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Кризис гуманистической идеологии в творчестве Кристофера Марло

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TOC \o “1-3” aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc512552858 PAGEREF
_Toc512552858 2

Aiieiuaiea ?aiannainiiai ieoa i /aeiaaea (“Oaia?eai Aaeeeee”).
GOTOBUTTON _Toc512552859 PAGEREF _Toc512552859 5

Nicaeaiea aioe?aiannainiiai aa?iy ( “O?aae/aneay enoi?ey aeieoi?a
Oaonoa” ) GOTOBUTTON _Toc512552860 PAGEREF _Toc512552860 10

Caeeth/aiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc512552861 PAGEREF _Toc512552861 13

Enoi/ieee e eeoa?aoo?a: GOTOBUTTON _Toc512552862 PAGEREF
_Toc512552862 15

aaaaeaiea

Niaoeeoeea aiaeeeneiai aoiaiecia ai iiiaii iaoneiaeaia a?aiaiiuie
?aieaie aai nouanoaiaaiey—Aic?iaeaeaiea i?iieeaao a Aiaeeth oieueei a
eiioea XV aiaeeeneee aoiaieci—aoiaieci iicaeiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey, ianouee
a naaa i?aaeiinueee ?aceiaeaiey nianoaaiiie eaeaieiaee. A yoii eiioaenoa
oai?/anoai E?enoioa?a Ia?ei, o?iiieiae/anee i?aaeaa?ythuaa ia?eiae,
ia/aei eioi?iai iaicia/aii o?aaaaeeyie Oaenie?a ?oaaaea (((–((((,ia?eiae
e?ecena aoiaieci e caeaoa yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey a Aiaeee, i?aaenoaaeyao
cia/eoaeueiue eioa?an.

E?enoioa? Ia?ei ?iaeeeny a 1564 a Eaioa?aa?e a naiuea ianoa?a oeaoa
naiiaeieeia e aeoaeeueueeia. Ia?aciaaiea, eioi?ia iieo/ee Ia?ei, a
oeaeii iineei oaieiae/aneee oa?aeoa?— iinea ieii/aiey Ei?ieaaneie
a?aiiaoe/aneie oeieu i?e Eaioa?aa?eeneii niai?a, Ia?ei i?iaeieaeee
iao/aiea a Eaia?eaeaeneii oieaa?neoaoa (a ea/anoaa noeiaiaeeaoa
eaioa?aa?eeneiai a?oeaieneiia). A oi aea a?aiy ia?aciaaiea nua?aei
aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee aoiaienoe/aneeo acaeyaeia Ia?ei. A XVI
aaea nenoaia aiaeeeneiai ia?aciaaiey eniuoaea eieinnaeueiia aeeyiea
aoiaienoe/aneeo eaeae. A oeieueiii ia?aciaaiee— a yoi a?aiy
aoiaienoe/aneea i?eioeeiu iaoiaeyo aeinoaoi/ii iieiia aiieiuaiea ( ai
iiiaii aeaaiaea?y Aeae. Eieaoo e O. Eeee). Eaia?eaeae oaeaea ia inoaeny
a noi?iia— a Eaia?eaeaea ?aaioaee Y?aci, Eieao, Yoai e ?yae ae?oaeo
e?oiiuo o/aiuo–aoiaienoia, Eaia?eaeae aue iaeaieaa e?oiiui a Aiaeee
oeaio?ii ?ani?ino?aiaiey eaeae Iao?a ?aiona; a oiaea a?aiy Eaia?eaeae
aue e?oiiui oeaio?ii ?acaeoey i?ioanoaioneie iunee. A 1583 aiaeo Ia?ei
iieo/ee noaiaiue aaeaeaa?a, a 1587 —noaiaiue iaaeno?a eneonnoa (
i?aaaea, ia aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa Oaeiiai Niaaoa). Ai a?aiy iao/aiey a
oieaa?neoaoa ia/eiaaony eeoa?aoo?iay aeayoaeueiinoue Ia?ei— ii
ia?aaiaeeo “ Ethaiaiua yeaaee” Iaeaeey, ia?aoth eieao “Oa?naeee”
Eoeaia, niaianoii n O. Iaoai ieoao ae?aio “Aeeaeiia, oea?eoea
Ea?oaaaia”. Oiaaea aea ia/eiaaony aeayoaeueiinoue Ia?ei eae oaeiiai
aaaioa i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aeecaaaou (( aa?iyoii, Ia?ei caieiaeny oieiiaaeai
a iieueco Aiaeee ia eiioeiaioa). A 1587 aiaeo Ia?ei i?eacaeaao a
Eiiaeii, ia/eiaao i?ioanneiiaeueii caieiaoueny ae?aiaoo?aeae. Oaea
ia?aay o?aaaaeey— ”Oaia?eai Aaeeeee”— i?eiineo Ia?ei eieinnaeueiue
oniao, caoai n iaiaiueoei oniaoii noaayony “O?aae/aneay enoi?ey
aeieoi?a Oaonoa”, ”Iaeueoeeneee aa?ae”, “Yaeoa?ae ((“, ”Ia?eaeneay
?aciy”. A yoe aea aiaeu Ia?ei aue oanii naycai n e?oaeeii o/aiuo,
a?oiie?iaaaoeony aie?oa oaai?eoa Aeecaaaou ( ny?a Oieoa?a ?yee, n?aaee
eioi?uo auaeaeyeenue “o?e aieoaa” iaoaiaoeee O.Oa?eio, O.Oi?ia?,
O.Oueth. Iaeiaei Ia?ei eioa?aniaaee ia oieueei e ia noieueei
anoanoaaiiiiao/iua i?iaeaiu. Nio?aieaoeany enoi/ieee ia iicaieytho
?aoeoue aii?in i ?aeeaeiciuo acaeyaeao Ia?ei, oioy iaaeiaiey Ia?ei a
aoaeci auee aanueia ianoie/eau— i e?oaeea O.?yee oiaeeee neooe eae i
“oeiea aoaecia”, a ?yaea nio?aieaoeony aeiiinia yoeo eao aiai?eony i
e?aeiai aoaecia Ia?ei. A iaa 1593 aiaea aue a?anoiaai ae?aiaoo?a ?.Eeae,
i?e iaunea o iaai aue iaeaeai a?aoe/aneee o?aeoao, eioi?ue ii neiaai
Eeaea i?eiaaeeaaeae Ia?ei, Eeae oaeaea iaaeiee Ia?ei a ?aeeaeiciii
naiaiaeiiuneee, eiuoinoaa, aaeoaoeee a iieueco oioeaiaeneiai ei?iey
sseiaa Notha?oa. Ia?ei aue aeinoaaeai a Eiiaeii aeey noaeaaiiai
?acae?aoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia ,iaeiaei, ia ninoiyeinue. Anei?a iinea yoiai
Oaeiui niaaoii aue iieo/ai aeiiin ia Ia?ei iaaeiyaoee aai a i?iiaaaiaea
aoaenoe/aneeo acaeyaeia, aiaiooeuenoaa e iaia?aiee /aeaieoue oaeueoeaoth
iiiaoo. Oaeiue niaao ia niia i?iaa?eoue enoeiiinoue aeiiina, iineieueeo
/a?ac ianeieueei aeiae Ia?ei aue oaeo i?e aeinoaoi/ii oaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao. (Aa?iyoii, oaeenoai Ia?ei auei einie?e?iaaii eai-oi ec
aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo eeoe , naycaiiuo n Ia?ei e iianaaoeony ?aciaea/aiee
ai a?aiy iuoie e aeii?inia, noaaoeo iaecaaaeiuie aeey Ia?ei. A noaea
oaeenoai Ia?ei auei ?anoeaiaii eae iaiaoiaeeiay naiiiai?iia,
oaeeoeu–ieaoiua aaaiou– ii?aaaeaiu, Ia?ei iiniaoii caoi?iiai. I?e/eiu
nia?oe Ia?ei ouaoaeueii ne?uaaeenue, ?yae nia?aiaiieeia iieaaaee ,/oi ii
iiaea io /oiu, ae?oaea aeaeaee a aai nia?oe aiaeuea aiciacaeea; /ooue
iicaea aicieeea eaaaiaea, ii i?aaeiieiaeaieth Ia?oaiiaa, ia aac
niaeaenoaey oaeiie iieeoeee Aeecaaaou (, i aeaaee Ia?ei a ?acoeueoaoa
nni?u ec–ca aeaiu eaaeiai iiaaaeaiey. )

Aaoi?neay ?aaeaeoeey aieueoeinoaa oaenoia Ia?ei ia nio?aieeanue— i?e
ecaeaiee “ Oaia?eaia Aaeeeiai” iiiaea eiie/aneea yieciaeu , eioi?ua, ii
iiaieth ecaeaoaey, ia ni/aoaeenue n aicauoaiiui aeaenoaeai o?aaaaeee,
auee eneeth/aiu ; inoaeueiua o?aaaaeee nio?aieeenue a ecaeaieyo,
auoaaeoeo iinea nia?oe Ia?ei e ana a oie eee eiie noaiaie niaea?aeao
eneaaeaiey aaoi?neiai oaenoa— i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi a ecaeaieyo
“O?aae/aneie enoi?ee aeieoi?a Oaonoa” oaeno Ia?ei aue aeiiieiai ?yaeii
eiie/aneeo noeai e aioeeaoiee/aneeo aoooiiaae, a oaenoa “ Iaeueoeeneiai
aa?ay”, iaeaieaa ?aiaa ec nio?aieaoeony ecaeaiee auoei a 1633 aiaeo, ia
aucuaatho niiiaiee oieueei ia?aua aeaa aeoa, o?aoee, /aoaa?oue e iyoue
?acei eiio?anoe?otho n ieie aieaa a?oaie ia?aaioeie ia?acia e
eneonnoaaiiinoueth neooaoeee, ia?iiiia eiee/anoai eneaaeaiee niaea?aeeo
oaeno “Ia?eaeneie ?acie”, ecaeaiiue ii iaa?aaeiie caiene ia neoo eee ii
ieioie ?oeiiene, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoae iaeiiio ec eiiaeiineeo oaao?ia.
Aoiaienoe/aneay eaeaieiaey iaeaieaa iieii io?aceeanue a ia?auo aeaoo
o?aaaaeeyo Ia?ei, a ieo aea io?aceeny e aa e?ecen. A inoaeueiuo
o?aaaaeeyo, aeaa iineaaeieo i?aaenoaaeytho niaie enoi?e/aneea o?iieee,
ai?acaei aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao nthaeaoiay eeiey, aoiaienoe/aneea eaeae
au?aaeaiu ai?acaei neaaaa, iniiaiie oii? aeaeaaony ia yoeei–iieeoe/aneea
i?iaeaiu.

Iao/iia eco/aiea oai?/anoaa Ia?ei ia/eiaaony a na?aaeeia ((( aaea (A
(((((((((( oai?/anoai Ia?ei aini?eieiaaony a iniiaiii iaaaoeaii, eae
eneonnoai “aeey oieiu”, ii iiaieth Ia?oaiiaa, aiciiaeii, i?e/eiu
iiaeiaiiai ioiioaiey e?ithony a ieioii ninoiyiee oaenoia e
io?eoeaoaeueiii ia?aca Ia?ei, nicaeaiiui neooaie e aeiiinaie.)— a
?iiaioe/aneie e?eoeea nicaeaaony naiaia?aciue eoeueo Ia?ei, eioi?ue
aeinoeaaao aunoae oi/ee ?acaeoey a 80–90-o aiaeao ((( aaea a ?aaioao
Naeiiiaena, Oaaaeiea, Yeeena, Aiona, a eioi?uo oai?/anoai Ia?ei
o?aeooaony a aeooa aoeoa?aeianeie eiioeaioeee ?aiannaina— eae iaeii ec
naiuo y?eeo i?iyaeaiee “aeooa Aic?iaeaeaiey” — eiaeeaeaeoaeecia e
aoaecia. A eiioea ((( aaea iiyaeyaony eiie acaeyae ia oai?/anoai
Ia?ei— a ?aaioao Eio/a?a, Ayoaioaona, A?aaa aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia
o?aae/aneii o Ia?ei, eioi?ia iuneeony eae ?aci/a?iaaiea a
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneeo eaeaaeao e aica?ao o?enoeainei–oea?eiaiui
aicc?aieyi. ?onneay aei?aaiethoeeiiiay enoi?eia?aoey ai iiiaii
nieeaea?ia n ?iiaioe/aneie o?aeoiaeie o?aaaaeee Ia?ei— a ?aaioao
Noi?iaeaiea e ?icaiiaa iiae/a?eeaaaony e?aeiee eiaeeaeaeoaeeci aa?iaa
Ia?ei, eioi?ue ii eo iiaieth eiaao o?aae/aneee iooaiie. A niaaoneie
enoi?eia?aoee 20-30-o aiaeia ioeaiea oai?/anoaa Ia?ei oaeaea aeecea e
?iiaioeeai— oaeaea iiae/a?eeaathony eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneea iano?iaiey,
eioi?ua naycuaathony n ca?iaeaeaieai e?oiiie ao?aeoacee. Iiaeiaiua “
?iiaioe/aneea” ioeaiee nio?aiythony e a 40-50-o aiaeao — Aeaeeaaeaaia
aeaeae a Ia?ei i?aaenoaaeoaey iaeaieaa ?aaeeeaeueiie aaoae aiaeeeneiai
aoiaiecia, iineieueeo a aai i?iecaaaeaieyo iaeaieaa iieii i?iyaeeanue
aoiaienoe/aneay ia/oa i naiaiaea /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe (iaeaieaa y?eei
aiieiuaieai yoie ia/ou Aeaeeaaeaaia n/eoaao Oaonoa, eioi?ue ,ii aai
iiaieth, i?eiineo a “aea?oao ianneaiia o?enoeaineia n/anouea ?aaee
eaeaaea ana/aeiaa/aneiai aeoeaiiai n/anouey”); a na?aaeeia 50-o aiaeia a
ioeaieo Ia?ei aiinyony ei??aeoeau— Aieeno, ioeaiea eioi?iai niaiaaeaao n
ioeaieie Aeaeeaaeaaiaa a oeaeii, n/eoaao, /oi Ia?ei iinoaiaiii i?eoiaeeo
e iiieiaieth i?ioeai?a/ee eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, e?eoeea eioi?iai, ii iiaieth
Aieenoa, noaiiaeony iniiaiui iioeaii “ Iaeueoeeneiai aa?ay”. Nie?iia
i?ineaaeeaaao a oai?/anoaa Ia?ei yaiethoeeth acaeyaeia io ?aiannainiiai
ie?iaicc?aiey e “o?aae/aneiio aoiaiecio”, ia?aoiae io ecia?aaeaiey
aiioaica naiaiaeiie ee/iinoe, nia/aea e ecia?aaeaieth naa?oee/iinoe a
io?eoeaoaeueiii aniaeoa, a caoai e ecia?aaeaieth eiioeeeoa ee/iinoe,
oaea aeaeaei ia aa?ie/aneie, e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a “ Yaeoa?aea ((“.
I?iaeaiu e?ecena aoiaienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee a i?iecaaaeaieyo Ia?ei
iaeaieaa ?acei ia?eniauaathony a ?aaioao Ia?oaiiaa— ii aai iiaieth,
oai?/anoai Ia?ei n naiiai ia/aea iineo iooaiie e?ecena, eioi?ue
au?aaeaaony a eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo aa?iai e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie, a
eiioeeeoa, eioi?ue noaiiaeony iaecaaaeiui ec–ca no?aieaiee ((((((((()(
aa?iy e naiiooaa?aeaeaieth, oaea a i?iecaaaeaieyo ia?aiai ia?eiaea
oai?/anoaa (“Oaia?eai” e “Oaono”) no?aieaiey aeaaiuo aa?iaa i?eaiaeyo eo
e o?aae/aneei ioeaeai e caoai e aeaaee. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeiinueee
e?aoa aoiaienoe/aneeo eaeaaeia caeiaeaiu a ieo naieo.

A eeoa?aoo?a i Ia?ei i?aaeeaaaaony o?e o?aeoiaee aai oai?/anoaa—1) ioeac
io eaeaieiaee aoiaiecia, ?aci/a?iaaiea a iae ; 2) iaeii ec naiuo y?eeo
i?iyaeaiee aoiaienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee a aiaeeeneie eeoa?aoo?a 3)
i?iyaeaiea e?eceniuo oaiaeaioeee, ia ioeac, a iniciaiea iaaiciiaeiinoe
aiieiuaiey aoiaienoe/aneeo eaeaaeia. I?aaenoaaeaiea i eiee/anoaaiiii e
ea/anoaaiiii niioiioaiee aoiaienoe/aneeo e e?eceniuo yeaiaioia a
i?iecaaaeaieyo Ia?ei— eeth/ e ii?aaeaeaieth noaiaie enoeiiinoe eaaeaeie
ec i?aaeeiaeaiiuo o?aeoiaie.

Aiieiuaiea ?aiannainiiai ieoa i /aeiaaea (“Oaia?eai Aaeeeee”).

Iniiaie eoeueoo?u Aic?iaeaeaiey aue aoiaienoe/aneee aio?iiioeaio?eci,
iniiaie aoiaienoe/aneiai iuoeaiey— i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?aeoe/anee
aaca?aie/iuo aiciiaeiinoyo /aeiaaea, eioi?ue iuneeeny eae niaaeeiaiea
i?e?iaeiiai e aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/ae, a /aeiaaea aeaeaee i?aaie/aneia
i?iaeieaeaiea aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea ia caiea, caiiay aeeciue e caiiia
n/anouea ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyeenue iaaaniui. Aaaeiaeoei ao?eaooii
?aiannainiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i /aeiaaea auea eiioeaioeey ieanoe/iiai,
aacaeiiiiai, iaaioiaiai auoey— io?eoeaeny i?iaeaeaioeeiiaeeci—/aeiaae
iaeaaeae naiaiaeie aieae, iieai /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeaeaeanue
any anaeaiiay, no?aieaiea /aeiaaea e naiiau?aaeaieth iaeaeaeinue a
aeia?aieece?iaaiiua oi?iu, aia ?anniao?eaaeny eae oai?/aneia ia/aei,
oiiaeiaeaiea aio noaaeeinue aeaaiie caaea/ae aeey /aeiaaea.

Ia?ac Oaia?eaia, ii e?aeiae ia?a a ia?aie /anoe o?aaaaeee( , iino?iai a
niioaaonoaee n aoiaienoe/aneeie eaeaaeaie. Ii n?aaiaieth n Oaia?eaiii
ii/oe ana inoaeueiua ia?acu e?aeia iaau?aceoaeueiu— ii ni?aaaaeeeaiio
caia/aieth Ia?oaiiaa, “Oaia?eai Aaeeeee” —i?iecaaaeaiea “ianeaicue
oiic?eoaeueiia”— nthaeao ia ioee/aaony oeaeueiinoueth, ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai ia?niiaaeae nouanoaoao eeoue aeey oiai, /oiau iooaieoue oo
eee eioth /a?oo oa?aeoa?a Oaia?eaia eee nicaeaoue oii ?acee/iuo yoaiia
aai aicauoaiey, eo iuouaiey e /oanoaa auno?aeaathony ii i?eioeeiai
n?aaeiaaaeiai oeceieiaee, ionoonoaoao eaeay-eeai ycueiaay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ia?niiaaeae, ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai aeaenoaey
nio?aiyaony aaeeiue noeeue, enoi?e/aneea ?aaeee /anoi iooiaeyo ia aoi?ie
ieai, iniiaiia aieiaiea neiioeaio?e?iaaii ia Oaia?eaia, noaeueaa e
ee/iinoue eioi?iai ii?iaeaeatho eiioeeeo, iieiaeaiiue a iniiao aeaenoaey
anae o?aaaaeee. Aiieiuay a ia?aca Oaia?eaia ?aiannainiue ieo i /aeiaaea,
Ia?ei neaaeiaae iauaaa?iiaeneie o?aaeeoeee—((–((( aaeao auei nicaeaii
aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia eiee/anoai o?aeoaoia, iinayuaiiuo ee/iinoe e
aeayoaeueiinoe Oeio?a, a eioi?uo aio i?eienuaaeenue /a?ou
aoiaienoe/aneiai eaeaaea. Ia iniiaa yoie eaaaiaeu Ia?ei nicaeaao iaeoth
iiaeaeue eaeaaeueiiai aoiaienoe/aneiai aa?iy — aeaaea aiaoiee iaeee
Oaia?eaia eiino?oe?oaony a niioaaonoaee n aoiaienoe/aneeie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie—a aoiaienoe/aneie aio?iiieiaee iieaaaeinue, /oi
niaa?oainoai /aeiaa/aneiai oaea io?aaeaao e?anioo anaeaiiie— ”Of
stature tall, and straighly fashioned,like his desire , lift upwards and
divine; so large of limbs, his joints so strongly knit, such breadth of
shoulders as might mainly bear old Atlas’ burden.<...>About them hangs a
knot of amber hair, wrapped in curls, as fierce Achilles’was<...> his
arms and fingers long and sinewy…” —i?e yoii, eae oeacuaaao Ia?oaiia,
Ia?ei ciae ec enoi/ieeia, ec eioi?uo ii a?ae eioi?iaoeeth i Oaia?eaia,
/oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe Oaia?eai aue nooi?oeei, o?iiui e eae ana
iiiaieieaeu iaaunieei e /a?iiaieinui (oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ai aoi?ie /anoe
o?aaaaeee einaaiii oeacuaaaony ia /a?iiaieininoue Oaia?eaia)—a oiaea
a?aiy aiaoiinoue Oaia?eaia ?anniao?eaaaony a eiioaenoa aai no?aieaiey e
aeanoe e aai i?aaa ia iaeaaeaiea yoie aeanoueth— “Betokening valour and
excess of strength— in every part proportioned like the man should make
the world subdued to Tamburlaine.” Ia?ei iiae/a?eeaaao ieceia
nioeeaeueiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea Oaia?eaia, a ioiioaiee ii ia i?ioeai?a/eo
iauaaa?iiaeneie eaaaiaea,— oaeei ia?acii, oeacuaaaony ia i?e/anoiinoue
Oaia?eaia e yoe/aneiio i?eioeeio “aeiaeanoe”(“virtus”), niune eioi?iai—
aeinoieinoai /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyaony aai aeayieyie, a ia
i?ienoiaeaeaieai— nai Oaia?eai aeaeea?e?oao yoio i?eioeei— “…virtue is
the fount whence honor springs, and they are worthy she investeth
kings”— ie?oaeathuea, ciay i iecei?iaeaeaiiinoe Oaia?eaia, ioia/atho
i?enouea aio aiaoiaa e aioo?aiiaa aaee/ea— ”A Scythian shepherd so
embellished with nature’s pride and richest furniture!”, anoanoaaiii,
iiaeiaiua ?aieeee enoiaeyo a iniiaiii io ia?niiaaeae, ni/oanoaothueo
Oaia?eaio, aai i?ioeaieee ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai aeaenoaey iaa?aaeaeatho
aai yieoaoaie, iaicia/athueie i?e/anoiinoue e /a?ie, a oiaea a?aiy e nai
Oaia?eai oiio?aaeyao iiaeiaiua oa?ieiu a ioiioaiee naieo a?aaia, a
/anoiinoe “vilain”. Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo aoiaienoe/aneeo /a?o, i?enoueo
Oaia?eaio, yaeyaony aai aaca?aie/iia no?aieaiea (“aspiring”) e
iaeneiaeueiie neaaa e aeanoe — neaaa aeey Oaia?eaia aoaeao
aacaanoiinoueth, anee iia ia anaie?ia— ”<...> in this my mean estate.(I
call it mean because, being yet obscure, the nations far remov’d admire
me not)”, a aeanoue, ?anniao?eaaaiay Oaia?eaiii eae aaeeinoaaiiue
enoi/iee aeaaeainoaa e n/anouey (“that perfect bliss and sole
felicity”), aeanoue, e eioi?ie ii no?aieony,— aeanoue iaae anai ie?ii—
a ieaiu caaiaaaiey Oaia?eaia aoiaeeo iiae/eiaiea anao caiaeue oo?aoeeie
aea?aeaau, Aaeioa, a caoai THaeiiai iiethna, a oaeaea eiio?ieue iaae
ii?yie io Eiaeee aei Iaeneee e Aea?aeoa?a.

Iaeiaei ia?yaeo n aoiaienoe/aneeie a ia?aca Oaia?eaia iiyaeythony e eiua
/a?ou, i?e /ai oaea a ia?aie /anoe. Ii iiaieth Ia?oaiiaa, iooiae io
aoiaienoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee iaia/aaony oaea a ia/aea ia?aie /anoe —a
?a/e Oaia?eaia, i?iecianaiiie ia?aae iiaaaeaeaiiui ia?neaeneei oea?ai, a
eioi?ie Oaia?eai iauyniyao i?e?iaeo /aeiaa/aneeo no?aieaiee— ”<...>
Nature that fram’d us of four elements, warring within our breasts for
regiment, doth teach us all to have aspiring mind,” — Ia?oaiia aeaeaao
aeoeaio ia neiaa “warring”— oaeei ia?acii, a iniiaa ie?iaiai ii?yaeea, i
eioi?ii aiai?eo Oaia?eai, eaaeeo i?eioeei anaiauae ai?ueau, /oi
anoanoaaiii i?ioeai?a/eo o?aaeeoeeiiiui aoiaienoe/aneei acaeyaeai.
I?aaaea a yoii aea iiiieiaa Oaia?eai oiiieiaao i “the wondrous
architecture of the world”— aiciiaeii, /oi i?eioeei anaiauae ai?ueau
ioiineony ana–oaee ia ei anae anaeaiiie, a oieueei e /aeiaaeo.

A yoii aea iiiieiaa Oaia?eai aiai?eo, /oi ii no?aieony e caiiie ei?iia
(“earthly crown”), a iaeei ec aai ni?aoieeia aeiaaaeyao— “and that made
me to join with Tamburlaine, for he is gross and like the massy earth
that moves not upwards , nor by princely deeds doth mean to soar above
the higest sort.” — oaeei ia?acii, Oaia?eai ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao naay
iaaanai e aiao, Oaia?eai iuneeo naay a eiioaenoa eiaiii caiiie
aeanoe—ni?aoieee iacuaatho aai caiiui aiaeanoaii (“aarthly god”), a aeey
iaai naiiai caiiua iiaaaeu i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa iaaaniiai /a?oiaa. A oiaea
a?aiy Oaia?eai iinoiyiii iiae/a?eeaaao naith naycue n aiaii
(THieoa?ii).( Iaeiaei oa?aeoa? nayce aiaa e Oaia?eaia nei?aa
ienoe/aneee, /ai aoiaienoe/aneee — Oaia?eai —“ae/ aiaeee” (“scourge of
God”), i?e /ai yoe iioeau oneeeaathony ii oiaeo ?acaeoey
aeaenoaey,ia?aiia/aeueii Oaia?eai iacuaaao naay “ae/ii aiaeueei”
einaaiii ni nnueeie ia /oaeea neiaa, a aeaeueiaeoai i?yii,
iaeneiaeueiiai ?acaeoey yoe iioeau aeinoeaatho ai aoi?ie /anoe
o?aaaaeee, aaea Oaia?eai ieeoeaoai?yao naay n aieae iaaa, a naieo
a?aaia— n oaie eoi ae ia?a/eo a aai eeoea (“The scourge of God and
terror of the world, I must apply myself to those terms, in war, in
blood, in deat, in cruelty, and plague such peasants as resist in me the
power of heaven’s eternal majesty.”) Ia?oaiia n/eoaao, /oi Ia?ei aaiaeeo
yoe iioeau, oaeaea eae e iioeau ai?ueau n nioeeaeueiie
iani?aaaaeeeainoueth, iineieueeo aio iaiaoiaeeii eae–oi ii?aeueii
naieoeeiie?iaaoue no?aieaiea Oaia?eaia e aeanoe. Eiaiii iiyoiio
aaiaeyony ?a/e a caueoo o?enoeai, aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oii, /oi
i?ioeaieee Oaia?eaia a oi aea a?aiy i?ioeaieee o?enoeainoaa. A eiioea
aoi?ie /anoe o?aaaaeee Oaia?eai aiai?eo i eiaeiinoe eneaia( ,
a?aoiaioe?oy naie neiaa naieie iiaaaeaie iaae ionoeueiaiaie, e naeeaaao
Ei?ai, i?e yoii i?ieciineo aeinoaoi/ii no?aiiua neiaa—” Seek out another
gothead to adore — the God that sits in heaven, if any god, for He is
God alone, and none but He”—a yoie o?aca a?yae ee au?aaeaaony niiiaiea a
nouanoaiaaiee aiaa, nei?aa ?a/ue eaeao i niiiaiee a aiciiaeiinoe
iaoiaeaeaiey Aiaa a eaeii–eeai eiie?aoiii ianoa, a aeaiiii neo/aa iaai
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae eiie?aoiia ianoi— a o?aaaaeee, eae iieacuaaao
Ia?oaiia, aeaenoaoao o?ao/anoiay noaia ie?icaeaiey, caeinoaiaaiiay ec
aeai?a n?aaeiaaaeiaie ienoa?ee, — oaeei ia?acii, Oaia?eaia ioaa?aaao
eiie?aoeeo ycu/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i aiaa, i?eaeeaeaaony e aicc?aieyi
o?enoeaineei (eneai ?anniao?eaaaony a o?aaaaeee eae ycu/anoai, iiyoiio
niaeaeaiea Ei?aia ia aiaiai?/anoai, a nei?aa io?eoeaiea ycu/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaiee). Ia?yaeo n yoei oaea a ia?aie /anoe iiyaeythony
aeaenoaeoaeueii aiaiai?/aneea iioeau — no?aieaiea Oaia?eaia caaiaaaoue
Aaeiao ianoieueei aaeeei, /oi ii ia inoaiiaeony aeaaea a oii neo/aa,
anee Aaeioii aoaeao oi?aaeyoue THieoa?; ai aoi?ie /anoe yoe iioeau
cao/ao oaea ioe?uoi — iinea nia?oe Caiie?aou Oaia?eai i?eeacuaaao— “ …
to arms. Raise cavalieros higher than the clouds, and with the cannot
break the frame of heaven…”; iiaeiaiue i?eeac Oaia?eai ioaeaao a
eiioea o?aaaaeee, eiaaea iaaeaeaathuayny nia?oue noaiiaeony i?aiyonoaeai
aai caaiaaaoaeueiuo ieaiia— “…Come, let us march against the powers
of heaven and set black streamers in the firmament to signify the
slauter of the gods…” — iiaeiaiua i?eeacu, eioi?ua,
ii–aeaeeiiio,ioaeathony a iiiaiou neeueiiai yiioeeiiaeueiiai
iai?yaeaiey, a oa iiiaiou, eiaaea Oaia?eaia iiieiaao, /oi aai
no?aieaieyi i?aiyonoaotho iaiiaeaeanoiua aio neeu, yoe i?eeacu ia
ia?a?anoatho a aoio i?ioea aiaa; ai?acaei neeueiaa aiaiai?/aneea iioeau
cao/ao a neiaao, ia?auaiiuo e THieoa?o— “…which (( makes me valiant,
proud, ambitious, ready to levy power against thy throne, that I might
move the turning spheres of heaven, for earth and all this airy region
cannot contain the state of Tamburlaine.”— oaeei ia?acii, ii
i?aaenoaaeaieyi Oaia?eaia, i?aaeiinueee e eiioeeeoo n aiaii caeiaeaiu a
i?e?iaea aa?ie/aneie ee/iinoe. Iaeiaei iiaeiaiua i?aaenoaaeaiey oaeaea
ia i?eaiaeyo Oaia?eaia e ?ac?uao n aiaii— iineaaeiea neiaa Oaia?eaia a
o?aaaaeee— “Tamburlain, the scourge of God, must die.”

Aaaeiui iiiaioii, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuei i e?eceniuo oaiaeaioeeyo,
yaeyaony iiiyoea noaeueau. Oaia i?aaeii?aaeaeaiey e noaeueau iiyaeyaony
n naiiai ia/aea — aeanoue i?aaeneacaia Oaia?eaio ni/aoaieai caacae.( Ii
caia/aieth Ia?oaiiaa, iaeiie ec e?eceniuo /a?o iicaeiaai aoiaiecia aue
anieane eioa?ana e ieeoeueoiui iaoeai— a oii /enea e ano?ieiaee. A
o?aaaaeee eniieuecoaony ianeieueei oa?ieiia, ioiinyueony e noa?a
noaeueau, iaeaieaa aaaeiua— “fate”— noaeueaa, ?ie (aeeceia e iaio
iiiyoea, aunooiathuaa eae neiiiei,— “Fates” eee “Fatal sisters”— aiaeie
noaeueau, Iie?u) e “fortune”— noaeueaa, oaea/a, n/anouea ( aeeceia e
iaio iiiyoea— “Fortune”). A iaeiii ec ia?auo naieo iiiieiaia Oaia?eai
aiai?eo i iiaeaeanoiinoe aio noaeueau e oaea/e — “I hold he Fates bound
fast in iron chains, and with my hang turn Fortune’s wheel about.” I
iiaeaeanoiinoe Oaia?eaio ”fortune” aiai?yo e ae?oaea ia?niiaaee (naith
naycue n oi?ooiie aeaeea?e?otho e ae?oaea ia?niiaaee, iaeiaei oiae
niauoee ii?iaa?aaao eo neiaa.) Iiiyoea “fate’’ a ia?aie /anoe o?aaaaeee
oiio?aaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeei, oieueei Oaia?eaiii e oieueei ii
ioiioaieth e naaa, i?e a noaoai iieiaeeoaeueiii niunea— noaeueaa
niinianoaoao no?aieaieyi Oaia?eaia. Ai aoi?ie /anoe o?aaaaeee iioeau
noaeueau oneeeaathony— iaiyaony niaea?aeaiea iiiyoee— “fate”, eioi?ia
oaia?ue eniieuecoaony /aua e ia iaeiei Oaia?eaiii, noaiiaeony aieaa
i?a/iui — ?yaeii n yoei iiiyoeai noiyo oaeea i?eeaaaoaeueiua eae
“murdrous”, “angry”— “fate” aoi?ie /anoe ia iiiiaaao aa?ith, a
ia?aie/eaaao, eeaaeao i?aaeae aai no?aieaieyi e aeayieyi— iaaeaiea
Oaia?eaia i?aae?aeaaony oaea a i?ieiaa— ”Where death cuts off the
progress of his pomp and murd’rous fates throws all his triumphs down.”
Iiiyoea “fortune” i?eia?aoaao oa?aeoa? neo/aeiinoe, oaioe/iinoe— “fear
not Orcanes, but great Tamburlaine, nor he, but Fortune that hath made
him great”, “<...> the fortune of the wars ,<...> whouse power is often
prov’d a miracle”; e aeaaea Oaia?eai oaea ia oi/ao eeoiee ?ac
eniuouaaoue noaeueao.

Oioy a eiioea o?aaaaeee Oaia?eai aiai?eo i naiae nia?oe eae i
iaecaaaeiii, ii ana aea oie?aao ?aiannainiui aa?iai— ii ia nie?yaony ni
nia?oueth, ia?ooathuae aai caaiaaaoaeueiua ieaiu— ii ia ioeacuaaaony io
naiaai no?aieaiey e aiceaaaao caaea/o ieii/aoaeueiiai caaiaaaiey ie?a ia
naieo nuiiaae— naia caiiia i?iaeieaeaiea. Oaia?eai a oeaeii inoaaony a
?aieao ?aiannainiiai aa?iy, oioy, eae iieacuaaao Ia?ei, a aai aspiring—
a aai no?aieaiee e aeanoe iaae ie?ii caeiaeaiu i?aaeiinueee eiioeeeoa
ni Anaeaiiie. ( Eae iieacuaaao Ia?oaiia, nia?oue Oaia?eaia, aiciiaeii,
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii ?acaeoey aai aspiring, eioi?ia i?eaaei Oaia?eaia e
/?acau/aeiiio iaeanoi/aieth — niaeanii oeceieiae/aneei acaeyaeai XVI
aaea— aoii?aeueiie oai?ee— aiaa aue /?acau/aeii iianiie yiioeeae, e iia
i?eaanoe e nia?oe. )

Nicaeaiea aioe?aiannainiiai aa?iy ( “O?aae/aneay enoi?ey aeieoi?a
Oaonoa” )

Iaoa?eaeii aeey o?aaaaeee Ia?ei iineoaeee aieueiue ia?aaiae n iaiaoeeiai
ia?iaeiie eieae i Oaonoa, ecaeaiiie Eiaaiii Oienii a 1587 aiaeo. Eae
iieacuaaao Ia?oaiia, a eeoea Oaonoa a ia?iaeiie eieaa n iiceoeee
ethoa?ainoaa iaee/aaony aoiaienoe/aneay eaeaieiaey— ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee
iaoin, i?eaa?aeaiiinoue caiiui aeaaai, iieacuaaaony, /oi aoiaienoe/aneay
eaeaieiaey iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e eiioeeeoo n aiaii. I?ioanoaioneay
iuneue ?anniao?eaaea eae ia/oi aeeceia e a?ane, a ia?iaeiii niciaiee
aoiaienou /anoi annioeee?iaaeenue n /a?iaeayie, n ethaeueie, naycaiiuie
n /a?iie iaaeae. A oi aea a?aiy, a XVI aaea n?aaee aoiaienoia
i?ienoiaeeo anieane eioa?ana e ieeoeueoiui iaoeai — ano?ieiaee, aeoeiee,
aaeie iaaee, iaeiaei aoiaienou iiaeaa?aaee ?aceie e?eoeea ethaeae,
i?aeoeeothueo /a?ioth iaaeth. ( I?aeoeeiaaee /a?ioth iaaeth
iiiai/eneaiiua aaaioth?enou e oa?eaoaiu, eioi?ua i/aiue /anoi
iaeiia?aiaiii i?aoaiaeiaaee ia aoiaienoe/aneoth o/aiinoue, iaeiei ec
oaeeo aaaioth?enoia aue Eiaaii Oaono, a?iaeeaoee ii ai?iaeai Aa?iaiee a
ia?aie iieiaeia XVI aaea.)

A o?aaaaeee Ia?ei Oaono inoaeaeaaony a iiiaii n aoiaienoe/aneeo
iiceoeee— ia?ac Oaonoa ai iiiaii no?ieony eae i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
aoiaienoe/aneei eaeaaeai— oaea a i?ieiaa oeacuaaaony ia yoi
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea— Oaono i?aaeii/eoaao caiyoea /a?iie iaaeae ( “cursed
necromancy ”— “i?ieeyooth iae?iiaioeth”) aoiaienoe/aneiio ciaieth (
“learning golden gifts”— “cieioui aea?ai o/aiinoe”). A ia?aie noeaia
o?aaaaeee Oaono i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao naay iniiaiui aoiaienoe/aneei
eaeaaeai— 1) Oaono ioaa?aaao iieiaeaiea i aaca?aie/iuo aiciiaeiinoyo
/aeiaaea ( ia?a/eneaiea naieo aeinoeaeaiee a iaaeeoeeia Oaono
caeai/eaaao o?acie: “Yet art thou still but Faustus, and a men”— “ii y
anaai eeoue Oaono, e anaai eeoue /aeiaae” ); 2) iaia/aaony
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea Oaonoa e aiaa— Oaono ioa?anuaaao o?enoeaineia o/aiea
e ia?auaaony e /a?iie iaaee, a eioi?ie ii aeaeeo niinia oiiaeiaeaiey
aiao ia caiea ( Oaia?eai oiaea no?aieeny oiiaeiaeoueny aiao, ii a aai
no?aieaiee ia auei iooaiea i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey); 3) Oaono iooiaeeo io
iao/iuo iaoiaeia iiciaiey — yoi iaaeyaeii i?iyaeyaony a ioeai/iie
e?eoeea Aeaeee— eae iieacuaaao Ia?oaiia, auaea?aeaaao ec oaenoa
Aaaiaaeey ?yae iieiaeaiee e niiinoaaeyy eo i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi
/aeiaae ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe a?aoeo, ca /oi a aeaeueiaeoai aia iaeacuaaao
aai nia?oueth, iaeiaei i?e yoii Oaono ia o/eouaaao iniiaiuo o?enoeaineeo
aeiaiaoia ia eneoieoaeueiie aea?oaa O?enoa e aiaeueae aeaaiaeaoe.
(Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi Oaono— aeieoi? noieanoeee.) Iioeau i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey
Oaonoa e aoiaienoe/aneeo eaeaaeia ?acaeaathony ii oiaeo aeaenoaey— 1) a
eaeie–oi noaiaie iioaa?aeaeathony neiaa Oaonoa i aanneeee /aeiaaea— eae
oeacuaaao Ia?oaiia, Oaono ia a ninoiyiee iiae/eieoue naiae aeanoe
aeooia, Iaoenoioaeue iiyaeyaony ia?aae Oaonoii ii nianoaaiiie aiea,
aianoi iaia?aie/aiiie aeanoe iaae aeooaie Oaono nai ieacuaaaony ai
aeanoe aeueyaiea. 2) I?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea Oaonoa e aiaa iaiaeiie?aoii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony eae naiei Oaonoii, oae e ae?oaeie ia?niiaaeaie, a
/anoiinoe, Oaono niaeaoaaony ni neiaaie Iaoenoioaey i i?aainoiaenoaa
/aeiaaea, ?iaeaeaiiiai ia caiea, iaae iaaii, n ooaa?aeaeaieai ia
ooeeeoa?iie ooieoeee iaaa ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo.

Oaono a o?aaaaeee Ia?ei inoaeaeaaony e n iiceoeee o?enoeainoaa. A
inoaeaeaiee eiioeeeoa Oaonoa e aiaa ai?acaei neeueiaa cao/ao
n?aaeiaaaeiai–o?enoeaineea iioeau ( yoi, aa?iyoii, iauyniyaony
eniieueciaaieai a o?aaaaeee i?eaiia ii?aeeoa, aeai?a n?aaeiaaaeiaiai
ia?iaeiiai oaao?a ), a oi aea a?aiy n?aaeiaaaeiaua iioeau a aeaiiie
neooaoeee ia aeiieie?otho iaae aoiaienoe/aneeie. Iiceoeee
aoiaienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee e n?aaeiaaaeiai–o?enoeaineie niaiaaeatho a
iioeaa eiaeiinoe ciaiey, enoiaeyuaai io aeueyaiea ( aianoi aaniethoiiai
ciaiey Oaono iieo/aao io Iaoenoioaey iaeio eieao, yeiau niaea?aeauoth
iieiua ciaiey ii iaaee, ano?iiiiee, aioaieea; /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy
Oaono aiiaue ia?auaaony e Iaoenoioaeth n aii?inaie ia ono?ienoaa
Anaeaiiie, ii iieo/aao eeoue iauaecaanoiua naaaeaiey; a aeaeueiaeoai
oeacuaaaony, /oi Oaono aeinoea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oniaoia a iiciaiee, iaeiaei
?acoeueoaou yoeo oniaoia i?iyaeythony a ?yaea oa?niauo noeai (iaaeaeaiee
i?ioeaieea ?iaaie e iaiaia eioaaeeiiai aa?uoieea)).

A o?aaaaeee iiyaeythony o?enoeaineea e n?aaeiaaaeiaua iioeau a /enoii
aeaea. Ai–ia?auo, iioea ai?aeinoe eae nia?oiiai a?aoa— iioea iiyaeyaony
oaea a i?ieiaa, aaea ai?aeinoue ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?e/eia iaaeaiey
Oaonoa e cao/eo a yieeiaa, yoio iioea oneeeaaaony ?aieeeie Oaonoa i
iaaiciiaeiinoe aeey iaai eneoieaiey— “But Faustus’ offence can ne’er be
pardoned: the serpent that temped Eve may be saved, but not Faustus.”
Ai–aoi?uo, iioea noaeueau, naycaiiue n iioeaii iaecaaaeiinoe
inoaeaeaiey— i iaecaaaeiinoe inoaeaeaiey Oaonoo aiai?eo Iaoenoioaeue, n
yoeie iioeaaie naycai e iioea a?aiaie, aunooiathuaai eae ?ieiaay neea.

A o?aaaaeee iioea iiyaeyaony iaeaaeathuee ioe?iaaiii aioeaoiaienoe/aneei
oa?aeoa?ii— eaeaae caiiie e?aniou naycuaaaony n aeooii Aeaiu, aucaaiiui
n iiiiuueth /a?iie iaaee, — “… the pride of nature’s works and only
paragon of excellence,”— oa?aeoa?ii, /oi yoe neiaa i?eiaaeeaaeao ia
Oaonoo, a noi?iiiaio iaaethaeaoaeth— nooaeaioo.

Ianiio?y ia aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia eiee/anoai n?aaeiaaaeiai–o?enoeaineeo
iioeaia, ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi Ia?ei a “O?aae/aneie enoi?ee aeieoi?a
Oaonoa” iooiaeeo io aoiaienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee aoaeao iaei??aeoiui.
Oaono n naiiai ia/aea iieacuaaaony eae aioe?aiannainiue aa?ie e
inoaeaeaaony n aoiaienoe/aneeo e o?enoeaineeo iiceoeee iaeiia?aiaiii.

Caeeth/aiea.

A oeaeii Ia?ei inoaaony a ?aieao aoiaienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee, oioy a aai
oai?/anoaa io/aoeeai i?inooiatho e?eceniua oaiaeaioeee, eioi?ua
au?aaeathony, aeaeeii, ia oieueei a iiiai/eneaiiuo “n?aaeiaaaeiauo”
iioeaao, a /anoiinoe a iioeaa noaeueau, eioi?ue i?ioiaeeo /a?ac ana
oai?/anoai Ia?ei, ia/eiay io “Aeeaeiiu, oea?eoeu Ea?oaaaia”, aaea iioea
noaeueau iineo, oeacuaaao Ia?oaiia, oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?, e caeai/eaay
iacaaa?oaiiie iiyiie “Aa?i e Eaaiae?”, aaea yoio iioea aeinoeaaao
aiiaay; e?eceniua oaiaeaioeee au?aaeathony a niiiaiee a ?aiannainiuo
eaeaaeao, a aiciiaeiinoe aeinoeaeaiey ?aiannainiiai eaeaaea /aeiaaea, a
oa?aeoa?a Oaia?eaia, aaeeinoaaiiiai aa?iy o?aaaaeee Ia?ei
niioaaonoaothuaai aoiaienoe/aneii eaeaaeo, caeiaeaiu i?aaeiinueee e
eiioeeeoo ni Anaeaiiie. Ii iiaieth Ia?oaiiaa, no?aieaiey ( “aspiring”)
aa?iaa i?eaiaeyo eo e iaecaaaeiiio eiioeeeoo n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie,
niaeanii Ia?oaiiao Ia?ei aeaeeo ianinoiyoaeueiinoue aoiaienoe/aneie
eaeaieiaee, ii ia aua ioeacuaaaony io iaa. A oi aea a?aiy, Ia?ei a naieo
o?aaaaeeyo ia?auaaony e e?aeia aeooaeueiui nthaeaoai aeey naiaai
a?aiaie—a o?ao ec iyoe naieo o?aaaaeee Ia?ei ia?auaaony e enoi?e/aneei
nthaeaoai — a XVI aaea a Aiaeee e?aeia aic?in eioa?an e enoi?e/aneei
i?iecaaaeaieyi— a aa?iiaeneie enoi?eia?aoee XVI aaea nouanoaiaaei
aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia eiee/anoai ?aaio, iinayuaiiuo Oaia?eaio, ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia aaea a Aiaeee iiyaeeinue ianeieueei aieueiuo ia?aaiaeia i
Oaia?eaia; “Yaeoa?ae II ” iniiaai ia e?aeia iiioey?iie o?iieea
Oieeioaaea, a “Ia?eaeneie ?acia” Ia?ei ia?auaaony e niauoeyi aio
nia?aiaiiui; eaaaiaea i Oaonoa iieo/eea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia aaea XVI, a 1587 aiaeo auoea ia?aia ia/aoiia eceiaeaiea
yoie eaaaiaeu, /a?ac aeaa aiaea auea nicaeaia o?aaaaeey Ia?ei. Ia?ei
ianiiiaiii i?eieiae ai aieiaiea eioa?anu e aeonu ianniaiai c?eoaey, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, Ia?ei i?eoiaeeeinue o/eouaaoue e oeaico?iua oneiaey. (
Nio?aieeenue naaaeaiey nia?aiaiieeia, aiciiaeii, ia aiieia aeinoiaa?iua,
i e?aeiai aoaecia Ia?ei e aai eiuoinoaaiiuo auneacuaaiee ii iiaiaeo
Iiaiai Caaaoa e O?enoa. A oi aea a?aiy a “Oaonoa” aeaaiue aa?ie
inoaeaeaaony e n o?enoeaineeo iiceoeee.) Ia acaeyaeu Ia?ei, aiciiaeii,
ieacaei aeeyiea oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi aai oai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
auea aanueia iai?iaeieaeeoaeueia— i?ioanneiiaeueiie ae?aiaoo?aeae Ia?ei
caieiaeny anaai oanoue eao— yaiethoeey acaeyaeia Ia?ei, aiciiaeii,
inoaeanue ia caaa?oaiiie.

Enoi/ieee e eeoa?aoo?a:

Marlowe Christopher Two tragedies. M–w., 1980

Ia?ei E. Ni/eiaiey. I., 1961.

Aieeno A. A. Enoi?ey aiaeeeneie eeoa?aoo?u. I., 1955

Aaoeei E. I. ?aiannainiue ieo i /aeiaaea // Aii?inu eeoa?aoo?u 1972, ?9,
112–135.

Ai?ooieaeue A.O. Oeeinioey yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey. I., 1980.

Aeaeeaaeaaia A. E. Ia?ei // Enoi?ey aiaeeeneie eeoa?aoo?u. o.1. /.1.,
I.–E., 1943. 362–379.

Ineiianeee E.I., Iaaeiaa O.A. Eoeueoo?a Aiaeee XVI a. // Enoi?ey Aa?iiu
o.3. I., 1988. 508–521.

Ia?oaiia A. O. Eaaaiaea i Oaonoa e aoiaienou Naaa?iiai Aic?iaeaeaiey. //
Eoeueoo?a yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey e ?aoi?iaoeee. E., 1981. 163–170.

Ia?oaiia A. O. E?enoioa? Ia?ei.I., 1964

Ia?oaiia A. O. E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea //
Marlowe Chr. Two tragedies. M–w., 1980. 184–239.

Ia?oaiia A. O. O?aaaaeey E?enoioa?a Ia?ei. I., 1969.

?icaiia N. N. E?enoioa? Ia?ei. I., 1916.

Nie?iia A. A. E?enoioa? Ia?ei e aai enoi?e/aneay ae?aia “Yaeoa?ae II” //
Ia?ei E. Yaeoa?ae II I., 1957. 3–17.

Noi?iaeaiie I. I?aaeoanoaaiieee Oaenie?a. Eeee e Ia?ei. I., 1872.

( Iiiyoea “((((((((“ aeey Ia?ei eiaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea— a oeaio?a aai
oai?/anoaa —i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ee/iinoe, aa no?aieaiea e
aaniethoo

( Aeaa /anoe o?aaaaeee auee iaienaiu a ?aciia a?aiy e yaeythony aiieia
naiinoiyoaeueiuie i?iecaaaeaieyie.

( Oaia?eai n/eoaao , /oi iaoiaeeony iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoaii
THieoa?a(“Jove himself will stretch his hahd from heaven to ward the
blow and shield me safe fom harm”, Oaia?eai neaaeiaae i?eia?o THieoa?a,
eiaaea ?aoee caoaaoeoue ia?neaeneee i?anoie e o. ae. Marlowe 14, 27.

( Enoi?e/aneee Oeio? eniiaaaeiaae eneai, o Ia?ei Oaia?eai— ycu/iee ,
oioy eiiaaea eeyiaony Iaaiiaoii (Marlowe, 103).

(( Eiaaony a aaeaeo aeoo Oaia?eaia, nicaeaiiue THieoa?ii.

PAGE

PAGE 17

PAGE

PAGE 17

Ineiianeee E. I., Iaaeiaa O. A. Eoeueoo?a Aiaeee // Enoi?ey Aa?iiu o.3
I., 1988. 513-514

Ia?oaiia A. O. E?enoioa? Ia?ei. I.,1964.21–71. Ii aea E?enoioa? Ia?ei
e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea.//((((((( (. = \* MERGEFORMAT (((
(((((((((. I–(.,1980. 184–188.

Ii aea E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea. 212

Ia?ei E. Ni/eiaiey. I.,1961, 628-629, 639–640,644–645,653–655.

Oeeoaoa ii :Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea.
185. e Ii aea O?aaaaeey E?enoioa?a Ia?ei . I.,1969. 3

Noi?iaeaiie I. I?aaeoanoaaiieee Oaenie?a. Eeee e Ia?ei. I.,1872.
?icaiia N .N . E?enoioa? Ia?ei. I.,1916.

Oeeoaoa ii : Ia?oaiia o?aaaaeey E?enoioa?a Ia?ei. 3.

Aeaeeaaeaaia A. E. Ia?ei // Enoi?ey aiaeeeneie eeoa?aoo?u o.1
/anoue1.,I.–E.,1943. 362-379.

Aieeno A.A. Enoi?ey aiaeeeneie eeoa?aoo?u. I.,1955. 76–77

Nie?iia A.A. E?enoioa? Ia?ei e aai enoi?e/aneay ae?aia “Yaeoa?ae ((“ //
Ia?ei E. Yaeoa?ae ((. I.,1957. 3-17.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei (12-15.) Ii aea O?aaaaeey E?enoioa?a Ia?ei
I.,1969. Ii aea E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea. Ii aea
Eaaaiaea i Oaonoa e aoiaienou Naaa?iiai Aic?iaeaeaiey.// Eoeueoo?a
yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey e ?aoi?iaoeee. E.,1981, 163–170.

Aaoeei E. I. ?aiannainiue ieo i /aeiaaea. // Aii?inu eeoa?aoo?u
1971,?9,112–135. Ai?ooieaeue A.O. Oeeinioey Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey.
I.,1980, 19–51.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei. 94-95, 102–103.

((((., 88–94.

Ai?ooieaeue Oeac. ni/. 46–51.

Marlowe 16–17

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei. 105

Aiai?y i naieo nuiiaueyo, /oi iie iioee ia a iaai, /oi a ieo ia
oaaoaao aieinoaaiiinoe(martial), eioi?ay iiaeiaaao aai nuiiaueyi,
Oaia?eai oeacuaaao ia eo “aaeua eae iieiei e iyaeea eae ioo” aieinu,
oiaaea eae eo aieinu aeieaeiu auee auoue “ as black as jet and hard as
iron or steel”, Caiie?aoa aea ia yoi ioaa/aao, /oi eeoue aiaoiinoueth
iioiaee ia iaoue —Marlowe 72–73.

Ibid.,16–17

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei. 91–94

Marlowe 50

Ibid., 13

Ibid., 22,42,114,etc.

Ibid.,15.

Ibid., 27.

Ibid., 39,50. nith oaeaea 49—”I will confute those blind geographers
that make a triple region in the world, ecludibg regions which I mean
to trace and with this pen reduse them to a map, calling the provinces,
cites, and towns aftermy name and thine, Zenocrate.”

Ibid., 27.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea. 200

Marlowe 27

Ibid., 75–76.

Ibid., 34.

Ibid., 43, 104,105,110,116..

Ibid., 104.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea. 200–203.

Marlowe 117.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei 96–97.

Marlowe 48.

Ibid., 84.

Ibid., 120.

Ibid., 103.

Aeaiiue iiiieia,i?ieciineony Oaia?eaiii a na?aaeeia aoi?ie /anoe
o?aaaaeee, iinea yoeo neia Oaia?eai iaiaeiie?aoii aeaeea?e?oao naith
naycue n aiaii. Ibid., 110, 116.

Ibid., 125.

Ibid., 12. (Than the possesion of the Persian crown, which gracious
stars have promis’d at my birth.)

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea,218–219.

Marlowe 14.

Ibid ., 17—”His fortune’s master”, 60—”Fortune so at his command that
she shall stay and turn her wheel no more…”

Ibid., 19.

Ibid., 14, 20, 50.

Ibid., 66, iiiyoea “fate”— 66,82,86,124.

Ibid., 67, 82, neiaa Oaia?eaia–102.

Ibid., 122–123.

Ibid., 206–207.

Ia?ei Ni/eiaiey 628–629.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?e e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea 217–221.

Marlowe 128

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea 222.

Marlowe 128–130

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea 222. Marlowe 135

Marlowe 142–143, oaeaea 136, 138–139, 145, 176, 181–182.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei 134–141.

Marlowe 142

Ibid. 143–144.

Ibid. 158–159.

Ibid. 162-163, 167–170.

Ibid. 128, 183.

Ibid. 179.

Ibid. 141 — FAUSTUS: Why, dost thou thinck that Faustus shall be
damn’d?

MEPHOSTOPHILIS: Ay, of necessity…

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei 160.

Marlowe 175.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei 210–211

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea. 194–195.

Ineiianeee, Iaaeiaa Oeac. ni/. 512.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei e eaaaiaeu Ainoiea e Caiaaea. 198–199.

Ibid. 217–221, ?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae aeaoe?otho “O?aa/aneoth enoi?eth”
1592–1593 aa.

Ia?oaiia E?enoioa? Ia?ei 64–65.

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