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Ломоносов М.В. (Доклад)

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I. A. Eiiiiinia.

Ieoaee Aaneeueaae/ Eiiiiinia ?iaeeeny 8 iiya?y 1711a. a aea?aaia,
Eo?inoianeie aieinoe, A?oaiaaeueneie aoaa?iee a naiuea e?anoueyi-iiii?ia
Aaneeey Aei?ioaaae/a e Aeaiu Eaaiiaiu (o?iaeae?iiie Neaeiaie )
Eiiiiiniauo.

Aiaeu i?iaeeoua a Iiii?uea, nua?aee aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee
ie?iaicc?aiey Eiiiiiniaa e iaeiaeeee naie ioia/aoie ia eioa?anu e
no?aieaiey thiioe.

Ieoaee Aaneeueaae/ ai?aeeeny naiei iiii?neei i?ienoiaeaeaieai.
?aciiia?aciay i?e?iaea naaa?a , aiaaoue aeeaioiue ie? iaiaauaee e
?anoe?yee e?oaici? iaeue/eea, a no?iaue eeeiao e aeeoaeneea o?oaeiinoe
aeaeaee aai oii?iui e auiineeaui. N aieueoei oaaaeaieai ii ioiineeny e
naiei caieyeai-iiii?ai. Eo yia?aey, ianoie/eainoue e o?oaeiethaea
caia/aoeaeenue a aai iaiyoe ia anth aeeciue.

A 1749 aiaeo ia ioaee/iii canaaeaiee Aeaaeaiee Iaoe Eiiiiinia aunooiee n
?a/ueth, a eioi?ie ii ia caaue ioaeaoue aeieaeiia ioaaaeiui
ii?aieaaaoaeyi – o?oaeaieeai: «eneoniue ii?aieaaaoaeue, – aiai?ee ii, –
ia oieii a no?aoiia aieiaiea e ao?th, ii e ai a?aiy e?io/aeoae oeoeiu
aiae?noaoao, oe?aieyao i?oaeey, aioiaeo ia?ona, iaaethaeaao caacaeu,
i?eia/aao ia?aiaiu aicaeooa, niio?eo ia ainnoathuea oo/e, en/eneyao
?annoiyiea io aa?aaia, ia?yao aeoaeio ii?y e io iioaaiiuo eaiiae ii?ae
aethaeaony.»

Iinea 30-oe n eeoiei eao ?aceoee n ?iaeiuie ianoaie ii a 1764 aiaeo i?e
ninoaaeaiee i?iaeoa iao/iie yeniaaeeoeee a Naaa?iue Eaaeiaeoue ieaai n
oaeeaeoaeueiie oi/iinoueth ii iaiyoe au/a?oee noaiaoe/aneoth ea?oo
?aeiia, i?eeaaathuaai e aai ?iaeiui ianoai.

Ainiiieiaiea aeaeaeiai aeaonoaa iiaeii iaeoe ai iiiaeo ni/eiaieyo e
aeieoiaioao o/aiiai. A 1721 aiaeo ioaoe aeaieeny ia Oaaei?o Ieoaeeiaia
Oneiaie, aei/a?e e?anoueyieia ninaaeiae aieinoe. Iaeiaei ni aoi?ie
aeaiie ii i?iaeee ia aeieai: eaoii 1724 iia oia?ea.

Eiiiiinia ?aii iiciae o?oaeiaoth aeeciue. N 10 eao ii ia/ae iiiiaaoue
iooeo. ?aiiae aaniie iie ioi?aaeyeenue ia ?uaiue i?iiunae. Ioaoe aue
iaa?aiioiue, ii oiiue, i?aaei?eei/eaue /aeiaae. E ia/aeo 20-o aiaeia ii
oaea eiae naie i?iiunae. Ii/oe 9 eao thiioa ?acaeaeye aianoa n iooeii
aai o?oaeioth e iianioth i?ioanneth, niaa?oay aeaeaeea ii?neea
ia?aoiaeu. Oioy a oi a?aiy noaea oaea eiaee eiiiana, a n iiiiuueth
oaeiia?iiai i?eai?a i?eii?u oiaee iaoiaeeoue aunioo e oe?ioo iiethna. Ii
aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeenue aieueoay nii?iaea e ia?iiiue iiuo.

A 1763 aiaeo, ninoaaeyy «E?aoeia iienaiea ?aciuo iooaoanoaee ii naaa?iui
ii?yi e iieacaiea aiciiaeiiai i?ioiaeo Neae?neei ieaaiii a Ainoi/ioth
Eiaeeth», Eiiiiinia oaa?aiii ienae, /oi i?iaeaeaeaiea noaeia a naaa?iuo
ii?yo caaeneo io oa/aiey e iai?aaeaiey aao?a, «Nea i?eiaoee y ii anaio
aa?aao Ii?iaiineiai ii?y io Nayoiai iino aei Eeeueaeeia ino?iaa».

A 1761 aiaeo ii ienae a naiao i «aaeeeii iiiaeanoaa» ?aciuo ieia?aeia
,?oae, aei?iaeo iaoaeeia e eaiiae, ia oieueei ne?uouo a iaae?ao.

Naie iooue a iaoeo Eiiiiinia ia/ae n eco/aiey a?aiiou. Eae niiauatho
nia?aiaiieee, aoaeouee o/?iue ia/ae iinoeaaoue a?aiioo a 11-12 eao. E
nei?i iia ia?aienuaaoue oea?eiaiua eieae. A 14 eao Eiiiiinia iia
a?aiioii e /?oei ienaoue.

A 1757 aiaeo a naoe?e/aneii noeoioai?aiee «Aeii ai?iaea» ii auniaye
noa?iia?yae/anoai e i?aaineaaiia aeooiaainoai eae i?aaenoaaeoaeae
?aaeoeeiiiiai ie?iaicc?aiey.

No?anoue e iaoea ,oyae?eay ianoaiiaea canoaaeee Eiiiiiniaa inoaaeoue
?iaeiie aeii e ioi?aaeoueny a Iineao. Yoi i?iecioei a eiioea 1730 aiaea
eiaaea aio 19 eao .Naie ooiae ec aeiia thiioa ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiae. Ciay
,/oi oieueei a o??o ai?iaeao ?innee- a Iineaa ,Eeaaa e Iaoa?ao?aa –
iiaeii iaeaaeaoue aunoeie iaoeaie ,e naie auai? ii inoaiiaee ia ae?aaiae
noieeoea.

N iiiiuueth caieyeia Eiiiiinia iieo/ee ianii?o ia ?oee io
Oieiiai?iaeneie eaioeaey?ee. Eiiiiinia ia iia auaoaoue a Iineao aei1731
aiaea. E ii aeaeae iiaeoiaeyuaai neo/ay /oiau oaoaoue. A1730 aieo
Eiiiiinia ociae ia ioi?aaeaiee i/a?aaeiiai ioi?aaeaiey ea?aaaia n ?uaie.
Ii acye o ninaaea o?e ?oaey e 9 ieoya?y 1730 aiaea ii oo?e ec aeiia.

A 1731 aiaeo ia/aeny iiaue ia?eiae a aeecie thiiai o/?iiai – aai
o?oaeiue iooue a iaoeo. A Iineaa iaoiaeeeanue «Neaayii-a?aei-eaoeineay
aeaaeaiey». Ii naie auai? Eiiiiinia inoaiiaee ia Iaoaiaoeei
-iaaeaaoeeiiiie oeiea , eiaiii a iae ii ia/ae nai? ia?aciaaiea.

Ii yoiai Eiiiiiniao iieacaeinue iaei. E a na?aaeeia 1731 aiaea ii
iiaeaao i?ioaiea ia ca/eneaiea aai a aunoaa o/aaiia caaaaeaiea. Ii oioae
iinooieoue a «Neaayii-a?aei-eaoeineay aeaaeaiey» e i?iaeieaeeoue oai
naie aaeeeee iooue. A Aeaaeaieth iiaeii auei iinooiaoue oieueei ethaeyi
ciaoiiai ?iaea, a Eiiiiinia aue ec i?inoie naiuee, e aio i?eoeinue
i?eaeoiaoue naith enoi?eth.

A aiae iinooieaiey Eiiiiiniaa a Aeaaeaieth oai auei 236 /aeiaae.
I?ioiaeaeaiea iieiiai eo?na auei ?ann/eoaii ia 13 eao. Iao/aiea auei
?acaeaeaii ia 8 eeannia, eee ia 8 oeie, eae oiaaea aiai?eee, eioi?ua
aeeth/aee a naay 4 iecoeo eeanna, 2 n?aaeieo e 3 aunieeo.

Ia anth aeeciue nio?aiee Eiiiiinia oyaeaeia ainiiieiaiea i aaaenoaeyo,
eioi?ua ii eniuoae a aiaeu o/aiey: «aeaeiaaiea a 6 iecoeo oeieao
iieo/aeinue 3 eiiaeee ia aeaiue, a naaeueiie – 4.», – ienae ii a 1745
aiaeo.

*a?ac caieyeia-iiii?ia thiioa anei?a onoaiiaee naycue n iooeii. A
naioya?a 1731 aiaea enoae n?ie ianii?oa, e n yoiai a?aiaie o/aiee
n/eoaeny a aaaao. A 1753 aiaeo Eiiiiinia ienae i naiae o/aaa: «iao/aynue
a oeieao, eiae y ni anao noi?ii ioa?auaiea io iaoe i?aneeueiua
no?aieaiey, eioi?ua a oiaaeaoiea eaoa ii/oe iaii?aaeaeaiioth neeo eiaee.
N iaeiie noi?iiu, ioaoe, ieeiaaea aeaoae e?iia iaiy ia eiay, aiai?ee,
/oi y, aoaeo/e iaeei, aai inoaaee, inoaaee ana aeiaieuenoai, eioi?ia ii
aeey iaiy e?iaaaui iioii aeiaue e eioi?ia iinea aai nia?oe /oaeea
?anoeoyo. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ianeacaiiay aaaeiinoue: eiay iaeei aeoui
aeaeiaaiey iaeuecy auei eiaoue ia i?iieoaiea a aeaiue aieueoa, eae ia
aeaiaaeeo oeaaa e eaana, i?i/aa – ia aoiaao, ia iaoaue e ae?oaea
ioaeaeu. Oaeei ia?acii aeee y iyoue eao e iaoe ia inoaaee».

Eiiiiinia i?eoae a Aeaaeaieth iaoe, eiaaea anooiee ai aoi?ia
aeanyoeeaoea naiae aeayoaeueiinoe. A ia/aea yiaa?y 1736 aiaea i?eauea
aua iaeia a?oiia o/aieeia, /oiau iiiieieoue aeiiaceth. N?aaee ieo aue
24-o eaoiee Eiiiiinia. A ia?aua aeie a Iaoa?ao?aa iineianeea
ainieoaiieee ia eiaee ie aeeeuey, ie aeaiaa ia ieoaiea. Oieueei a
na?aaeeia yiaa?y ei ?ac?aoeee aeeoue a iieiyo i?e Aeaaeaiee iaoe. E n
eiioea ia?oa 1736 aiaea Eiiiiinia e inoaeueiua ainieoaiieee iinaeeeenue
ia ia?aie eeiee Aaneeueaaneiai ino?iaa.

A 1735 aiaeo aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue iai?aaeoue ec Aeaaeaiee ai 2-th
eai/aoneoth yeniaaeeoeeth a Neae?ue a iiiiuue oaoaaoei a 1733 aiaeo
o/aiui aua aeaoo i?ioanni?ia.

O/eouaay iaaeinoaoi/ioth iiaeaioiaeo nooaeaioia a iaueo i?aaeiaoao,
?aoaii auei nia/aea iai?aaeoue eo a Ia?ao?aneee oieaa?neoao e ecaanoiiio
o/aiiio O?enoeaio Aieueoo, eioi?ue a 1725 aiaeo aue eca?ai ii/aoiui
/eaiii Iaoa?ao?aneie Aeaaeaiee. Ana i?eaioiaeaiey e iouacaeo auee
caeii/aiu a na?aaeeia aaaonoa 1736 aiaea. Nooaeaioai i?aaenoiyei ii?ai
i?eauoue a Aa?iaieth. Iaeiaei iouacae ioeeaaeuaaeny ec-ca oeiainiauo
cao?oaeiaiee. Oieueei 8 naioya?y Eiiiiinia ioieue ec Iaoa?ao?aa, ii
ec-ca neeueiiai ooi?ia ei?aaeue auioaeaeai aue aa?iooueny iacaae. E,
iaeiiaoe, 23 naioya?y iie ioieuee e 3 iiya?y 1736 aiaea iie i?eauee a
Ia?ao?a.

A ia/aea 1736 aiaea Eiiiiinia Aeiia?aaeia e Aaeca? iinaeeeenue a
Aa?iaiee aaea ei i?aaenoiyei i?iaanoe ianeieueei eao. E ei noae
ecaanoiue o/?iue Aieueo. Naie caiyoey Eiiiiinia ia/ae n eo?na eaeoeee
oai?aoe/aneie e i?aeoe/aneie oeiee o i?ioanni?a iaaeeoeeiu E. Eii?aaee.

N iiiiuueth Aieueoa ?onneea nooaeaiou i?eiaueeenue e caiyoeyi a
Ia?ao?aneii oieaa?neoaoa. Caeanue iie neooaee eo?nu ?acee/iuo eaeoeee. A
1737 aiaeo ?onneea nooaeaiou i?iyaeee aeeaie eioa?an e caiyoeyi
anoanoaaiiie enoi?eae, /oi ia i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue iaiaoeeie nenoaiie
ia?aciaaiey.

A 1754 aiaeo iacaaeieai aei nia?oe Aieueoa ,Eiiiiinia oioae a naao naith
oi/eo c?aiey i «iiiaaeao».A Ia?ao?aa Eiiiiinia n1736 aei na?aaeeiu 1739
aiaea, neooae eo?n ?eineiai e?anii?a/ey. AEeciue ?onneeo nooaeaioia
iinoiyiii ineiaeiyeanue caaea?aeeie ia?anueee aeaiaa ia eo niaea?aeaiea.
A aue aeiaieai oniaoaie Eiiiiinia e a 1738 aiaeo ienae a Iaoa?ao?a: «O
Eiiiiinia, ii – aeaeeiiio ,naiay naaoeay aieiaa iaaeaeo ieie, i?e
oi?ioai i?eeaaeaiee ii iia au e iao/eoueny iiiaiio, aueacuaay aieueooth
ioioo e aeaeaiea o/eoueny.»

A Ia?ao?aa Eiiiiinia ia/ae niae?aoue ee/ioth aeaeeioaeo .Inaiueth 1738
aiaea ii e ?aii?oo a Iaoa?ao?a i?eeiaeee nienie nia?aiiuo eiea.

E a 1739 aiaeo Aieueo niiauee Iaoa?ao?a ,/oi nooaeaiou i?ineooaee o iaai
aanue eo?n eaeoeee. A?onoii auei Eiiiiinia ?annoaaaoueny n ai?iaeii a
eioi?ii ii i?ia?e ii/oe o?e aiaea iieiuo ?aaiou e aanaeuey. Iyoue
iiiaaeiaeeinue nooaeaioai /oiau aeia?aoueny aei O?aeao?aa., 14 ethey
1739 aiaea iie i?eauee a O?aeao?a.

Eaoii 1739 aiaea Eiiiiinia ni naieie oiaa?euaie i?eaue ecaanoiiio
o/?iiio Aaieaeth. Iao/aiea nooaeaioia Aaieaeue ia/ae n ieia?aeiaee e
iaoaeeo?aee. Iaaethaeaoaeueiiio Eiiiiinia a?ineeanue a aeaca
?aciinoi?iiiinoue iao/aiey. Ai a?aiy iao/aiey ai O?aeao?aa aoaeouee
o/aiue ii/a?iioe iaiaei iieaciiai a i?aaiecaoeee ai?iiai aeaea, iiciae
no?iaiea e?enoaeeia, i?iieeny eioa?anii e oeie/aneei enneaaeiaaieyi.

A 1739 aiaeo Eiiiiinia iaienae aieueoia eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea «Iaeo
ia iiaaaeo iaae oo?eaie e oaoa?aie e ia acyoea Oioeia 1739 aiaea».

Ec-ca nni?u n Aaieaeai Eiiiiinia inoaaee naie aaue oiaa?euai e iieeioe
O?aeao?a. Ii Eiiiiinia iieeioe ia oieueei ec-ca Aaieaey e eae ii ienae a
1740 «iia ia oieueei ia/aai auei anoue ,ii e ia/aio auei aieaa o/eoueny:
i?iae?iia eneonnoai y oaea eco/ee ;oeiey auea caeii/aia.»

AEeay a Ia?ao?aa a aeiia o?ue Eiiiiinia naiinoiyoaeueii eco/ae oi/iua
iaoee. E inaiueth /a?ac O?aieoo?o Eiiiiinia i?eaue Aaaao, e iineaiieeo
A. A .Aieiaeeio. E ia iaoiaeeo o iaai iiaeaea?aeee. An? eaoi Eiiiiinia
neeoaeny ii Aa?iaiee.

Ec Ia?ao?aa Eiiiiinia aeia?aeny aei Ethaaea, a ioooaea ei?aaeai i?eieue
a Iaoa?ao?a e i?eoae a Aeaaeaieth.

Aeaaeaiey oiaaea ia?aaeeaaea o?oaeiua a?aiaia. Eiiiiinia /eneeeny
nooaeaioii e ia iia iieo/eoue aeieaeiinoe. A aeaeaa?a 1741 aiaea ii
iaienae ?aaioo «Yeaiaiou iaoaiaoe/aneie oeiee». A aaaonoa oiai- aea
aiaea ii ieoao «Oeceei – oeie/aneea ?annoaeaeaiey i niioaaonaoaa na?aa?a
e ?oooe.

1 yiaa?y 1742 ii aue iacia/ai aaeuthoaioii aeaaeaiee. Aio iiiaaeiaeeanue
oeie/aneay eaai?aoi?ey e ,a 1742 ii ca?aaioae i?iaeo eaai?aoi?ee.

Ca 18 a aeaaeaiee ia auei ia iaeiiai iiaiai ?onneiai i?ioanni?a e ia
ianoa iiauo i?ioanni?ia i?aaeeiaeeee Eiiiiiniaa e Oaieiaa.

A 1743 aiaeo noieeiiaaiea Eiiiiiniaa n Aaeinaaeiii inoaaeei o?aae/iua
iineaaenoaey. Ia Eiiiiiniaa auea iineaia aeaeiaa i «iaaeinoieiuo
iinooieao». Eiiiiinia aue a?anoiaai. E a oa/aiee ainueie ianyoeaa n
iay1743 aei na?aaeeiu yiaa?y 1744 eiaaea ii e aue inaiaiaeae?i.

N ia/aea 1744 aiaea Eiiiiinia ia/ae naith aaeeeoth oai?/aneoth ,eioi?ie
ii caieiaeny aei eiioea aeecie.

14 ethiy 1745 aiaea Eiiiiinia i?aaenoaaee naith aeana?oaoeeth «I
iaoaeee/aneii aeanea.». *ooue iicaea ii ienae «Aeiaieueii ecaanoii ,/oi
oeie/aneea yenia?eiaiou e enneaaeiaaieth iaoo?aeueiuo aauae e e
i?e?auaiey ooaeiaeanoa aanueia iieaciu»

A 1746 aiaeo ia/aeanue iino?ieea oeie/aneie eaai?aoi?ee ,ii oeaco
aeaaeaiee. A eaai?aoi?ee Eiiiiinia i?i?aaioae aieaa aeanyoe eao.

A 1752-1753 aiaeao Eiiiiinia aeiaeeny io i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?ac?aoaiey ia
iino?ieeo noaeieueiiai caaiaea a aea?aaia Onoue-?oaeeoea , niaoeeaeueiie
oaa?eee oeaaoiiai noaeea.

A ia?oa 1751 aiaea Eiiiiinia iieo/ee /ei6 eeanna. A 1757 aiaeo aue
iacia/ai niaaoieeii eaioeaey?ee ; n 1758 aiaea noae ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
aaia?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa; n 1760 aiaea a aai aaaeaiee oieaa?neoao e
aeiiacey aeaaeaiee.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoue eao aeecie Eiiiiinia aunooiee eae oaeaioeeaue
i?aaiecaoi? iaoee. E a 1745 aiaeo aunooiee eieoeeaoi?ii nicaeaiey
?onneiai oieaa?neoaoa e ninoaaee i?eaeiaeueiue ieai oieaa?neoaoa. 26
ai?aey 1755 aiaea ninoiyeinue ioe?uoea Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa.

E?eoeeoy nenoaio oi?aaeaiey a 1747 aiaeo ,ei auee iaienaiu aieueoia
eiee/anoai i?iaeoia e i?aaeeiaeaiee ii i?aaiecaoeee iaoee.

A 1759-1760 aiaeao Eiiiiinia ?ac?aaaouaaao ieai iauaaeeiaiiiai
aeaaeaie/aneiai oeaio?a .?a/ue oea i iino?ie 14 ei?ionia aaea
?aniieaaaeenue au ana caeaiey aeaaeaiee.

Nai? iiaiea i ia/aeueiii e n?aaeiai ia?aciaaiea Eiiiiinia eceiaeee a
i?iaeoa onoaaa aeiiacee.

Eiiiiinia ?ac?aaaouaaao no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey Iaoa?ao?aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa. E ?anoe?yo nenoaio ia?aciaaiey, aaiaeeo iiaua i?aaeiaou. A
1819 aiaeo iinea nia?oe Eiiiiinia ninoiyeinue ioe?uoea Iaoa?ao?aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa.

I?eaeaeaao eaeay Eiiiiiniaa – nicaeaoue a ?innee iao/iia o/?aaeaeaiea ,
a eioi?ii caieiaeenue au ainoieiaaaeaieai .

Eiiiiinia a 1742 aiaeo ninoaaee i?ia?aiio iao/aiey aeey nooaeaioia
eco/athueo ai?iua ii?iaeu.

A 1760 Eiiiiinia aue eca?ai ii/?oiui /eaiii Oaaeoea?neie aeaaeaiee.

A 1757 aiaeo Eiiiiinia auioaeaeai aue inoaaeoue oeie/aneoth eaai?aoi?eth
e oeie/aneoth eaoaae?o. A 50-o aiaeao Eiiiiinia iiiai e iai?yae?iii
?aaioae. E a 1762 aiaeo Eiiiiinia iiaea?o i?ioaiea ia oaieueiaiee.2 iay
1763 aiaea ii aue oaieai n caaieai noaoneiai niaaoieea .

Au? inaiueth 1748 aiaea o 36-eaoiaai Eiiiiinia iiyaeeenue ia?aua
i?eciaee aieacie. Iiyoiio ii iiiai iaaeaeue ia iia ?aaioaoue. Ii ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 1762 aiaea aieaciue ionooieea, e Eiiiiinia i?eiyeny ca
?aaioo. A 1765 aiaea Eiiiiinia niiaa caaieae.4 ai?aey 1765 aiaea a 5/ana
aa/a?a ia 54 aiaeo aeecie oia?, a iineaaenoaee i?inooaeu eioi?oth ii
iieo/ee.

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