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Личная жизнь Екатерины II (Доклад)

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Iiaineae?neee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao

AeIEEAAe

Ii enoi?ee ?innee

Oaia “Ee/iay aeeciue Aeaoa?eiu II”

Oaeoeueoao: OYI

A?oiia: AI 1-75

Nooaeaio: Aaia?aeia I.A.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Aeaienaiei I.A.

Aeaoa: 25.04.98 a.

Iiaineae?ne 98.

A aic?anoa 15 eao Iao? Oeue?eo i?eaue a ?inneth. Caeanue ii oi?iaeueii
i?eiye i?aaineaaioth aa?o e noae aaeeeei eiycai Iao?ii Oaaei?iae/ai.
Aeaaea Aeecaaaoa, ia ioee/aaoayny naiei ia?aciaaieai, auea ii?aaeaia
neoaeiuie iiciaieyie ieaiyiieea. Iiyoiio aai niiaa ia/aee o/eoue,
oaia?ue oaea ia ?onneee e i?aaineaaiue iaia?. Aeey yoie oeaee
ainieoaoaeai Iao?a Oaaei?iae/a aue ii?aaeaeai i?ioanni? “yeieaaioeee e
iiycee”, caaaaeothuee ooaeiaeanoaaiiui aeaia?oaiaioii Aeaaeaiee iaoe
sseia Ooaeei. Ii ana noa?aiey i?aiiaeaaaoaey ia aeaee eaeeo-eeai
iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Iao? Oaaei?iae/ i?iaiaeee a?aiy a ea?ao n
nieaeaoeeaie, ?acaiaeee naieo ea?ooa/iuo aieiia ia ieaoe-ia?aaeu e ii
ea?aoeai; ?aii i?eno?anoeeny ii e aeio e iaiaoeeiio ieao. *oiau
ia?acoieoue ianeaaeieea, Aeecaaaoa ?aoeea aeaieoue aai. A aii?ina auai?a
iaaanou aeey aaeeeiai eiycy iiaiey ?onneeo i?eaeai?iuo ?acaeaeeeenue.
Aanooaeaa ni naieie noi?iiieeaie oioae aeaieoue Iao?a Oaaei?iae/a ia
i?eioeanna Naeniineie, aei/a?e ei?iey Aaaonoa IE. Iaa?-aioia?oae
E?thiia?, Eanoie e ae?oaea ae?ocuey o?aioeocneiai iinea Uaoa?aee i?i/eee
a aeaiu ?onneiio ianeaaeieeo iaeio ec aei/a?ae o?aioeocneiai ei?iey. Ii
Aeecaaaoa ioaa?aea yoe aa?eaiou e aua?aea aeey naiaai ieaiyiieea iniao
ia noieue ciaoioth e aiaaooth – i?eioeanno Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoneoth,
?iaeeaoothny a 1729 a. e ia?a/aiioth a /anoue aaaooae Nioeae Aaaonoie
O?aaea?eeie. A ?iaeeoaee iacuaaee aa i?inoi Oeen. Aa iaoue Eiaaiia
Aeecaaaoa Aieooei-Aiooi?ineay a 1727 a. 15-eaoiae aeaaeoeae auea auaeaia
ca 42-eaoiaai aaia?ae-iaei?a O?enoeaia Aaaonoa Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoneiai. Ii
aue eiiaiaee?ii 8-ai Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoneiai iieea a ai?iaea Ooaooeia
(Iiia?a- iey). Eaoii 1742 a. O?eae?eo 2 iacia/ee aai aoaa?iaoi?ii
Ooaooeia e iiaeaeiaae /eiii aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioa. Ianeieueei iicaea
O?enoeai noae aa?oeiaii e nii?aaeoaeai Oea?anoa. Ia?aiai yiaa?y 1744 a.
aa?oeiaeiy Eiaaiia Aeecaaaoa Oaioa iieo/eee ienueii ec Iaoa?ao?aa. Iii
auei aae?aniaaii ei E?thiia?ii io eiaie eiia?ao?eoeu Aeecaaaou I,
niaea?aeaei aa auni/aeoaa i?eaeaoaiea i?eaoaoue a ?inneth. Naaoianoai
?onneiai aeai?a eiaei aeey I?onnee aaaeiia th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea,
iiyoiio aa iinie a Iaoa?ao?aa Ea?aeaoaeueae naiaa?aiaiii eioi?ie?iaae
naiaai ei?iey i iaia?aieyo Aeecaaaou. O?eae?eo 2 i?eaaonoaiaae, eiia/ii,
i?aaenoiyuee a?ae Oeen n ianeaaeieeii ?onneiai i?anoiea, iaaeaynue a
aoaeouai a eeoea “iieiaeiai aeai?a” eiaoue naith aaaioo?o a Iaoa?ao?aa.
Ii iiaeaeae ee/ii iiaanaaeiaaoue n iaaanoie, i?eaeanee aa n iaoa?ueth a
Aa?eei ia i?eaaoiue iaaae, ai a?aiy eioi?iai oaaaeeeny, /oi 15-eaoiyy
Oeen caiaoii oiiaa naiae iaoa?e.

Iinea naeaeaiey n ei?ieai aa?oeiaeiy n aei/a?ueth iiae eiaiai a?aoeie
?aeiaae ioi?aaeeanue a aeaeaeoth, caianaiioth niaaii ?inneth; 5 oaa?aey
iie aeia?aeenue aei Ieoaau (Aeaaau), iioii ia eo iooe auee ?eaa,
Iaoa?ao?a, e iaeiiaoe aa/a?ii 9 oaa?aey iie i?eauee a Iineao a
Aiiaiaioneee aeai?aoe *, a eioi?ii a oa aeie a?aiaiii iaoiaeeeny aeai?
Aeecaaaou. N yoiai aa/a?a e ia/aeanue iiaay no?aieoea a aeecie aei oiai
iaei eiio ecaanoiie aeaaeoeu Oeen ec iaiaoeeiai ai?iaea Ooaooeia.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue naiaio aoaeouaio noi?oao Oeen n ia?auo aea aeiae
i?aauaaiey a ?innee n caaeaeiie ianoie/eainoueth e ?aaeeei i?eeaaeaieai
acyeanue ca eco/aiea ?onneiai ycuea e ?onneeo iau/aaa. N iiiiuueth
aaeuthieoa e ia?aaiae/eea Aeaaeaiee iaoe Aaneeey Aaeaaeo?iaa iia i/aiue
auno?i aeiaeeanue caiaoiuo oniaoia. Oaea a eiioea ethiy a oea?eae ai
a?aiy naiaai ia?auaiey a i?aaineaaioth aa?o iia /aoei i?iecianea naia
eniiaaaeaiea ia /enoii ?onneii ycuea. *ai i/aiue oaeeaeea anao
i?enoonoaothueo. Eiia?ao?eoea aeaaea i?ineaceeanue. Ae?oaay caaea/a,
eioi?oth aiieia niciaoaeueii ?aoaea a oi a?aiy thiay iaiea, ninoiyea a
oii, /oiau iii?aaeoueny e aaeeeiio eiycth Iao?o Oaaei?iae/o, e
eiia?ao?eoea Aeecaaaoa, e anai ?onneei ethaeyi.

Iicaea Aeaoa?eia II aniiieiaea: “…iienoeia y ie/ai ia i?aiaa?aaaea,
/oiau aeinoe/ue yoiai: oaiaeeeainoe iiei?iinoue, oaaaeaiea, aeaeaiea
i?aaeoueny, aeaeaiea iinooiaoue eae neaaeoao, ene?aiiyy i?eaycaiiinoue,
ana n iiae noi?iiu iinoiyiii e oiio auei oiio?aaeyaii n AI4 ii 1761 a.”.

I?eiya i?aaineaaea 28 ethiy OA a., Oeea ia ae?oaie aeaiue auea ia?o/aia
n aaeeeei eiycai Iao?ii Oaaei?iae/ai. Iinea yoiai iia iieo/eea oeooe
aaeeeie eiyaeie e iiaia eiy – Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia.

A aeaeaa?a 1741 a. ii aei?iaa ec Iineau a Iaoa?ao?a Iao? Oaaei?iae/
caaieae iniie e i?ieaaeae oyaeaeiaieueiui a Oioeeiaa aei oaa?aey. Inia
iaacia?aceea aai eeoei. Ii caiaoii au?in, ii eioaeeaeo aai inoaaaeny ia
i?aaeiai o?iaia, aea e ?aay/aneea caaaau oiaea.

Iaeiiaoe ianooiee naiue aaaeiue aeey Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu aeaiue –
aeaiue naaaeueau aa n Iao?ii Oaaei?iae/ai. Iia ninoiyeanue 21 aaaonoa a
noieeoea. Ii ?onneiio iau/ath auei ana: e aiaaoue ia?yae iaaanou n
ae?aaioeaiiuie oe?aoaieyie, e oi?aeanoaaiiay neoaeaa a Eacaineie
oea?eae, e ia?aaeiue iaaae a aaea?aa Ceiiaai aeai?oea, e ?ineioiue aae.

Caioaeanoai Aeaoa?eiu iaei iacaaoue iaoaea/iui eee ian/anoeeaui – iii
auei aeey iaa, eae aeey aeaiueiu, oieceoaeueiui e inei?aeoaeueiui. A
ia?aoth a?a/ioth ii/ue, Iao? oeeiieeny io noi?oaeaneeo iaycaiiinoae,
iineaaeothuea auee oaeeie aea. Iicaea Aeaoa?eia naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea:
“…e a yoii iieiaeaiee aeaei inoaaaeinue a oa/aiea aeaayoe eao aac
iaeaeoaai eciaiaiey”.

Aei naaaeueau Aeaoa?eia ia /oi-oi aua iaaeayeanue. I naiai ioiioaiee e
Iao?o-aeaieoo iia ienaea: “…ia iiao neacaoue, /oiau ii iia i?aaeeny
eee ia i?aaeeny; y oiaea oieueei iiaeiiaaoueny. Aeaei iaoa?e auei
auaeaoue iaiy caioae. Ii, ii i?aaaea, y aeoiath, /oi ?onneay ei?iia
aieueoa iia i?aaeeanue, iaaeaee aai iniaa. Aio auei oiaaea 16 eao… ii
aiai?ee ni iiie ia ea?ooeao e nieaeaoao, eioi?uie aue caiyo n oo?a aei
aa/a?a. ss neooaea aai ec aaaeeeainoe e a oaiaeo aio… ii ieeiaaea iu
ia aiai?eee iaaeaeo niaith ia ycuea ethaae: ia iia auei ia/eiaoue yoio
?acaiai?…”

Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iieiaeuie noi?oaaie ia neiaeeeenue. Aeaoa?eia iiiyea
ieii/aoaeueii, /oi aa ioae anaaaea aoaeao aeey iaa /oaeei /aeiaaeii. E
aeoiaea iia i iai oaia?ue oaea ii-ae?oaiio: “…o iaiy yaeeanue
aeanoieay aeey iaai iuneue a naiua ia?aua aeie iiaai caioaeanoaa. ss
neacaea naaa: anee ou iiethaeoue yoiai /aeiaaea, ou aoaeaoue
ian/anoiaeoei nicaeaieai ia caiea… yoio /aeiaae ia oaay ii/oe ia
niio?eo, ii aiai?eo oieueei i eoeeao e ia?auaao aieueoa aieiaiey ia
anyeoth ae?oaoth aeaiueio, /ai ia oaay; ou neeoeii ai?aea, /oiau
iiaeiyoue ooi ec-ca yoiai, neaaeiaaoaeueii… aeoiaeoa i naiie naaa,
noaea?uiy”

Ia eaaeaeay aeaiueia a yoie caooeie aoiinoa?a i?eaeai?iuo eio?ea iiaea
iiaeiyoueny auoa ie?oaeathuai aa n?aaeu, anaaaea aanoe naay aiaoia
aeinoieii e aeoiaoue oieueei i naiie naaa, i oie iiea niaa?oaiii iayniie
ia?niaeoeaa, eioi?ay iaeeaeaea aa a aoaeouai. E oieueei ni/aoaiea
iacao?yaeiiai oia, ia ii aiaeai neeueiie aiee, iaiaeie o?aa?inoe e,
eiia/ii, oeo?inoe, eeoeaia?ey, iaia?aie/aiiiai /anoiethaey e ouaneaaey
iiiiaei Aeaoa?eia a oa/aiea 18 eao aanoe ne?uooth ai?ueao ca naia ianoi
i?e ?onneii aeai?a e aeiaeoueny, a eiioea eiioeia, aiaeaeaeaiiie ei?iiu
eiia?ao?eoeu.

Iinea naaaeueau iaoue Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu ioauea ec ?innee, e oa
inoaeanue n?aaee ?onneeo niaa?oaiii iaeeiieie. Ii yoi ia iai?/aei aa,
iie n iaoa?ueth ieeiaaea ia auee aeooiaii aeeceeie ethaeueie. A
aeiaa?oaiea iaoue iaiaaeoiaiiuie iinooieaie oieueei iaoaea naiae aei/a?e
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iacaiyoiaiiui aeia?ia eiy i?e aeai?a. Aieaa anaai
Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia aeiaeaaeanue ?aniieiaeaiey eiia?ao?eoeu. Ianiio?y
ia ana noa?aiey aaeeeie eiyaeie anaaaea e ai anai ae i?aaeoueny,
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie auee ia?iaiuie, aeaeaei ia ae?oaeanoaaiiuie, a
ii?ie aeaaea iai?yaeaiiuie. I?aaaea, Aeecaaaoa ia neoieeanue ia
iiaea?ee. Ia?aae ia?o/aieai Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia iieo/eea iaea?aeuea
noieiinoueth 150 oun. ?oa. Ia iaeeea ?anoiaeu ae auei iacia/aii
niaea?aeaiea a 30 oun. ?oa.

Eiia?ao?eoea i/aiue nei?i iiiyea, /oi iioi?iieeanue n iauyaeaieai Iao?a
Oaaei?iae/a ianeaaeieeii i?anoiea. Iiaaaeaiea aacaea?iiai ieaiyiieea
/anoi ?acae?aaeaei aa. Ia ciay, eae aueoe ec yoiai iano?aciiai
iieiaeaiey, iia iaaieueii naia iaaeiaieuenoai ianeaaeieeii i?anoiea
ia?aiineea ia aai aeaio. Aa iaaeiyee a ?aaiiaeooee e ioaeo, a oii, /oi
iia ia iiaeao eee ia aeaeaao ii-oi?ioaio iiaeeyoue ia iaai, oaea/ue aai
naieie aeaineeie i?aeanoyie. Iaeiiaoe, eiia?ao?eoea o?aaiaaea io
iieiaeuo ianeaaeieea. A aai iiea ia i?aaeaeaeaeinue.

Ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi aeeciue “iieiaeiai aeai?a” i?ioaeaea ia
aeacao neoa, eioi?uo iacia/aea naia Aeecaaaoa. E aaeeeie eiyaeia, a
/anoiinoe, a 1746 a. a ea/anoaa aa iaa?-aioiaenoa?eiu auea i?enoaaeaia
iniai i?aaeaiiay eiia?ao?eoea noaon-aeaia Ia?ey Naiaiiaia *iaeieiaa. Yoa
ceay e eai?eciay aeaiueia, ii neiaai Aeaoa?eiu, oieiieea ca iae e iai
anai aeieeaaeuaaea Aeecaaaoa. O Iao?a Oaaei?iae/a aioia?oaea E?thiia?a
eiia?ao?eoea oiaea caiaieea eiycai Aaneeeai Aieeeoe/ai ?aiieiui, a
iioii, a 1747 a.,- eaia?aa?ii Ieeieaai Iaoiiae/ai *iaeieiaui, ioaeai
Ia?ee Naiaiiaiu. A neeo naiae ia?aie/aiiinoe /aoa *iaeieiauo ia iiaea
niinianoaiaaoue naeeaeaieth aaeeeie eiyaeie n eiia?ao?eoeae, iai?ioea,
aiineea a eo ioiioaiey eceeoithth ianoi?iaeaiiinoue e iaaeiaa?ea. E
ii-aeaeeiiio, o Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu auee iniiaaiey ienaoue: “…iia
eacaeinue, /oi iia (Aeecaaaoa .Aeaa.) anaaaea auea iiith iaaeiaieueia,
oae eae auaaei i/aiue ?aaeei, /oi iia aeaeaea iia /anoue anooiaoue a
?acaiai?; ai?i/ai, oioue e aeeee iu a iaeiii aeiia, e iaoe iieie
nii?eeanaeenue eae a Ceiiai, oae e a Eaoiai aeai?oea, ii iu ia aeaeaee
aa ii oeaeui ianyoeai, a /anoi e aieaa. Iu ia niaee aac ciaa yaeoueny a
aa iieie, a ian ii/oe ieeiaaea ia caaee. Ian /anoi a?aieee io eiaie A?
Aaee/anoaa ca oaeea ionoyee, ioiineoaeueii eioi?uo iaeuecy auei e
iiaeic?aaaoue, /oi iie iiaoo ?anna?aeeoue eiia?ao?eoeo. Iia aeey yoiai
iinueaea e iai ia iaeieo *iaeieiauo, ii /anoi auaaei, /oi iia aiiyea e
iai ai?ie/ioth, auacaeiiai eee eiai-ieaoaeue a yoii ?iaea ia?aaeaoue iai
ia oieueei /?acau/aeii iai?eyoiua aaue, ii aeaaea ?aceinoe,
?aaiineeueiua a?oaaeoei inei?aeaieyi. A oi aea a?aiy iaaiciiaeii auei
auoue aieaa inoi?iaeiie, iaaeaee y auea a aeoaeia aeooe, /oiau ia
ia?ooeoue aeieaeiia A? Aaee/anoao ii/oaiea e iineooaiea” *.

A naie 18 eao Aeaoa?eia ?acaeeanue a e?aneaoth e oece/anee e?aieoth
aeaiueio. Eanoue iiiaeo ie?oaeathueo ia/aea i?eyoii e?oaeeoue ae aieiao.
*oiau aeaoue auoiae iieiaeie yia?aee, iia iiiai a?aiaie i?iaiaeeea ia
ioioa, eaoaeanue ia eiaeea e eeoi acaeeea aa?oii ia eioaaee. Aeey iaa ia
ninoaaeyei iniaiai o?oaea oeaeue aeaiue i?iaanoe a naaeea, i?e yoii iia
iaeeiaeiai e?aneai e e?aiei neaeaea a iai e ii-aiaeeenee *(eae iiaeiaaao
ciaoiie a?enoie?aoea), e ii-oaoa?nee (eae i?eiyoi o ianoiyueo
eaaaea?enoia). I?aaieci aa oi?ioi i?eaue e eeeiaoo Iaoa?ao?aa, e any iia
eceo/aea oaia?ue caei?iauea e aeaineia aeinoieinoai, aeoaiei ne?uaay i?e
yoii naia inei?aeaiiia naiiethaea e naie oaeiua iiiuneu.

A aaeeeee eiycue i?iaeieaeae ea?aoue a eoeeu e caieiaoueny n io?yaeii
aieooeineeo nieaeao, eioi?uo ii niaoeeaeueii aucaae a ?inneth, /ai
ainnoaiiaee i?ioea naay anao ?onneeo. Yoeo aieooeioeaa a i?onneie oi?ia
ii ?acianoee a I?aieaiaaoia niaoeeaeueiui eaaa?ai, aaea /anoi i?iiaaeae
nai, aac eiioea e iniaie iaaeiaiinoe i?iecaiaey iino?iaiey e ?acaiae
ea?aoeia. Naiaeiay aeeciue ii-i?aaeiaio iaei eioa?aniaaea aai. E iioiio
o?aioeocneee aooaoa a?ao ae’Aeeeii aeieeaaeuaae a Aa?naeue: “Aaeeeee
eiycue ana aua ieeae ia iiaeao aeieacaoue noi?oaa, /oi ii yaeyaony
ioae/eiie”.

Aeecaaaoa Iao?iaia iaaeiaei aeaeaoue, eiaaea aaeeeee eiycue noaiao
aeaaniiniaiui ioaeai, e iia iaoea aiciiaeiui ?aoeoue i?iaeaio
ianeaaeieea aac aai o/anoey. A yoeo oeaeyo ei aeai?o aaeeeie eiyaeie
auee i?enoaaeaiu aeaa iieiaeuo /aeiaaea – Na?aae Naeoueia e Eaa
Ia?uoeei. Naeoueiao auei26 eao, ii oaea aeaa aiaea ninoiye a caeiiiii
a?aea n iaeiie ec i?eaeai?iuo o?aeeei. Ii neiaai Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu,
“ii aue i?ae?anai, eae aeaiue, e, eiia/ii, ieeoi ia iia n iei
n?aaiyoueny… i?e aeai?a. O iaai, ia auei iaaeinoaoea ie a oia, ie a
oii neeaaea iiciaiee, iaia? e i?eaiia, eaeie aeatho aieueoie naao e
aeai?… aiiaua e ii ?iaeaeaieth, e ii iiiaei ae?oaei ea/anoaai yoi aue
eaaaea? auaeathueeny; naie iaaeinoaoee ii oiae ne?uaaoue; naiuie
aieueoeie ec ieo auee neeiiiinoue e eio?eaa e ionoonoaea no?iaeo
i?aaee…”. Iicaea Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia ia noieue ainoi?aeaiii
iocuaaeanue i naiai oaai?eoa. Ii oiaaea iaaeinoaoee Naeoueiaa, a
/anoiinoe “ionoonoaea no?iaeo i?aaee”, ne?a/ue aai neaainoue e
i?ae?aniiio iieo, “aua ia ?acaa?ioeenue ia aa aeacao”. Eaa Ia?uoeei aue
a iieiaeie eiiiaiee anaai eeoue aeia?ui e aanaeua aaeaao?ii. A
caaeoiaiiie “iia?aoeee” aio ioaiaeeeanue ?ieue i?ee?uoey.

Iinea ianoe 1752 a. Na?aae Naeoueia ia/ae oii?ii aeiaeaaoueny o aaeeeie
eiyaeie iniaiai e naaa aieiaiey. Ia ia?auo ii?ao Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia
/oanoaiaaea naay ia nianai oaa?aiii. Ae, aaconeiaii, i?aaeeny yoio
ianoie/eaue iieeiiiee, iaeiaei iia ia iiaea ia aiyoueny aiaaa
eiia?ao?eoeu. I/aiue nei?i aa au?o/eea *iaeieiaa. Ia noaniyynue, yoa
anaaaea no?iaay e aacoi?a/iay aeaia ioe?iaaiii cayaeea Aeaoa?eia, /oi “a
eioa?anao i?anoieiianeaaeey” ae aeicaieaii auae?aoue aeey naay ethaiai
ec i?enoaaeaiiuo eaaaea?ia. Auaoay aeaaeoea Oeen ia noaea caaeaaaoue
aeoiuo aii?inia. Iia n?aco iiiyea, /aai io iaa aeaeoo, e n ioe?uoui
na?aeoeai iioea iaano?a/o naiae ia?aie ethaae.

Aeai? Aeecaaaou a i/a?aaeiie ?ac ia?aacaeae ec Iaoa?ao?aa a Iineao 14
aeaeaa?y 1752 a. A naeoa eiia?ao?eoeu aianoa n aaeeeei eiycai
iaoiaeeeanue e Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia. Iioii iia aniiieiaea, /oi
ioi?aaeeanue a iooue “n eia-eaeeie eaaeeie i?eciaeaie aa?aiaiiinoe”, /oi
“aoaee auno?i e aeiai e ii/ueth” e /oi “ia iineaaeiae noaioeee yoe
i?eciaee en/acee i?e neeueiuo ?acyo”. Yoi aue aa ia?aue aueeaeuo.

A ia/aea 1753 a. a Iineao i?eaoae Na?aae Naeoueia. Oaia?ue ii oaea ?aaea
ano?a/aeny ni naiae aicethaeaiiie e a ii?aaaeaiea aeaeiaaeny ae, /oi o
iaai iiiai a?aaia, eiay i?e yoii a aeaeo noi?iiieeia eaioeea?a
Aanooaeaaa. Oiaaea Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia ?aoeea, /oi eo ethaiaue ia
oo?aoeo naieo i?aeanoae, anee e iae aeiaaaeoue aua e iieeoeeo. N yoie
oeaeueth /a?ac iaeiiai ec i?eaeai?iuo /eiiaieeia iia ia?aoeeanue e
Aanooaeaao n i?inueaie n/eoaoue aa a /enea aai aa?iuo nithcieeia.

Aei yoiai ioiioaiey iaaeaeo aaeeeie eiyaeiae e eaioeea?ii auee
iaae?oaeanoaaiiuie. Iineaaeiee eniuouaae a?aaeaeaaiua /oanoaa e Iao?o
Oaaei?iae/o e caiaeii ia?aiinee naith iai?eyciue ia aai noi?oao.
Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia oiaea n/eoaea Aanooaeaaa aeaaiui aeiiaieeii anao
iai?eyoiinoae e cao?oaeiaiee, eioi?ua ae i?eoiaeeeinue ano?a/aoue i?e
aeai?a. Iaeiaei ni a?aiaiai iaa noi?iiu iiiyee, /oi iia iaithaeii
caeioa?aniaaiu a ae?oaeaa. I?iieoeaoaeueiue Aanooaeaa aeaaii caiaoee,
ianeieueei inoi?iaeii e oiii aaaeao naay aaeeeay eiyaeiy a aa iai?inouo
acaeiiioiioaieyo n ioaeai e eiia?ao?eoeae. Iiyoiio ii ioioii i?eiye aa
i?aaeeiaeaiea, e nei?i aeaenoaeoaeueii iie noaee nithcieeaie.

Iinea yoiai ano?a/e iieiaeuo aethaeaiiuo i?iaeieaeaeenue. Ii aaeeeie
eiyaeia iiyoue ia iiaacei. Eaoii 1753 a. ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey aeai?a a
Iineaa iia iiiai oaioeaaaea ia eiaieiao ioaea, a ?acoeueoaoa i?iecioae
aoi?ie aueeaeuo. ?acoiaaony, yoi ia iiaei iii?aaeoueny eiia?ao?eoea.
Iiyoiio, eiaaea neaaeothuae aaniie Aeecaaaoa niiaueee i iiaie
aa?aiaiiinoe aaeeeie eiyaeie, iia iinaaeeea aa ia ea?aioei.

Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia ?iaeeea 20 naioya?y 1754 a. nuia. Aai iacaaee
Iaaeii e iaanaaaea caa?aee io iaoa?e a iieie eiia?ao?eoeu. Ia oanoie
aeaiue ieaaeaioea ie?anoeee, a aaeeeay eiyaeiy auea auni/aeoa oaeinoiaia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey a 100 oun. ?oa. Eioa?anii, /oi nia/aea Iao? Oaaei?iae/
ia aue ioia/ai aieiaieai eiia?ao?eoeu, iineieueeo a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
ia eiae ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e ?iaeaeaieth ?aaaiea. Iaeiaei yoi noaaeei
aai a niaoiia iieiaeaiea i?e aeai?a e aeaaaei aio oi?iaeueiue iiaiae
auneacaoue naia ?aceia iaoaeiaieuenoaea. Aeecaaaoa i/aiue nei?i iiiyea
naith ioeaeo e caaeiei /eneii i?eeacaea auaeaoue ieaiyiieeo oiaea 100
oun. ?oa. *oi eanaaony Na?aay Naeoueiaa, aeaenoaeoaeueiiai iooea
iiai?iaeaeaiiiai, oi aai i?enoonoaea i?e aeai?a noaei ia oieueei
eceeoiei, ii e aanueia iaaeaeaoaeueiui. Iiyoiio /a?ac 17 aeiae iinea
iiyaeaiey ia naao ieaaeaioea aai iineaee nia/aea a Oaaoeeth, a iioii a
Ae?acaeai, aaea ii i?iaiaeee a?aiy a iauanoaa i?aaenoaaeoaeueieoe
i?ae?aniiai iiea, ia aeaeay ec naieo iioiaeaeaiee nae?aoa aeey
ie?oaeathueo.

Ieaaeaioea Iaaea iieacaee iaoa?e oieueei /a?ac 15 aeiae iinea
?iaeaeaiey. Iioii eiia?ao?eoea niiaa caa?aea aai a naie aia?oaiaiou,
aaea ee/ii caaioeeanue i iai e aaea, ii neiaai Aeaoa?eiu, “aie?oa iaai
auei iiiaeanoai noa?uo aeaiooae, eioi?ua aanoieeiaui ooiaeii, aiana
eeoaiiui cae?aaiai niunea, i?eiineee aio ian?aaiaiii aieueoa oaeaniuo e
i?aanoaaiiuo no?aaeaiee, iaaeaee iieuecu”. A naea eiyaeiy, aeaaiiieo/ii
?ac?aoeaoayny io a?aiaie, AEeea oaia?ue inoaaeaia a iaeeii/anoaa, aac
eaeiai-eeai o/anoey e aieiaiey. Ae iacaei?iaeeinue, iia “ia iiaea e ia
oioaea ieeiai aeaeaoue, iioiio /oi auea a ai?a”. E i/aiue iiiai /eoaea.

*oaiea auei iaeiei ec ethaeiuo caiyoee Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu – iia
anaaaea eiaea i?e naaa eieao. Nia/aea aa caaaaeyee eaaeea ?iiaiu, ii
i/aiue nei?i iia i?eiyeanue ca na?ueacioth eeoa?aoo?o, E anee aa?eoue aa
“Caieneai”, o iaa oaaoeei oia e oa?iaiey iaeieaoue aeaayoe oiiioth
“Enoi?eth Aa?iaiee”. Kappa e iiiaioiiiue “Neiaa?ue Aaeey”, “AEeciue
ciaiaieouo ioaeae” Ieooa?oa e “AEeciue Oeeoea?iia”, “Ienueia ainiiaee
aea Naaeeuea” e “Aiiaeu Oaoeeoa”, i?iecaaaeaiey Ieaoiia, Iiioaneue? e
Aieueoa?a. Enoi?ee N. O. Ieaoiiia, a /anoiinoe, ienae i iae: “Noaiaiue
a? oai?aoe/aneiai ?acaeoey e ia?aciaaiey iaiiieiaao iai neeo
i?aeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey Iao?a Aaeeeiai. E iaa iie auee naiio/eaie”.

Oieueei a oaa?aea 1755 a. Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia i?aiaeieaea naith
eiioiiae?eth e aia?aua iinea ?iaeia iiyaeeanue a iauanoaa. Iao?
Oaaei?iae/ e yoiio a?aiaie nianai ia?anoae caia/aoue naith aeaio. Ii
aicioaeae e ia/ae ooaaeeaaoue ca aeaiueiaie, i?iyaeyy i?e yoii
aeiaieueii no?aiiue aeon: aio aieueoa i?aaeeenue iae?aneaua e iaaeaeaeea
ii naiaio ?acaeoeth aeaaeoeu. Nia/aea ii oaeaeny i?eioeannie
Eo?eyiaeneie, ?iaeiie aei/a?ueth nnueueiiai Ae?iia. Iae?aneaay,
iaeaiueeiai ?inoa e neaaea ai?aaoay, yoa aeaaeoea iinni?eeanue n
?iaeeoaeyie, naaaeaea io ieo ec ss?ineaaey, i?eiyea i?aaineaaioth aa?o e
n ?ac?aoaiey eiia?ao?eoeu aeeea i?e ?onneii aeai?a. Aaeeeiio eiycth
eiiiie?iaaei a iae iaiaoeeia i?ienoiaeaeaiea e ciaiea iaiaoeeiai ycuea.
Iaeiaei i?eioeanna ieacaeanue oiiaa naiaai oea?noaaiiiai iieeiiieea e,
ia niaeaneaoenue noaoue aai ethaiaieoeae, iicaea auoea caioae ca aa?iia
Aeaenaiae?a Eaaiiae/a *a?eaniaa. Oiaaea Iao? Oaaei?iae/ ia?aoee naia
aunieia aieiaiea ia Aeecaaaoo Ai?iioeiao. Aeaaeoea Aeecaaaoa ?iiaiiaia
i?eoiaeeeanue ieaiyiieoeae aeoea-eaioeea?o I. E. Ai?iioeiao. A1749 a. a
aic?anoa 11 eao aa ii?aaeaeeee o?aeeeiie e Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia.
Eiino?aioeu ienaee i iae, /oi “iia ?oaaeanue eae nieaeao, eineea
aeacaie, aeo?ii iaoea e ieaaaeanue i?e ?acaiai?a”. Eaoii 1755 a. a
Iaoa?ao?a i?eaue aiaeeeneee iineaiiee Aaiath?e Aeeueyia. A aai naeoa
iaoiaeeeny 23-eaoiee a?ao Noaieneaa Iiiyoianeee, /aeiaae n e?aneaie
aiaoiinoueth e iiaa?oiinoiui ia?aciaaieai, oaea aeinoaoi/ii enii?/aiiue
aaeeeinaaoneie aeeciueth Ia?eaea, aaea ii aanaeeeny n 1753 a. Ioaoe aai,
iaaeaeo i?i/ei, a iieiaeinoe neoaeee a aieneao aano?eeneiai i?eioea
Aaaaiey. Iiaeaea?aeeaae oaaaeneiai ei?iey Ea?ea XII, ninoiye iioii o
iaai aaeuthoaioii, o/anoaiaae a Iieoaaneie aeoaa e aianoa n Ea?eai XII
aaaeae a Oo?oeeth, aaea ionoaeaae eioa?anu oaaaeia e niinianoaiaae
iauyaeaieth oo?eaie aieiu i?ioea ?innee. Nui oianeaaeiaae io iooea
iiiaea ooaeoea /a?ou aai oa?aeoa?a – aani?eioeeiiinoue a iieeoeea,
?aniouaiiinoue a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie e aeaaeaeo eaaeeo ianeaaeaeaiee.

I/aiue nei?i Iiiyoianeee aeecei nioaeny ni Eueaii Ia?uoeeiui. A oio a
ia/aea 1756 a. naae aai n Aeaoa?eiie Aeaenaaaiie. Oae ia/aeny iiaue
oaeaeaoaeueiue ?iiai aaeeeie eiyaeie. E 9 aeaeaa?y 1758 a. Aeaoa?eia
Aeaenaaaia ?ac?aoeeanue aoi?ui ?aaaieii. Aeaai/eo a /anoue aaaooee
iacaaee Aiiie. E niiaa eiia?ao?eoea caa?aea ieaaeaioea io iaoa?e a naie
iieie. N?aaee naieo i?eaeeaeaiiuo Iao? Oaaei?iae/ naeaeae ii yoiio
iiaiaeo cayaeaiea. “Aia ciaao, neacae, ii ioeoaea iiy aeaia aa?ao naith
aa?aiaiiinoue, y ia neeoeii-oi ciath, iie ee yoi ?aaaiie e aeieaeai ee y
aai i?eiyoue ia naie n/ao”. Iaeiaei, eiaaea Aeecaaaoa ii neo/ath
?iaeaeaiey aeaai/ee i?eeacaea naiaio Eaaeiaoo auaeaoue aa ?iaeeoaeyi ii
60 oun. ?oa., ii n aieueoei oaeiaeaoai?aieai i?eiye yoo iaa?aaeo.

Iinea iaaeaiey Aanooaeaaa ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eiia?ao?eoeae e Aeaoa?eiie
Aeaenaaaiie aeinoeaee iaeaieueoaai iai?yaeaiey. Aianoi *iaeieiauo e
“iieiaeiio aeai?o” aue i?enoaaeai ia eoi-ieaoaeue, a nai oao Oaeiie
eaioeaey?ee Aeaenaiae? Ooaaeia ni naiae aeaiie. Aaeeeie eiyaeia,
eeoaiiie iinea ?iaeia eaeiai-eeai aieiaiey, noaaeee a aeio ia oieueei aa
iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e naiaio noi?oao, ii e iaeeoeai?eyoioth
ae?oaeao n Aanooaeaaui.

A iineaaeiea aeie ianeaiie iaaeaee 1759 a. iaaeaeo noi?oaaie aicieeea
i/a?aaeiay nni?a. I?e yoii Iao? Oaaei?iae/, oaea ioe?uoi iauyaeaoee
Aeecaaaoo Ai?iioeiao oicyeeie ia naiae iieiaeia, noae ?acaiaa?eaaoue n
aeaiie oiiii i?eeaca. E oiio aea n?aaee i?eaeai?iuo oaea iiiiecee neooe
i oii, /oi nei?i Ai?iioeiaa noaiao aeaiie aaeeeiai eiycy, a aaeeeoth
eiyaeith ioi?aayo a iiianou?ue.

Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia, o?acai ioeaiea ianoaiiaeo, iaienaea eiia?ao?eoea
aaaeeeaia, ii aeinoaoi/ii niaeia ienueii. A iai iia aeaaiaea?eea
Aeecaaaoo ca ana aa ieeinoe, i?eciaaaea naay ian/anoiie a oii, /oi ia
noiaea oaiaeeoue aaeeeiio eiycth e eiia?ao?eoea, e i?ineea iiyoiio
ioionoeoue aa ia?aoii aeiiie. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue naiaai iouacaea iia
iioeae?iaaea aanueia aaneeie a?aoiaioaie: iia nianai ia ioaeia aaeeeiio
eiycth; iineieueeo o iaa caa?aee aa aeaoae e ainieoaiea eo iaoiaeeony a
aieaa iaaeaaeiuo ?oeao, aa iouacae ia io?aceony ia eo aeaeueiaeoae
noaeueaa; iia aieueoa ia a neeao inoaaaoueny a oie iacaei?iaie
ianoaiiaea, eioi?ay neiaeeeanue aie?oa iaa i?e aeai?a; aa iouacae
oniieieo anao aa iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeae e inaiaiaeeo eiia?ao?eoeo io eeoieo
iai?eyoiinoae.

?acoiaaony, Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia ia auea noieue iaeaia, /oiau
aeaenoaeoaeueii no?aieoueny e auacaeo ec ?innee. Iia oi?ioi ciaea, /oi
Aeecaaaoa oaea aeaaii ia iiaeao auiineoue naiaai ieaiyiieea e /oi iia
ieeiaaea ia ?aoeony ia ?anoi?aeaiea aai a?aea ?aaee aeoiie aeaaeoeu
Ai?iioeiaie. Yoei oi?ioi ?ann/eoaiiui aeoii aaeeeay eiyaeiy iaaeayeanue
oi?i/eoue naia iieiaeaiea i?e aeai?a. E yoi ae aiieia oaeaeinue.

?acaiai? Aeecaaaou n Aeaoa?eiie Aeaenaaaiie i?ienoiaeee a o?aoueai /ano
ii/e a i?enoonoaee Iao?a Oaaei?iae/a e Aeaenaiae?a Ooaaeiaa. Eaai
Ooaaeia oiaea iaoiaeeeny a yoi a?aiy a iieiyo eiia?ao?eoeu ca oe?iie.
Nia/aea Aeecaaaoa aaea naay i/aiue no?iai – a aieina aa cao/aee aiaa e
iaoa?iaiea. Ii o/oeaua e a oi aea a?aiy aeiaieueii niaeua e oi/iua
ioaaou niaanaaeieoeu iinoaiaiii iaaci?oaeeee aa. Iai?eyoiue ?acaiai?
iaaeaeo aeaiueiaie caeii/eeny ?ano?iaaiiuie neacaie. Iioii aaeeeie
eiyaeia ia?aaeaee neiaa Aeecaaaou, neacaiiua ath naiei aeeceei i
iaaanoea: “Iia ethaeo i?aaaeo e ni?aaaaeeeainoue; yoi i/aiue oiiay
aeaiueia, ii iie ieaiyiiee – aeo?ae”.

E eiioeo oea?noaiaaiey Aeecaaaou Iao?iaiu aa ieaiyiiee ieii/aoaeueii
iioa?ye oaaaeaiea iiiaeo ie?oaeathueo e aicaoaeee e naaa ino?ia
iaaeiaieuenoai aieueoeinoaa ?onneeo. Iai?ioea, Aeaoa?eio Aeaenaaaio
noaee oaaaeaoue aeaaea aa i?ioeaieee. Aie?oa iaa ia?aciaaeny
iiiai/eneaiiue e?oa i?eaa?aeaioeaa ec ?onneeo, n?aaee eioi?uo auee ia
oieueei aaa?aeaeneea ioeoea?u e aeai?yia n?aaeiae ?oee, ii e
aeeyoaeueiua aaeueiiaee, noiyaoea aeecei e eiia?ao?eoea.

Naia Aeecaaaoa iiieiaea naith ioeaeo n iacia/aieai i?aaiieea o?iia, ii
iia oionoeea a?aiy e oaia?ue, eiaaea aa caei?iauea auei na?ueacii
iiaei?aaii, oae e ia niiaea ?aoeoue ii-ae?oaiio i?iaeaio
i?anoieiianeaaeey. Eiaaea 25 aeaeaa?y 1761 a. iia neii/aeanue a aic?anoa
52 eao, Iao? Oaaei?iae/ aue i?iaicaeaoai ?onneei eiia?aoi?ii
(1761-1762).

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1) Cae/eei E. A., Ii/eaaa E.I. – ?onneay enoi?ey I e II eieae.

2) N. O. Ieaoiiia “Eaeoeee ii ?onneie enoi?ee”.

3) AEo?iae “?iaeeia” iiia? 1 ca 1993aiae.

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