?????a ??? ??o ????? ??ey? ??y?o ????, ?i ???i
?????oth ????? ??ue ?a ??a ??????.

A A??? a y?o ??? (??? XVI a.) ??a ? ?????? ?iy??e ?????a???. N???a ???
A?????a ???e a ?????i ???-??a, ????oth?a n O???? ????, ??? ?a y? ??ae???
a ???? XVI ?? ?? ??????u, a ????ey ? ????ue ?eth??? a E???a ?????i.
A??ey e A????? ????ue ?????e ??o I???? ???? e E??i, ??? ?a ???u ????
???? ? ?????o ????eyo ?ith ??o ????y. O?, a C???e A???, ???? a ?????ue e
???i, ??e ??????? ?? ????? ???? / ????, a A???? ? A???, ?e e a A?????a,
?????ny ?ae ????e? ??a, ?y??? ??????a, ??? ???o ?????? ???? ????a ???ey,
????? ? ??e ?? ??????y? ???o ?y??? ??a e ???e ?????ie ??e I?????? ??y
?????? ? ???yo ??? ??, ??? ????? ? ??y??e XVI e XVII ??a ??ue ???o ????
??iy? ??? e ??? ?????ny ? ?????. ?????? ?????ey ??i ?????a ????o ?i?a,
?????ny a ????? ?????e ? ????i ??. Ia ????e e ????? ????eyo Ae???? a
???yo ??iy?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?i??? ??? ?y??a, ???a a ???a XVI e
XVII ??a ?? ????? ??? ?? n ???, ?? ??th?? ???a ?th?. Iae?? y? ?? ?a
???????ny ????? ?????a, ????oth?a a y?o ??? o ???? (???) e ??? ??? ???a.

A ??o ?-???? ??????? ??????a ?i??ey, ???ey??ny ?i, ?i ??? ???n?a ???a ??
?????e ??c ??e. Y? ?? ?y?? n ?i, /? ??u ????? ???? ??????i e ???? ???ue
? ????o ??e. E???, ??e ?i y?????? ????e ???i ???ee ???? ????, ? ???yy
????y ?????i ?y ??? ???? E??? ????? ????yi, ??? ? ? a ????e n
????????ueth ?? ???a?y ?????a ???o ??? ??e ? ia ??ue oy???e ?e ????e
??????. A ???i ???, ???u ??? ??e ?????ue ???ny a ??o.

A??? ???ey ? ???? ???? ???a ??? C????y — A??i, O??n, O??o, Ae??? e ?.
I???? ? ?o i????e ? ?e a ?? ?ny?e ?c. A?? ??????? ???????e ????ey?,
???th eth?e e ????? ??o ????, ??? ?? ??i ? y???a ??????? ?? ??i ???ue
????a a 1603 ?? ? ???o ?? A??a I ??? Ae??, ??n??i ?e ???e ??????e ???
???ee ???. O? ??e ? ??? ????ue ???e e ????th?e ??ae, ? e ????? ?i ????o
???e a ?????a ???e E??. I??? ?????ey ??o ??? I???? ???e e E?? ???e? e
??? ???a, y?y??ny y??????e, ?????e e ??????e ???? C????y, a ????a, ?
???? e ? ???? a ???i, ???? ???? ????i? ???.

2. I?????o?a ????a ????i ????yi

Ia ??? XVI e XVII ??a ???e ?o A?? I ?? ???? a E?? ???????? e ??????
???u, ?????i ???o ??i ???? ???e ???, a ??a ???? ??ey?? ??e. A ????oe?
?????o ?e ???i ???? ????? ?????u, ???????? ???????th ??????? ??ey e
?????. O???? ??????? e ??? o??? ??? (O??y a 1603 a. ?y??? a ??o n A???e,
?i ?oy?? ?????? ?ai?a ?? ???a n E??? a A??o), ?o A?? I ??e ???a ???ey
??? ???? I???? ???e. I????ue ??e ??ey ??c C?a???, ???? ??? ???? ? ????i
?????y A????? n Ae???? e Ai???th A??th, ?ya, ??i ???i, ??a? ? ???a
????y.

E???? ???tho, ?i ??a ??? e???e n ??? ?????th, a ???e ?????e ??? ???a
???a ?????? ???. A?? I ???? ????? O??e ??? ?????a C????-?? E????. O?aea
?? ?????? Ae????? ????/??i n ???? ??i ??????? ???o? e n ???e ???????,
???a ??e ?y ??????y ???a ??? a Ae?a??. I?????i ???a ?y ???????y ???i
????? ????e ??? ?ea? ????e o ??a ?ey???o ???e.

A????e ?? A???? ???e ???i ????, ?th? n ???? ? ??e, /? «????? e ?????a
eth? ? ?? ??i e ?oyo ?? a ???o ???? o ?????i ??y. A??a ???u ???i ?????y?
?e ????, ?e e ???? y????. I???i y?? ??o ???ue A???ay ??a n N????e a 1558
a?o ?e ?????? ? ????i ????a ???? A?e ? ??y ????y a E??e a 1598 — 1599
??o.

O?? ???? ??e, ?????e a ??? XVII ?? ??e ? A?????a, ?e ?y?i ? ??? n
??????ey? a ???i ??, ? e n ?i, ?i ??? ??e ?????e e ???a ???, ????a ?
????u ? Ae???a e A?o. A 1615 ?? ??u ????? ??y?a ? ???? ??e??i ????ue
??ue ????e, ?i ?y ????ey ?????? a ???e ?o A?? ?i ?e ???? ????? ?????th
y????th.

I????? E??a ? E??? e ?i ??? ?ae ???? ????e e ???th ????eth, ????o ??
y?i, ?i ???a?a ???? ?e ? ??? ??a O??a, o. a. ???????i ? ???o ???o ????,
?? ?e ??? ???? e ??a ??o E??i e ????. Iae?? ?o ? ???e ????ue y???eth,
i???? ??? ???ey e ??? ???oth ??ue ??? a ????eth. Ae?????a ?y?y ??y? ??ae
???a ? ????a ??u, ??? ?o ??? ?? ???????o ?e, e ???y? Ae???i ?a ???? ?ia?
?ey?y ? ? ????y.

N??a a Ae???a ???th ?? ?y ????n???? ????y a ???u Ae????, A?? I ??e n ??,
?i ????e a n?? Ae???a ???y ? ????i-???? i? ????i y?? ???th??y ?? ?????o
??. Ia ??????ny ??a ?o ??e ???ey? ? E?? ??o ????o-???, ???o ????ue a
???? ??u ???? ??a ? ???o ????o e Ae????. I?????i a ?????a ??? ?? ?????
oth?e-???, ?i ????? i??? e ????aieyi ???o ???e e ?????. N???e??a, ??i
???i, ????u ?o ?a ??? n ??? ??? ???? ??o a ???? ?????e ???u, ?i e ?? ?
??? ????i. I??a ?????ey ???? ??e n ???e ??ny?y e 1607—1608 ??i, ??a ???e
????e a O??? ??e ????ue Aeey E?? ??????oth O????o ????eth a O???.
?????y, ??????e ?y? I???ny ???ue ??????oth ??th, ??? i ??? ?c? ??? ? ?i
eth?e. N??th?a ?????? ???o ??e n ??????e ?????i a 1610 — 1611 ??o, a
??????? ????e E?? ? ???e ????e ??????e o????e ????? ?? ?????i ae0 ??e
???e ???????e, ?i ?e ?y?? ? ??ea. N?????a a O????a ???i n ????, ??a ?o,
??ny ?yae ????e I???? ???e, ??ye ???a ???oth ????? e ????eth Ae????.

E???y 1611 —1612 ??a ?? ??????a ?i, ?i ???? ???, ???? ??? ??aey TH??
Ae???i, ???i ?y?e a ?yo ca ??? ??, ???y?? ?????e ?th? ???? ??i A??-Ae??.
Y??????e ??? N???? ?e ?????? ???i ?????e ?y? o ???e O??, O?? e a ???
???, ?e ?i, a ??a ???, ??? ????u ?? ????ue, ? ??a?? ??ue ???i-??? ??????
???a. C?i ??a ?????? ???a a ? ?????eyo n I??e, ?e ?i ??a ?????? ???????o
??? ? ???u I???? ???e a 1612 ?? ??o E??i e O??? ?e ??th?i ??, ????e
??n?a ???ey a ???u ???? 1555 ??.

I? n ???e ??y?e ?? ??, e, ???y n 1613 ?? A?? I ????e ???????oth ?y????ue
? ????eth E???. 1614 ?ae ???y ????? ?????? a A??th e Ae???i ????i ???
?ae ?a??????? ??? ??. I?i??y ? ??? ????, ???? ?????e a E??? e O????a ?
???? ae???o ?????a, ?i, ????, ??????? ??? ????? a E???, ?a ???i ???ue
????? ???a ??: 100 ?n. ???ioe? ?? ??i ? ???o ?? A??a e ???i ? ??? a E?i
a ???i. *?? ???ue ? ?????a ???????a ????, ?o ?????iye ??e ????? ?????
???ey, a ???? ??????e ?????a ?? e ??? ?????? E??ca ? ??y ? ??y, a ????
??e ??e ??e ???y ? ??? ??oe?a ??e ? ????? ????a, ? ??a ???? ????oth E???
e ????? ????, ???ath?a e *??io ??th.

N?y ? ??????ny ????th ????i ???a E??a, ???? ????? ?oy e ?? ?????u
?y??ey? ??, ??? ????y ? ????? e ????e ?? e ????th ????e ????. O??a ? ??a
y?? a 1614 ??, ??a A?? I ???y??y ?????ue e ??? ? Ae???i 12 ?n. ???e, ???
????y? i???th ??? ?e ?????e ?i O????, ??th ? ????y ????y ??ae O?? n ?i,
??u ???? ?i ? ???e ??????? ?ycy A?ay. E?? ??, ??????ue ?th «???oth ??th»
????? n Ae???? e O??? e a ??i ?? ?eth?? a ???u ?????? E??. Ae???i,
?????y a ????e y?o ?????, ??????e ????ny ? ??ueth E??.

N????, ? ??, ?? A??a ????? ?? ??? ???? a Ae???? e ??? ???oth ??????ue
???? ?????. A?i y?i, ?i ?e ?? ???e ?????? ?y?y ? ??? ? ??????e ?????y?
???i ????e ???e ??e, iiy?? ?y ???a ????? ? ??? ???? ???? ??y, ?????
?????y? ??????? ??????yi A??a. O? ???? ????? e ????th ??????, ???ay a
??a ???? ?y?e e ?? ?????, ???th e ???. I???ia?i ?o ????y ? A??e ???e ??
??c I??th ? E???, ?i ?e ???i ???? ??iy???a ?c??? ? ???i ???i ??e e O??o
e ????ue ?i ????. Ae??th ???? ??????? ????ue ? E??, ?i ????i ? ??????oue
?? Na??-A???? E??c a ????o ??.

Aeey ??????y ??? ??a A??o ?eo?? ?e???ue ? ??? e ??, ? e e ae????e.
I????? ???y e ???ay ???ey, ?o ???? ??y? ?i ???o ??? ? ?ey????? ??????
?y?e I?? A???a, ???e ??????e ?? a Ae?uey??? ???. Eiy? A??? a 1614 ?? ?e
??yo ??i e ???e ? ?? ????a e????e. E?? ?????, ?o ???? n ?y?i ??o ???a, a
??? ???? ???i ???ue, ??u ?y? ? ????e ? ???? ???. A?? i o?, ?i eth? ?ycy
A???a ??iytho ??, ? ???i ??? ?? ??ay?y ???ueny a E???, ?? ???iy? ???e
?ycuey? e ???e ?? ? ? ?e ???i? ?????e ??ae???e. A???ea ?? ???? ??? ????y
??????o I??u, ?uy??? E??? e ???? ??e ????ey?, ? ???o ???atho ????a ????i
?????a. O? ? ???e e?e ? ????? ????e n ???? ???i e ????e ?iyoueny ??a
????i ??i — ??? n I???? ????.

A??? ???ey ??o ???e ?????? ??ue ???? a 1616 ?? e ?????? ? 1639 ??. A y?o
? ??? (1623—1625) A??y ?????, ???????? ???? ????y? N????, ?a???y ? ????i
?????y. I?? ? ??????e ???o??i ? ????? A??e ??????i ????y ?e ????? ???
(???????ay ????ue) A??? N???a, ?ae ??? ???? ??? ??i 20 ?n. ???e. I??i
??eay ??y i???a y?? ????i a ????? e ???, ?y?? a ?th o I??? a 1624 ?? ?a
???a ????? ????a. Ii ? y?i ????a ? ?????ue: ???u ?? a ?? e ???i?e e
???th ?????? ??u, ?e ?i ???i ???? ????ue ?a ??i ???, ??? ?i ? ??? ??
??????a. A??? N???a ??e a O??th e ?i ??a.

Ia ??ue ??? ???ny n ?????i ?????? ??? A??? e A?????a. I??i XVII ?? ??
???? ??????i? ?y????ueth ????i ????? E???, ??? a y?i ??? ???a ??o ?a??i
????? e ?????i ??? ???a????? ??y?? ??? ?????i. I??????ay ??? ?e ??ae
???ue a???y?e e ????ue ?? ????i ??a ??iy???o ????i ???????ue e ??ueth
??????? ???-????e I??-?? (I?eo-????), ???e ?? ???? ? ????ee A??? e
A?????a a 1616 — 1625 ??o. Ae???a ?????a I?? ??? y?? ???????? ????, e ??
????e ? ?e?i ?iy?-????a, ? e ????th?a ??i ??????u. Ec ???a Ay?? e E??a?
???? ???????? ? A???, ?a ?? ????i ??a??? ??n? ? ????eth ?iy??? ?????a.
I?eo ??? ?c ??e a C???e A???.

O?? ?? A??a a ??a n I???? ???e ???? ???ithth ?a ??a ???i ??eth?? e ???i
???eyi ??o ?th???, ??a ??e ? E??? ???th ???????th ???, ??iyy ? ?ith
n???, ? ???e ??, ??ue ?????. A 1516 ?? ??e ???? ?????? ?? ????i ?? ??c
N???e E??c a ?e ???i ???i. O?? ??u ??e ??i e ??? e ??? ?c ????e ???
aea?a e ????? ?????a n ?y?y? ????????e ??? ???u. *?? ??????ue ?????a
???? ?????e, ??? ???? ???a ????ey e ?????oth?a ??ath ?????a ???ey ?y?yi
O???? e E???e E???. A?? ? ????e a ?i ? ?? a E??? E??? ??? 3-?ny?? ??yae
????i ??, ??? ??? ? ? ?i???ny, ????o ? ????eth I??u ???a ????e ????e ?y
??? ??? a C????a. I????? ?th?? ???i ?e? ? ????eyi, i??y??y a ???????i
????? o ???? ??y, ?? ???? ??????. O?? ?e ? ????o ?? ? ???ue ??? ? ???
eth?? ??c N???e E??c a 1619, 1629 e 1635 ??o. A? ??e, ??a ?????? ?y?e,
????e ?y ???eo ??? y?y?? ???a ???? ? O??a, ?????a ?????oth ???. I????
ae?????y n I??? ? ???ue, ???o ???? ????? ???? ??? a C????a ? ??th ?
???yo. ?????y, y? ?? ??y?? n ??????e ????y?.

E???a e ???a ?????a a ???a ?n??y? I???oth ???th ??? eth?? ??aea, ??u
????y ? ????? ?? E?a?u e ??? ???? e ?i ??i ?e?????ue o??y ????? a ??? ?
???? ?ae y?? ??y?. I??y?? ???n??a ?????ey ???o ????? ??? ???a ?????e
????ue ? ?o ???a e ?????? ????. Aeey ????e ??o ???th?o ?????e ??? ???
???? ?? y?y?? ? ??? ??? a E??? a 1616, 1629, 1631 ??o, ?i? ????ny ?????
?????? ?y?e a ??? I???? e??? e ????i ???a ? ???? ?ae E???i. N y?e ? ??th
a 1638 ?? e ????yi E???, ???? e ???i ???e y???u ???a e ????i ?? n ????
????e e ?iuea?e. I???y ? ?????a ???ey, ???a?u ? ???? ????i ??????i ??oa:
????? y?i ????ue ??a ???? ??y.

A 1619 ?? ?o A?? ?a-?? ???ny e i?? ???a A??e e Ae????. I??? a???ey ??a
??????ay ?????i n???i ? ???o ?? ????y Ae????. N??i I??ae Y?????e ???? ?e
???? ?ay ???? ????i ??. Ia ??oth?e ?ae ?????? ?? A????-???a ?????? e
TH???a ?????? ???e? a N???oth ??? (TH?? Ae???i) e ????e ???a A?u. A???i,
A?? I ????e ? ????ey ???, ??? ? ??, e ????? ???oth y???eth ???? ?i ????o
N?e I (1629—1642), ???e ? ???o ??? ?? ????e ???????a. Ii ??e ????ue
A?o??e E??c e ????ue ???a ???? ? N??, ? A??? ???? e a a???yo O??a, ?i
?????? ????i au a ?? ???? ?????a.

A ???? ???e ?? ?e ??????a ????e N?e I ?????y ?????? ? o??i a??a
O??-A?ay, ? ??a e ???o ???e, ??aey??y a ????? o ???a e ??y e 15 ?n. ???
I?? I?u. *?? ??????o ??i ? ??e, ?????e ??? ?? ??iy? 10 ?n. ???? ???, a
?? ? y?? ????? ????ue ??, a E?? ???? ??? ?? ????ny 40-?ny?ay ??y,
n???ay, ? ??e N?e I, ???? eth?a ?i???. E ??????o ??? ?? ????ny, ??? ??
?o ? ??????: ???a ????e ? ????? e ??a n ???? ??i, ?i ????i ??i ? ??i,
???e ?e ?????ue a ??????? ??i ?????? ???o. O??e E??? ? ??? ? ???? ???? ?
n?????? ???? o A???i ???? ?i? ????o, ? e ?c ??y?a ?y?e, ?i «??y ? ?o
?????, a ? o???. O? ? ???? e ?i? E???, ? ???e ??ey? ?y ??????a ? ?????a,
? eth?e e ??a. I????ue ?????ue a ??????a ???? ????e e ??? ????e — ??????
?y?y, ???? ?i, Y?????e ????ue. I?ie???? ? ??ue ???a ??i????, ?o ?e ????
????ny ? n??i ??a e ?iy?ny ?? ???e ??ie, ???a ????a ????? ????? ? ????y
??u n I???? ????.

Y? ???a ????i a 1639 ??, ??a ??e, ???? ? ???o ??e ?yae ????e, ??e ?
??th??a ???i ???? e ????? ? ????e ? TH?? Ae???i, ???th ??ue A?a?e,
A????? e A???oth A??th, ???a y? ??e ????e ???ey?. Ii ????, y?o ??? ????
???? ??th ???-?????o ??, ?????????o ???eth ? E??? ? ??y??e ??? ?ny???e.
I??i ?? n I???? ???? ? ???e ?y N?e I ??? ? ?????y ???a Ae????. I???a,
??????ny ????a i?????ey ????ue ?? ?e ??cy ??? ?y ????ey ?i ?????o
?????e.

O??? ??u ???i ????? ????. Ae????? ??a ? ?o??ue ???? ?ae ???? ?????,
?-???, ???, ?i ??? ??????ay ???ay ?????a?ay ??? ????a ?? ???o ????o ????
e a ?? ???ue ??????? ???, a ?-???, ?-? ??, ?i ?a?u ??? ????? ?????ue ?e
??i ??? ??o eth?e ? ????i? ?????. I??? ????a ?e y?i ????i ?? ? ??? ????
????? ???? ????a ??uey, ? e ????ue ???? ????u. *?? ???? y?o i??y???e,
?????? ?y?y ?????ue e ??? ???? ?????th, ????? ?????y? ????o ?? e ??a ?
????????o a ?y??? ???o e???o ?????e ? ??o ???? — e ???? ??th. Ia ??y
???i ??????ue n E??i, ????? ??????i ?a-?? a ????? ??? ??a ????i a 1642
?? ???? ??o a I??a A???o ????e ? ??? ???e ????i ??????y ? ??e, ????e
???o ?y?? i ??e ????? ?????e ? ?????i ??y. A???o ?? ?iy?, /? ??ney
?????? ??ue ???? a E?? e O??o e ? ????ny ??? y? ?????ue n E??i. A???i?e
???? ??o a I??a ???o ??a?y ?y ?? ??? ?????, ????i ?i ?? e ? ????ny ? ???
???a Ae????, ? ?????e? ? ?????.

I??i ?, ? ?i ? ???y N?e I, ????? ??? ????? ??oth?? ????o ??, A??o II
(1642 — 1647). I??y? ?e?? ??????ue n ???i ?????? e ??y ???? ??o ??e ???o
??o???, o. a. ???ey? ??o ? ?o ???ue ??? ??? a ?i ????o, A?? II ??e n ??,
?i ?? ?????y ? ???????y ?y??a N??i-A?o??? E???. O?, a 1645 ?? ?o ???e
?????i ??i ????? ? ??? ?e???? ??y ???i-??, ??i??ath?? ? ???e ????
???????y ? ? E?i, a ? ???a. Aeey y?e ?? a E??a ????ny ?????e ??yae ???eo
??e, ???? ??????i ???. N??i??? n ??i ??????i, A?? II ?? a ?????i e ????
a E??a ?????th y????th, ????thny a ?i??? e ????th ?i ??iy?e ???i.
???i-?i ?e ???, a ?i ??i ?iye ???e ????? A??-?i N??i. ?????y, ??u o
A??-?? N??? ???? E??a ?ae ??e ???th ?c ????i ?????y ?? ????, Aea ??? e
?? ? ????? ???? ????i. *?? ???i ???y? ?iy?e ?????e e ?????? ? ?y ?????i
?????y, ?o ??e ???? a ???e A?? ????.

I???? ? E??a ???? ????o ?????? ?y?e ????? ??? ???e ???. E? e a ???e ?c,
?????? ? ?a ??? ???e ??, e ???? ?????i ????? e ????i ????ny n ??????????
????y? e n ????e i ???. E ???o, y?a???? ?y? E??ae? ?e ??e ??th A??ath
I?????: «ssc n ?????? e n E??i, e n ???i ? ??ath?, ??i ?o ????a ?y?e.
Aea ?th ??i ?i, ???? ????th: ??? ??o ?iy ???ue ?????y (o. a. ???), ?e ??
?? ???e ??o ? ?n ?ny?oue, e ?i ?, ???? ????th, ??? ?iy ?? ? ??? ?????? e
???o ??? eth?e e A???o I?ath ????». I??ay, ?i ???? ? ??yo ?? ??? ???e
???? a ??a ??iy? ???ue ? E?i ????i?a ?????? ????, Iin?a ?????a ? O??
?????? ???? ?????, ??a ?? ?o ???e ? ??y ??????a ????? ???? Ae???i io
????i ?????y. I??y? ????i n?????y n ???? ??????, A?? II ???? ?e ???e ??
?? i?? a C????a e ????ny e ? y?o ?c ? ????y E???. I??i e ??? ?o ?? ???e
? ??y ?? ?i??, ??a ? ???y? ????ny n ??? i ?????e ? a ??ue.

I?? ???a ?ae ???i ????i e?y?i ??ye e ?c ?? ???e ????o ???? ??y, ?e ?i
??? ? ?y?e ???? ???a ???? a ??e? ?????, ?i ?????i ? ?o ????o ???????o
???. A ??a ??? ?????i ??th?o n ? ??y? ?? ??y? a ????? ???u, ?i ????eueii
????ue e ? ?????? ???e, e ? ????? a ???a. Ia ??th??? ?? e ????? ??e
A??-?i N??i, ???? ???? ?o n ?? ???e ? ????i. A?a ??? E?? ??? ?????ue,
A??-?i N??i ????y e ???? ???a ?y ???? ?i ?????y ??th i ?i, ?i ?, ??e
«??o ?ae ?i ???th e ?o Aa??a ????? ??th a ??i ?????. A?? ??, ??? ???a
???ye, ?i ?? ?o ? ??o ???, ? ?, A??-?i, «…? ?? ??i ????i ?o, ??e?o
a???th… ?ae ?i Oe??ith ???th ??th ??? ?????i ????a ? ??? ??e ????ue
????». I?y?i, ?i ?o A?? II ?e ? ???u ?? ???? ????i ????? ??? ?????a, ?
????? ? ???e ???? ? ???? ???i ???. AE??? ?????a ???ny ?ae ???????? ???e
?? ?????i ??????? ??u ????i ????y.

I?oth ???eth ? ???o N???? E??? ??? ????? a 1651—1652 ??o, ?a? ??a ?????
??????e A?? II ???? ???e ??yae ??e ??e ?y ???a N????? ???a, ?i ?? ??i???
??? ??u n ????. Ai ??a ???? ?e ?iye O??a-?i O?????, a??a ???? ??iy? ?
?????? ??e??o ? Ae???a e O??e. Aeey ???ey ???eo ??e a ??ae ??? ???e ???e
?? ?? ????? ?n?? ?y?y ? ??? eth?? — ?a o? ? ??e E??? A??-?i N??i, ??ae
N??e e y?????e ?y? E????. A???? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ? ???u ????
??i???ee, e ?e ????ue ???i ???ue. A??ae?, ??? ?????ue ???? ????y ?a?
???? ???e: N????e ??? ??? ?e e ? ?y?. O?? ??????? ???i ??a (??i 3000
???e, 500 ??eth?a, 10000 ??a e 15000 ??), oa??a ??? i???? a Ae???.

?????y, A??-?? N???, N??th e E????o ????? ???? ??? ?uy??? ????? ?????i
??y ? ??? ? ???y a ????e ? ???th ???oue. N?a ????a ?????? ????e ?uy??e
?o???e ????? ??????e e ?i, ?i ?????e ?e ??? ??ea ?????? ?y?e, n ????
????? a ??a, ? ??e ? ??? ???? ????y N????? ???a: «…???i ethaeyi ? ???o
???? e ?? ? ??a??e… ?y ??, ?i n ???? eth?? o ?n ???? ? ??».

I?????ue (?????oth ?? a y?i ???i ???????a ?????a) n ???? N????? ???a, ?o
A?? II ??a ???? ?o? ? N??i-A???? E??c. Ia y?o ?c ?? ??????? ??????i ?
?????e ????? ?? ????e n ????? ? 6 ?n. ??? a ???, a ?? ??????i ????? ??e
? ?? e ??? ???? ????y. Aeey ??? a Ae??? ?? ???u ??? ?????o ?? ??a ? ???
??y??, ??? ii ??? ???? y? ?????a ?? ????. A?iy?? ??i, A?? II ??????
???ny, ?i ?????? ????a N???? E???, ??ath??y e ?? ? ? ????o ????i ?????a,
? ??ei ???? ?????y? ???? y????, ? e ???y? ???i ? ?????a O??? ??e ? ??e
????? (a ???, ?? ?i ???ue-?? ???ue ?i ????) ????? ?????i ?y ?o.

Ii y?e ???a A?? II ????y ? ??i ?????i ????y e ?? ??????? ?????e??e
??a??o, ? ????ay ?y?e ?? n ???, ?, ????, ????y a Ae???i ?? ???u n ?????
? ?y?y? ? ?? ? ???? ??? ?????e. O?? o??? ???? ? ?? ?y?y E??? e Oe??a.
A??a ??????a ???????? ???a ? ??y??e XVI — ??? XVII ?? ????ue ??ue
?????i, ?i E?i ?a ??a ?? ?????? ????ny n ?? a ??iy?e ??. A?iy ? ???e ?o
??n?? a Ae???i ???a ???e, ???a ???ea ????e ??? ? ?? ?e???. A?? ??, ???
??e, ?i ?o ?i???? ?????? ?y?yi ?????? ??u ? ?, ??u ?, ?-???, ? ????e
???a ? ???oth ????eth e, ?-?i?o, e a ???o, ????i ????? ?i, ??, ??i ????i
?????. Ai?? ??????i ?e ??? ????e, ??? ??? ??i ?????i ????ey ? ?e, ?? E??
? ???e e ? ????e e ?? ???th ??????th.

3. I?????ua ?y? ????? E???

A XVI —XVII ??o E??c ???? a ??o ?????e i???e, ?i ?y?? ? ??? n ?i, ?i ??c
?i ????eth ???atho ???? ?? n A??? a A??o, ? ??a e n ?i, ?i ????? ???
y?y?y ???? ???i ?????? ??a, ??n ? ???e a ?????o ???o ?e ??? ??e. *??
I?oth A?th n E??? ??i ?? ???ue ????e ?oy? a ?????a ????????? ????, ?
???o ??i ??? a ???? ????e y?y?? A??ey, a ??c *??a ?? e E?i ??? ????e a
I??o e a A???th.

Ai ??? ???? XVI ?? ?? ?????y ?a ?? ?? ? C?? — ??c A???? e A?????, ???i
?????? ? ?????? ????? ?????, ????o ?e ??? ???oue ? ?????i ??y ?????a ??i
o????e ????. N E??? a A??o ?n??e ??, ???i ? ? E??c ????u ????e ?????
??a, ???y ?i?????, ??? e ???? ???e.

E?? ??, ???? ???n a a????? ???????o e ???o ??? XVI ?? e ?????o ???o
?uy?y?ny ???????? ????? ???a ????e ????. Ae?i a ?i, ?i a y? ? ??y I???ay
???y ????? ???? ??? ???ey ??? ?????o ??i, e ? ??? a ????? ?????? ?th???
a ??? ??? ??e. Ii y?e ???a ? E??c ????e (??? ???eyy? ??a a E?i) ?????a
?????, ?????, ??u e ???????e. E??? ?e ???? e a ??a 40-o, a ??a a 60-o e
a 80-o ??o XVI ?? n E??? a A??o ?????? ????e ????e ?iy??? ?????a,
??????e ??e e ???o ??? n ????e i ??? ??? ??e.

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