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Крестьянское движение 1917 года

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A???a

Ia ??? 19-20 ??a ???y ?? ???i ???? ???e, n y?? ??????i ????i ????y, ?
???? ??? a ???e ? ?e ????. A???e ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???e ??eth?e
1905-1907 ?. E??uey??a ???? ?????i ?????? ????e ? ?? o? ??? e ???
??eth?e ???ue e ?oy?ue 1917 a.. ???th?y 1917 ??. Ia ??y??e ??e ??i???e
???e ???y??i ????? i?? ??? ?????i ??eth???? ????aey ? ????. A ? ? ??y ?i
?????ue ????? e ???e ?????? ?????e. A ?? y?? ??eth?e a e??uey??o ???o, a
?i ??a e a ???e, ????ey?nue ??? ???yi??, ? ? ? ??i ???y??a. ??????
??eth???o ??y??e ???? ??i ????? ???y??a e ??????? ?i a ?oth ????oth
?????.

?????a ???y??i ???a ? ?? ??? a????? ???. Ai ?a ?a?? ?i ???? ????? ?o
????? ????oiy? ????th ? ???u ???e ?e ?i???. I??????a ???y??a ????y e ??u
– ??? ? ?????? ?iy??ey ????i ??????. E??uey??i ?? ?ith ??? ?????i e
?i?y??i. A ????e ??e ??a ??????a ?iy?ye?ue a ??? ???: a ??????? ????yo
?? ??????e ??? ??? (??????i, ???u ??e), a ????e ? i??? e ?????e, ??????,
a ???? ????a, ?????? a???a, ?????? ????o nth??o. N????? ???i??? ??atho,
?i ???y??i ?????? ??? ??? ????e ????ue ??o ??e. E ????o ????eth ???yi
???e ??????, ??? ????y ?????ny ?c???i ???. I? y?i ?e ??aea ??? ?????
?????? ??o ?????e ? ???o.

Iae?? ??y ???a ???y??? ??????y ?iy?ny a ??????e ???. O?????a ??e ???y??e
??e ?????ue n ?????i ???e a ??? ????????? ???ey. I??a ?????i ??a ? ??
??????? ???y ????i ???a, ??i?a, a ??????th y?? ???i-???y??e ??? ?a ??a
????ny, ?? ????a??e ????e ??????ey ?????i ??ouey??a e ????i ??????, ???a
???????a ??u ???????, ???e?a ? ?? ???e, ????? ????? ?????. N????i ????ey
????i ?i?? ?? ??????e ??? ???y??? ?? n ????? e ???th. I? y?i ??c ???? a
??? ???yi n?????i ????????y e ????? ??oue ???????th ??, ????th ?o a
?????? ???y??e ???a ????e. A y?e ?????e ??? ? e ????? ???y??a ???? a
1917a.

E??uey??a ???? a 1917a.

I??y ???y ??a (1914 – 1918 aa.), a ???e ???y ? ??a ? ??o???, ???e ???a
?? ????y, ???? a ???a, ? ???a ???ey, ??y?a e ?????… 1917 a. ????ny
??????. E 1917 a. ???y? a ??eyo ???? ?ay ???e ??e e ???i ?y?y? i ????yo
????ue e ???? ???o e ??th.

E ??i oy??i ??u, ???? a ???y??e ??? ? ??e ??? ???y??? ????y, ????y
????????e ??en e ??? n ?i ??????? ????e ?????y????e ????e. O? a ???a
1915 a. ?? ???u ???a ?? ia ?? ?y ????????o ???e (? a??? ??u). A ???a
1916 a. ??? ???a????? ????e ???? ??? ? ?? ???e ?????, ???y ??????a
?i????i ?????o ????? ?a? ??o ???ey?, ???y? ?cy???e a ???? ?y????a ? ?i
????. Oa?y ????? ???????e ?????e ? ????? ??? ????a e ??, ?i ???? ?????
?y???? e ????? ?a??e – A????ay, I?????y, E????ay e ?. A ??????aey?o ?
???o ????? ??o ????ue ?????e ?y ???y??o ?cy??. Ni ?? ???????th ? y?i
?y?? O????y ????ay ???y ???, ??????y ???ey ??a?e: “Ia ??ay ?? ??? ?????i
??e ????a e ??o e ??aeo, ????ay ??? ? ???o ????i ?????ue ????? a ????o
????i ????ey ????”. E???a E.I. ????? N.Ae. ???th?y e ??. I??a 1990a

E ???a ??, e ???????, e ?? ????y ??a “??-??y” ? ??? ?o?ue ??? ?-? ??e
?????e, ??????? ????e ? ???a ??u. Ae???? ???o ???a, ???o ???? ????,
?????? ??????ue, ???y? ?????? ??a ?i, ???eyy ????????a ????e ?y ???? ??a
????y, ?e a ???, ?e e a ???a. E??a “O?a ????!” ?? ??i ? ???o a ?n??
??eth?yo 1917 a. – e O?????, e I?ya???. N???? O????? ??eth?? A???ia
i??????i ??? ?? ??oue ??? n ????????? ???a – n ???ey ???????e ???e
????e, ?i ???? e ?????? ???o ?i, e ???? ??i ???? ??? (??a ???ae??i ?y
??????ey e ?cy????o ?? ???ue?) ?????o ??c ????? ?i ????????o ???a. C??,
i?iy?e 25 ??a 1917 a. ?? ??? ??????? ???? “I ???? ??a a ???y??a ?????a”.

I??i ???i ??ay ?y? n y??????e ????? ???o ???????a e ????a, ?????????? e
???????ue ???? A????i ??????a ???e e ??, ?i ???y ????y e ???? ??a a
???y??a ?????? ? ?? ?????? ? ??. I??e ????e ? ??ay 1917 a. ?? ????i
?aco. O? 20 ???a I?????i ??????ey ????i ? ??a ????o: “A ??? ????y ???ue
?? ??? ?? ????u ?? ???????, a ?i ??a ?????y ??”. E ?? y? ???y??, ??a
???ue ?? ?????? ???y?.

E ??e 1917 a. ????????e ?e?n ???e ?????e ?th ????eth A??a??e ???e,
?eth?y ??o. A?? ?? ???? e ???? ???i ???? ???ey ???e ? ??? a ??i N??? A.
A. Y?????? ????a ???e a ?? ??? ???e a??. I??a. 1973 a..

A ??a ????? ???? ????e ??eth???e ???n ?e ???? ?? ????o ???e ? ???y ?
?oy?y 1917 a. ??????y a ?o ? ?????yo e ???, ?e a 1905 -1907 ?., ??? ????
e ??u ???a, ? ?a??????ue e ?? ???? a ???? ???e. C??? ????? ??? e ????
??? ???? a ??a-???, ???e (????, a ??i????? ??a ?y???e ????) e ??? ???o
??o ???ay ??a ????? ??? ?? ???a. O?oe??? c???i ??e ????? ??? ?? ?????a
???a ???y?? ???? ??u, ??a????a e ?????i. E??uey??a ????a ???? ??i ?????.
I? ???? ?????, ??? ??i, a ????? ??? ????e ??ey ?e, “/o?u ??aea (?) ??
?????ny, … ??u ? ?? ?e ??ue ???”. E ??? ?e ???? ??? ???y? ? ???????ue
??ae ????e n ?????e, ?? ?e ????e ??????a.

I???? ???y??e ??eth?e, ?y??ayny a 1905 a., ????a ?a ???th ??????? a
???oth ????o ???e. I?e??? a ?a 1917 a. ??? ????i A??????i ??? ???y??o
N??? ????e ???i e ?????? ?????y ???e ??????e ? ??th e ???? ? a ????
???a?? ? ??? ???o. I???????ue ???e A????i ??????a e ?oy???a n ????
O???a??? ?a??y ???e e ??, ?i ???y??y ?a?th?y ??a ??? ??? i ??a ???iy???.

E?? – ??ueth 1917 a. ???y??a ???? ??o?i ?? ? ??? ??o i??y??? ???o ??o.
I??i ae?a ????y ??a ??o ????i e ???e ??? a eth? ??o ?? ??e 2 ?n. ?????
????????? ?????e, ?y??? n ????? ????o ??y??. I??y?y ???yi?ay ??a ??????
n ????? ??o – a ??a ???a-??y?a. N 1 ??y?y ? 20 ?oy?y ?? ???????? ??a 5
?n. ?????e. I???y ??a ? ?????ue ? ??? ?????i ??????y – ???a?? ???, N???
I???a e O???, a oa?a A????th, N????th, E???oth, O???th, ?y???th e
I????th ????e. Y????i ??? ?????i ??? ?a??? O????y ???ey. 3 ??y?y ??? ia
? ????? ???a a ?? ???y?e?i N??a, 11 ??y?y N?? ?????e “?an??y??a ?3” ???i
?a ???/? ?cy??a ?????? a ???y??a ???o N???, ??? n ??? ? ?? a??? (?????
????????) ?a ?cy??a?? ????i. O????y ???y??o ???a ??e ????ey?ny ? ??y?y
26 ?oy?y 1917 a. ????? ???a “I ??a”, ?eth???i a ?ay ?????oth?e ??? ????
i??a. E ?c y?? ???a e ??a 1918 a. ?e ?? ? ?????u ???y??e ?c?th?? ? ??
???e, ? n ??a ?a????e e ??????? ???e a ??e ???a. Ae??o “I ??a” e ?eiy?e
? ?i ??? a ???a 1918 a. ??i “I ?????? C??” ???e ??e ?e??? ??? e ???e
?????? ??y?e a ???? ?????e e ??????y i????o, a ??ae ??i e ????????y ??
??ne??y????o ???, ?eth?y ???y??a. I??i ????? ?????e e ????????y ?????
??? ia ??? ????? ???? ???, ??????y ????a, ??? ? ??? ?????a???. A ?????
??a, ????ny ??? 1917 a. e ? ??????ny ??ueth, ???e ?a ???i-??? ???? ??u
a???? ?????a, a ?i ??a e ??? ????? ?cy??a, ???a ???th ????. I???e ?????
?????, ???ey i?????e ????a, ???? ???? e ???o?u. E??uey??y ??a 1917 a. ?
???? e ?o, ?i ??? ??? ?y ????i ?????y e ??? ?e ??? ?/??i a ???y??e ??a.
O?, ?a a 1910 a. ? ????o E. I. O???i ?i ?/???e ??e ??? n ???ueth: “Ae???
E? I????/, ?iy? i A? ??o ??i ?? a ???o ?????o ???yi ss?? I?y?”. A a 1917
a. ??? E. I. O???i ?? ?????, ?i ??? a ss?? I?y? ???i. A ? ? ??y ?? e ???
o??a, ??a ???y? ???y? ???o ???? ???? ??e. A???a ???y?e, ????, ?? ????ue
???ey I. I. I???a, ???e ?i ?????e ??e a 16 ?ny?i ??e.

A 1917 a. ??iy?? ?a A?????? ??? ???y??o ????a, ???y ???o ??y?i ????
??????th ??????eth ?? e ? ?????oth ???o, ???th ?? ???????? ??? ? ?ey?a ?
???y??i.

I A?????? ??ae ???y??o ????a (?e-eth? 1917 a.) a ??i ????e A???? ??????i
e ????ny n ?i, ?i ??????a ???a ????i ???a ??? ?? O?????? ????. I??i a
?????e ??eth?e ??? ?? ????iu ???? ???e ???u: ???ae ?? c??ue a ??????
??iy?a ?c ???. Aei O??????i ???ey ??ae ????e ???? ?a ??e a ???a i???
????o ????a. A??a ? ???yi ?????? ? A?????? (*?????i) ??? N??? ???y??o
????a (Ia???ae, ?y?ue 1917 a.) e ? II A??n???i ??? N??? ???y??o ????a
(???ue 1917 a.).

Oae, ? II ??ae ???y??o ????a ???e 790 ???e, ? ?o ????? – 91, ??a y?? –
350, ??? y?? – 305 ???e. Ia ?a?a ????e ???: ??????i ? ????o O??????i
???ey ?????ue ? ??? ??? y??, ? ??ue ??o y??a e ?eue???a. E?? y?? ????
?eth?? a ?ith ???th ????a, ? ???o ??i ???. A ?? ???? 347 ????a, ?iy?? ?
??? O??????i ???ey, ? ??a n ???e y??? 4 ???y ???? II A?????? ??ae
???y??o ????a e ?????? ??, ??????? ??ae, ???e ?uy?e N?? ????o ?????
????? ?????i ???. I???yny ??ue ????a II ???y??? ??? ??????a a ????o
????e ??? e ???? ??th??? ??o ?????? e e??e y??? ????? i ????e ??o y??a ?
A OeEE e N????, ???? ???? 108 ??? ??? ????a, ????? II A?????? ???i N???
???y??o ????a, ??e a i?????e AIEE.

E??uey??i ??i ???o ??????-?????i ???y e ?????i ?? ??e ??????? ????i
?????y ??ae, ??a ??? a ??? ?????? ?i ?????i. I??i ????y ??eth????ue
???y??a e ??eth???-????oth?a ?????y ?????a ??e ?????a??? ???u e ??e ??i
?????y n ??u 1918 a., ??a ???ey ???????e i???th?? ??? a ??? ?????a ?? ?
???e. O??ay ????y n ????i?ueth ?????a a ????????th ????o ?y ???????
“???? ?aaa a ???y??a ?????a”. A ?a-eth? 1918 a. ?? ????a ??ay ??????y
???i?????i ?? n ???????i ?????? ????? I???? E?????o ??????ey; ?uy??
“????e ??ae” ????o ???o a ???th ?y ??au ??? ???? ????e, ??? ???a e
????ey ???o ????e; ???? ???? e???? ?????e ???u a ?eyo ? i?????, ???ey
?????? ?? (??? ? ????ey ???? ???? e ????o N???) e ????y ???ie?o?? ? ??
????, ????o o ???.

C?eth??a

?????a ?? ??e ?i???? ???, ??i ???ue, ?i a ??? OO ?? ??? ???y??a ? ??th
??iy?i ?????ue, ????a ???yi a ???e ?? ???e ????e, ???th ??i ?? ???. O?y
?? ???e ??????ue y? ????a a ???. O?, ?i???, ???u N???? ???a ? ????ue
???i, ?? ???, ?i ?? ????a ?????ay ?????y ?????y, ?? i??o, ?i ????? ???o
???yi e /??io ???iy???? ?cy????eth ? ?? ???, ??????a ???y??a ????eth ??e
???? ????, ?? ? ????a ??….

I?? ??????ue ??i “??”, ? ????o ? ??, y? ?????a ??u, ??eth?e, ???? ??a,
??ae, ??a?? ???e. E??? ??? ???yi e ???o ?? ?????, ?? y? ?? ?????i, ????y
???e. E??uey??i ??i ???o ??????-??u??? ???y e ?????i ?? ??e o??????i
????i ?????y ???, ??a ??? a n??a ?????? a? ?????i.

A a??a ? ??th a 1917 a. ???yi ????? ???. E??uey??i ????? N??u, ?i ??i
?a???i ??? ???????? ??eth?e. ??athuay ?? ???y??a a ??eth???o ???yo 1917
a. ???y? ????i ?????i ????i ???????ue y? ???y ?e “???oth ??eth?th”,
“???y??th ??eth?th”.

N ??? ???u, ???ay ??eth?y a ????e ?y? ?????o ??????? – y? ???y??y
??????ay ???th?y, a ???e ???y??e i? i????i ?????ye ????????? ????eth
???. Ae??ith ???iy? ????ey ?????y e ????? ???? ??????y, ?????? ???y
????i ???a a ????o ?????a ????i ???y??a. E y?? ???e ????a ????? ?a?????
? ??th ??i ? ??? ??o???i ????, ? e ???? ?? ??o??? ????y. E??i y? ????
???a?a ????a e ???e ??????e ? ??th ??????? ??ae ??eth???o ???e ? ??e
????? ?a????i? e ?i??y? ???th a ??i ??????? ???????e e ?? ????????
??eth?e.

A ??? I?y???e ??eth?e ???oth ?? ???a ????a N??? ???y??. I?i ? ???a ??o
y??a A. Ae. E??a a ?? ? II A?????? ??? N??? ???i ??? ???y??i “???e
??eth?e”, ?c e??? ??eth?y ??? ?? ????ue.

N??e ?????

1 Ae??a A.ss., N?nth??/ N.I. A???y ???y ???e: ?? ??? [??. ???a ?y ??a].
– A?????e, 2007.

2, Ae???? I.I., O??? A.A. E??uey??a ???? a ???e a XIX a. I??a 1977a

3. E???? E.I. ????? N.Ae. ???th?y e ??. I??a 1990a

4. E????i I.I. “N?????? ? ???th ??th” N??- I???? 2003a.

5. ??? e ???u a ???e: ????n?a e ??????a ?????e I??a 1995 a

6. ??? Nay???a “N???i” I??a 2003 a.

7. N??ia A.A. Y?????? ????a ???e a ?? ??? ???e ??u. I??a. 1973 a.

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