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Крымская война 1853-1856

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??UINEAss AIEIA 1853-1856a.”

O??ea 9 ?” ???

??u ? 5

I???? E?e

ss??e

2001

A i??a ???? I??ay I a ??? ?i ????y ??? ???ay ??a A???? II — ???? ??e ?
A??u e ?????? ?????i ???ey ?ae ??????e ???a?. I??i ??a 1828-1829 ??a
????, ?e ??? ????ue y? ??? a ae??. N ??? ???u, ????? ?? ??ae ????y,
???e?? ?iy?? ? ??? ???? ?????a e ????ey ???-?i a A??a.

O?ay ??????? ?????? ?y ?n???e ????? ?????ue ???a. N??? ? ?? ???e ??i
???? ???? ??????i ????y ? A???o, ?a???? ????th ???. Iiy?? a ??? ??? e
???e I??ay I e ?i ???ae??a, ??ny??y e 1853 ??, ????y ??ue i ?i, ?i a ???
???? ???? a I????? I?? ????? au??? ?????? ????a ?? e ?????ue ???e ???
13-e e 14-e ???e ? ??? A???.

I???? I??ay I ????????ue ?????e ?????? ??e: “?????a, ??????, ?????”.
A??? ????ay ??y???? y? ?e??a ??????a ??????oth e ?????? ???????th
???eth, ?o??th ????? ??????? e ???th??y ? ????i ??????e i ???? ????a.
Oe??? ? y?e ????e ??? ?? ????e e ?????e a ?? ??e ???a?? ???? ???u. E y?
?a ???a ?? – ?????a e ????y ??? ?? ? ???? ????? ????? ????i ???e ??e. A
????e I??ay I y? ???ay ???a ????? ? ???a???e. I? ??a, ?e e ???, ????
???e: “?????a, ??????, ?????”, ?o ??? ????y ???? ????ue ??.

N?????a ??????ue a ?? ???e ????????? ath??????e ???, ??aeyth?e ??????
??? e ??oth?e ??o ?????a ? ? ??a ??? i??????e ????, a ? ??a ???? ????o.

I????ue ????ue ?ay??? ??? ??????i e ????e ? ????i ??????.

I????? ?? ????? ?ae ???e ???? ?????a, ?e e ?a ????a ??u ?????? ??e. E??
??, ???ay ?ay ???i ?????? ????, I??? I ????y ???ue ?ae ?? ??i ?a ??????
???, a ?i ??a e ??aey??y ?ae ???th I???? O??e.

A ??? 50-o ??a, ? ??eth I??ay, ????ue ???? ????y?ay ?no??? ?y ??????y ?i
?????? ?i??. I??? A??? e I??? ?? ?i ????? ? Nay???o ?th?; O??ey, ? ?i
??eth, ?? ? ???a ??a ??eth???o ??y??e, A??????y ????? ?????ue a ??a, e,
??a ??, ??th ????, ?i A??????y e O??ey, y?yy? ?????e ? A??? A???, ?
??th?o ??o ??e ?th?.

Ia ????ue ??? a ?????o n A??????? ? ??? ??????y ?? ?ey?y ? A??? ???a,
I??? I ??? ?????ue a ?e??o. I??? ?y ??? ??u ????a ???y ??o ?????? e
??i-?????? (??????? ??????), ?????y ?-? ????y ?????? ?y?iy? ???? a
I????. ?????e ????? a ??a? 1853 a. ????? ? I?? (????? ??????a) ????ue ??
?????? i???? I???? ???e ?ae ?i ???????i, ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?ycth
A.N. I????, ??????y ????? ?????i, ???????th, ?????i e ????????th, ?a?y??
???e ???? ???ue e ??ue a E??????? n ????ey? e ???o. A ??? ????i ??????ey
????? ????? I???? ?????ue ??uy?? ?????, o.a. ?????a ?uy??? ??u.

I???a ???? ?????ii ??e ?ay ? ??y ???e n ???? A??-I???i, ?oy ?o ????ny ia
????a ???e. I?? ????? ?? ?????a I???a ????? ???o ??? ????e, ???y ???
?????i ??y ????? ??? ???? ????. ?????y, A?oe-I??ae ? ??? ??? ? ?????i
????? e ???? ??a?eth.

A ??o ???ay ??y ??? ????th ???? ???? a ????, ??y? ?i ??i ???? I?? e ????
e ? ???? ?? ? ??u.

I??????a ??u ???? ?????ey ????? ??? ????th e ??????ueth. I??????ue ????
a ??ue i?i A????e y????e, ?????? ? ??? ???a ???? E???a e ?????? ?????i
??a *?????? ??a ????i E????i. I?i A????e y??aee?e ??????? ??y??a ???e
y????e “n ???th ??a ?y? a A??? e Oe???ae”. Ii ??o ???, ???????a ?y ???a,
??? ?? ????? ???o ? ???e a ?? ?? a N???i?a e I??a e ?? e A??? ? ????? n
??eue?e ??ueth ?e?. A ??? ??? ????i ??a a ?? ??????? ???ue ?i e ??i o?
????ue e A???. I??a ???e y??? a A??? ??? ?ae ?? ???o O??e, E???????. *??
???? O??? a ???? ??? O??e, ?? ?aae????? ?iy?a Ae????.

I??? I, ?e ??? a ???? ??ayo, ???e y?o ???, ? ???? ????a ??-??? ?ycy A.N.
I????, ??? ?i. A?????e ?? ????? e ??? ???i-??????? ??u e ??? ???o?a ?e ?
????i ???? ??a ?????ny, ?e e ?????i ???e ?i???a, ???i ? ??o-?? ????
????.

A???, ?ae ??????i ???e-?uth??a A????, ???????, a eth? 1853 a. ??????y
??c I?o, ????? Ae?ay, ? i????ey?ny ??c ?? e ???? a??? ????. *?????? ?
??o ??a?? ????ny o ??o ???a e ??iyo?y ? ?y, ???? ?? ???? ?y ??th??y ?
???? e ???e ????i?e ???e. O?? ??????e ?? I??? I ??y?y ???? O??th e
??i?i. I ?i, ?i y? ???ey ???? e ??a a ????e ???? ????? e ? ???.

A????? ?? ???e ??ae E???e ??? ????e a ??i ???? ? a?? ?????o ??i. AE???
????? Ie??y I ????? a?? ???????? ??? ???iy???, ?i ??????? ???ue e ???
eth?e ??i ????o ??? e ???oth ??????? ???i ????ue ? ?????? ???i ?????i
???a, ???e ????y, a ?????a ??i, ?c??????oueth e ???e ?????i??th.

I????? ?c ???y ???y??e ??? e ???????a ????y ?????e ???? ???????, ??????
???e e, ??????i, ???e ???e. O?????? ????? e ???a ???u ???e ???e o ????
??e ?? (??? ? ????o ??e, ??eyth?o ???? ? ?ae ??!!!), ? ???? ??????
?????? n ???? ????y?. I??? I ???e ? ??o ????? ??y ? ???eth ??? ? ????e
???? ??a, ? ????ey ??o?? ath??????? ????. O ??u ??? ? ???i ??a ?y ????
??????ey.

A ??a, ??i ???ue ? ??? a????th e ? ???a ????ey ???y ??y ? ???? ??i ???yi
???y ??u.

???ay ??y ???????ue ?y??i n???i, ?e e ???, ? ????? ???a. A 1831 ?? ?e
??yo ????? ??a, ???e ?uy?ye ???th ??? ?y?o??? ?y ?oe ???? ????: ???yi,
??i, ??e ?????. Ae??y?, ??u, ???? ???? e ?????i ??????ue ? ???e ???.
N??????, ? o??o 1831 ?? ???y ??? ? ?? ???y????e, ? 20% ????y ??????ue ?
?a.

A ??th (n 1835 ? 1854 a.) ???? ?????ue ? 80 ?ny/ ???e. Ia ??? ??e ??? ?
20 ? 35 ?o. N?e ??? ???ey?y ? 22 ? 25 ?o. I??i, ??u ??ue ????e ???,
??????? ??a 15-??? ?????e ??? a ??o?th?o (????) ???o ???y? ??? a ?????
???. I???? ???? ???? ? ?ny?? ??u.

I????e ??? ?-???? ???e???y ? ??yi. A ???u ?????e e?, ????? ???a ???a
????y, ????a ???a, ??u e ???a, e ? ??a ??????eyth??y.

Aeey ????? ???? A?????i ??a a 1832 ?? ????y ???y ???ey-??? ??? ???-???a
????a. A 1855 ?? ? ??y E???e ??u ???ath?y ??????ay e ????ay ????.

???y, ? ??? ??? ???? ???? ? 1 y??y 1853 ??, ?????a ????e ????? ??ey?? e
???ey?? ??? ?????ueth ??e 1 ???i 400 ?ny/ /???, ??e ?o ?? ? 31 ?ny? 400
???e ????a e ????. A?? ??ey?? ??e ????ue 1 ???i 151 ?ny? 408 ???e, ? ?o
??iy? ? ??????? ??? 938 ?ny/ 731 ???e e a ????? e a??? ???? 212 ?ny/ 677
???e. A ????y?? ???o ????ue 245 ?ny/ 850 ???e (? ??????? ??? 89 ?ny/ 168
???e). A?? ? ? ??????? ??? ??ey?? e ???ey?? ??e ?? ????i ??a 1 ????
???e. Ii yoei ? ???, ??? ???ey? 2/3 ? ??? ????? ?? ??e, ????y-1/5
????ey-1/3

I??a ????ey?? ? ???oth, ???oth?th a ????o ??yo, e ??oth. E??th ???ey?
??y, ????? e ???e, ?????a ????e e ?????ua a ????? ????u. N???, ?????a
????e, ????ey? ??e ??th ??????ue ???, ????othny ? ????th?e ??? ???? ???
e ? ?????e e ? ????eth. A???th ??? ????? ?????? ???????i a ???i?e ??. A
?? E???e ??u ????? ????a ????u ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??ae ??y?. A ?????
??ay, a ?a ??c ????i ?o any ??? ????ny ????? ? ????eth, ???a ???? ??a.

E 1853 ?? ?y ??? ?????a 110 ??? (a ?i ??a 10 ?????o, 12 ??????, 4 ??????
e 42 ????), 9 ????? ?????, ????? a ??? ??u ? ?ny/?? ???a (? ??u ?e ??e ?
180 i??o ??a a ??) e 84 ?????, ??????, ??a??o, ??????, ???e? e ??y???
???? ????a.

E??? ??ae E???e ??? ????ey?? ? oy??th: ?????th e ????oth e ??oth: ???oth
e ????th.

E?????? ??? ?? 59: 23 oy??o (12 ?????o e 11 ?????) e 36 ??? (20 ???? e
16 ????o). I???e ?? a ???i?? ??iye ? 4 ?????, ???? – ? 4 ?o, ?? ?????a
250 ???e, ??????a ??e ??iy?: ?????a ? 8 y????a, ?a???a ? 10 y????a, ?a
???? e ?n??? ??????a ??e ??e ? 8 y????a. Ec ?? y????a a ???? ????e
???ey?y ????. Y???i ?n?ye ? 133 ?????? (??? ??a) e ?ae ? 15 ?e 16 ?y?a ?
???. A y???ia, a ???i ? ??o ????? ??ue 15 ?y?a, ? ??? ?????e:
??-i???a-13, ????-4, ?y??o-120, a y???? a 16 ?y?a ? ???: ???-????-16,
????-4, ?y??o-128.

A ???e ????? a ??? ??y ????ue 1 ?ny? 134 ??ey (? ?o 232 ???) e 1 ?ny?
446 a ???a ?aiy (?e ?i ? ????? ???). *?? ??? ?? ????????, a ? i???a
????? a ????? ???a. A?a?e a ???e ????? ??????ue 135, a ?i ??a 29 ???.
I?? ???e a ???? ??iy? a ???a ??y ? 12 ???, a ie?? ??y ? 8. A??? ????ue a
???u ????????? ???a, a ???u a ???e; ????a y?y?? ???????i-????????, a ?
?????? ????ey?. I? ?????e ????? i??????ue ????, ??u ?? ??y ???y ?????ue
? ?? ???? i?e, a ?? ??ay ???y ? ?a ??????o ??a.

I?iy?a ? ????? ??????i ??y ????i ????eth ??ae ??????ueth ???? ?o???
?????e. I? ????? ????e ???? ? ??? ???ueth (???i ??y?i) ? 300 ???e (640
i) ????? ?? y??o?? ?????ue ??o ???, ?e ?e ??????ay ???? ?a ? ??y ?e???ey
??? e ????? ? ????th ?????i ???? ??y? ? ???? eth??? ???a e ???e ?
??????i ?????i ??ey. I?? ?????e ??? ??/a ????ue ? ????e ? ???? ????ue
?iy. I???iy?a a 1838 ?? ??????ey ???e ????? (???u 1838 a.) ? ??? ????
??ey ???a 1805 ??, ? ???y? ??e ?c ????e ????ue ????.

A???e ????ey ?? ????? ??ue ? ????th 500-600 ???e (1070-1280i), ???ath?th
a 2 ?? ????ue ???? ???ueth. A? ??ey (??e e ????e), ??iy?? ? ????? ???e
??e, ?? ???e, ???????, ??y?th??ny n ??.

A ???a ???e ??e ???ue ???ay ???y. A ??? ??y ?a ??iy? ?e ??????i ????
????e, a ???a ??y ????a a ???y??a ???oth?e ??e. N??y? ???ay ???y ? ???o
???o ???a, ?a?? ? ??? ????o ???? ???? ??eia. I?? ???? ?????iey ??????ue
???????i ? ???.

A E???e ??a ???? ??????y ?????e ? ????i e ????? ???o, a ??a ?e ???a
N????ey.

???a ??iy? ? ???, ?????e ????i ??y?i e ??? ??e (a???? ??y?) e ???.
Ae???? ???? ????o ??a ??? ??o ?????? ????ue ???? ???o ??????? ???. ???a
(???y 4-aeth??ay) n 1/4 – ???e a???e ??a ??ithth ????ue ???? 4 ?ny?
150i, a ???y ??a (n o? ? ??i ??y?)-1 ?ny? 810 i. N????e??? ??? (4 ???? a
???) ?? ?oa ???????? ??????? ???. A??a ??? ???y?? a ???o ???eyo (i???),
?e ??a e ???a ????e (?a??, ?????).

???u ????? ????? ??y??: i????a ??? – ????e e ???ueth, ???a, ?e ?????, –
????e, ??????? e????, ??????? y??e e ???? – ??y?? n ????? ????i. N??e ?y
???? ???? ?? ???e, ???? ?e ????a, ???y?? ?e ? eth?e ??i?? e a eth?o
???yo. A??a ??? ???ey? ?????? ???????a ??i a ?????. N ?y???i a 60-o ??o
XIX ?? a ???e ??e ???? ????? ??? ?ae ???e ???? n?? ???ue ? ?o.

E????a ??? ?? ?????? 9 ????e ?????e, ??iy??e ? 4 ?o (? 250 ???e a ??) e
2 ??i-????o ????? ??y?????i ???a. A ??? ??y ???? ????u ???iy?? a ?e ????
???u.

A??i-???e ?? ?i?? ? ?????e ??? ???? ??? ???e ??? ??i ??a A??e e O???e.
A??a ???e e ? ?????, a ??i n??????? ????eyi ???? ??. A i??e ???? XIX ??
????? ???i-y?????? ????? ??? e ???? ????i ??????a, ?????? ???? ???-???o
?e. ???y e ??? E???e ??u ??a ??ue ?? ???o ??a. Ii ii ?????e e ??? ?????
*?????e ?? ????y ?y????e ????a I.I. E???a e I.N. I???a, A.A. E???? e
A.E. E???a ?????e ????ee e ?????e ??u.

I??? ??, ???? n ???i ??i????e ???? e ????, ???a ???e ??, ?????ue a ????
???e ?o??, ????th ??i 800-1000 e.n. Ae??? e??? a ??ue ??e ?e ??? ??, ?e
??a – ?ae ???? ?e ? ?e ??? ?? e ???a. A ???a ? ????i ???? ???? ?a
?????ue ??a ???e ?????e. A? ?? ?? ae??y??e, e ??? ? ????y ??ue ?????
???e ???e.

I?? E???e ??? a A????i e *?????? ??? e a A?????ie, E????e e E????e
???eyo ??????ue ????i ??a 90 ?ny/ ???e. A???e? ?? ?? 26 ???? ????, 9
????, 8 ???? e ???, 9 ????a-????, 10 ????o?, 143 ??? ??a, a *????n?e
??-14 ???? ????, 6 ????, 16 ???? e ???, 6 ????a-????, 32 ????? e 82 ???
???y.

I???a E???e ??u ???y ? ??a ? ??? ????i ???y, ?oy a 1851-1852 ??o ????
??????i ?? ???? ??a?a e ????a a ???? ?? ???? ????.

Ia ????? ???? ??e ????ue ?????a ??e, ??ey?? ????? ?????? ???e. Ae???? ?
??? ????a 2 ?.

O??? ??? ????? ? *?????i ??a ?e ??, ?i ? Aa????. Ia A????i ??a ?? ?? a
???? ???y ? ??ithth ???o, ? ????? ??a e ????i ???i ???i. Ia *?????i ??a,
?????? ???? ???? ????y ?????e ? I????a, oe?y e ?i ????? ???e
???iy????ueth, ???o ??y?a ???e ????o ???ue; a ??? ????? ????? ???????
?????-????? ????a.

Aeey ???e ????i ??a ????? ?????i ??????? n ??th ?iy?y ???? ????i ??????
???iey ? ????th e ?????. E??? ?y ?y ????ue a ?a ?????? ???u. ???iy?a ??o
??y? ?????a ???eye?ue y??????th ???????i ?iy, ???e y?y?y ???? ?????i
????. I??? ?? ?y ?y ????ue ? ?ai?o ??o ????e, ? ?o ?????ue ??a ?y????
????? ???? ? ??y (??????) ????.

A??? ??ae a ????ue?? ???? ????i ??a, a ????? ???a ???ey ??y?a ??? ??a
N????a e O??? ???a ???? N?y?i, E???, E???a e I???.

E? ? ?????e ? ???ey ???e ?????a ???u. E ???o ??? ??u ??? A??-I??ae ????
???? ???????o ??? -????. Aeey y?o ??e ??????? ???a ???? ?????o ??aa a
??oth ???ue ?????a e ?????. N???a ????ue ? ? ???? y???? ???, a ? ???o
?????? ???e e ????ey. I????ue ?e, ?i O??y ????? ??ui ??i ???? ?ae ?ey?a
A??u. A??????y, O??ey e ??ea ?????a ???u ?y? ? ????? ???i ????????? ????
I??. N??????oth e ?????th ? ?????? ???? ???th a y?i ???a ??i ? ??e
a??ue.

E ?? ? ??a ??eth?e 1848 a. ?????e ????? I???i III, i?y?y i ??? I???? I,
??e ???? ?? ?? n ???th ???-??? ??????i ???? ????a. A ??ae A??????? ???a?
?????a ?????y ??????? ????, e ?e y?i ???ny ????ey ?ey?y ???e ? A???o.
Oo?ey ??e-???e ????a ?? ?????? ????e ??, ??u ?????? ?? ??????y ???e a
????ath??y I???? ???e, ?i ??a, ?i ??????a A??????e e O??? ?? ? ??? ???y
a ??a ??? ???e. Aea e ??u O??y ??iy?i ?????e ?ith ????? ????? ?????a
O??e ? E???.

E???y ??a ????a a 1853 a. ?e ????o ??i ????ny y?i????o e ?????? ??????
??o A???, O???e, O??? e ????. E??y ? y?o n?? ????? ???? ?? ?ey?a ? A???
A???, ????ue ??e ??a, ????ue ?? ??a ????ee. A??y e O??ey, ??i ????y ?a
??a ???y??ny ???-???? ???iey, ??????? O??th ? ?uy??? ??u ???e. I??i ???a
??????ay I????ay ???y e y?? ???e ?????i ???a e ?? ? a ??iy?e ae???y ???:
??e ???e ????y ? ?? e ? ??. 18 ?y?y 1853 a. ???y y??? ?ae ??????i
??-???? I. N. I???a ????? a N???? ?o? ???oth y???, a 19 ?y?y a ??? ???y
A?????, ???? ???? E?a, 10-?ny?? ???e ??? ?ae ??????i ???? A. I. A???a ??
???a e ???? a ???i 36-?ny?ay???ay ??y. A? y? ????i ?th?ee? O?oe? A??th e
O??eth ????ue ? ? i??ue: a ???a 1853 a. ??i-?????e ?? ??e a *??a ??.
I???ue A???ay, ?e E???y, ??a, ?? ? ??o ??i????o ?? ???? ???ey. E A??e,
O??? e O??e, ??? ???i, ??o??? ??? ???e, ??? ??????? ?????i N???y. A????e
? ????th e ???e ?? e ???y A?o?e, O??e, NOA. A?? ?a ? A????i e A?? ??yo,
? Ae?? e E???, ae?a ? ???e E???a. Ii ???i ???i ???o ???ee ?? E?i. A ???
??y?y 1854 a. ?? N????ey ?i???? ??i-?????e ??. C?y, ?i ??ae ??? ???i n
??y, ????e ???e ???e ??? e th? ? A???? n ?i, ??u ???e e N????eth n ??.
13 ??y?y 1854 a. a ??? au? ?uy??i ???a ????a.

I???ue ???a, ?????ayny 349 ??. Aa ???????e e ?????ey? ??e ????e ??a
*?????? ??a ??-???e A.A. Ei??? e ???oth?e y???e ??-???e I. N. I???. O?
?e n ?? ??ae ia a? ????, ?i ????? ???nue a ??ue ???? ?? ????ue ???e???th
??th, ??iy?oth ? ?? ????a. A??? ???i, ???a ????e E?????i, ????y ? I????
???a – ?????th?e ??? E????? ???u. ????? ??????? ????? ?????e ????-??????
Y.E. O???i N??????? ??u a ??i ??? ???u ????ue ?????? ?y ??a: ??y? ???
???oue ??ue ??o ??a, ??u ????? ??? ??ey????i ??a ? ????? ??ae. I???a ?
?????o ???o e???e e ??? ??ue ????o ???e ???? ??i-?????a ?????? ????ny ?
???e ???a a N????? n ??y. A?? ?ay? ?ny/ ??y?a ???? y???e ???ue a ???
???????? ??io??i ????a e ??e ?i ???e ??e. E????? ??e, ??y?, ?a ????i ?e
????e ? ????, ?a ??o ????y ?????e ???? ??y?e. Ae?a ??y ?i ???y?? ??????
n?y??e. A?????y ?? A???? – N? ?i??? ??n ???a ????a ???i ???i ? ?? A?? e
??? N?a???ue n ???a. A???? ???? A????e e ?????e ?i ?? ??, ???? ???e ???
a E???? ??a. I?????, ??i ???i, ?? ?y ????y ??o ??e, ?th??e ??e ????ny e
??? N????ey. 5 ?oy?y 1854 a. ?e ????y? ??oth ??????o ???: 126 ??ey????
??? ??i ???? ? ??????oth ??th ???? ??e. C???? ????a ??iy?, ?oy e ??e
???o ???. N?? oy??e ???e ?? ??eue ???? A.A. E????, ????? ????? a ?o ?? ?
I???? ???a. I?? ?i ??? ? ??a ???u ??e I. N. I???.13 ?oy?y ????e N??o??y
a A?????i ???? ? ??? ?????e ????oth ????th, ii 24 ?oy?y ???y ??y ????a
????a ?ae E????i. I??i e ??? ????? ???e? ??ue ??????e, ?i ??i-?????a
?????? ????i ?? ???e e ?oy?ie ??a ???. I? ???u ????? e ????????th ??o
?????e. I???? ????? N????ey ????? ??a oy??i: ?e ??e ? ????? a ???? oy??a
???????a ??y, ??ey?? ??i ? 300 ??a, a ???u ????? ?? ????u ????e ??y?,
??ey??e ?1200 ??a. I????iey e ????? ??ey???? ??? a E?? ???? ???a e a
???i ?????, ?i ???a, ??iy?i ?????? ????? ai ??. A??e 1855 a. ?th?? ???
??????? ?? ???ey. Ia ???? 5 ethiy ???? ????ay, ????y ? ??o, ??????a ???,
a 6 ethiy ????e i?? ? ??i ????? E????? ???u.

I??i ???a ??u, ?iy?a ?eeth????a ???? e ??e?, ??iy? ?????oth ????. N??ey
6 ethiy 1855 a. ?????u ? ????? ???a ????? ???? O. A. ??i “I??? N????ey
1854-1855 ?.” A? ??i ?? ?ny?a ????ue ????e ???, ? ?? ? ?y?. I?????? ???e
??a ??? I. N. I???a: 28 ethiy y?o ?????e ??????, eth??oe ???? e ??? ?e
??o??i ??i… C?y???ny ???a ???ey ?ae N?????i ???? ?? ??o ??ii. I???y ?
oy??a ????a ?????, ???a ??? ???? ????: ????? ?e e ? ???ue ???? ????? a
????. I??????a ????ey, ?ca?? ??, ? ?? ?e ???????e, ? ??i ????e ???e e
????i ???yi, ??ny ????? ???? ???. ???? y?i ?????? ????a a ?ay??? ?e
????-??? ??a. I??o e ??n?i ?iy?y? ? ??? ???u, ???u e ? ????u, ? e ????a
N????ey, a ?i ??a ???u e ??. 4 ???a 1855 a. ???a ??? ????e i???? a ????
? *??e ??a, a 27 ???” ?e I??? ???. O????ue ??a ??u N????ey ? ?a???ye?ue
????i. A ?? ? 28 ???a ????e, ???a ?? ????ey, ? ???o ?a?????th?? I. Ae.
A???? ???? th?oth ??ue ??? e ? ????o ??o, ?????o ??c ??, ???e ? N???th
???o. A???a ???a ???ey a N????? ??????.18 ??a 1856 a. ??a ae????e
???????e ??? ?e ???? I???? ??? ????, ? ???? ???y ???? ??a ??ue ? *??i ??
??, ???ue ???? e ???-???a ??.

E???y (A???ay) ??a 1853-1856 ?. ??????i ??? ??o ?????e e I???? ???y? ?
????? ? A??? A???.

I??a ??e ???o ??e, a a ?????e ???i ????i ??a a N??a ???? ????y a ??o
A??th e O??eth ? ???a I???? O??e. A 1855 a. e ?thth?e ???? ???????
N????a ?????i. E ?th??? ??? ?? ????ue O??y e A??ey, ? y?? ?y??ay ??e
“Nay???i ?th?” n ????. A??? ???ey ??? a Aa???? ??, ? E???a, ? E???, a
Ae???? ?yaea??o.

I???a ???ey ?????? a E?? ?e ???a N????ey ? ??e ?th??? (?nth? e ???? ??u
– E???y).

A ??a, ??? ??ey?, ?????ay ???ey ??? ???? ??? a y?e ??a. ???y ????a I????
?? e ???y? a?o ?????o “???”.

A?? ? y?e ??u ??o ?? ??i: Ia ?? ?i ??? ? ????, a ??? o ?ay ?? – ??ioth
??th.

I?? ?th?? ???: Nith?? ???u ? ??? ??? ??? ???th ? ???e ?????? ??a. I?ay
??a ???a ???? ?????ueth ?????ue y? ???oth ??o. I?????? A??y e O??ey
?????? ???? ???a ??? a ??a n Oo??e, a ??i ?ae ???? i ??? O??e, ?e ??????
???ue ? ???th e ???e ? a ??yae ??????? ???, ?????ue ? ?a E?i, E??c,
A????th, I?a???, I??o e O?ey?eth (?? I?????a – ??? ???? ?????o ?????
???). A ?????? n y?i ???? ??????ny ??????? ??, ? ???? ?a?????ue ?????
??i? ???ey n ???? ? ????? ????, ??a?yy ??ey ??? e ???? ? ????a *??? e
A????? ??e. A?ey ??ia ?? ?????ue ? ?? ???o ???o ????, ????? ?? ? ???i
?n?iy?? a 1 ?ny? ??: a E??, ? i???e ???a e ? ???u A????? ??y.

I?? ????o ???e ???? ????? ???? ???? n ??y ?th??? ?e??ue ????ny ? ??ue
???o ??? e ????ue ?a ?? ??ey ? E?i.

O???a ?????? ?????i ????ue ??e? ??? ? Ae?? ???????e ???ey?, a ? E???, ?a
???? ?? ?????? ???a, ????? ?????a. O???a e ??i-?????a ?????ey ????e ???a
???u ? ???a ??e?? E??? e ? ????i ??y ???i? *a/? e Ae???? – O??y. I????e
???e ?????? ?y? n ?????ey? ith?????i ???ey e a ??o ??????? ??? ???? ???
??i ???eth ??? O??y a ?? ???? ?????i ???.

Ca ????i ?? ? ???ey ???o ?e??e ? N????ey a A??eth, *?????i ??? ? ??a n
I??i N?????i I???? ?? ?????a 13-y ???ay ???y (16 ?ny/ 393 ????, 624 ???,
2 ???e, ?? ???e e 30-???e ????????e ??n). Y? ???ey ?????nue ??i 7 ??e e
a ????? ?? ??????u 14 ??n?o ???? (? ?o ?a ???a), 7 ????a e 11 ??????
??a. I???y ??? o???, ????y ? ?????? ????, ? ??. N?????e ???e y?o ???ae
“?????i ????ui”.

I????a 13-e ???e ???????o i ?i, ?i ?????a ??u a???o ???? n ???th *??????
??a ?? ??? ????u.

4 ?oy?y 1853 a. OO?OeEss IAUssAEssAO AIEIO. I? e?????? I??-?? (I???
E???-???a ? ??????? e ???? ???a) ???ay ??y ?????a Ae??.

O???e ???, ?????? A??? e O???e, ???? ??????? ??????? ??o ??e, 27 ??y?y
(4 ?oy?y) 1853 ?? ??e???i ????? ? ???e ???? ???e? ?y??? e, ? ??? ????? ?
15 ?? ?y ???, ??e ???a ???ey. O? a ?oy?a 1853 ?? ???? E??eay ??a,
?????ayny ??e ?a n ??a?? ??.

I???y ???a ???ey, ??e ??e ??????i a ??o e ? ????i e ? ????? ?a??. Ia
????i ??? o ?o ?? 140 ?ny/ ???e. I????y ??ue ???a ???ey ???ue e ?yi
????o ?e.

4 ?y?y 1853 a. N?AAEAIEA I?E IEOAIEOeA (a ??. ????). C??, a TH?? ????,
???? ? Ae?ay, I??-?? ??n ????a ??e? ??e.

30 ?y?y 1853 a. ?ACA?II OO?AOeEIE YNEAAe?U I?E NEIIIA (?e N???? ????).

23 ?y?y I??? ???e e N??o n ????? ??? e ????? ?? a ??. A N????? ?e ????i
?? “Y?e” n ??ue?e i ??????.

29 ?y?y ???a ??ay ??ue ????? ?????ey. A ???a y??? I???a a y?o ??? ????ue
6 ???? ???? (“I?ey”, “I??”, “O? ?y??ey”, “A.E. E????i”, “?????” e “*??”)
e ?a ???a (“E??” e “E???”). I?? ????? ??? ???ey? 716, o.a. ??ey? n ???
??a ??e 358.

O ??e ? a y?o ??? ?? 7 ????, 3 ???a, 2 ????, 2 ????? e 1 ?thi. E????i
?????o ??? a ??e ????e ???ey? 472 ??ey (o.a. 236 n ???). O???y y???,
????y a N?? ? N???a, ?iy? ? ??a e ????? e ???a ???? ???a ??e a ???
N??-E?a (N??e) e I?e.

E????e ???? ??? a N??a I??-??, ? ?????, ?e e ?????i ??? ????o ????,
??ie-?? ???? ????e. C?y i ?i, ?i ??eay y??? ??????o ??? N??a e ?i a
eth?e ??? ??i i??? ????y, I??-?? ? ????ye ?e? ?? ?? ???th?o ???????
???ie y???. N?a ?? ?????u ??? ??i ??e ?????, ?i ??i ???ay i??a ???aua
???e, e ?? ? ??a ?????? ??? ??e ???a e ???e ??e ????ue ??ey?ey ?e?i ???
n ??? ??a.

O?? 30 ?y?y ? ???y? ???a ??y? E???? I??? ? ???? “I?ey” ??e ?ith y??? e
N??o. E ??? ?? ? ?y ???ay y??? ???a ?????e ????th ??? ? ?? ????. O??
????e ??i 3000 ???e e ????, ????a ??? i 4000, ?n?? ???-37 ???e ???e e
235 ????.. I???a ??? ??e ?? ?y?? n ?i, ?i ? ??? aiy I??-??, ?? ????th
????i a ??e ??? ???, ???? ????? ??? ? ??aeyo.

Io ?? y??? ??? ??? ???ae “O?o” ?ae ???? ?????a A???? Ney? (??. I???-??).
A? ? ??? ?y I??? ???e ?a ???a “E??” e “E???” ??th?? ? ???ey? 2-o o???o
????a, ???a ????ey? ??oth ????ue ?y ???o ???? ????.

I??i ???i Neyae, ??a?? ??oy ????eyi, ????? ? E?? N?y??? ????y ??th????
??th??? ca ??i ?y. E ??a ??ae n???a ?e ????i “O?o” ? ??? ??? ???ny a
???i. O???y ? ?i ???? ???? ? ???ue.

???? ???? y??? ?????i ???e ???a ?? O??e e ??? ? i?? ? ???a ??e ? ????a
E?e?a. N???? ???a ???? ??i a ???th ?e ????a ???a ???? y?? ????i ??a.
O?????e ?i ??a??oy? ?? ?????a ???ey ?e ?????e ??ey????i ??a ? ?i ??,
e???a ??????a ???? e ????? e? ?????o ??e. A??ay y?????? ?????o ??e ????
???ae e ??????o ?????? ??a.

I?? ??????e ??? I???a ??e?ue ??????y ????a ??????i ??ey ? O??? e A??e.
Nith?? ???u ??e ?????? ???a ?y ????ey a ??o – “??? ?????e O??e ? ????
??a”.

12 ??a 1854 a. O?AIEI-A?EOAINEEE OEIO A *A?III II?A. I? ???u, ? ??y ??a
???? ??? e ????ey, ?????? n O??? ?y ??? ???a e ?????a ????e.

20 ??a 1854 a. ?ONNEEA OI?NE?OTHO AeOIAE. I??y ??y ?ae ??????i
???e-?????? e ??????oth?? ???? ???? ? ???? ???? e Ae?? E?? O????a I????
????ue a A???th.

*?? ???? ????? ? A???o, I??? I ???? ???e ??ue a ?????a. ???? ??? ???i??
Ae?? o A???a, A??a e E???. I????? ?????ue ???i. A?e ?iy? E??a, O??a,
I??. 5 ?y ???? ??a N????.

20 ??ey 1854 a. OA?ICA AIAOAOAEUeNOAA AANO?EE. A??? a ??????? ?thc n
I???e ??? ???e, A??ey ??????a iy??ny??ny?oth ??th a A??? e O??????. C??,
n ????ey O??e, ?a ???? ? ???ey ????e ? ???o Ae?ay. ???y ????a ?? ?y? ??o
N?en?? (9 ethiy), a ??i ??? ? y?? ??? ?a ??? (12 ???a). O? ? ??a, ???y
???? ???y ???i ????ey, ????? A???, O???e, I??e? e A???e (A?a, 8 ???a),
???? ?o?? ?a ??? ?? ??? ????ny ? ?ei? ? ? ? ?? ?a????? a ?? I????? ???e.

A ?y? n y?? ???y? ???? ???? ???e ??? O??a-E??a ?i i??e ? 1854 a. :

“A??? ?? ?????ei ????eyi, y ? ??yth ????, e ii ??o ??eth, ?? ? ??i
?????ue ??i e y????, ? y? ????y ???? ??o ?i ?????? ??aeu. I?a ???a – ?
???a, e ? ??i? ?? e ?ey?a ???e a ? ???u, ? ???a ?a ??a ??? ? ??e? ????
[I????!] e ???? a ??i ???. I???i, ????? ????i ?y ??y I??ay, ? ??i ? ???i
???th ???? ? ??a. E???, ????i ????ue ??? ??? ???, ? a ???? ??cy ??a, a
?o ?????? ????e ? ???a – ???y. Iu ??ny ??eth?e, ? ? a ??? ?? n???ny n
?th e ?c ???e. N??a, ???y ??o ?????? ???? 200 000 ??? e ???ue ??? ?????
?? a ??? 500 ????a ????a, ? ??ue ? ??? ??? ??eth???e ???e. I??a ??i, ??
?? ?????, e, ??????ue? ???? ??y I??ay, y ??oth? ???? ???? ???e”.

N?oy?ue 1854 a. IEAIU AOI?AEAIEss A E?UI. I?? ?? ?e ???a ???? A???, a
Ei??a e I??a ??? ?a ??a ???? ????? ???e ? *??i ?? e i?????ue ?a?i-???th
a?o a N?????. ???? i ????? ???? ?? ??y? ?c ???e ??? ? ????a e ????ey
????? ????. I?? ?????? ????ey?: n ????? ???u ???e-??? O??e Ae??n A??
N???o, e 66-??? ?? ???i; n ?a????- 53- ??? i??e A?? AE? E?? ? N?o-A?i,
???? ???e ???e.

7 ??y?y 1854 a. AUOIAe EC AA?IU. I?? ?? ?e a A?? ???oe ?????ue y???y ???
e ????? ???e ??? ??? ?th??? ?? ?????u ? E???e ?e???a ???? ???i, ??iy?i ?
89 ??? ???? e 300 ?????? ??a. Aeey ??e ?????e ?th??e ????? ??o ???e ?a
??a ??, ?e ???e ??e a ??.

E???th?e ???e ??? a E?? ???e ?y? A???? N???? I??e? ? ????ye ? ???? ???e
???? ???a. N??i ?????i ?? ??o ?? ??????y, ???ay ????? ???e. ???? ??????
???, ?i ????e ???o ? N?????; ???????, ?i ??th ?i ????? ??o I??a. Iiy?? a
A????e ?? ??????i 180 ?ny/ ???e, ??o I??? e I????i-32 ?ny?, a E?? ?? 51
?ny? ???. A??? ?th??? ?? ?y I???? nth???i.

O??a ??? i ???a ?th??i ???a ???? ???? ???. I??e ??? ????? ???th?y a ????
? 51 ? 67 ?ny/ ???e. O? ?i ??, a i???a, ??????.

13-18 ??y?y 1854 a. AUNAAeEA O NOA?IE E?AIINOE. Ni????e ?? n ?????e ????
???e n ??? e A????, ?iye ? 3-?ny/?i ??y?i e ??i a ????i ?n?, a 50 ?. e
??? ? N????ey, ????e e ???a ??e, ???y ???ue a ???a 6 ??. A??? ???iy? ???
???? ???y e ?????a ??iy?a ??? (????e ??? y?i A? ? ??e).

19 ??y?y 1854 a. Y??????a ?? ?th??ia, ????ue ? tha (????a-? ???? e ???
???. O?o ?e ?????? ???).

20 ??y?y 1854 a. N?AAEAIEA IA ?AEA AEUeIA. I????? ???e A.N. I???a n ???
?????ueth 36 ?ny/ 400 ???e ??e ?iy? ???o ? ??? ?? Ae?u. A? ??e ??a
?????ny ?a ?ny???? ????? ?th??i ??a, ??? ?iye i??? ? ?y? ???. N?u ?th???
?c ??? ?????e ?????e ??. I??i ??i ????a ????ue o ???ey ?o?? ???, ?????
???e ? oae??ue ?? ??a oy??? ?y. E??ay ?oy??i ?y, A. N. I???a ????. I??e
?th??? (a ???? ????a) ????e ??i 3 ?ny/ ???e, ???o-5 ?ny/ 709 /???.

N?? ??? ??? ?th??? ?e A?? ??i ???ue ??????? ????ae?? ?????o ??e ???a A.
AE. N?o-A?i e ?????i ???? Aeae. ????, ? ??? ?????i ????a.I??i ? ??? y?
???u ???e e ????th ???o ??e. E???th?e ???? I???a, A??e?, ??????e ???
???i e oe???, e E?uey?a, ????y?? ??? ??? ???, ????e ?yae ??? ??? e a ??a
? ????? n ?????? ? ?o ????.

????y??y I????, A???? e E?uey?? ????? ????????th. I???a, ??e?a ??? A????
e Ee?y??, ? ?????e ??o ?? ??i ???th, e ?e ? ??e, ?? ? ?o ???y?y A?????
??. Ai ??y ???ey A???a e E?uey?a ?????e ??? ? ??i ???a, ? ????y?, ?i
???ny ? ???. A??????a ? ??e ? ?? i??????. N????ny ???a ??e e ??????y ?i,
?a y? ? ?o ????, ? ?????e ????? ?ae????e ?? ??a.

???? ??????, ??? ???th ???th, ? ???i ? e ???? ?????i ???. I????a ????i
E?uey??i ????e o ??y ?? ?c ????y ????i ??oe?? ??y?ny ? ??? ??? ??? e
????ue ???e ??e ??a ????ue ??o e ??th, ?i ???i ??? ???a ?? ?????y e
N????eth. O???a ???ey ????a ? ???i ??i o??a ??? ??? ???ey.

???? ?????? ? ?????? ?ith ???o. A ???a ??a ?? ???a ? ??e ??a, ??u ???? n
??? ??????th ???o A?? a ?o ???, ??a ?a ??? ??? ??????y.

*? ???ny N?o-A?i e ????, ? ? ???ey ??a ? i????ue ??????ueth. N??e ???
N?o-A?i ??? a ???? ??? ? ??yi, ii ???yi, a ??a ???a ??? ??e ????ue, ? ??
? ????y ????a?ue ??????a. N?o-A?i ?????e ???? ?a??a ? ??i ???? ???? ??e,
a ??i ?????ey ? n ?iy?o ???e.

???ay ??y ????a ????, ? i????, ????? ???, ??? ??th????th ????ue e
??????? ???o ???. A? ??iyy ????y???, ?i ?? a ?? ??????i ?ae ???i
???ii-???i ????? ??????.

A????y ??? ?th??? ? ???a ??th?? ?ey?y ? ??????oth ?????. Y? ?? ????,
???a ??i ?????e ????, ? ???? ???? ?y?o ??????? ??. E???th?e ???e ???,
?ay ??? ?e, ??e ???? ??th???? n ???????e ?ey?. I???a ?????y ? ?????
?????, a ?i??ue ?i. A? ??u ???????e ????????e ???????e ???ey? ? ?????
i??eyo-??o A??, E?a e A???-???e ????? ???, ????ue ?i ???? e N????eth,
???a, ??i ??c?, ??y ?y ???a ??????. Ii e y? ??i ??????? ??u ?? ???? ??i
?????i A????i ????i. Ii?a ????ey ? ?? A?? I???a ? ????y ? ??? ??a e
????e ???y? “??e ?????”, ??? ?? ??u ?? e N????eth.

25-26 ??y?y 1854 a. IA?AAeAEAEAIEss AIE?OA NAAANOIIIEss. Nith??e ???e e
N????eth. Ia ?ay ???? ? ????a??o ????eyo ???? ?th??e, ??? ?? ??u n ??
????? ????? ?????th ???oth ?i?? ??? ????ue a ???? 24-?????ue ?? e th??
???a. ???? ? y?i ???? ????? ???e N?o-A?i (?? ??c 8 ??). I?? ? y? ??????
?y ???? ???a ??ey? ????a i ???a?a ???o ???? a ???????e ??? +1. N?o-A?i ?
???y ?c ????a ???e?ey n ??y ???? ? ???oth ???o. A y? ? ??y A.N. I???a
???e a ???? ??? 8- ?????e ????, a ?i n ????e ??e ???? e A???o, ??u
?????y n ????? ?? ?????ey?. A ????? ??e ?????a, ?? ?? ? ?ay, ????e ???
?? ??a. Nith??e, ???? ??, ?????ue n ???, ????ay ??ue ???? ????e?ue a
A????, ????eay-a E???? ??a. E????? ???i ????? ? ???? ???a ??? ?e ????i
???e E???a, ? TH?? – ??e N??a – I???.

8-16 ?oy?y 1854 a. INAAeA NAAANOIIIEss. N?????? ??????? ????? n th? ?a ?
?? ????i. E? ?a ????? ??, ?????a ?????a ? ???? ??i ? ????ny ???i. A??i
y?? ?e ???? ?????i ???e ???, ??? ???? ? ???o ???e ????ey?? ????? ??????
e ??i ?????i ????i ????. C?? ???? ???a ???. I??e ? N?o-A?i ?? ? ??? (29
??y?y); ? ??o ??????oth?? ?????? y??????? ???? ?i ??? ???e (?????? ???
O???) O??? E??a?. E 17 ??y?y, ? ?? e ?? ??? ?n??a, ???? ????? ??? ???o
????e (?????? ????-???e) Yae?? E???/ O???i ????, ????, ?a???? a ??
????ey ?????? ??aea. A??????e ???e e ???????e i?? ???e e ????i ???yi n
??o ???, ??? ?????? ???a?e ???????? ????eyi ???? ? ??. A??? ??a n ??y
????e ???? ny? Y??ae E??n.

17 ?oy?y 1854 a. ?? ???? ??ay ?????a? N????ey. N ?? ??ue ? ??? ?? 120, n
??y-1 ?ny? 340 ??? ????. Ei ??e ???? ??? 268 ???o ???. I???? ?????e ???
??????? n ??y e ?? ????ue ????? ????ey ???? e ???i ???? ath. I??i ??ue
???o ????o ???e ??n i???e ?ii ???e ????? e ???yi ?????, ?i ????i ???? O.
Aeae. ???? e ???? O. N. E??a?a ???? ??i.

C???? N????ey ???e ??oth ??o a ???, ?????o e ???????. I??i a ??o ???o
???yo ???a n??? e ???u ???y? ???e ????e ?o e ?eth e ???. E?? ??a??a I.
A. A?th??, ???a N??? A???, ???? I?? E?? e O??a C??, ??? A???y A???a e
ss?? I??a, ??? ???a Ae?e N??????? e ??? ???????o ??? ??e ??n?u ?? ???e.

25 ?oy?y 1854 a. N?AAEAIEA I?E AAEAEEAAA. A?ey A.N. I???? ????y? ???o
?????y ??o ??y? ???th?o e ????? ??e a A????. ???? ???ue ????ny a ?e e
????ue ????i ???? i?ae?. A?? ???e ????e, ????ny ???ue ??o, ?? ???? ?????
a???e oy??e ????e e ??????y a “??oth ???th ??th” 93-i ?????i ???.

Ii ????, ? ?y???i ? ?o ??, ???a ??? ????e ????y? ?a?oth ??o ? ???a
??????? ???e ??c ??th ??? ??? a 1,5 ?, ??? ??? ??a ???u ?e ??? ?y ?iy ?
?????o o ??e ???, a ??e-?y ???? ? ??? ???o ??e. A???e ???? ???e, ?????
??? ?o e n????ue n ???e ?????, a ????ny a ??o ?i??? ?? ?????ny e ??i ?ae
?????? ??i “Ae??u ???”.

Y? ??a ???? ????y ?iy??? ???? ???, ????? ? ??? ?i??th ????a-????? ????
Ae??? O??a A????, ??a E????, e ????a ??????e ???e ????-??? Aeae. E.
A?ay?, ??a E??a. A???a ????o? ? ??a ????ay ??a 4-? ?????? ??a “A?????
????a”, ????ay ??ue ???o ???e ? ??i ? ?a??. A ??o, ???thny ??i 20 ??o,
??e 673 ?????a, ??? ????e 247 ???e e 497 ???e. I??aey?e y???? i?? ???ue
?????? ?????? ???? I?? O. AE. A???, ??th???i ? a??e: “Y? ?????i, ? y? –
? ??a”. A ????? ??e? ????e ?? ???e ? A?????e ?y?, ???????? ?ae ???e
A????-N?????.

A ???? ?e A???? ???a ??? ????e ??ue ????o ???a, ???i?e ????oth ????th
???? E???? e ????e ????? ????ny ? i?????ny ? ?????y ? N?????. Y? ????
??y? ??? ?o ???o ??e. A ? ? ??y ?i ????i ??o? ??? ?y ?th???, ???a ????
??????? ?? ?y ??? ??? ??.

5 ?y?y 1854 a. EIEA?IAINEIA N?AAEAIEA. A??? A.N. I???a ??ue ????ye ???o
i??? ??o ??y? ????? e ???? ????e. A??? ?? ???ny ? ???oe?. N???a ???ue ??
??, ??? ?a ???u ????th ???? ????? e ????. O?e? ????? ?? ????, ??a a ?e
???? ?????y ???a ???? A???. I???a ????, ??ny ???a ???. I??e ?th??? (a
????, ????) ?? ?????i ??? +2. A???e ????e ???e ??e? ??e ???th?y ??ay
????? ???ey, ???? ??????a a ???? ????y a ???y??e I???? ?e (??a 1/3 ??e
???????) e ??? ?????.

Iiy?ue 1854-?? 1855 a. AEANOIEAss CEIA. O?????e ?th??e, ????y ??????y
???i ?????eyi, ? ??? ?? ????? ????o ?o???e ?e ???e ?a?, a ? ??y ?e ??ae
????, ????y ? ?, ?i ???ay ??y ?????? ????? ????, ?iy? ?????ay ???? ????
????y ??y??? ????? ??i. A ???????? ? ?th??e ????ue ???a?i ????????e e
ce?? ????.

E?? ??, ???e ??i (14 ?y?y) ?o?? 30 ?????? ??a, ????a ???th ??ue ????a,
??? e ??????ey. I??a?a ????? ?a e ?i, ?i ???a ??????? ?????oth ???th
???, ??uoth ? A???? e ?????o ???. A????a ???e ? ??? ???a ?? ?????e
?????. A????a ???u, e???a ???e e ?????oth?? ???i ??????ey, ????e a
?????? ??iy?e. A????? ???, e a ???????i ??i ???ii? ????o eth? o??? a
???? ? ????. E ???th ?????ue ????? ??e ??a ? 12 o?y/ ???e.

A??? O??? E????, ????ey?? ?????i ??a y????? ?????i ????, ???? 78 ?ny/
???e e ?ye ? ?ay ??i? ??e ?????i ???a. A??? ??????o ??? “O??” O?ueyi
A??ae ???e ????e ? ????o a Ei?? ????? ???a ????e. I?????y ????ay ???????
???? ?? a ???? ??????i Ae??? A???, ??a A??ae?a. O???? ????y ???i??
???????i.

N?? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???u ?????? ?????ey ?ae ?????? O??? I????e. O?
????, ????y ? ????a ??? a ???o ????, ????e Y.E. O???i, ????y ?i? ??ny???
y??? e ?????o ??th, ??? ?n?????e ?????a ??????? ????ey e ??? ??a.

17???y 1855 a. N?AAEAIEA O AAIAOI?EE. A?ey i? ???????? ??????i ???? ?
????? ?ycy I??? Ae???a?a A????, ????? ?ycy A.N. I???? ? ??o ??????oth??
???? a E??, ????y? ??????th ???o ???a, ????oth ???e. E?? ????? ?????.

8-18 ??ey 1855 a. IANOAEUeIUE IANO?AE. A ????? y?? ??????? ???????i
?n??a ???y ??ue ??????? ????? ???o ?? ????a, a ?????yny a ???? ?????y
??y ???y? 6 ?ny/ ???e. I??i ??? ? ?????i, ???ue? ???oth?a ??y? ?th??? ??
? ????o ??i???a ??u ? n??e ???????e ? ??? ??, ?e ??? ???o ????ue ???eth.
A????e ??????? a ?? ?? ???e O??? E???? ??e a ????; a ?????? ?i ??? ???e
Y??ue AE?-AE? I???-?e e ?i ??????ee, ???i ????o ??. Ae???y ?th??? ??e
??a ??????.

24 ?y 1855 a. CAOAAO EA?*E. Y? ???i ?????y ???ey ???? ???? ?? a A???a ??
e ????? ??e ?????? ???o n ?????e ???? ???.

7 ethiy 1855 a. IANOOIEAIEA EIAEEOeEE. I?? ??i????? ??????e ?? ????
????ue ? ??i N??????, A????i ???a e E????? eth?? -???? ??????? ????? ?
????o e I???o ??a?. N?? ????? E????? eth?? ????y ???e I???, ???? ??e
???e ? ?????e ?iy?? ????ey. A ????? ?y y? ??? ????ey ????ue a ??o ?????.

17-18 ethiy 1855 a. OOO?I IAEAOIAA EO?AAIA. A??? I??i, ? ???, ??e ?????a
??? ???e. ???? ????e ???th?o ?????? ??i. Ec-? ????ey ?????e a ae???yo
???ey ?????ue ??? ????. I????a ????e ??ue ??. I????a ???e oy??a ???.
O????? ??? a y?o ?? ????e 5 ?n. ???e (ec ?o 2 ?n. ???). A???? 2 ?n. (400
???). I??e ???o ????e ??i 4720 ???e (? ?o 800 ???). E?ae ???i ?? ?ny? ??
??oy, ? ???ny ??? ???. A? ?? ?iye ???e ny? Ae?e? N???.

Eth?-??? 1855 a. ENOIUAIEA. I???? ?? ????? N????ey ?ny?? ? ???, ????o
?????th??y ??????? ????i ?th???. N??? ??i ??? a eth? ???ey? ? 350 ???e a
??. ???ay ???oth?y ??y ??? ????y? ???ithth ???o ???a ?ae? A????e e ?????
???i. 12 ethey ????a ??n? ??th ?????oth ???th – ??a ???e I??? – ??
???????e ???u.

16 ???a 1855 a. N?AAEAIEA O ?AEE *A?IIE. Ae? ???a ??e A???? ?? ???u ???
37-?ny??i ???c?i-?????i ????ey, ?iy??i ???e ? ??? ?ae ??e *??e. Iy????e
?e ??i??y ????? ??y?i ?????y ???o, ???a, ??i ???i, ???ithth ???o ia
?????? N????ey.

O????a ???? ????, ?e e ???, ?? ??? ????i?? e ??????, ??????? ? ????, ???
????ue a ???? ? ??yi.

8 ??y?y 1855 a. IINEAAeIEE OOO?I IAEAOIAA EO?AAIA E NAeA*A NAAANOIIIEss.
O?i I???a ???a ????eye ??e ?????oth ???? ?e???a?oth e ?????th ???eth ?
?th ??o. I??? ?????e ??????? ???o ???o (5-8 ??y?y) ?????e ???? A??o ?? a
?e ?? ?? ???.

O?????ay ????? ?eth?? a ?ay ?? ?????th a ????a ??? ??ae ??? i???o ????
????e ?????e ????? ??? ? ??? ?y ?? ?? ???ath?o ???. I?? ????? ??i a
????? ??? ? ???e ????. Aeey ?????y ?????e ???a e ?????th ? ?????-??a
???? ? ????c????i (????, ???a a ???e ???e) ??i. ??? a ???ue ??? ????ue
???, ??oth ???o ????ye ???e. N? ???e A??o ????e ????e ??o a ??a ? ???.
A?a ?y? ???i ??iyy ??a, ?th??e ???e?ue ? ?oo??? ??????? ????ey. ????
???? ??? ???o a ????? ?th.

E ?? I??? ??? ?e a ??o ????a. A?? ????a ? ??? ??a?? ??a ????, ??? ????
????? ?th??? ??i n I???a ???a, e ????e ???? ????u ?? ????ue, ??ny oy??a
???. O? ??th Ai??? ???e N?????, ???a ????a ???????? ????ey. A y?i ?th
?th??e ???y? 10 ?ny/ ???e, ??? ???o ????e 13 ?ny/.

E ??o 1855 ?? ???a ?e??y ?????e ????th?y e a ??? 1856 ?? ??th??ny ????a.

1 ???y 1856 a. A A?a ?????y ???????y ??????? ? ???yo ??th??y ???i ????.
I?????ay ?????y ???i ???? ????a ? I???? ????a (28 ???y-30 ??a). Aei???
????e ??????e ???e n ??e ???u, A??e, O???, O??e, N???e, a ??a o?????? a
?????o A??? e I??? – n ???.

O??ey, ??????? ???e, ?? oy?e?e. I? ???? O??e th?oth ??ue A???? e ????? ?
E?n. Nith??e, a ?ith ???ue, ????? ???e N??o??ue e ??? ?????a ???. ???y
?????? ? ??? ????ey i ???? ?????? ???? I???? ???e ?ae ?? ??? ???????i e
??a??? n ????i ?????? e ?e???? I???? ???e. I???y, A??ey e N??y, i????ue
?ae ??????i ????i ???a, ?ae ?? ?????y ?????? ?????o ???o ???.

I???a ???? ??a ? Ae?ath ?????ue ??i??, a *??a ?? ??i??? ?????i. ???e e
O??e ????i? ??ue ? *??i ?? ???e ?? e ???-???a ??. ???e, ??a ??, c?????
???y? A???? ???a ? A???. O??y ???? ??????y ???a i??? ??c Ai?? e Ae????u
a ??? ??y ???o ???? ?? ??i. I???? ??? ???? ???e ?ae????? ?ey?a ???e a
A??a e a ????o ??o, ??? e ?a ???? ????eth ?e ?????i A????i ???a, ??????e
????? y???ee ???? ??? ? A??? A???.

A??? ??????e ??? y?e ??u ?? ??? ????? ???? (n ??o ???). I?? ??o ????
????? ??????. ???y, ????yny n A???, O???e, O??? e N????, a ?????? ???y?
??i 256 ?ny/ ???e, O??ey – 100 ?n. A???y – 22,7 ?n. O??y 30 – ?n. I? y?i
??? ? ?? ?y ????e: n ???e ???u-128 ?ny/ 700 ???e, ? ???u ?th???-70 ?ny/
???e (????a ???o ?uy??ue ???y?, a ???? – ???e e ????e ????). N?e ???u,
????y ? ??ath?a ???y, ????ue ??th???? ?????i. I??e ????y? y?e ??u ??i
???ue ?????a ????a ???? e ??iy?th ??e. I???i y?i y? ?iy??? a A??????e,
a? ???? ?? ????i ??y?? ?????e ???o ???????a n ??a ??? ????. I? ??????,
y?o ????? ?e ?????i ??? ???????e ???e ????ue ???????? ???? ????ey. 

A?????e, ??? nith??? ???a ?oth ??o n ??? ????ey?. I?? I????i ????
??????i O??? ? ??a n I????i III ??e ????ue ???? ????ey ???th?e ??oe?
O??? a A??a. Y? ???? ????a ???a ?????y?a ? ???u A???e (n 1867 ????i
N???????? ?th? n????ny A???). Y?o ???? ????ny O??i-I???e ??? 1870 ?? e
?????i ???e O??eth. O??i-???ay ??a ?????e ??a ? ?o ????? oy??a ???y
I????i ???? ????. I?? 1870 ?? ???y a ??????i ??y?a ????a ??th?? ??? y??
???? e ????? e ??? ???? ???ey *?????? ??a e ??????eth ??? ??????ny ?ey?y
? A???o.

E???y ??a ???a ??????ue ?? ?? ????????? ???a ???a. ????ue ?????a ? a
????? ???-???????o ??ae 1826-1833 ?. ???????a ???e, ??i ?e ?i ??????e
???ae.

N ??? ???u. E???y ??a y??? ????? ???i e ?c?? ?????e ????? ?? ?????ey.
Oe??i, ? ??? O. Y???a, ???????? a yo? ??a ? ??? ???th ??ae ?? ??i”, ? e
???i ?ay ??ae ????”. A?? ????a ???oth ????ue ??eyi e ????i-??i?????o ???
e ????a a ??y?e ?y ??? ? ?????e ?????i i??. N??i, E???y ??a ???? ?????
??eth???e ????, ???y ???? oe??i ???? ????? ??i.

O?? ???i, ?? ???????e ??i ??? ??? ??? e ??i??????? ??o ???a a E???e ??a,
? ????????? ?? ???a, a ?ith i???, ???e ???a ???????? ??? a ???e.

I???i e ???i ????? N????ey ? ?????o ???e ??????. A ???o ?ny/ eth?e ??e
??y?e ??? ??a E.I. O???i, ???e ?i n???y ? ????o ?????? ????: “I??? ???o
a ???e ???a ??u y? y??y N????ey, ???e ??? ?e ??ae ???e”. N????? ?? ????
??? e ????; ?i ? ??o ??a? ???i ???e ??u. I???a ???? a ?iy? ???? ??a
????a E????, I???a, E???a, ???? O???, ?????o ???o ????a O????, I????a,
I????, ???o ???? A?th??, C????a, ????I?? E??, E?aoa O???i, O??? A?????a,
???o ???a ? ??a n ??th??y ???i ???? I??i?i, ?????? ??? ????ey Ae?e
N?a?????e, ???? ????e E?e I???, I??? ??????, ?????y ?y?i n ??? e ????
??uey?, e ??? ???

E????a:

1. A???a E. A. ????y ??a.” M., 1956.

2. O???e I. A. ???e ? ???e ???e XIX ??.”, N??? 1994.

3. E???a A. A. ??n ???e ???e XIX ??.” I??a.

4. E??i A. A. ???ey ???e n ????? ??? ? ??? i???u XIX ??”.

5. ?. e O. Aethithe “A???ay ???y ??” ?ae-? “I???” 1998 a.

6. A???ay ???y o. 6, I??a, 1956 a.

7. Ae???y a E??o e ???a N????ey – ????ey ??a N?a?????? ??y.

8. N??e O???a Y???a ? ???e ???e.

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