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Личность Ивана IV в исторической науке

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NAIEO-IAOA?AO?ANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE

OIEAA?NEOAO

YEIIIIE*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO

Ee/iinoue Eaaia IV

a enoi?e/aneie iaoea

?aoa?ao nooaeaioa I eo?na

a?oiiu YE-11

ioaeaeaiey “Iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu e

enneaaeiaaiea iia?aoeee a yeiiiieea”

?aaeiaia Noaieneaaa

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue –

Aaea?ia Aeaenae Aaeaioeiiae/

NAIEO-IAOA?AO?A

1997 aiae

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” Iaeaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc406755133 PAGEREF
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Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc406755134 PAGEREF _Toc406755134 3

Aeaonoai e thiinoue Eaaia IV GOTOBUTTON _Toc406755135 PAGEREF
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Io ?aoi?i e oe?aiee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc406755136 PAGEREF _Toc406755136
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Ee/iay aeeciue Eaaia IV GOTOBUTTON _Toc406755138 PAGEREF
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Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc406755139 PAGEREF _Toc406755139 16

Nienie ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE eeoa?aoo?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc406755140 PAGEREF
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Aaaaeaiea

Eaai IV – iaeia ec iaeaieaa eioa?aniuo oeao? a enoi?ee iaoae no?aiu. E
enneaaeiaaieth oaiiiaia aai i?aaeaiey a ?aciua a?aiaia ia?auaeenue
enoi?eee ?aciuo no?ai, i?aaenoaaeoaee ?acee/iuo enoi?e/aneeo oeie, aai
oea?noaiaaieth iinayuaii iaiaei eeoa?aoo?iuo e eeiaiaoia?aoe/aneeo
i?iecaaaeaiee. Iaeie naycuaatho eiy Eaaia IV n oaeanaie ii?e/ieiu,
iacuaay aai oe?aiii e aeaniioii, aeey ae?oaeo Eaai IV – aaieaeueiue
iieeoee, iniiaiie oeaeueth eioi?iai yaeyeinue oe?aieaiea ?onneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, o?aouee n/eoatho, /oi ana aai aeaenoaey
ii?aaeaeyeenue yoaiaie ?acaeoey aai ineoe/aneie aieacie. Iaeiaei
nouanoaiaaiea noieue i?ioeai?a/eauo iiaiee oieueei eeoiee ?ac
aeieacuaaao, /oi ee/iinoue Eaaia IV – eioa?aniaeoee i?aaeiao aeey
enoi?e/aneeo ecuneaiee.

A naiae ?aaioa y iiiuoathnue enneaaeiaaoue eiaiii ee/iinoue Eaaia IV,
iniaaiiinoe aai oa?aeoa?a e oaiia?aiaioa, eioi?ua, ia iie acaeyae, a
iaiaeie noaiaie iiaeeyee ia oiae enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee. A
enoi?eia?aoee ieeiaaea ia auei aaeeiie eiioeaioeee, ii?aaeaeythuae ?ieue
ee/iinoe a enoi?ee: nouanoaiaaee eeoue “aeaa iieiaeaiey, i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo: 1) ee/iinoue – oai?aoe enoi?ee: “Enoi?ey anoue ia /oi
eiia, eae niaieoiiinoue aeia?aoee aaeeeeo ethaeae” e 2) ia?iae – oai?aoe
enoi?ee”, oai ia iaiaa, iia eaaeaony, /oi a ?innee noauaeoeaiue,
ee/iinoiue oaeoi? anaaaea eiae aieueoia cia/aiea. Eiaiii iiyoiio n
aeeciueth ?onneeo oea?ae naycaii iiiaeanoai oaei e caaaaeie, eiaiii
iiyoiio Eaai IV aioae a enoi?eth iiae eiaiai Eiaiia Aaneeueaae/a
A?ICIIAI.

Aeaonoai e thiinoue Eaaia IV

Oi?ie?iaaiea oa?aeoa?a /aeiaaea ia/eiaaony n ?aiiaai aeaonoaa, aeaoneea
aia/aoeaiey anaaaea inoaaeytho aeoaieee neaae a aeooa /aeiaaea e ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeytho aanue oiae ?acaeoey aai ee/iinoe, iiyoiio
i?aeoe/anee ai anao ?aaioao, iinayuaiiuo Eaaio IV, iniaia ianoi
oaeaeyaony enneaaeiaaieth n?aaeu, a eioi?ie ainieouaaeny aoaeouee
ainoaea?ue.

Ia aeieth oea?aae/a a aeaonoaa auiaei iiiai eniuoaiee. Aai ioaoe,
aaeeeee eiycue Aaneeee III, oia? a 1533 aiaeo, eiaaea iaeieaoiaio Eaaio
auei anaai 3 aiaea. Ia?aae nia?oueth Aaneeee III “i?eeaca aaeeeia
eiyaeea nuio naiaio aieueoiio Eaaio e ia?a/a aai nai i?e naiai aeeaioa
aaeeeei eiycai e i?eeaca aai aa?a/e aei iyoiaaeoeaoe eao naiei aiy?ai
iaiiiaei”, oi anoue iacia/ee iiaeoineee niaao, a eioi?ue aioee
i?aaenoaaeoaee ciaoiaeoeo aiy?neeo ?iaeia. Iiaeoiu Ooeneee, Aeeineee,
Caoa?ueei e ae?oaea iieo/eee aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeyoue ainoaea?noaii, ia
n/eoaynue n iiaieai Aiy?neie aeoiu, /oi, anoanoaaiii, i?eaaei e
?acaei?ai e ai?ueaa ca aeanoue. Eiycue TH?ee Aeieo?ianeee, a?ao
iieieiiai aaeeeiai eiycy, i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo iaeaaeaoue i?anoieii, ii
aue a?anoiaai. Aaeaa iioi?iiea ioaea, Aeaia Aeeineay, iaoue Eaaia IV,
caaaea oaai?eoa a eeoea eiithoaai aiy?eia Ia/eiu-Iaieaineiai, eioi?iio
oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny ?aoathuaai aeeyiey a Aeoia. A ?acoeueoaoa oaea a
1534 aiaeo Ieoaee Aeeineee, aeaaa iiaeoineiai niaaoa aue a?anoiaai ii
iaaeiaieth a oaeenoaa Aaneeey III. Aue noaa/ai e oia? a caoi/aiee
Aiae?ae Noa?eoeeee, iineaaeiee caeiiiue i?aoaiaeaio ia o?ii (ia n/eoay,
naii niaie, iaeieaoiaai oea?aae/a). Iaeiaei i?aaeaiea Aeeineie
i?iaeieaeaeinue iaaeieai – a 1538 aiaeo iia neii/aeanue, aiciiaeii,
eiyaeiy auea io?aaeaia. Iineaaeothuea aiaeu iciaiaiiaaeenue
iai?ae?auathuaeny ai?ueaie iaaeaeo Ooeneeie e Aaeueneeie, eaciyie e
nnueeaie.

Oaeei ia?acii Eaai IV ?in a aoiinoa?a a?aaeaeu e caaenoie/anoaa. Aio /oi
ieoao ia yoii Eeth/aaneee: “A aeooa aai ?aii e aeoaiei a?acaeinue e ia
anth aeeciue nio?aieeinue /oanoai ne?ionoaa, a?ioaiiinoe e iaeeii/anoaa,
i /ai ii oaa?aeee i?e anyeii neo/aa: “?iaenoaaiieee iie ia caaioeeenue
iai iia”… Eae ana ethaee, au?inoea n?aaee /oaeeo, aac iooeianeiai
i?eci?a e iaoa?eineiai i?eaaoa, Eaai ?aii onaiee i?eau/eo oiaeeoue
iaeyaeuaaynue e i?eneooeaaynue. Yoi ?acaeei a iai iiaeic?eoaeueiinoue,
eioi?ay n eaoaie i?aa?aoeeanue a aeoaieia iaaeiaa?ea e ethaeyi. A
aeaonoaa aio /anoi i?eoiaeeeinue eniuouaaoue ?aaiiaeooea e
i?aiaa?aaeaiea ni noi?iiu ie?oaeathueo”. N iaaethaeaieyie Eeth/aaneiai
ai iiiaii noiaee auaiaeu Ieaoiiiaa: “Ii ia aeaeae aeia?a e ethaae io
aiy?. Iie oieueei ai a?aiy oea?aiiiee, ia aeacao ia?iaea, ieacuaaee aio
ciaee aiaoiaai ii/oaiey eae aaeeeiio eiycth. A a iau/iie aeecie Eaai e
a?ao aai (TH?ee) ?inee, ii neiaai naiiai Eaaia, eae naiua oaiaea ethaee
(“yei oaiaeaeoa /aaeue”)… Iaeue/ee iceiaeyeny e, ia aeaey aeia?iai
ainieoaiey, nai iiaeaeaaaeny aeo?iui /oanoaai. Ii ia/oae i ianoe aiy?ai
e oaea a 13 eao oniae ioiinoeoue iaeiiio ec Ooeneeo (eiycth Aiae?ath
Ieoaeeiae/o): Eaai i?eeacae naiei ina?yi noaaoeoue aai, e ina?e aai
oaeee”. Iiiaea enoi?eee ioia/atho iaii?aaaeaiioth aeanoieinoue iieiaeiai
Eaaia: “ii a?inae eioae e niaae n e?uoe aeai?oea e au?uaae ia?uey o
ioeoe, aueaeuaae ei aeaca e ?ac?uaae ooeiaeua”. Aieueoia aeeyiea ia
oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe Eaaia IV ieacae ia?aaeeoue a aeaonoaa no?ao: a
1542, eiaaea o aeanoe iaoiaeeeanue a?oiie?iaea Aaeueneeo, noi?iiieee
Ooeneiai ii/ueth iaiaeeaeaiii iaiaee ia ieo?iiieeoa Eianaoa,
iiaeaea?aeeaaaoaai eo i?ioeaieeia. Ieo?iiieeo oe?ueny ai aeai?oea
aaeeeiai eiycy, ii iyoaaeieee neeie ai?aaeenue a niaeueith iaeaiueeiai
ainoaea?y, /ai no?aoii aai iaioaaee.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ai iiiaii aeaaiaea?y ieo?iiieeoo Iaea?eth, Eaai IV
i?eno?anoeeny e /oaieth e e 16 aiaeai ii?aaeae ie?oaeathueo naieie
?aciinoi?iiieie ciaieyie. Oai ia iaiaa, nenoaiaoe/aneiai ia?aciaaiey
oea?aae/ ia iieo/ee “e ieacaeny iaei iiaeaioiaeaiiui e eniieiaieth
ooieoeee i?aaeoaey iaoe?iie e iiaouanoaaiiie aea?aeaau, a ie?oaeaee aai
neo/aeiua ethaee. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi naia niaa?oaiiieaoea Eaai IV
iciaiaiiaae iiaeaie aea eaciyie”.

Eoae, a 1546 aiaeo Eaai IV aeinoea niaa?oaiiieaoey, e aeey oe?aieaiey
iioaoioaoaainy i?anoeaea aeanoe auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea, /oi Eaai IV
ioeoeeaeueii i?eiao oeooe oea?y, ?aaiicia/iue eiia?aoi?neiio oeooeo, /oi
e auei i?eaaaeaii a eniieiaiea a 1547 aiaeo. Caeanue neaaeoao iiae?iaiaa
inoaiiaeoueny ia oii, eae iieiaeie iiia?o ioiineeny e naiie eaeaa
aeanoe. I?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeanoe Eiaii ii/a?iioe ec
Nayuaiiiai Ienaiey, eioi?ia eco/ae iiiai e ioioii. Ii anaaaea iaiieiye
naith ?a/ue oeeoaoaie ec Aeaeee, ia?ooeaay ia niaanaaeieea iioie eiai,
oaenoia e ?aciiia?aciuo i?eia?ia. A iineaiee eiycth Eo?aneiio Eaai IV
/aoei eceaaaao naie acaeyaeu ia ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue. Niiaa
ia?aoeiny e Eeth/aaneiio: “N aeaonoaa caoaa?aeaiiua aaoi?ii ethaeiua
aeaeaeneea oaenou e enoi?e/aneea i?eia?u ana ioaa/atho ia iaeio oaio,
ana aiai?yo i oea?neie aeanoe, i aa aiaeanoaaiiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee, i
ainoaea?noaaiiii ii?yaeea, ia ioiioaieyo e niaaoieeai e iiaeaeaiiui, i
aeaaeueiuo neaaenoaeyo ?aciiaeanoey e aacia/aeey. Ianoue aeanoe, aua ia
io aiaa”. Oai?ey yoa, iaeiaei ia eiaea i?aeoe/aneie iniiau e iioiio, eae
n/eoaao Eeth/aaneee, i?aa?aoeeanue a “i?oaeea ee/iie ceinoe,
aacio/aoiiai i?iecaiea”.

Anei?a iinea iiiacaiey Eaaia IV ia oea?noai i?iecioei niauoea, eioi?ia
neeueii iiaeeyei ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ie?iaicc?aiey oea?y e aianoa n
oai, ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo enoi?eeia, caaa?oeei niaie ia?eiae aiy?neiai
i?aaeaiey. Eaoii 1547 aiaea a Iineaa ia/aeny iyoaae, aucaaiiue
iaaeiaieuenoaii ceioiio?aaeaieyie aeanoae. A noieeoea aniuoioe iiaea?,
eioi?ue oie/oiaeee aieueooth /anoue iino?iae. A iiaeaeiaa iaaeieee aaaeo
oea?y, Aiio Aeeineoth. ?acuy?aiiay oieia aeaeioeanue e oea?neie
?aceaeaioeee ia Ai?iaueaauo ai?ao, o?aaoy auaea/e i?anooiieoeu. ?iae
Aeeineeo iae e aue iono?aiai io oi?aaeaiey no?aiie. Eaaaiaea aeaneo, /oi
ai a?aiy iiaea?a e aieiaiee e oea?th yaeeny i?ioiiii Neeueaano?, iaeei
ec i?eaeeaeaiiuo ieo?iiieeoa Iaea?ey, “oeacuaay Eaaio, /oi iiaea? Iineau
ii aeieaeai iiieiaoue eae iaeacaiea Ainiiaeia ca aai oea?neea a?aoe.
Neeueaano? iio?yn aeooo iieiaeiai oea?y e iaeaaeae aai aieath.
Ainoaea?ue ?aoeeny iinayoeoue naay caaioai i ia?iaea…”. Eiaiii n yoiai
iiiaioa ia/aea neeaaeuaaoueny oae iacuaaaiay Eca?aiiay ?aaea, a?oiia
ia?aaeiauo iauanoaaiiuo aeayoaeae (a ninoaa ?aaeu aioee eiycuey
Eo?aneee, Eo?eyoaa, Ai?iouineee, ieo?iiieeo Iaea?ee, Neeueaano?, noaaoee
aeooiaieeii ainoaea?y, aeueye iinieueneiai i?eeaca Aeneiaaoue e
ethaeiaoe oea?y, iinoaeueie/ee Aeaenae Aaeaoaa), eioi?ay, ai-ia?auo,
iiaeaioiaeea e n iaeia?aiey ainoaea?y i?iaaea oeaeue ?yae aaaeiuo
?aoi?i, a ai-aoi?uo, ieacaea naea?aeeaathuaa aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea ii?ieia
iieiaeiai oea?y. ?aoi?iu Eaaia IV caneoaeeaatho ioaeaeueiiai iiae?iaiiai
?anniio?aiey, ii ia yaeythony i?aaeiaoii ?aaiou, e iiyoiio y ia noaio ia
ieo inoaiaaeeaaoueny, ?aaii eae e ia aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo aniaeoao
aeayoaeueiinoe Eaaia A?iciiai. A oii aea 1547 aiaeo oea?ue aeaieeny ia
Aianoanee ?iiaiiaia Caoa?ueaaie, ii-aeaeeiiio aaeeinoaaiiie aeaiueia,
eioi?oth ii ii-ianoiyuaio ethaee.

Io ?aoi?i e oe?aiee.

Neaaeothuae aaoie i?aanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey A?iciiai yaeyaony
aeeianoe/aneee e?ecen 1553 aiaea, eiaaea i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo Eca?aiiie
?aaeie e Caoa?ueeiuie-TH?ueaauie, ?iaenoaaiieeaie oea?eoeu ia?aoee a
ioe?uooth a?aaeaeo. Oea?ue na?ueacii caaieae e, ia iaaeaynue
aucaei?iaaoue, noae aeoiaoue i caaauaiee. Ii niae?aeny inoaaeoue
oea?noai naiaio nuio, iaeieaoiaio Aeieo?eth, e oioae, /oiau aiy?a
iaiaaeeaiii aio i?enyaioee. Iaeiaei /anoue aiy?, iaiyooy i iio?ynaieyo
a?aiai aiy?neiai iiaeoinoaa e ia aeaeay ieacaoueny iiae aeanoueth
Caoa?ueeiuo, ioeacaeanue i?enyaiooue oea?aae/o, iaia?aaaynue ia?aaeaoue
i?anoie aeaith?iaeiiio a?aoo oea?y, eiycth Aeaaeeie?o Noa?eoeeiio.
Ecaanoea i oii, /oi Neeueaano? oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaaao eaiaeeaeaoo?o
Aeaaeeie?a, iio?ynei Eaaia IV. N aieueoei o?oaeii oaeaeinue oaaaeeoue
aiy? i?enyaiooue oea?aae/o, eioi?ue, enoaoe, anei?a ooiioe a ?aea
Oaenia. Eiaaea Eaai IV aucaei?iaae, ii ?aoee, eae ieoao Aeaeai A?ei, “ia
oieueei ono?aieoue naieo e?eoeeia, ii e iaanaaaea neiieoue aeanoue aiy?,
eioi?uo ii n/eoae e a?aaaie oea?y, e a?aaaie ?onneiai ia?iaea.
Neeueaano? e Aaeaoaa iiiaee a nnueeo”. Aiineaaenoaee iaa iie i?aaenoaee
ia?aae noaeii, aiciiaeii, ii iaaeiaieth a io?aaeaiee oea?eoeu Aianoanee,
nia?oue eioi?ie a 1560 aiaeo noaea aeey Eaaia IV i/a?aaeiui aieaciaiiui
oaea?ii. Aaeaoaa oia? a caeeth/aiee, a i noaeueaa Neeueaano?a, eioi?ue
aue nineai a Nieiaaoeeee iiianou?ue, ie/aai ia ecaanoii. Aieaciue,
i?aaeaoaeuenoai aiy?, e iniaaiii nia?oue aeaiu e nuia naeaeaee naia
aeaei – ainoaea?ue noae aua aieaa iiaeic?eoaeueiui e aeanoieei, ei ana
aieueoa iaeaaeaaaea eaeay iieoaiaeanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a nianoaaiiie
aeanoe, /oi aaei e oneeaieth i?ioeai?a/ee n aiy?noaii. A 1558 aiaeo
A?iciue ia/ae Eeaiineoth aieio, e?aeia iaiiioey?ioth n?aaee aunoae
ciaoe. E yoiio iiiaioo yiea?aoeey aiy?noaa, iianaaoaainy aiaaa oea?y,
i?eiyea ianniaue oa?aeoa?, a iinea nia?oe ieo?iiieeoa Iaea?ey e aaanoaa
a Eeoao eiycy Eo?aneiai a 1564 aiaeo i?ioeai?a/ey ia?a?inee a ioe?uoua
aiiaiey ia aiy?, no?aia auea aaa?aiooa a ii?e/ioth aieith.

Ii?e/ieia

E na?aaeeia 60-o aiaeia XVI aaea a ie?oaeaiee Eaaia IV ia inoaeinue
ethaeae, eioi?ua iiaee au oioue eae-oi naea?aeeaaoue aoeiua no?anoe
ainoaea?y, oa?aeoa? aai i?aoa?iae na?ueaciua eciaiaiey. “Iaeioi?ua a?aie
aai ee/iinoe, a iniaaiiinoe aeeeea naaeenoneie aeanoieinoe, noaee aieaa
yaiuie, iaoiaey au?aaeaiea a i?eiaaeeao aacoaea?aeiiai aiaaa”, – ieoao
Aeaeai A?ei. Iia aea iacuaaao aaaaeaiea ii?e/ieiu “aeaeueiaeoei nea/eii
ii aei?iaa aiec e aeaeeiiio ineoe/aneiio ?anno?ienoao”.

Eoae, a 1564 aiaeo oea?ue auaoae ec Iineau a Aeaenaiae?ianeoth neiaiaeo,
ioeoaea e auee i?eneaiu a noieeoeo ciaiaieoua a?aiiou ia io?a/aiee.
Ne?uiieeia n/eoaao io?a/aiea oi?ioi i?iaeoiaiiui iieeoe/aneei oaaii. A
naiai ia?auaiee oea?ue aiaeee?iaae e ia?iaeo, iiyoiio iiae aeaaeaieai
ianoiyoaeuenoa Aiy?neay aeoia auea ia?aoeoueny e ainoaea?th n
aa?iiiiaeaeaiie/aneei oiaeaoaenoaii e i?eiyoue ana iinoaaeaiiua A?iciui
oneiaey, i?eiyoue aaaaeaiea ii?e/ieiu. Ne?uiieeia ieoao: “Oea?ue ia?ooee
ia noaio “a?ico”, /oiau enei?aieoue iaii?yaeee a noaea e caueoeoue
ni?aaaaeeeainoue. Ia i?aeoeea ii?e/ieia i?eaaea e ianeuoaiiui
aaccaeiieyi, ianeeeyi e e?iaii?ieeoeth. Ii naiaio aeaii?aeecothuaio
aeeyieth ia ?onneia iauanoai oa??i? iiaeii n?aaieoue ?acaa /oi n
iiiaieueneei eaii”. ss, iaeiaei, ia aoaeo eanaoueny nioeeaeueii
yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo aniaeoia ii?e/ieiu, y eeoue iiiuoathnue
i?ineaaeeoue, eaeei ia?acii e?iaaaue oa??i? iiaeeye ia ee/iinoue Eaaia
IV.

Caeanue neaaeoao iiae?iaiaa inoaiiaeoueny ia i?aaao e iau/ayo
Aeaenaiae?ianeie neiaiaeu, ainoaea?noaa a ainoaea?noaa, aaea iinaeeeny
Eaai IV. Iieeioa noieeoeo, oea?ue ie?oaeee naay iiauie iiiiuieeaie,
iaa?aiiuie ec iiaeiieia iauanoaa. Iiaia ie?oaeaiea ainoaea?y ia iiieiaei
oeaeae, eioi?ua noaaee ia?aae niaie A?iciue, e iiyoiio ana aieueoa
neaouaaeinue e ianeeeth, eioi?ia ie/ai ia auei ia?aie/aii. Ii iiaieth
Aaeeoaaneiai, “ yoe eoeaaua oea?aaeai?oeu niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth o
iaai aea/aiey e a?oaiio ?aca?aoo e euenoeee iaeioi?ui naaeenoneei
iaeeiiiinoyi, eaaeaaoei, aac niiiaiey a aai iaoo?a”. Eae oaea
aiai?eeinue, oea?ue aue aanueia ?aeeaeiciui /aeiaaeii, e
Aeaenaiae?ianeay neiaiaea, aaea ii iinaeeeny oaeeaeoaeueiui ia?acii
ni/aoaea a naaa /a?ou e?iaaaiai aa?oaia e iiianou?y. Aaeeoaaneee,
iai?eia?, n/eoaao, /oi ii?e/ieia ii nooe naiae ai iiiaii iioiaeeea ia
iiianou?neia a?aonoai. Ii?e/ieee i?e iinooieaiee ia neoaeao i?ieciineee
eeyoao, aiaeiae/ioth eeyoaa i?e iino?eaeaiee a iiiaoe, e a iaeioi?ii
?iaea io?aeaeenue io ie?a, ia eiay i?aaa iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naycue aeaaea
n aeeceeie ?iaenoaaiieeaie, anee oa inoaeenue a caiueia. A neiaiaea
aeaenoaiaae onoaa, iiaeiaiue iiianou?neiio. Ieiei 300 iaeaieaa aeeceeo e
ainoaea?th ii?e/ieeia iaaeaaaee ia naie cieioua eaooaiu /a?iua ?ynu e
i?eieiaee o/anoea a neiaeiuo ?aeeaeiciuo ia?yaeao, a eioi?uo Eaai IV
eniieiye ?ieue eaoiaia, Aycaineee – eaea?y, a Neo?aoia – iiiiia?y. Iia
eaaeaony, /oi a yoeo aiaiooeueiuo ia?yaeao a iieiie ia?a ?ane?uaaeanue
aieaciaiiay iao?aaiiaaoaiiinoue e i?ioeai?a/eainoue ee/iinoe A?iciiai. A
niioaaonoaee n i?aaenoaaeaieyie Eaaia e?aeiaa aeaai/anoea iieiinoueth
eneoiaei e?aeiee ?aca?ao, eioi?ui auee caiieiaiu ia?a?uau iaaeaeo
oea?eiaiuie neoaeaaie. Nouanoaoao ianna ioa?aoeoaeueiuo eaaaiae,
iiaanoaothueo i ?acaea/aieyo, eioi?ui i?aaeaaaeny oea?ue e aai
i?eaeeaeaiiua.

E?iaaaua ?ani?aau neaaeiaaee iaeia ca ae?oaie, oie/oiaeaeenue oeaeua
iinaeaiey, A?iciiai iaoyea aeaaeaea e?iae. Oae a 1570 aiaeo
aeanoi/aeoaio ?aca?iio iiaeaa?any Iiaai?iae, iacaaeneiia aiy?noai
eioi?iai auei iaaeiaii a eciaia ainoaea?th. Oie/oiaeaiea Iiaai?iaeneie
?anioaeeee, ianiiiaiii, eiaei iieeoe/aneea i?e/eiu, ii iaoiaeu, eioi?ua
Eaai IV i?e yoii eniieueciaae aaniethoii aan/aeiaa/iu: “… caio/aiiuo
i?eaycuaaee e naiyi aeeeiiie aa?aaeie, aieieee /a?ac aanue ai?iae e
Aieoiao e nioneaee iiae eaae… Naycaiiuo aeaiuei e aeaoae a?inaee a
aiaeo e caoaeeeaaee iiae eaae iaeeaie”. E ana yoi ii i?eeacaieth oea?y!
Aio e?aoeee ineoieiae/aneee ii?o?ao Eaaia IV a?aiai ii?e/ieiu: “Ii
ne?uoai, ii ioee/ii ciaao, /aai oi/ao, e oi/ao ?acoiiiai eee oiai, /oi,
ii e?aeiae ia?a, eaaeaony oaeei i?e aeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao. Ii
ecai?ioeea, oiiie e ethaiciaoaeai ai anao ioiioaieyo. Ii?ie ii aueao
aeaeueoa iaia/aiiie oeaee, /oi caaeneo io aai iaiaocaeaiiiai
oaiia?aiaioa. O iaai aieueoa aea?oa, /ai aeaenoaeoaeueiuo a?aaia.
Iaeuecy ia niaeaneoueny ia yoio ?ac n Eiia?ici, neacaaoei, /oi ?ac
/aeiaae ioaaaeae e?iae, oaeenoai aeey iaai noaiiaeony iio?aaiinoueth.
E?iaue iiaaeeoaeueia ianoieueei, /oi ae iaeuecy i?ioeaeoueny. Ii aai
neiaai, /oanoaaiiay ethaiaue ia?aaeei nieaoaaony n aeaaeaeie e?iae –
aeae aa neeueiaa aicaoaeaeaao iieiaoth no?anoue… Ca e?iaaauie noeaiaie
anaaaea neaaeoao i?iyaeaiea naiiai iaenoiaiai ?aca?aoa. A yoii
iauyniaiea aeecie Aeaenaiae?ianeie neiaiaeu”.

Neiaeii iauynieoue, eaeei ia?acii caa?noaa, o/eiyaiua ii?e/ieeai ii
i?eeaco Eaaia, ninouanoaiaaee n eaeayie aunoae aeanoe, eioi?ua A?iciue
auneacuaae, neaaeai, a ciaiaieouo iineaieyo eiycth Eo?aneiio, e n
oeaeueth, eioi?oth noaaee ia?aae niaie ainoaea?ue, eiaaea aaiaeee
ii?e/ieio – oeaio?aeecaoeey aeanoe e oie/oiaeaiea aiy?neiai iiaouanoaa.
Iia eaaeaony, /oi Eaai IV, a neeo ianoiyoaeuenoa anooiea ia iooue
oa??i?a, iiiae ai aeanoue naieo ne?uouo ii?ieia e ia iia aieaa
inoaiiaeoueny a naiai iaaeaiee.

Ee/iay aeeciue Eaaia IV

Oa?aeoa? e oaiia?aiaio oea?y a aieueoie ia?a iaoee io?aaeaiea a aai
ee/iie aeecie, iiyoiio, eco/ay acaeiiioiioaiey Eaaia IV n aeeceeie aio
ethaeueie, iiaeii naeaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua auaiaeu ioiineoaeueii aai
ee/iinoe. Eeth/aaneee ienae i iieiaeii ainoaea?a: “A 17-20 eao, i?e
auoiaea ec aeaonoaa, ii oaea ii?aaeae ie?oaeathueo iaiiia?iui
eiee/anoaii ia?aaeeouo aia/aoeaiee e ia?aaeoiaiiuo iuneae… A 1546
aiaeo, eiaaea aio auei 16 eao, n?aaee ?aay/aneeo ea? ii, ii ?anneaco
eaoiiene, aae?oa caaiai?ee n aiy?aie i aeaieoueaa, aea aiai?ee oae
iaaeoiaiii, n oaeeie i?aaeoniio?eoaeueiuie iieeoe/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie,
/oi aiy?a ?anieaeaeenue io oieeaiey…”. Eoae, a 1547 aiaeo Eiaii eca?ae
naaa a noi?oae Aianoaneth Caoa?ueaao. Nia?aiaiieee i?eienuaatho ae ana
aeaineea aeia?iaeaoaee: oeaeiioae?ea, nie?aiea, iaaiaeiinoue,
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue, aeaainoue, oi, ia aiai?y i e?anioa. Aai/aiea i?ioei
a o?aia Aiaiiaoa?e. I?a?aaa aanaeua ie?u aeai?a, Eiaii e noi?oaa oiaeeee
iaoeii ceiie a O?ieoeeoth Na?aeaao eaa?o e i?iaaee oai ia?aoth iaaeaee
aaeeeiai iinoa, aaeaaeiaaii iieynue iaae a?iaii nayoiai Na?aey.
Aieueoeinoai enoi?eeia niaeaoaaony, /oi oea?eoea ieacaea aeaaioai?iia
aeeyiea ia oa?aeoa? Eaaia IV, ii, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, a 1560 aiaeo
oea?eoea neii/aeanue iinea 10 ianyoeaa aieacie.

Aoi?ie ?ac Eaai IV aeaieeny a 1561 aiae ia iieoaeeeie /a?eaoaiea,
aei/a?e eiycy Oai?thea, iacaaiiie a e?auaiee Ia?eae. “I iae oiaeeea
iieaa, /oi iia auea oae aea ?aniouaia ii naiei i?aaai, eae e aeanoiea ii
i?e?iaea,”- ieoao Aaeeoaaneee. Eioa?anii, /oi Ooaaeai a naieo
ainiiieiaieyo aiai?eo i iae neaaeothuaa: “Iia-oi, Ia?ey Oai?theiaia, e
iiaeaea aaeeeiio eiycth niaao, /oia ioia?ae ii aeey naay ec naiaai
ia?iaea 500 no?aeeia e uaae?i iiaeaeiaae eo iaeaaeaeie e aeaiueaaie e
/oiau iianaaeiaaii e aeiai, e ii/ueth iie acaeeee ca iei e io?aiyee
aai”. Oaeei ia?acii, eaeay ii?e/ieiu, aiciiaeii, io/anoe i?eiaaeeaaeeo
ae. Ia?ey oia?ea a 1569 aiaeo, e oea?ue ?aoee aeaieoueny a o?aoee ?ac.

A 1571 aiaeo oea?ue iaaai/aeny n Ia?oie Niaaeeiie, aei/a?ueth
iiaai?iaeneiai eoioea, ii iia oia?ea /a?ac aeaa iaaeaee iinea naaaeueau.
Eaai IV, iaaeaynue ii?aaaeaoue naia iaia?aiea anooieoue a /aoaa?oue
a?ae, ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aai aeaio io?aaeee aua aei oiai, eae a?ae
caaa?oeeny eioeiiuie ioiioaieyie. Iaeiaei oea?eoea nei?aa anaai ia auea
io?aaeaia – iaeioi?ua enoi/ieee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi aua aei
caioaeanoaa iia auea na?ueacii aieueia.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a oa a?aiaia oea?eiaiua caeiiu iicaieyee
aeaieoueny ia aieaa aeaoo ?ac e oi, /oi Eaaio IV oaeaeinue, oioy e n
aieueoei o?oaeii, iaieoe ana cai?aou, aua ?ac aiai?eo ia aaoi?eoa?iinoe
aai ee/iinoe. Oaea a 1572 ii iiaae e aeoa?th Aiio Aeaenaaaio
Eieoianeoth, aei/ue iaeiiai ec naieo i?eaeeaeaiiuo. *a?ac o?e aiaea
oea?ue caoi/ee noi?oao a iiianou?ue, aaea iia i?iaeeea aei 1626 aiaea
iiae eiaiai eiieeie Aea?uee. I?aaeeiaii e yoiio iineoaeeei
i?aaeuyaeaiiia oea?eoea iaaeiaiea a caaiai?a i?ioea oea?y.

Iinea yoiai Eaai IV iaeio ca ae?oaie i?eaeecee e naaa aeaoo iaeiaeieoe –
Aiio Aaneeue/eeiao e Aaneeeno Iaeaioueaao. Iaa iie aii?aee oea?eiaiui
caeiiai i?eciaaaeenue aai noi?oaaie, oioy aeey niaeeoaeuenoaa n ieie ii
eni?inee oieueei ?ac?aoaiey naiaai aeooiaieea, iiieiaaoaai, eae ieoao
Aaeeoaaneee, “/oi aeey oaeiai /aeiaaea, eae Eaai, ioaeii ecia?aoaoue
aieaa yeanoe/iua i?aaeea”. Aaneeena eiaea iainoi?iaeiinoue caaanoe
ethaiaieea, eiycy Aeaaoaeaaa. Aac eeoieo ?acaeoiee oea?ue i?eeacae
iinaaeeoue aai ia eie ia?aae ieiaie aeai?oea, a Aaneeeno nineaoue a
iiianou?ue.

Neaaeothuay noi?oaa Eaaia IV, Ia?ey Aeieai?oeay, oaeaea oia?ea
ianeeuenoaaiiie nia?oueth. Oea?ue, caiiaeic?ea, /oi Ia?ey aeinoaeanue
aio ia aeaanoaaiieoeae, i?eeacae iinaaeeoue aa a eieyneo, cai?yaeaiioth
eeoeie eioaaeueie e ooiieoue a ?aea Na?a. Iineaaeiae aeaiie Eaaia IV
noaea Ia?ey Oaaei?iaia Iaaay.

A 1581 aiaeo i?iecioei niauoea, aua aieaa onoaoaeaoaa i?aanoaaiioth
aieaciue ainoaea?y – a i?eiaaeea aiaaa ii oaee nianoaaiiiai nuia,
oea?aae/a Eaaia. A eieaa oiai aea Aaeeoaaneiai i?eaaaeaiu ianeieueei
aa?nee, iauyniythueo yoi niauoea. Ii iaeiei enoi/ieeai, oea?aae/, aeaey
iaoaea/e ?onneie a?iee a Eeaiineie aieia, nai caoioae ?oeiaiaeeoue
aieneaie, /ai iaaeae ia naay aiaa iooea, ii ae?oaei, ii canooieeny ca
eeaiineeo ieaiieeia, ii iaeaieaa aa?iyoii, /oi Eaai “ano?aoee naith
iaaanoeo (Aeaio Oa?aiaoueaao, o?aoueth aeaio oea?aae/a, eioi?ay auea a
yoi a?aiy aa?aiaiia) ai aioo?aiieo iieiyo aeai?oea e caiaoee, /oi aa
einothi ia aiieia niioaaonoaiaae o?aaiaaieyi i?eee/ee oiai a?aiaie…
Inei?aeaiiue oea?ue-eaoiai oaea?ee aa n oaeie neeie, /oi a neaaeothuoth
ii/ue iia i?aaeaea a?aiaie ?ac?aoeeanue io a?aiaie. Anoanoaaiii, /oi
oea?aae/ ia aicaea?aeaeny io oi?aeia ii aae?ano oea?y. A?iciue aniueee e
caiaoioeny naiei iinioii. Nia?oaeueiue oaea? aue iaianai oea?aae/o i?yii
a aenie”.

Iaiaocaeaiiinoue oea?y, aai ?aniouaiiinoue e aeanoieinoue, eae a
ca?eaea, io?aceeenue a aai ee/iie aeecie, e caeanue ii i?iyaee naay
oe?aiii e aeaniioii. Iiiaea enoi?eee aeaaea noaayo aii?in i aai
aiaiyaiinoe. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?aaeaae A?iciiai, Aaneeee Oaiiue, aue
neaa eae oiii, oae e aieae, iaoue aai, Aeaia Aeeineay ioee/aeanue
aieaciaiiinoueth, a iooeo auei oaea 50, eiaaea o iaai ?iaeeeny
ianeaaeiee. Aaaea ainoaea?y, Niouey Iaeaieia, i?ienoiaeeea ec oaieeee, a
eioi?ie anaaaea neacuaaeanue i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue e ia?aiui
caaieaaaieyi. A?ao Eaaia TH?ee no?aaeae neaaioieai, o naiiai A?iciiai
aeaoae auei a o?e ?aca iaiueoa, /ai aeai. Ec anaai yoiai iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi “A?iciue aue aeaaaia?aoii eee iaeiei ec oao
ia?aiieeia, ineoieiaeth eioi?uo eco/ae Eiia?ici”. Aio /oi ieoao ii yoiio
iiaiaeo Aeaeai A?ei: ”Iinea naiae aieacie 1553 aiaea Eaai eacaeny
aeoaiei iao?aaiiaaoaiiui /aeiaaeii, a?aiaiaie iao?aaiiaaoaiiui ia a?aie
aacoiey. Aai /oanoai ee/iie iacaueuaiiinoe, aai iniiaiiieaaathuaa
iaaeiaa?ea, aeaaea e oai, eoi aue aio iniaaiii aeecie, aai naaeeci, aai
iaoi?aaeyaiua i?enooiu aiaaa aiai?yo i aeoaiei iacaei?iaie ee/iinoe.
Enoaoe, iinea aieacie oea?ue i?eno?anoeeny e iio?aaeaieth ?oooe, eioi?ay
iinoiyiii eeiaea a eioea o iaai a eiiiaoa niaoeeaeueii aeey iaai”.

Oai ia iaiaa, iia eaaeaony, /oi iauyniyoue oaiiiai oea?noaiaaiey Eaaia
A?iciiai e i?iaiaeeiie ei iieeoeee n /enoi iaaeeoeeineie oi/ee c?aiey
auei au iai?aaeeueii. Oa?aeoa? e oaiia?aiaio ainoaea?y, ianiiiaiii,
nua?aee aaaeioth ?ieue, ii e iauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey
eiaee aieueoia cia/aiea.

Eiaii Aaneeueaae/ A?iciue neii/aeny 18 ia?oa 1584 aiaea. I?aaeaiea
aeaneo, /oi ia?aae nia?oueth ii i?iyaeye iaiaueiiaaiioth iyaeinoue ei
anai ie?oaeathuei. Naiaai nuia Oaaei?a ii oaaaeaeae oea?noaiaaoue
aeaai/anoeai, ecaaaaoue aiei n o?enoeaineeie ainoaea?noaaie. Ii caaauae
nuio oiaiueoeo iaeiae, inaiaiaeeoue ieaiiuo, ii anai iiianou?yi ii
i?eeacae ?acineaoue a?aiiou n i?inueaie iiiieeoueny ca aai a?aoe. Oae
ie?ii e aeaai/eiii caaa?oeeanue aeeciue iaeiiai ec naiuo e?iaaauo
i?aaeoaeae a enoi?ee ?innee.

Caeeth/aiea

Ee/iinoue Eaaia IV, aac anyeiai niiiaiey, neiaeia e i?ioeai?a/eaa, ii
eiaiii a neeo naiae iai?aeeia?iinoe iia niiaa e niiaa aoaeao
i?eeiauaaoue e naaa acaeyaeu enneaaeiaaoaeae, no?aiyueony iiiyoue
nouiinoue enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia. Iiiaea aniaeou aeayoaeueiinoe
A?iciiai aei neo ii? inoathony iaenneaaeiaaiiuie, oai ia iaiaa, n aai
eiaiai naycaia oeaeay yiioa ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa, yiioa,
eioi?ay ieacaea ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia aanue iineaaeothuee oiae enoi?ee
iaoaai ainoaea?noaa. Iiaeaeoe, iineaaenoaey oea?noaiaaiey Eaaia A?iciiai
oi/iaa anaai ioa?aeoa?eciaae Aaneeee Ineiiae/ Eeth/aaneee, eioi?ue
ienae, /oi Eaai IV “…ia aue ainoaea?noaaiiui aeaeueoeii. Iaeiinoi?iiiaa,
naayethaeaia e iieoaeueiia iai?aaeaiea aai iieeoe/aneie iunee i?e aai
ia?aiie aicaoaeaeaiiinoe eeoaei aai i?aeoe/aneiai oaeoa, iieeoe/aneiai
aeaciia?a, /oouey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e, oniaoii i?aaei?eiya caaa?oaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?yaeea, caeiaeaiiiai aai i?aaeeaie, ii iacaiaoii
aeey naay naiiai eii/ee oai, /oi iieieaaae naiia iniiaaiea yoiai
ii?yaeea. Ea?aicei i?aoaaee/ee i/aiue iaiiiai, iinoaaea oea?noaiaaiea
Eaaia – iaeiie ec i?ae?aniaeoeo ii ia/aeo – ii eiia/iui aai
?acoeueoaoai ia?yaeo n iiiaieueneei eaii e aaaenoaeyie oaeaeueiiai
a?aiaie. A?aaeaea e i?iecaieo oea?ue aea?oaiaae e niaie, e naiae
aeeianoeae, e ainoaea?noaaiiui aeaaii. Aai iiaeii n?aaieoue n oai
aaooicaaaoiui neaiui aiaaou?ai, eioi?ue, /oiau iiaoaeoue naieo a?aaia,
ia naiiai naay iiaaeee caeaiea, ia e?uoa eiaai yoe a?aae neaeaee…
AEeciue iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa e aac Eaaia ono?ieeanue au oae aea, eae
iia no?ieeanue aei iaai e iinea iaai, ii aac iaai yoi ono?iaiea iioei au
eaa/a e ?iaiaa, /ai iii oei i?e iai: aaaeiaeoea iieeoe/aneea aii?inu
auee au ?ac?aoaiu aac oao iio?ynaiee, eaeea auee ei iiaeaioiaeaiu”.
Inoaaony iaaeayoueny, /oi iuiaoiea ?inneeneea i?aaeoaee i?eneooathony e
yoei neiaai e ia i?eianoo, iiaeiaii Eaaio IV, naie ia?iae e naith no?aio
a aea?oao nianoaaiiui aiaeoeeyi e no?anoyi, e ?inney ecaaaeeo
iio?ynaiee, e?iae e nioo.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaeeoaaneee E. Eaai A?iciue. – I.: NI “Eaaae?ao”, 1993

A?ei A. Aacoiiua ei?iee. – I.: “Caan”, ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: “Oaieen”, 1997

Aeai?ie/aiei A.TH., Eauaiei N.A., E?eaioaaa TH.A., Oei?eineee I.O.
Enoi?ey ?innee n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei ia/aea XX aaea. – N-Ia.: Ecae-ai
NIaAO, 1992

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Enoi?e/aneea ii?o?aou. – I.: Ecae-ai “I?aaaea”, 1990

Ethaeuaa A.A. Iiiyoea aaeeeiai ainoaea?y e Eaai A?iciue//Caacaea, 1995,
?8

I?eia A.N., Aai?aeaa A.A, Aai?aeaaa I.A., Neaioeia O.A. Enoi?ey ?innee.
– I.: “I?iniaeo”, 1997

Ieaoiiia N.O. O/aaiee ?onneie enoi?ee. – N-Ia.: “Iaoea”, 1993

Ne?uiieeia ?.A. Aaeeeee ainoaea?ue Eiaii Aaneeueaae/ A?iciue. –
Niieaine: ?one/, 1996

Ne?uiieeia ?.A. Enoi?ey ?inneeneay IX-XVII aa. – I.: Ecae-ai “Aanue
ie?”, 1997

Ooaaeai A. Caienee iaioea ii?e/ieea//Niaia, 1995, ?8

Ethaeuaa A.A. Iiiyoea aaeeeiai ainoaea?y e Eaai A?iciue//Caacaea, 1995,
?8, n. 121

Ne?uiieeia ?.A. Enoi?ey ?inneeneay IX-XVII aa. – I.: Ecae-ai “Aanue
ie?”, 1997, n. 255

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Enoi?e/aneea ii?o?aou. – I.: Ecae-ai “I?aaaea”, 1990,
n. 95

Ieaoiiia N.O. O/aaiee ?onneie enoi?ee. – N-Ia.: “Iaoea”, 1993, n.
126-127

A?ei A. Aacoiiua ei?iee. – I.: “Caan”, ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: “Oaieen”, 1997,
n. 228

Ne?uiieeia ?.A. Enoi?ey ?inneeneay IX-XVII aa. – I.: Ecae-ai “Aanue
ie?”, 1997, n. 260

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Enoi?e/aneea ii?o?aou. – I.: Ecae-ai “I?aaaea”, 1990,
n. 103

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Enoi?e/aneea ii?o?aou. – I.: Ecae-ai “I?aaaea”, 1990,
n. 104

Ieaoiiia N.O. O/aaiee ?onneie enoi?ee. – N-Ia.: “Iaoea”, 1993, n. 128

A?ei A. Aacoiiua ei?iee. – I.: “Caan”, ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: “Oaieen”, 1997,
n. 230

A?ei A. Aacoiiua ei?iee. – I.: “Caan”, ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: “Oaieen”, 1997,
n. 231

Ne?uiieeia ?.A. Aaeeeee ainoaea?ue Eiaii Aaneeueaae/ A?iciue. –
Niieaine: ?one/, 1996, n.347

Aaeeoaaneee E. Eaai A?iciue. – I.: NI “Eaaae?ao”, 1993, n.321

Ne?uiieeia ?.A. Enoi?ey ?inneeneay IX-XVII aa. – I.: Ecae-ai “Aanue
ie?”, 1997, n. 335

Aaeeoaaneee E. Eaai A?iciue. – I.: NI “Eaaae?ao”, 1993, n.336

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Enoi?e/aneea ii?o?aou. – I.: Ecae-ai “I?aaaea”, 1990,
n. 97

Aaeeoaaneee E. Eaai A?iciue. – I.: NI “Eaaae?ao”, 1993, n.326

Ooaaeai A. Caienee iaioea ii?e/ieea//Niaia, 1995, ?8, n.145

Aaeeoaaneee E. Eaai A?iciue. – I.: NI “Eaaae?ao”, 1993, n.327

Aaeeoaaneee E. Eaai A?iciue. – I.: NI “Eaaae?ao”, 1993, n.329

Aaeeoaaneee E. Eaai A?iciue. – I.: NI “Eaaae?ao”, 1993, n.334

A?ei A. Aacoiiua ei?iee. – I.: “Caan”, ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: “Oaieen”, 1997,
n. 236

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