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Крестьянская реформа 1861г.

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?AOA?AO

Ii oaia

E?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia 1861 aiaea

O/aieoeu 9 eeanna OEE

*a?eaoeiie Aeeoi?ee

Aaaaeaiea

Naeueneia oicyenoai a iaoe aeie ia?aaeeaaao o?oaeiia a?aiy.
I?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaiaeeo iiiai/eneaiiua ?aoi?iu a naeueneii oicyenoaa.
Iii i?iaiaeeo iieeoeeo aiaae?aiey oa?ia?neiai oicyenoaa, aea?o
aiciiaeiinoue oa?ia?ai iieo/aoue e?aaeeou a aaieao e iiiaia ae?oaia.

Iiaeiaiay neooaoeey auea e a XIX aaea. Oiaaea eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? II
?aoee i?iaanoe e?anoueyineoth ?aoi?io. Yoi i?iecioei a 1861 a. Oiaaea 19
oaa?aey 1861 a. a naao auoei «Iieiaeaiea i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe».

E oae, y oi/o ?anneacaoue ia enoi?ee ?aoi?ie?iaaiey naeueneiai
oicyenoaa a ?innee, a eiaiii i e?anoueyineie ?aoi?ia 1861 a.

Iniiaiay /anoue

Aeaenaiae? II Ieeieaaae/ (1818 a. ?.), noa?oee nui eiia?aoi?a
Ieeieay I e eiia?ao?eoeu Aeaenaiae?u Oaaei?iaiu, acioae ia i?anoie iinea
nia?oe Ieeieay I a 1856 aiaeo. Eiia?aoi? Ieeieae I inoaaee naiaio
ianeaaeieeo E?uineoth aieio, caeii/eaoothny ii?aaeaieai ?innee e
iiaeienaieai ie?a a Ia?eaea a ia?oa 1856 aiaea. A 1864 aiaeo auei
ieii/aii iiei?aiea Eaaeaca. Ii Aeaoineiio aeiaiai?o n Eeoaai e ?innee
aue i?eniaaeeiai Aio?neee e?ae (1858 a.), a ii Iaeeineiio – Onno?eeneee
(1860 a.). A 1864 aiaeo ?onneea aienea ia/aee iioiae a N?aaeithth Aceth,
a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai auee caoaa/aiu ianoiinoe, ia?aciaaaoea
Oo?eanoaineee e?ae (1867 a.) e Oa?aaineoth iaeanoue (1873 a.). A 1867
aiaeo ?inney i?iaeaea NOA Aeyneo e Aeaooneea ino?iaa. Naiui aaaeiui
niauoeai ai aiaoiae iieeoeea ?innee a oea?noaiaaiea Aeaenaiae?a II
yaeeanue ?onnei-oo?aoeeay aieia 1877-1878 aa., caaa?oeaoayny iiaaaeie
?onneeo aiene. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai yaeeinue i?iaicaeaoaiea iacaaeneiinoe
Na?aee, ?oiuiee e *a?iiai?ee. ?inney iieo/eea /anoue Aanna?aaee,
iooi?aiooie a 1856 aiaeo (e?iia ino?iaia aeaeueou Aeoiay) e aeaiaaeioth
eiio?eaooeeth a ?acia?a 302,5 iei. ?oaeae. A nioeeaeueiie noa?a –
oneeaiea e?anoueyineiai i?ioanoa i?ioea e?aiinoie/anoaa, eioi?ia
au?aaeaeinue a oaaee/aiee aieiaiee. Aeey n?aaiaiey i?eaaaeai aeaiiua: a
30-a aiaeu – 328 e?anoueyineeo aieiaiee, a 40-a – 545, a 50-a – 1010.

Iinea ieii/aiey aieiu e?anoueyineea aieiaiey oneeeeenue. A 1856 aiaeo a
thaeiuo aoaa?ieyo ?ani?ino?aieeenue neooe, /oi a Oaa?ee ?acaeatho caieth
e aeatho aieueioth. Aeaeaeaiea a «Oaa?eth ca aieae» ioaaoeei ianaeaiea
Iieoaaneie, Oa?ueeianeie, *a?ieaianeie, Eo?neie, I?eianeie aoaa?iee.
Aeanoyi canoaaeoue ?aaioaoue eee ieaoeoue iaeiae iiiaea ieeeeiiu
e?anoueyi, /anoi auei neiaeii.

Yoi auioaeeei Aeaenaiae?a II a 1858 a. nicaeaoue ai anao aoaa?ieyo
niaoeeaeueiua eiieoaou, aaea aeieaeiu auee ninoaaeyoue oneiaey
inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi. Oaeie eiieoao ia/ae ooieoeeiie?iaaoue e a
Eaeoaa. A aai ninoaa aioee iiiaea eeaa?aeueii iano?iaiiua aeai?yia:
iao?aoaaaoe I. N. Eaoeei, aeaeaa?eno I. I. Naenooiia, A. A. Io?iioeaa,
A. I. Ieaiyiieeia e ei. A. A. Iaieaineee. Ia iniiaaiee i?aaeeiaeaiee io
aoaa?ineeo eiieoaoia a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneii Aeaaiii eiieoaoa ii
e?anoueyineiio aeaeo auee ?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeea inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi
eceiaeaiiua a «Iieiaeaiee 19 oaa?aey 1861 a. i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe » ooaa?aeae?iiii eiia?aoi?ii. Yoio caeii ninoiye
ec ioaeaeueiuo “Iieiaeaiee”, eanaaoeony o?ao iniiaiuo a?oii aii?inia:

1. Oi?acaeiaiea ee/iie caaeneiinoe e?anoueyi io iiiaueeia.

2. Iaaeaeaiey e?anoueyi caieae e ii?aaeaeaiey e?anoueyineeo iiaeiiinoae.

3. Aueoia e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia.

Ii iaio:

1.E?aiinoiia i?aai ia e?anoueyi, aiaeai?aiiuo a iiiaue/ueeo eiaieyo, e
aeai?iauo ethaeae ioiaiyaony iaanaaaea.

2.Ia iniiaaiee yoiai Iieiaeaiey e?anoueyiai e aeai?iaui ethaeyi,
auoaaeoei ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeythony i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe naiaiaeiuo naeueneeo aeeoaeae, eae ee/iua, oae e
eiouanoaaiiua.

3.Iiiaueee, nio?aiyy i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia ana i?eiaaeeaaeauea
ei caiee, i?aaeinoaaeytho, ca onoaiiaeaiiua iiaeiiinoe, a iinoiyiiia
iieueciaaiea e?anoueyi onaaeaaioth eo inaaeeinoue e, naa?o oiai, aeey
iaania/aiey eo auoa e aeey auiieiaiey eo iaycaiiinoae i?aae
i?aaeoaeuenoaii e iiiaueeii, oi eiee/anoai iieaaie caiee e
ae?oaeo oaiaeee, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaaieyo, oeacaiiuo a
ianoiuo iieiaeaieyo.

4.E?anoueyia ca ioaaaeaiiue, ia iniiaaiee i?aaeuaeouae noaouee,
iaaeae iaycaiu ioauaaoue a iieueco iiiaueeia ii?aaeaeaiiua a
ianoiuo iieiaeaieyo iiaeiiinoe ?aaioith eee aeaiueaaie. Iaaeaeaiea
e?anoueyi caieath e ae?oaeie oaiaeueyie ii?aaeaeythony
i?aeiouanoaaiii ii aeia?iaieueiiio iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e e?anoueyiaie
niaeaoaieth, n niaethaeaieai eeoue neaaeothueo oneiaee:

1) /oiau iaaeae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue e?anoueyiai a iinoiyiiia iieueciaaiea,
aeey iaania/aiey eo auoa e eni?aaiiai ioi?aaeaiey eie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iiaeiiinoae, ia aue iaiaa oiai ?acia?a, eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeai n oie oeaeueth a ianoiuo iieiaeaieyo;

2) /oiau oa iiaeiiinoe e?anoueyi a iieueco iiiaueea, eioi?ua
ioi?aaeythony ?aaioith, ii?aaeaeyeenue ia eia/a eae a?aiaiiuie
aeiaiai?aie, ia n?iee ia aieaa o?ao eao (i?e/ai ia aini?auaeinue,
iaeiaei aea, aiciaiiaeyoue oaeea aeiaiai?u a neo/aa aeaeaiey
iaaeo noi?ii, ii oaeaea a?aiaiii, ia aeieaa eae ia o?aoeaoiee
n?ie);

3) /oiau aiiaua caeeth/aaiua iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e e?anoueyiaie
naeaeee ia auee i?ioeaiu iauei a?aaeaeaineei caeiiai e ia
ia?aie/eaaee i?aa ee/iuo, eiouanoaaiiuo e ii ninoiyieth,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo e?anoueyiai a ianoiyuai Iieiaeaiee. Ai anao oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea aeia?iaieueiua niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e
e?anoueyiaie ia ninoiyoueny, iaaeae e?anoueyi caieath e ioi?aaeaiea
eie iiaeiiinoae i?iecaiaeeony ia oi/iii iniiaaiee ianoiuo iieiaeaiee.

11.E?anoueyiai i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai aueoiaoue a nianoaaiiinoue
onaaeaaioth eo inaaeeinoue iin?aaenoaii aciina ii?aaeaeaiiie aueoiiie
noiiu e n niaethaeaieai i?aaee, a ianoiuo iieiaeaieyo eceiaeaiiuo.

12.N niaeaney iiiaueeia e?anoueyia iiaoo, naa?o onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe,
i?eia?aoaoue a nianoaaiiinoue, ia iniiaaiee iaueo caeiiia, iieaaua
caiee e ae?oaea oaiaeuey, ioaaaeaiiua oai e?anoueyiai a iinoiyiiia
iieueciaaiea. N oaeiaui i?eia?aoaieai e?anoueyiaie a
nianoaaiiinoue eo iaaeaea, eee

ii?aaeaeaiiie a ianoiuo iieiaeaieyo /anoe iiiai, i?ae?auathony
ana iaycaoaeueiua iicaiaeueiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e
icia/aiiuie e?anoueyiaie.

13.Iacaaeneii io niiniaa, oeacaiiiai a i?aaeuaeouae noaouea,
iaycaoaeueiua iicaiaeueiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e
e?anoueyiaie i?ae?auathony neaaeothueie aeaoiy niiniaaie:

1) anee e?anoueyia aeia?iaieueii ioeaaeoony, n niaethaeaieai oiai
ii?yaeea e oao oneiaee, eaeea ii?aaeaeaiu a ianoiuo iieiaeaieyo,
io iieueciaaiey i?aaeinoaaeaiiui ei iaaeaeii;

2) anee e?anoueyia ia?aeaeoo, n niaethaeaieai anao onoaiiaeaiiuo
aeey naai i?aaee, a ae?oaea nineiaey.

15.E?anoueyia, auoaaeoea ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, ii ninoiyuea a
iaycaoaeueiuo iicaiaeueiuo ioiioaieyo n iiiaueeii, eiaiothony
“a?aiaiii-iaycaiiuie e?anoueyiaie”.

16.E?anoueyia, auoaaeoea ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e i?eia?aooea
iicaiaeueiua oaiaeuey ia iniiaaieyo, a Iieiaeaieyo eceiaeaiiuo,
eiaiothony “e?anoueyiaie-nianoaaiieeaie”.

?acaeae 1.

23.E?anoueyiai, auoaaeoei ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeyaony
i?aai ia?aaia n ae?oaeie naiaiaeiuie naeueneeie iauaaoaeyie e n
niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo a iaueo caeiiao e a nai Iieiaeaiee i?aaee:

1) i?iecaiaeeoue naiaiaeioth oi?aiaeth, i?aaeinoaaeaiioth e?anoueyiai,
aac acyoey oi?aiauo naeaeaoaeuenoa e aac ieaoaaea iioeei…;

2) ioe?uaaoue e niaea?aeaoue ia caeiiiii iniiaaiee oaa?eee e ?aciua
i?iiuoeaiiua, oi?aiaua e ?aianeaiiua caaaaeaiey…;

3) caienuaaoueny a oeaoe; i?iecaiaeeoue ?aianea a naieo naeaieyo e
i?iaeaaaoue naie ecaeaeey, eae a naeaieyo, oae e a ai?iaeao…;

4) anooiaoue a aeeueaeee, oi?aiaua ?ac?yaeu e niioaaonoaothuea
iiui iiae?yaeu…

24.E?anoueyiai i?aaeinoaaeythony neaaeothuea i?aaa ii eneai,
aeaeiaai, oiaeaoaenoao e noaeo:

1) ii aeaeai a?aaeaeaineei: iouneeaaoue naie i?aaa, o/eiyoue enee e
oyaeau e ioaaonoaiaaoue ca naay ee/ii eee /a?ac iiaa?aiiuo, a
?aaii auoue iiaa?aiiuie, eae e?anoueyi naiaai iauanoaa, oae e eeoe
iinoi?iiieo:

2)ii aeaeai oaieiaiui e iieeoeaeneei: iiaeaaaoue aeaeiau e io?aiyoue
naie i?aaa anaie aeicaieaiiuie niiniaaie, ee/ii e /a?ac iiaa?aiiuo,
a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea o/anoea iiaa?aiiiai aeiioneaaony a aeaeao
oaieiaiuo;

3) auoue naeaeaoaeyie ia iauai iniiaaiee.

29.E?anoueyia, auoaaeoea ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, eae naiaiaeiua
naeueneea iauaaoaee, iieo/atho oaeaea neaaeothuea i?aaa ii ninoiyieth:

1) ia?a/eneyoueny a ae?oaea nineiaey e iauanoaa ii i?aaeeai, a yoii
Iieiaeaiee eceiaeaiiui, ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth, iinooiaoue a
aiaiioth neoaeao e iaieiaoueny a ?ae?oou ia iauai aeey naeueneeo
iauaaoaeae iniiaaiee;

2) ioeo/aoueny io ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa n niaethaeaieai
i?aaee, onoaiiaeaiiuo iaueie caeiiaie e ianoiyuei Iieiaeaieai;

3) ioaeaaaoue naieo aeaoae a iauea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey e iinooiaoue
ia neoaeao ii o/aaiie e iaaeaaie /anoyi ia iniiaaiee i?aaee,
onoaiiaeaiiuo ia yoio i?aaeiao aeey naiaiaeiuo iiaeaoiuo
nineiaee, ii oaieueieoaeueiui naeaeaoaeuenoaai, n eneeth/aieai ec
iiaeaoiiai ieeaaea.

37.I?eia?aoaiiuie a nianoaaiiinoue ia iniiaaiee 11 e 12 noaoae naai
Iieiaeaiey caieyie e?anoueyineiai iaaeaea e aueoieaiiuie
onaaeueaaie e?anoueyia iieuecothony e ?anii?yaeathony eae naiei
aeinoiyieai ia i?aaeeao, eceiaeaiiuo a i?aaeuaeoueo noaoueyo (33,
34, 35 e 36), n niaethaeaieai oao oneiaee, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo eo
onaaeueau e caiee i?eia?aoaiu, e, ai anyeii neo/aa, n oai
ia?aie/aieai, /oi a i?iaeieaeaiea ia?auo aeaayoe eao ni a?aiaie
ooaa?aeaeaiey naai Iieiaeaiey icia/aiiua caiee ia iiaoo auoue
io/oaeaeaaiu eee caeeaaeuaaaiu iinoi?iiiei eeoeai, ia
i?eiaaeeaaeauei e iauanoao; ii ia?aonooiea e ioaea/a a caeia oaeeo
caiaeue /eaiai oiai aea naeueneiai iauanoaa ia aini?auaaony.

?acaeae 3.

164.E?anoueyia, auoaaeoea ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, iaycaiu ianoe
neaaeothuea eacaiiua e caineea e aeaiaaeiua iiaeiiinoe:

1) iiaeooiay iiaeaoue; 2) nai? ia iaania/aiea i?iaeiaieuenoaeai; 3)
caineea nai?u, eae ainoaea?noaaiiua, oae e iauea aoaa?ineea e
/anoiua, e 4) nai? ia caaioiaeaiea ieeaaeiuo eenoia ii iiaeaoyi e
nai?ai.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia ?aoi?iu 19 oaa?aey 1861

19 oaa?aey 1861 a. iiaeienae, iiieii Iaieoanoa, aua e 17
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, eanathueony ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa a no?aia.
*oi aea eanaaony naiiai Iaieoanoa, oi aai oaeno aue iaienai
ecaanoiui oea?eiaiui aeayoaeai Oeea?aoii, yaii ia iaeia?yaoei ?aoi?io.

Aeaenaiae? II oioae aeaeaoue aeieoiaio ia oieueei
ioeoeeaeueii – oi?aeanoaaiiui, ii e aeinoaoi/ii i?iiaaaiaeenoneei –
aaeoaoeeiiiui. Ec-iiae ia?a Oeea?aoa oaeno “Iaieoanoa” auoae
aaea?a/eaui, oyaeaeiaaniui e iaeiiiiyoiui aeey i?inoiai ia?iaea, eae,
ai?i/ai, e ana inoaeueiua caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou. Iniiaiuie (ec 17-oe)
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie ii ?aoi?ia auee “Iauaa iieiaeaiea i
e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe”, “Ianoiua
iieiaeaiey” e “Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea”. Ii Iaieoanoo, e?aiinoiia i?aai
iiiaueeia ia e?anoueyi ioiaiyeinue iaanaaaea, e e?anoueyia
i?eciaaaeenue naiaiaeiuie aac anyeiai aueoia a iieueco iiiaueeia.
Iniai iaaei iiae/a?eiooue a?iiaaeioth cia/eiinoue ee/iie naiaiaeu, ca
eioi?oth aaeaie ai?ieny e?anoueyiei. Ioiuia auaoee e?aiinoiie, o
eioi?iai ?aiaa iiiauee iia ia oieueei ioiyoue ana aai aeinoiyiea, ii e
aai naiiai n naiueae eee ioaeaeueii io iaa, i?iaeaoue, caeiaeeoue,
iieo/ae aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny naiae ee/iinoueth:
anooiaoue a a?ae aac niaeaney iiiaueea, io naiaai eiaie caeeth/aoue
?aciiai ?iaea eiouanoaaiiua e a?aaeaeaineea naeaeee, ioe?uaaoue
oi?aiaua e i?iiuoeaiiua caaaaeaiey, ia?aoiaeeoue a ae?oaia nineiaea.
Ana yoi i?aaenoaaeyei cia/eoaeueiue i?inoi? e?anoueyineiio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao, niinianoaiaaei ?inoo iooiaea e?anoueyi ia
ca?aaioee, a a oeaeii aeaaaei neeueiue oie/ie ?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a
ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee. Anee au e?aiinoiia i?aai auei ioiaiaii n?aco,
iaeiei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii, oi eeeaeaeaoeey oaiaeaeueiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a aea?aaia ?anoyioeinue au ia ianeieueei
aeanyoeeaoee. Ii caeiio e?anoueyia a oa/aiea aua 2-o eao (aei 19
oaa?aey 1863 a.) iaycaiu auee ioauaaoue oa aea naiua iiaeiiinoe, /oi
e i?e e?aiinoiii i?aaa. Eeoue ianeieueei oiaiueoeeanue aa?ueia, e
ioiaiyeenue iaeeea iaoo?aeueiua iiai?u (yeoeaie, ianeii, eueiii,
oienoii, oa?noueth e ae?.). Ii caeiio e?anoueyia iieo/aee i?aai
aueoiaoue o iiiaueeia naie onaaeueau e, naa?o oiai, iiaee ii
niaeaneth ni naieie iiiaueeaie i?eia?anoe o ieo a nianoaaiiinoue
iieaaua iaaeaeu. Iiea e?anoueyia iieueciaaeenue iaaeaeaie, ia
aueoiea eo, iie iaoiaeeeenue a caaeneiinoe io iiiaueea e iacuaaeenue
a?aiaiii iaycaiiuie e?anoueyiaie. Eiaaea aea aueoi aue
i?iecaaaeai, oi e?anoueyia iieo/aee iieioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
e noaiiaeeenue e?anoueyiaie-nianoaaiieeaie. Ieeaeiai
ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea ieii/aiey a?aiaiii iaycaiiiai iieiaeaiey
e?anoueyi caeii ia onoaiaaeeaae, iiyoiio iii ?anoyioeinue ia oeaeuo 20
eao, e eeoue caeiiii 1881 a. a?aiaiii iaycaiiua e?anoueyia (eo e
oiio a?aiaie inoaaaeinue oaea ia aieaa 15%) auee ia?aaaaeaiu ia
iaycaoaeueiue aueoi. ?acia?u iieaaiai iaaeaea ii?aaeaeyeenue io 1 aei 12
aeanyoei ia iaeii eeoei, caienaiiua a e?anoueyiao ca iiiaueeii ia
?aaecee (?aaecneea aeooe). Aaee/eia iaaeaea caaenaea io “iieinu”
ainoaea?noaa (ia/a?iicaiiie, /a?iicaiiie e noaiiie) e iioiio aeey
aoaa?iee e aeaaea oacaeia aaee/eiu iaaeaeia auee ?acee/iua.
Eiie?aoiua yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi (?acia?
iaaeaea e ?acia? iiaeiiinoe ca iaai) oeene?iaaeenue a oae
iacuaaaiuo “onoaaiuo a?aiioao”. Iie ?anniao?eaaeenue eae
ii?aaeaeythuee aeieoiaio, yaeythueeny th?eaee/aneei aeoii,
cae?aieythuei eiie?aoiua oneiaey auoiaea e?anoueyi ec e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe. A?aiioa iiaeienuaaeanue iiiaueeii eee aai aeiaa?aiiui
eeoeii e e?anoueyineeie iiaa?aiiuie, /oi nicaeaaaei aeaeeiinoue
th?eaee/anee ocaeiiaiiie naeaeee aeaoo ?aaiuo noi?ii. Onoaaiay a?aiioa
yaeyeanue iniiaiui aeieoiaioii, oeene?iaaaoei iiiaio ia?aoiaea
e?aiinoiuo ai “a?aiaiii iaycaiiia ninoiyiea” e ii?aaeaeyaoee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey yoiai ninoiyiey. Ii ii?iai,
caoeene?iaaiiui a onoaaiuo a?aiioao, aeeei oeaeia iieieaiea
e?anoueyi. Ninoaaeaiea e aaaaeaiea a aeaenoaea onoaaiuo a?aiio
aiceaaaeinue ia ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia. Aeieaeiinoe ie?iauo
iin?aaeieeia auee o/?aaeaeaiu aeey ?acai?a aiciiaeiuo
iaaei?acoiaiee, nii?ia e aeaeia a i?ioeanna i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu.
Oeaio?aeueiie caaea/ae ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia auei aeieoiaioaeueiia
ioi?ieaiea iiauo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e e?anoueyiaie
niaeanii “Iieiaeaieyi 1861 a.”. Ie?iaua iin?aaeieee aeieaeiu
auee neaaeeoue ca i?aaeeueiinoueth e ni?aaaaeeeainoueth naeaeie
iiiaueeia n eo e?anoueyiaie, auoiaeyueie ia aieth. Iie ooaa?aeaeaee
onoaaiua a?aiiou, iaaethaeaee ca oiaeii e?anoueyineiai
naiioi?aaeaiey a naeueneeo iauanoaao e aieinoyo.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeaio? oyaeanoe i?aeoe/aneiai i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu iae
ia iecoaa caaii – ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia, iacia/aaiuo Naiaoii ii
nieneai, i?aaeeiaeaiiui aeai?yineeie nia?aieyie. A ethia 1861 a. ia/aee
aeaenoaiaaoue 1714 ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia. Iauaa aea ?oeiaiaenoai
aeaeii e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu ii aoaa?ieyi auei aiceiaeaii ia
aoaa?ineea ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai i?enoonoaey.

Yoe i?enoonoaey aeaenoaiaaee iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii aoaa?iaoi?a e
ninoiyee ec aaaeiaeoeo /eiia aoaa?iee e i?aaenoaaeoaeae ianoiiai
aeai?yinoaa. A aunoei i?aaiii noae Aeaaiue eiieoao ia ono?ienoaa
naeueneiai ninoiyiey, caiaieaoee Aeaaiue eiieoao “i iiiaue/ueeo
e?anoueyiao, auoiaeyueo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe”.

Aaaeiia ianoi a ?aoi?ia 1861 a. caieiaei ?aoaiea aa?a?iiai aii?ina.
Caeii enoiaeee ec i?eioeeia i?eciaiey ca iiiaueeaie i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia anth caieth a aai eiaiee, a oii /enea e ia
e?anoueyineoth iaaeaeueioth. E?anoueyia iieo/aee iaaeae ia a
nianoaaiiinoue, a a iieueciaaiea, ca onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii
iiaeiiinoe a aeaea nai?a eee aa?ueiu. *oiau noaoue nianoaaiieeii
naiae iaaeaeueiie caiee, e?anoueyiei aeieaeai aue aueoieoue aa o
iiiaueea.

A ia/a?iicaiiuo e /a?iicaiiuo ?aeiiao ?innee onoaiaaeeaaeenue “aunoay”
e “iecoay” (o?aoue “aunoae”) ii?iu iaaeaea. A a noaiiuo ?aeiiao
– iaeia (“oeaciay”) ii?ia. Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaae io?aceo io caiaeueiiai
iaaeaea, anee ii ia aeinoeaae “iecoae”. A ?acoeueoaoa e?anoueyia ca
n/ao io?acee io iaaeaeia iioa?yee nauoa 0,20 naieo caiaeue, a a
/a?iicaiiuo caieaaeaeue/aneeo aoaa?ieyo, a eioi?uo i?aiaeaaeaea
aa?ueiiay nenoaia e caiey iniaaiii auniei oeaieeanue, iioa?e e?anoueyi
aeinoeaaee aei 30 – 40%. Ii aaaea auea ia oieueei a yoii. Iau/ii
io?acaeenue iaeaieaa oeaiiua e iaiaoiaeeiua aeey e?anoueyi oaiaeuey,
aac eioi?uo auei iaaiciiaeii ii?iaeueiia aaaeaiea oicyenoaa: eoaa,
auianu e i?. E?anoueyiei auioaeaeai aue a?aiaeiaaoue ia eaaaeueiuo
oneiaeyo yoe e?aeia iaiaoiaeeiua aio “io?acaiiua caiee”.
Caieaiieueciaaiea e?anoueyi noaeaeinue oaeaea aua /a?aniieineoeae e
eeoaieai eaniuo oaiaeee.

Ia?aaiae e?anoueyi ia aueoi ciaiaiiaae niaie iieiia i?ae?auaiea
oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee a auaoae iiiaue/ueae aea?aaia. Iaeiaei
oaeoe/aneeie nianoaaiieeaie naieo iaaeaeia e?anoueyia iiaee noaoue eeoue
a oii neo/aa, anee iie auiea/eaaee ca ieo anth aueoiioth noiio. A
iniiao aa en/eneaiey auea iieiaeaia ia ?uii/iay oeaia caiee, a
?acia?u ia?iea, oae /oi aueoiiay oeaia ieacuaaeanue a 1,5 ?aca auoa
?uii/iie. ?acoiaaony, e?anoueyia auee ia a ninoiyiee n?aco
auieaoeoue aueoiioth noiio. Iiyoiio aeaei aueoia acyei ia naay
ainoaea?noai. Eacia n?aco auieaoeea iiiaueeai aeaiueaaie e oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie iniiaioth /anoue aueoiiie noiiu, a ae?oaoth /anoue oaea?aeaea n
iiiaueeia a n/ao iiaaoaiey eo aeieaia eacia, a caoai oaea
acuneeaaea aa a aeaea aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae n e?anoueyi. N?ie ieii/aiey
oaeeo ieaoaaeae aue onoaiiaeai a 49 eao.

Aei 1907 a., eiaaea aueoiiua ieaoaaee n e?anoueyi auee ioiaiaiu,
e?anoueyia oieaoeee nauoa 1540 iei. ?oa., o.a. a 1,5 ?aca
aieueoa ia?aiia/aeueii onoaiiaeaiiie n ieo aueoiiie noiiu e ana aua
inoaaaeenue “aeieaeieeaie” eaciu.

Iaia?iaeiaaiea Iaieoanoa e “Iieiaeaiee” 19 oaa?aey 1861 a.,
niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo iaiaioei iaaeaaeaeu e?anoueyi ia “iieioth
aieth”, aucaaei ac?ua e?anoueyineiai i?ioanoa aaniie – eaoii 1861 a.
Oaeoe/anee ia auei ie iaeiie aoaa?iee, a eioi?ie e?anoueyia ia
i?ioanoiaaee au i?ioea iai?eaieaiuo aeey ieo oneiaee inaiaiaeaeaiey.
A oa/aiea 1861 a. i?iecioei 1860 e?anoueyineeo aieiaiee. E inaie
1861 a. i?aaeoaeuenoao n iiiiuueth aieineeo iiae?acaeaeaiee e n
i?eiaiaieai ianniauo iaeacaiee ?icaaie oaeaeinue iiaeaaeoue
ac?ua e?anoueyineiai i?ioanoa, iaeiaei aaniie 1862 a. iiaeiyeanue
iiaay aieia e?anoueyineeo aunooieaiee, naycaiiuo ia oio ?ac n
aaaaeaieai a aeaenoaea onoaaiuo a?aiio.

A ia?eiae 1863 – 1870 aa. auee i?iaaaeaiu aa?a?iua ?aoi?iu a
niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiaie “Iieiaeaiee” a oaeaeueiie aea?aaia,
iicaiaeueiia ono?ienoai ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi, a oaeaea
?aoi?iu a iaoeeiiaeueiuo ie?aeiao ?innee (A?ocee, Aanna?aaee e
Aaoacee).

Iieeoe/aneea e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey e?anoueyineie
?aoi?iu. Iioaeeeiaaiea “iieiaeaiee” i iiaii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi
aucaaei iieiia ?aci/a?iaaiea a ?aaeeeaeueiuo e?oaao. “Eieieie”
Aa?oeaia a noaoueyo Iaa?aaa i?iaicaeanee, /oi e?aiinoiia i?aai a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aiana ia ioiaiaii e /oi “ia?iae oea?ai iaiaioo”.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, naie e?anoueyia iaeeaeaee iieiie aiee e auee
iaaeiaieueiu ia?aoiaeiui ninoiyieai “a?aiaiii iaycaiiuo”. A iaeioi?uo
ianoao i?iecioee aieiaiey, eai e?anoueyia aeoiaee, /oi ainiiaea
ni?yoaee ianoiyuoth oea?neoth aieth e i?aaeeaaatho ei eaeoth-oi
iiaeeiaeioth. A naea Aacaeia Eacaineie aoaa?iee aeioei aei oiai, /oi
aienea no?aeyee a oieio e?anoueyi, i?e/ai auei nauoa 100 /aeiaae
oaeouo e ?aiaiuo.

Aanoue i aacaeiaineii onie?aiee i?iecaaei oae?o/athuaa aia/aoeaiea
a iauanoaa e aucaaei ?yae aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aeaiiino?aoeee.
Inaiueth 1861 a. i?ienoiaeeee na?ueaciua nooaeai/aneea aieiaiey a
Iaoa?ao?aa, a Iineaa, a Eacaie, a Eeaaa, e a yoii aea aiaeo
iiyaeeenue ia?aua, iaeaaaeueii ecaeaiiua ?aaiethoeeiiiua i?ieeaiaoeee
“Aaeeei?on”, “E iieiaeiio iieieaieth” e ae?. A no?aia ?acei
aeoeaece?iaaeinue ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea.

*oi eanaaony i?ioeanna eciaiaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
no?oeoo?u aea?aaie, oi naie e?anoueyia iacaaee aai
«?ane?anoueyieaaieai». Yaiethoeey e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa a
ii?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ioiineoaeueiia iaieuaiea
e?anoueyinoaa, aai iiey?ecaoeeth, auaeaeaiea ec n?aaeu e?anoueyinoaa
iiauo eeannia – naeueneie ao?aeoacee e naeueneiai i?ieaoa?eaoa.

Aaaeiaeoea e na?aaeiyoeeea oicyenoaa ia eiaee aiciiaeiinoe
i?eia?aoaoue iiaua naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?oaeey, inouanoaeyoue
eaeea-eeai aa?ioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey. Iniiaiui i?oaeeai a
e?anoueyineii oicyenoaa inoaaaeanue nioa (aua a 1910 aiaeo a ?innee
nioe ninoaaeyee 43 % anao i?oaeee iaoiou).

A eiioea 80-o – ia/aea 90-o aiaeia naeueneie ao?aeoacee
i?eiaaeeaaeaei a ?acee/iuo aoaa?ieyo ?innee io 34 aei 50 % anae
e?anoueyineie caiee – iaaeaeueiie, eoi/ae, a?aiaeiie – e io 38 aei 62
% ?aai/aai neioa, a naeueneie aaaeiioa (ieiei 50 % anao
e?anoueyineeo aeai?ia) – eeoue io 18 aei 32 % caiee e io 10 aei 30 %
?aai/aai neioa. I?iiaaeooi/iui caaiii auee na?aaeiyee, ia aeieth
eioi?uo i?eoiaeeeinue ieiei 30 % e?anoueyineeo aeai?ia.

Yaiethoeey iiiaue/ueaai oicyenoaa ninoiyea ai ana aieueoae
eioaineoeeaoeee caieaaeaeey ia aaca oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey
iaaiiiai o?oaea, i?eiaiaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei.

Ii?aoi?iaiiia iiiaue/uea oicyenoai, ia?aoiaeiia ii naiaio
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth, naiaeeeinue e aeaoi iniiaiui
nenoaiai: io?aaioi/iie e eaieoaeenoe/aneie. Io?aaioi/iay nenoaia
ninoiyea a oii, /oi no?aaeaaoea io iaeicaiaeuey e?anoueyia
auioaeaeaiu auee a?aiaeiaaoue caieth o naieo auaoeo aeaaeaeueoeaa
e ca yoi ia?aaaouaaoue caieth naiei eiaaioa?ai oo /anoue caiee,
eioi?ay inoaaaeanue o iiiaueea. Yoa nenoaia ainiiaenoaiaaea a
aoaa?ieyo *a?iicaiiiai Oeaio?a e N?aaeiaai Iiaieaeuey.

Eaieoaeenoe/aneay nenoaia, i?e eioi?ie ia?aaioea iiiaue/ueae caiee
i?iecaiaeeeanue aieueiiiaaiiuie ?aai/eie n i?eiaiaieai iaoei e
ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, i?aiaeaaeaea a I?eaaeoeea, ia I?aaiaa?aaeiie
Oe?aeia, a Iiai?innee e ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca. Aao?aee
?ae?ooe?iaaeenue ec aaaeiaeoeo e?anoueyi, eioi?ua i?iaeaaaee eee
a?inaee naie ieca?iua iaaeaeu e ooiaeeee ia ca?aaioee.

*enei aao?aeia a 1890 aiaeo aeinoeaaei 3,5 iei. /aeiaae (ieiei 20%
anaai ioaeneiai ianaeaiey ?aai/aai aic?anoa).

I?ioeann ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia a naeueneii oicyenoaa ?innee aae e ana
aieueoaio ?ani?ino?aiaieth eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu iiiaue/ueeo
oicyenoa e auoaniaieth io?aaioi/iie. I?e yoii caiey ?aci?eaoeony
iiiaueeia nieioue e ?yaeii iiiaaeaea a ?oee iaeaieaa e?oiiuo aeai?yi,
a oaeaea eoioeia e naeueneie ao?aeoacee.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea ii?aoi?iaiiie ?incee

1. Eciaiaiey a caieaaeaaeaiee e caieaiieueciaaiee.

2. Naeueneia oicyenoai a ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee i?iaeieaeaei
inoaaaoueny aeiieie?othuae /anoueth yeiiiieee, a aa?a?iue aii?in
yaeyeny aeaaiaeoei a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie
no?aiu.

Ii aeaiiui iicaiaeueiie ia?aiene 1878—1879 aa., aanue caiaeueiue
oiiae Aa?iiaeneie ?innee ninoaaeye 391 iei. aeanyoei. Iineieueeo
noaoenoeea a yoi /enei aeeth/eea nauoa 100 iei. aeanyoei
iaeniieueciaaiiuo eacaiiuo caiaeue E?aeiaai Naaa?a, oi ?aaeueiue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiue caiaeueiue oiiae Aa?iiaeneie ?innee
ninoaaeye ieiei 281 iei. aeanyoei. Caiaeueiue oiiae
?ani?aaeaeyeny ia o?e iniiaiua eaoaai?ee: 102 iei. aeanyoei
ninoaaeyee /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneoth caieth, 139 iei. — e?anoueyineoth
iaaeaeueioth (a oii /enea i?eiaaeeaaeauoth eaca/anoao) e 50 iei. —
eacaiioth e oaeaeueiiai aaaeiinoaa.

Iniiaiay /anoue /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneie caiee – 77,4% (79 iei.
aeanyoei) — iaoiaeeeanue a ?oeao iiianoiiai aeai?yinoaa, inoaeueiie
aeaaeaee oea?eiaue e i?eia?aoaaoea iooai aa iieoiee eoioeu, iauaia e
caaeeoi/iua e?anoueyia. *anoue e?anoueyi, iiieii iieoiee caiee ia
noi?iia, niiaea aein?i/ii aueoieoue naie iaaeaeu e aueoe ec iaueiu
(oaeiauo e ia/aeo XX a. ian/eouaaeinue 600 oun. aeai?ia).

E eiioeo XIX a. aa?a?iue aii?in a ?innee i?eia?ae iniaoth ino?ioo. ?acei
aic?inei e?anoueyineia iaeicaiaeuea aneaaenoaea anoanoaaiiiai
i?e?inoa ianaeaiey aea?aaie, ii i?e nio?aiaiee a i?aaeiai ?acia?a
e?anoueyineiai iaaeaeueiiai caieaiieueciaaiey. *eneaiiinoue
e?anoueyineiai ianaeaiey n 1861 ii 1900 aa. oaaee/eeinue n 23,6
iei. aei 44,2 iei. aeoo ioaeneiai iiea, e aneaaenoaea ?acia?u
iaaeaeia a ?an/aoa ia 1 aeooo ioaeneiai iiea nie?aoeeinue a n?aaeiai n
5,1 aei 2,6 aeanyoeiu. A aea?aaia nicaeaeinue “aa?a?iia ianaeaiea”,
eioi?ia ia iiaee niya/eoue ie aic?anoaaoee ooiae e?anoueyi a
ai?iae, ie ia?anaeaiey eo ia naiaiaeiua caiee ie?aei ?innee.
Iniaaiii no?aaeaea io iaeicaiaeuey iaaeaeaiiay ?aoi?iie 1861 a. auaoay
iiiaue/uey aea?aaiy.

A 90-o aiaeao XIX a. e?anoueyia auioaeaeaiu auee a?aiaeiaaoue o
iiiaueeia aei 37 iei. aeanyoei caiee (/oi ninoaaeyei 30% e eo
iaaeaeueiie), ?aniea/eaaynue ca iaa aieueoae /anoueth io?aaioeaie
(ec-ca ionoonoaey iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeaiaaeiie a?aiaeu n?aaenoa). Yoi
auea a?aiaea “ec ioaeaeu” — aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey naiaai
oicyenoaa. Ii nouanoaiaaea e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay a?aiaea,
eioi?oth i?aeoeeiaaee caaeeoi/iua e?anoueyia n oeaeueth i?iecaiaenoaa
oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee, nieiay caieth ca aeaiueae. A a?aiaeo
naeaaaeenue, aeaaiui ia?acii iiiaue/uee caiee, ii oaeaea e
e?anoueyineea iaaeaeueiua. Ia?aay iacuaaeanue “aiaiaaeaeueiie”, a
aoi?ay — “aioo?eiaaeaeueiie” a?aiaeie. I?e aioo?eiaaeaeueiie
a?aiaea caieth naeaaaee, eae i?aaeei, iaaaeiaaoea e?anoueyia,
eioi?ua naa?ouaaee naia oicyenoai e ooiaeeee ia ca?aaioee a ai?iae.

Iniiaiay oaiaeaioeey /anoiiai caieaaeaaeaiey a ii?aoi?iaiiie
?innee caeeth/aeanue a ia?aoiaea aai io nineiaiinoe e aannineiaiinoe
— e nicaeaieth ao?aeoaciie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Aeai?yineia
caieaaeaaeaiea nie?auaeinue aneaaenoaea i?iaeaaee aeai?yiaie naieo
caiaeue i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ae?oaeo nineiaee. Anee a 1861 a. a ?oeao
aeai?yi iaoiaeeeinue 87 iei. aeanyoei caiee, a e eiioeo 70-o aiaeia —
79 iei., oi e ia/aeo XX a. — 52 iei. aeanyoei, o. a. eiee/anoai caiee
oiaiueoeeinue ia 41%. A nayce n yoei oaeaeueiue aan
aeai?yineiai caieaaeaaeaiey a ninoaaa anae /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneie
caiee ca ii?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae nie?aoeeny n 80% aei 50%, a
e?anoueyineiai aic?in n 5% aei 20%.

Iaeiaei yoio i?ioeann a ?aciua ia?eiaeu eiae naie iniaaiiinoe. Nia/aea,
a 60-a aiaeu, a /enea iieoiaoaeae aeai?yineeo caiaeue i?aiaeaaeaee
aeai?yia aea, ninoaaeyy 52% iieoiaoaeae. Ii oaea a 80-o aiaeao eo
oaeaeueiue aan a iieoieao caiee nieceeny aei 33 %. Ca 1861—1904 aa.
aeai?yia i?iaeaee 81,4 iei. aeanyoei caiee, ii ca yoi aea a?aiy eie
auei eoieaii 45,5 iei. aeanyoei. Oaeei ia?acii, iiieii ia?aoiaea
aeai?yineie caiee a ?oee ae?oaeo nineiaee, oea iiaeeecaoeey
aeai?yineiai caieaaeaaeaiey aioo?e yoiai nineiaey: oe?aieyeenue
iiiaue/uee eaoeooiaeee ca n/ao nie?auaiey iaeeeo aeai?yineeo aeaaeaiee.
Iaeiaei e eiioeo XIX a. n?aaee iieoiueeia aeai?yineie caiee noaee
oaea i?aiaeaaeaoue eoioeu, iauaia, ii aieaa anaai e?anoueyia. Iaiyeny
e oa?aeoa? eniieueciaaiey caiee, eoieaiiie e?anoueyiaie. Anee ?aiueoa
iia i?eia?aoaeanue aieueoae /anoueth iauanoaaie e oiaa?euanoaaie,
eee aea a aeaea iaeeeo iieoiie ioaeaeueiuie aeiiioicyaaaie aeey
ainiieiaiey iaaeinoaoi/iuo iaaeaeia (a “i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo” oeaeyo),
oi aiineaaenoaee noaee i?aiaeaaeaoue iieoiee oaea e?oiiuo o/anoeia
caiee ?acaiaaoaaoeie e?anoueyiaie aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai
oicyenoaa. N?aaee ieo aueaieeanue eaoaai?ey iiiaueeia – ia aeai?yi —
aeaaeaeueoeaa e?oiiuo eaoeooiaeee.

Caiey ana aieaa aoyaeaaeanue a oi?aiaue iai?io. Iiauneee oeaiu ia
caieth: ca 40 ii?aoi?iaiiuo eao — a n?aaeiai a 5 ?ac, a a /a?iicaiiuo
aoaa?ieyo — a 10 ?ac. Ianiio?y ia nie?auaiea aeai?yineiai
caieaaeaaeaiey, aai iiceoeee e ia/aeo XX a. inoaaaeenue aua
aeinoaoi/ii i?i/iuie. A ?oeao aeai?yi inoaaaeenue iaeaieaa oeaiiua,
aunieiaeioiaeiua oaiaeuey (eana, eo/oea iaoioiua caiee e
naiieinu). Ioia/aii, oaeaea, /oi aeai?yineia caieaaeaaeaiea
nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue a ?aaeiiao n aieaa aunieeie oeaiaie ia caieth e n
aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie eo ?inoa a ii?aoi?iaiiia a?aiy. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai, ianiio?y ia nie?auaiea aeai?yineiai caieaaeaaeaiey,
oeaiiinoue aeai?yineeo caiaeue e ia/aeo XX a. aic?inea n 1,25
ie?ae. ?oa. aei 2,5 ie?ae., o. a. oaeaieeanue.

A /anoiii caieaaeaaeaiee auei oa?aeoa?ii i?aiaeaaeaiea
eaoeooiaeee (?acia?ii nauoa 500 aeanyoei) — eo ian/eouaaeinue e ia/aeo
XX a. aei 30 oun. ; a ieo nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue 70 iei. aeanyoei caiee
(44 iei. o aeai?yi e 36 iei. o ia aeai?yi), e ia 1 aeaaeaeueoea
i?eoiaeeeinue a n?aaeiai ii 2333 aeanyoeiu. A oi aea a?aiy ii/oe
noieueei aea (71 iei. aeanyoei) iaoiaeeeinue o 10,5 iei.
e?anoueyineeo aeai?ia, e ia eaaeaeue aeai? i?eoiaeeeinue a
n?aaeiai iaiaa 7 aeanyoei, o. a. iaiueoa iieiaeiu iaiaoiaeeiiai
eiee/anoaa caiee aeey eee iaiaa niiniiai aaaeaiey oicyenoaa.
Iaino?aiea aa?a?iiai aii?ina e ia/aeo XX a. yaeeinue aaaeiaeoae
i?aaeiinueeie ?aaiethoeee 1905—1907 aa., e ia?aaea/a iiiaue/ueeo
caiaeue e?anoueyiai noaea aeaaiui aa o?aaiaaieai.

Ii?aoi?iaiiia iiiaue/uea oicyenoai.

Ii?aoi?iaiiay yiioa oa?aeoa?ecoaony iinoaiaiiui ia?aoiaeii iiiaue/ueaai
oicyenoaa io aa?ueiiie nenoaiu e eaieoaeenoe/aneie. E?iia oiai,
iaiaoiaeeiu auee noa?oiaue eaieoae e iiuo aaaeaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai oicyenoaa, o. a. oi, /ai iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai iiiaueeia ia ?aniieaaaei. E oiio aea a ia?aua
aeanyoeeaoey iinea ?aoi?iu 1861 a. e?anoueyineia oicyenoai aua ia
aiieia auei ioaeaeaii io iiiaue/ueaai: e?anoueyineea e iiiaue/uee
oaiaeuey ia aacaea auee ?aciaaeaaaiu. Iaeicaiaeuea, io?acee io
e?anoueyineiai iaaeaea iaeaieaa oeaiiuo e iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
e?anoueyieia oaiaeee i?eioaeaeaee aai eaeoe a eaaaeo e i?aaeiaio
aa?eio. Inoaaaeenue e iaeioi?ua /a?ou “aiayeiiiie/aneiai
i?eioaeaeaiey”: i?eioaeeoaeueiua ia?u e e?anoueyiai i?e auiieiaiee
onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii 1861 a. iiaeiiinoae a iieueco iiiaueea e
ainoaea?noaa (e?oaiaay ii?oea, oaeaniua iaeacaiey, ioaea/a ca iaaeieiee
a iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou e o. i.), nineiaiay iaiieiii?aaiinoue
e?anoueyi, iaeiiaoe, nio?aiaiea aei ia/aea 80- o. aiaeia eo a?aiaiii
iaycaiiiai iieiaeaiey.

A iiiaue/ueai oicyenoaa a ia?aua aeaa ii?aoi?iaiiuo aeanyoeeaoey
oae i?ioeann ia?aoiaea io oaiaeaeueiuo aai oi?i e eaieoaeenoe/aneei.
Au?aaeaieai oaeie ia?aoiaeiie oi?iu, niaaeeiyaoae /a?ou aa?ueiiie e
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoai aaaeaiey oicyenoaa, yaeyeanue nenoaia
io?aaioie. Nooue aa ninoiyea a ia?aaioea iiiaue/ueae caiee
ie?anoiuie e?anoueyiaie naiei eiaaioa?ai ca acyoua o iiiaueea a
a?aiaeo iaoioiua caiee e ae?oaea oaiaeuey. Eae e i?e e?aiinoiii
i?aaa, e?anoueyiei ia?aaaouaae iiea iiiaueea ca oi, /oi oio
i?aaeinoaaeye aio caieth, iaeiaei yoi aue oaea naiaiaeiue e?anoueyiei,
anooiaaoee a aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n iiiaueeii, o. a. aeaenoaiaaee oaea
?uii/iua oneiaey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii iiiauee, iieuecoynue naiei
oaeoe/anee iiiiiieueiui iieiaeaieai caiaeueiiai nianoaaiieea, iia
aeeeoiaaoue e?anoueyieio ethaua oneiaey, iiyoiio io?aaioi/iay
nenoaia i?eia?aoaea eaaaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Io?aaioee — neaaenoaea iaeicaiaeuey e?anoueyi, ia?aaeaiiuo ?aoi?iie
1861 a., e aeaaeaiey iiiaue/ueeo eaoeooiaeee. Iiiaueeai iniaaiii
auaiaeii auei aanoe oicyenoai iin?aaenoaii naea/e a a?aiaeo iiae
io?aaioee “io?aciuo” (io e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia) caiaeue. “Nia/aea
iiiaueee aua ia iiieiaee cia/aiey io?aceia, — ienae iaaethaeaoaeueiue
A. I. Yiaaeueaa?aeo, — oaia?ue aea cia/aiea io?aceia ana iiieiatho, e
eaaeaeue iieoiaoaeue eiaiey e [aai] a?aiaeaoi?, aeaaea ia oiathuee
ii-?onnee aiai?eoue iaiaoe, i?aaeaea anaai, niio?eo: anoue ee io?acee,
eae iie ?aniieiaeaiu e ianeieueei iie caoaniytho e?anoueyi”.
Iiyoiio a ii?aoi?iaiiia a?aiy iaeaieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
io?aaioi/iay nenoaia aaaeaiey iiiaue/ueaai oicyenoaa iieo/eea oai,
aaea io?acee io e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia ieacaeenue iaeaieaa
cia/eoaeueiuie, e e?anoueyineia oicyenoai eniuouaaei neeueiaeoaa
aeaaeaiea iiiaue/ueeo eaoeooiaeee, a eiae a oeaio?aeueiie /a?iicaiiie
iieina ?innee. E oiio aea e?anoueyineia oicyenoai yoie iieinu a neeo
ia?aie/aiiuo aiciiaeiinoae aeey i?iiuneiauo caiyoee iineei
i?aeiouanoaaiii caieaaeaeue/aneee oa?aeoa?. A ia/a?iicaiiuo
i?iiuoeaiiuo aoaa?ieyo e ia thaa ?innee iiiaueee oaea a ia?aua
aeaa ii?aoi?iaiiuo aeanyoeeaoee ia?aoiaeeee e eaieoaeenoe/aneie
nenoaia aaaeaiey oicyenoaa, n i?eiaiaieai iaaiiiai o?oaea e aieaa
niaa?oaiiie aa?ioaoieee. Iaeaieaa y?eei i?eia?ii oiio neoaeeo
ia?acoeiaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneia oicyenoai oiai aea A. I.
Yiaaeueaa?aeoa, iiae?iaii iienaiee a aai “Ienueiao ec aea?aaie”.

Aio ioiinyueany e 80-i aiaeai XIX a. aeaiiua aeaeiiai yeiiii
noaoenoeea I. O. Aiiaineiai i ?ani?aaeaeaiee eaieoaeenoe/anee,
io?aaioi/iie nenoai oicyenoaa (yoe aeaiiua aeeth/aiu A. E.
Eaieiui a aai eieao “?acaeoea eaieoaeecia a ?innee”):

A 80-a aiaeu XIX a. a oeaeii ii no?aia eaieoaeenoe/aneay nenoaia
aaaeaiey iiiaue/ueaai oicyenoaa oaea i?aiaeaaeaea iaae
io?aaioi/iie. Io?aaioee, auiieiyao, e?anoueyiaie naiei eiaaioa?ai
(io?aaioee ia?aiai aeaea), caiaiyeenue io?aaioeaie, eioi?ua iia
auiieiyoue e iaeiouee e?anoueyiei eiaaioa?ai iiiaueea (io?aaioee
aoi?iai aeaea). Ii?aoi?iaiiay yaiethoeey iiiaue/ueaai oicyenoaa
au?aaeaeanue a ia?aoiaea io io?aaioie ia?aiai aeaea e io?aaioeai
aoi?iai aeaea, a caoai — e e i?eiaiaieth eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
iaeia.

Ianiio?y ia iauoth oaiaeaioeeth caiaiu io?aaioi/iie
nenoaiu eaieoaeenoe/aneie, a e?eceniua aiaeu io?aaioi/iay nenoaia
aic?iaeaeaeanue. Enneaaeiaaoaee ioiaoeee aa aeeao/anoue aieioue aei
ia/aea XX a. Io?aaioi/iay nenoaia iiaea nouanoaiaaoue i?e oneiaee,
anee o?oae caeaaaeaiiiai e?anoueyieia iaoiaeeeny iiiaueeo aeaoaaea,
/ai o?oae aieueiiiaaiiiai ?aaioieea. Iia eiina?ae?iaaea ieceee
o?iaaiue aa?ioaoieee e ionoaeua i?eaiu aaaeaiey oicyenoaa.
Iiyoiio iaecaaaeiui neaaenoaeai io?aaioi/iie nenoaiu yaeyeanue
ieceay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea: o?iaeaeiinoue a iiiaue/ueeo
oicyenoaao i?eiaiyaoeo io?aaioi/ioth nenoaio, auea ieaea, /ai
aeaaea ia e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeueiuo caieyo.

Aeaeaei ia ana iiiaueee iiaee ia?ano?ieoue naia oicyenoai ia
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ia/aeao. Iiiaea ec ieo eeeaeaee?iaaee naia
oicyenoai, caeeaaeuaaee e ia?acaeeaaeuaaee naie eiaiey a
e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo. Eiee/anoai caeiaeaiiie iiiaue/ueae caiee
auno?i ?inei. E 1870 a. iiiaueeaie auei caeiaeaii 2,1 iei. aeanyoei
caiee, a noiia aeieaa ninoaaeea 92 iei. ?oa. E 1880 a. a caeiaa auei
12,5 iei. aeanyoei aeai?yineeo caiaeue, a aeiea aeai?yi e?aaeeoiui
o/?aaeaeaieyi ninoaaee 448 iei. ?oa. E 1895 a. aeai?yia caeiaeeee oaea
37,5 iei. aeanyoei (aieaa iieiaeiu iaoiaeeaoeony e oiio a?aiaie
o ieo caiaeue), a noiia eo aeieaia aeinoeaea 1029 iei. ?oa.
Ia?iiiua n?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua aeai?yiaie ca n/ao aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae n
e?anoueyi, i?iaeaaee e caeiaa eiaiee, o?aoeeenue aieueoae /anoueth
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueii. Caeiaeaiiua eiaiey oee n iieioea. Anee a 1886 a.
ca aeieae auei i?iaeaii 166 aeai?yineeo eiaiee, oi a 1893 a. — 2237.
?aci?yeinue e eeeaeaee?iaaei naia oicyenoai iaeeiiiianoiia
Aeai?yinoai, eioi?ia ia iiaei i?eniiniaeoueny e iiaui
oneiaeyi eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?uiea. Onoie/eaaa ieacaeenue eaoeooiaeee.

Iiaua oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee naeueneiai oicyenoaa. ?ino oi?aiaiai
caieaaeaeey.

Noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua ca ni?ieaeaoea iinea ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa
iieacuaatho caiaoiue ?ino naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a
?innee. N na?aaeeiu 60-o aei eiioea 90-o aiaeia XIX a. iinaau oeaaia e
ea?oioaey aic?inee a 1,5 ?aca, a /enoua nai?u (ca au/aoii ia naiaia) —
aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca. Iniaaiii cia/eoaeai aue ?ino iinaaia e
nai?ia ea?oioaey: aai iinaau aic?inee a 3,5 ?aca, a /enoua nai?u a 5
?ac.

Iaeiaei a ?an/aoa ia iaeio aeooo ianaeaiey i?e?ino aue noieue
cia/eoaeai.

Anee a ia/aea 60-o aiaeia ia 1 aeooo i?eoiaeeeinue 2,21 /aoaa?oe
(i?eia?ii 20 ioaeia) /enoiai nai?a oeaaia, oi eiioeo 90-o — 2,81
/aoaa?oe (26 ioaeia), o. a. ia 27% aieueoa. Eeoue /enoua nai?u
ea?oioaey aic?inee a ?an/aoa ia iaeio aeooo a 3 ?aca (n 0,27 aei
0,87 /aoaa?oe). N?aaee ca?iiauo oaeaeueiue aan ?aee ninoaaeye 44%,
ioaieoeu — 14,2%, iana — 23,1%, y/iaiy — 6,9%, a?a/eoa – 5,1% e i?i/eo
y?iauo — 6,7%.

?ino naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e a ii?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae
i?iaeieaeae iineoue i?aeiouanoaaiii yenoaineaiue oa?aeoa?, o. a.
i?ienoiaeee a iniiaiii ca n/ao ?anoe?aiey iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae. I?e
yoii ii aue iniaaiii cia/eoaeai a iniiaiuo oeaaii?iecaiaeyueo
?aaeiiao — a aoaa?ieyo /a?iicaiiiai oeaio?a, N?aaeiaai Iiaieaeuey,
Oe?aeiu e a thaeiie noaiiie iieina. A oeaio?aeueii-i?iiuoeaiiuo
aoaa?ieyo, iaiai?io, iinaau ca?iiauo nie?auaeenue, ii
aic?anoaee iinaau ea?oioaey e ae?oaeo oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo?. A
ia?aua aeaa aeanyoeeaoey iinea ?aoi?iu 1861 a. nouanoaaiii
nie?aoeeenue iinaau ia iiiaue/ueeo iieyo, ii a 80—90-a aiaeu
ioia/aii eo aic?anoaiea, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i eaieoaeenoe/aneie
ia?ano?ieea iiiaue/ueaai oicyenoaa. Oai ia iaiaa, e eiioeo XIXa.
o?e /aoaa?oe iinaaia e nai?ia oeaaia i?eoiaeeeenue ia
e?anoueyineea oicyenoaa. Iaeiaei oiaa?iinoue iiiaue/ueaai oeaaa auea
nouanoaaiii auoa e?anoueyineiai.

Iniiaiay /a?oa ii?aoi?iaiiiai ?acaeoey naeueneiai oicyenoaa ninoiyea a
oii, /oi iii i?eieiaei ana aieaa oi?aiaue, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee
oa?aeoa?. Niaea?aeaieai e iieacaoaeai yoiai i?ioeanna yaeyeenue:
ai-ia?auo (e aeaaiui ia?acii), i?aa?auaiea caieaaeaeey a oiaa?iia
i?iecaiaenoai, i?e yoii oiaa?ii noaiiaeeenue ia oieueei i?iaeoeoeey
caieaaeaeey, ii e naia caiey (iniiaiia n?aaenoai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa) e ?aai/ay neea; ai-aoi?uo,
/aoeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea e oaeoaeaiea iaiaoeaoaeny aua a aei?aoi?iaiioth
yiioo oicyenoaaiiie niaoeeaeecaoeee ?aeiiia no?aiu. Ii?aaeaeeeenue
?aaeiiu, niaoeeaeece?iaaaoeany ia i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?iiai ca?ia,
eueia, iyna e iieiea, naoa?iie naaeeu, aeiia?aaea e i?. I?e oi?aiaii
caieaaeaeee auaeaeyeny aeaaiue ?uii/iue i?iaeoeo a aeaiiii ?aaeiia,
inoaeueiua io?anee naeueneiai oicyenoaa a iai iiae/eiyeenue eee
i?eniinaaeeaaeenue e i?iecaiaenoao yoiai i?iaeoeoa.

Aaaeiaeoeie oaeoi?aie, iaoneiaeeaaaoeie ?ino oi?aia caieaaeaeey, auee:

1) ?ino aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai ?uiea; 2) oaaee/aiea
/eneaiiinoe iacaieaaeaeue/aneiai ianaeaiey no?aiu a nayce
?inoii ai?iaeia, i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa e oi?aiaee; 3)
eioaineaiia no?ieoaeuenoai aeaeaciuo aei?ia, naycaaoeo
caieaaeaeue/aneea ?aaeiiu n i?iiuoeaiiuie oeaio?aie, ii?neeie e ?a/iuie
ii?oaie.

A naith i/a?aaeue oaeoaeaiea niaoeeaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
?aeiiia ieacuaaei aicaeaenoaea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?uiea: iii oneeeaaei iaiai iaaeaeo ?aaeiiaie,
i?aaeuyaeyy ni?in e ia i?aaeiaou naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, eai niaoeeaeecaoeey ia eaeii-eeai iaeiii oiaa?iii
i?iaeoeoa aucuaaea ni?in ia ae?oaea aeaeu naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

A ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee ii?aaeaeeeenue neaaeothuea
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ?aaeiiu oi?aiaiai caieaaeaeey:
oeaio?aeueii-/a?iicaiiua, Iiaieaeuea e Caaieaeuea i?aa?aoeeenue a
iniiaiua oeaio?u oi?aiaiai ca?iiaiai oicyenoaa; naaa?iua e
oeaio?aeueii-i?iiuoeaiiua aoaa?iee noaee ?aeiiaie oi?aiaiai
eueiiaiaenoaa e iyniiiei/iiai oicyenoaa; aeey i?eaaeoeeneeo e
caiaaeiuo aoaa?iee ?innee oa?aeoa?ii auei auniei?acaeoia
aeeaioiiaiaenoai. ?aeiiu oi?aiaiai ca?iiaiaenoaa, naaeeiaiaenoaa,
oaaaeiaiaenoaa, aeiia?aaea?noaa aicieeee ia

Oe?aeia, a Aanna?aaee, a Iiai?innee, a Noaiiii I?aaeeaaeacuea; aie?oa
e?oiiuo ai?iaeia e i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia neiaeeeinue i?iiuoeaiiia
iai?iaeie/anoai.

A 80—90-o aiaeao XIX a. i?ienoiaeeo ia?aiauaiea aeaaiuo i/aaia ca?iiaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ec aioo?aiieo aoaa?iee n iiiaue/ueei
caieaaeaaeaieai e e?anoueyineei iaeicaiaeueai a eioaineaii canaeyaiua
thaeiua e ainoi/iua ie?aeiu Aa?iiaeneie ?innee n eo neaai
inaiaiiuie /a?iicaiiuie caieyie. Yoiio iniaaiii niinianoaiaaei
i?iaaaeaiea a oeacaiiua ?aeiiu aeaeaciuo aei?ia, nicaeaaoeo
aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aeaeaeaiey ianaeaiey e nauoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ia thaa ?innee aicieeee
e?oiiua eaieoaeenoe/aneea yeiiiiee, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo ian/eouaaea
ouny/e e aeanyoee ouny/ aeanyoei iinaaiie ieiuaaee. A yoeo oicyenoaao
oe?iei i?eiaiyeny iaaiiue o?oae e ?acee/iay naeueneioicyenoaaiiay
oaoieea — nayeee, aeiaeee, naiieineeee, ia?iaua iieioeeee.

?ino oi?aiaiai caieaaeaeey i?aaeuyaeye ni?in ia oeo/oaiiua
i?oaeey ia?aaioee ii/au, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu e iaaiiue
o?oae. Eiee/anoai iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, ooiaeeaoeo ia naciiiua
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ?aaiou, aic?inei n 60-o ii 90-a aiaeu XIX a. n
700 oun. aei 3,6 iei. /aeiaae. Iie iai?aaeyeenue, aeaaiui ia?acii, a
thaeiua e ainoi/iua aoaa?iee Aa?iiaeneie ?innee, a oaeaea a
I?eaaeoeeo. Iniiaiuie ?aeiiaie auoiaea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
?aai/eo yaeyeenue oeaio?aeueii-/a?iicaiiua aoaa?iee e Oe?aeia, aaea
iaeaieaa ino?uie auee iaeicaiaeuea e aa?a?iia ia?aianaeaiea.

I?e ?inoa oi?aiaiai caieaaeaeey nio?aiyeenue iieoiaoo?aeueiua
e iaoo?aeueiua aai oi?iu, iniaaiii a e?anoueyineii oicyenoaa. A iai,
eae e i?aaeaea, ainiiaenoaiaaei o?aaeeoeeiiiia o?aoiieuea, a
“oaaaeii-eaniie ciia i?iaeieaeaea i?aeoeeiaaoueny iiaena/iay nenoaia
caieaaeaeey, a ia thaa no?aiu — ia?aeia. Iiiaiiieueiue naaiiai?io,
oeo/oaiiua i?oaeey aeey ia?aaioee ii/au, aei?iaea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu i?eiaiyee iiiaueee e aiaaoua e?anoueyia.
Nioa e aea?aayiiay ai?iia i?e aniaoea e ?uoeaiee ii/au, na?i e eina
i?e oai?ea oeaaia, oeai aeey iieioueau, eiiaoa e ?aoaoi aeey
i/enoee ca?ia inoaaaeenue iniiaiuie i?oaeeyie a
e?anoueyineii oicyenoaa.

Iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee.

Oa?aeoa? e iai?aaeaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ii?aoi?iaiiie
?innee auee, aaconeiaii, eaieoaeenoe/aneeie. Iaeiaei oaiiu e noaiaiue
yoiai ?acaeoey a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e a ?aciuo
?aaeiiao no?aiu auee aeaeaei ia iaeeiaeiauie. Auno?aa e
eioaineaiaa eaieoaeeci ?acaeaaeny a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaaeeaiiaa — a
naeueneii oicyenoaa, a eioi?ii aieioue aei 1917 a. (e aeaaea a 20-o
aiaeao — a ia?eiae iyia) i?iaeieaeaee nio?aiyoueny aua
aeieaieoaeenoe/aneea e aeaaea iao?ea?oaeueii-iaoo?aeueiua oi?iu. Iaeiaei
e a i?iiuoeaiiie noa?a iiaeii aiai?eoue i iiaaaea eaieoaeecia
eeoue i?eiaieoaeueii e e?oiiie e n?aaeiae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Nio?aiyeanue (e aeaaea iieo/aea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea) aieueoay
noa?a ?acee/iuo oi?i aeieaieoaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – aeiiaoieo
i?iiuneia, ?aianea, iaeeioiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia yaeyynue aua
eaieoaeenoe/aneeie, iie, oai ia iaiaa, nicaeaaaee oe?ieoth aaco aeey
?acaeoey eaieoaeecia. Eaieoaeenoe/aneia ?acaeoea auno?aa i?ioiaeeei a
oeaio?a no?aiu, neaaaa ia aa ie?aeiao. Aeey

ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee oa?aeoa?ii auei ?acaeoea eaieoaeecia aoe?ue,
o.a. ?ani?ino?aiaiea aai ia iiaua, aua ia inaiaiiua oa??eoi?ee.
Yeiiiieea ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee auea i?aaenoaaeaia ia oieueei
eaieoaeeciii. Ae i?enoua auea iiiaioeeaaeiinoue – ninouanoaiaaiea
ia?yaeo n eaieoaeeciii iaeeioiaa?iiai e iao?ea?oaeueii –
iaoo?aeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeieaia nouanoaiaaiea a ?innee
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa e iacaaa?oaiiinoue ?aoi?i 60-70-O aiaeia O1O a.
iaoneiaeee nio?aiaiea iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?aaeeoeia noa?eiu a
yeiiiieea, iieeoe/aneii no?ia, nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaieyo Ainiiaenoai
iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey a ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee, yaeyaoaainy aeaaiui
e?aiinoie/aneei ia?aaeeoeii, e nineiaiie iaiieiii?aaiinoe
e?anoueyi nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eaaei aiciiaeiinoe eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
?acaeoey ii?aoi?iaiiie aea?aaie.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaee e oaeea iniaaiiinoe yeiiiieee e nioeeaeueiuo
ioiioaiee a ?innee, eae aeoeaiia ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a
yeiiiieeo e neaaia ?acaeoea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Aiooeoaeueiia
ainoaea?noaaiiia oicyenoai a aeaea eacaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aaieia,
aeaeaciuo aei?ia, ia?iiiue iannea ?aciiai ?iaea eacaiiuo oaiaeee e o.
ae. eniieueciaaeenue naiiaea?aeaaeai aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeai?yinoaa
(iooai eueaioiuo nnoae), a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeyee oe?ieea
iaoa?eaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey aeeyiey ia ao?aeoaceth. A?iiaaeiay
?ieue ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea no?aiu e aai
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a aa eaieoaeenoe/aneii ?acaeoee aeaaaee
ia?iaeieeai iniiaaiea aeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi eaieoaeeci a
?innee eneeth/eoaeueii “ianaaeaeaaony naa?oo“, o.a.
naiiaea?aeaaeai. Iaeuecy io?eoeaoue yoiai oaeoa, ii iaaa?ii
i?eaeaaaoue aio eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea. Eaieoaeeci a ?innee
?acaeaaeny “nieco” i?e iiaeaea?aeea aai “naa?oo”.

A ?innee /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth auea i?aaenoaaeaia
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeai?yineei, ii nouanoao oaiaeaeueiui,
caieaaeaaeaieai. Oioy iia e auea cia/eoaeueii iiaei?aaia
ii?aoi?iaiiuie ?uii/iuie i?ioeannaie, i eioi?uo aiai?eeinue auoa,
ii nio?aiyea naie ainiiaenoaothuea iiceoeee a caieaaeaaeaiee
aieioue aei 1917 a. Ao?aeoaciay caiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue oieueei
ia/eiaea neeaaeuaaoueny e aua ia iieo/eea oe?ieiai ?acaeoey. Caiaoei,
/oi ia anyeoth caiaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue iiaeii n/eoaoue
ao?aeoaciie, a eeoue oo ia eioi?ie aaaeaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneia,
eaieoaeenoe/aneia oicyenoai. Oaeiaie iaeuecy n/eoaoue e i?eia?aoaiiua
iieoieie iaueiaie, oiaa?euanoaaie eee aeaaea ioaeaeueiuie
e?anoueyiaie iaaieueoea o/anoee caiee aeey «i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo»
oeaeae, eae aeiaaaeaiea e naiaio iaaeaeo.

Aneaaenoaea iaaeinoaoi/iiai ?acaeoey a ?innee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe
auei neaai ?acaeoi “o?aouea nineiaea”. Iaeiaei aeaenoaiaae e
ae?oaie oaeoi? — aioenianoaaiie/aneee iaioaeeoao oe?ieeo ia?iaeiuo
iann, iaoaaaeaiea e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaeanue eae
“iaa?aaeaiiia aeia?i”. Yoo /a?oo a naia a?aiy oiiei iiaeiaoee I. A.
Aa?aeyaa. “?onneiio ia?iaeo, — ienae ii, — anaaaea auee /oaeaeu
?eineea iiiyoey i nianoaaiiinoe. Aaniethoiue oa?aeoa? /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe anaaaea io?eoeaeny”.

Caeeth/aiea

Ianiio?y ia a?aaeoaeueneee aeey e?anoueyi oa?aeoa? ?aoi?iu 1861 a.,
cia/aiea aa aeey aeaeueiaeoaai yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai
?acaeoey no?aiu auei aaeeei. ?aoi?ia yaeeanue ia?aeiiiui
iiiaioii, “a?aiueth” ioaeaeyaoae oaiaeaeueioth yiioo io
eaieoaeenoe/aneie. Oaeie a?iiaaeiue nioeeaeueiue aeo, eae ioiaia
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, ia iia i?ieoe aanneaaeii aeey anaai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaiecia, ca noieaoey i?eaueoaai e
e?aiinoiiio i?aao. Cao?iioa e?aaoaieueiue eaiaiue oaiaeaeueiie
eiia?ee, iaiaoiaeeii auei iaiyoue e ae?oaea ianouea
eiino?oeoeee nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai no?iy: i?aai ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey, iieeoeee, noaea e a?iee.

E?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia, oaeei ia?acii, iaecaaaeii aaea e
ae?oaei i?aia?aciaaieyi.

?acoeueoaou ?aoi?iu oa?aeoa?ecothony auno?ui ?inoii aa?a?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, oaaee/aieai aieinoe aioo?aiiaai ?uiea, aic?anoaieai
yenii?oa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, i?e/ai oi?aiaue aaeain
?innee i?eia?aoae ana aieaa aeoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Aaeiaie aeioiae anaai
naeueneiai oicyenoaa ninoaaee a 1913 aiaeo 52,6% io iauaai. Aeioiae
anaai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa aeaaiaea?y oaaee/aieth noieiinoe, nicaeaiiie
a naeueneii oicyenoaa, aic?in a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao n 1900 ii 1913 aiaeu
ia 33,8%.

Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey aeaeia aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa ii ?aeiiai i?eaaea e
?inoo oiaa?iinoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa. O?e /aoaa?oe anaai
ia?a?aaioaiiiai eiaeono?eae nu?uey iinooiaei io naeueneiai oicyenoaa.
Oiaa?iiai?io naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee oaaee/eeny ca ia?eiae
?aoi?iu ia 46%.

Aua aieueoa, ia 61% ii n?aaiaieth n 1901-1905 aiaeaie, aic?in a
i?aaeaiaiiua aiaeu yenii?o naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. ?inney
auea e?oiiaeoei i?iecaiaeeoaeai e yenii?oa?ii oeaaa e eueia, ?yaea
i?iaeoeoia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Oae, a 1910 aiaeo yenii?o ?inneeneie
ioaieoeu ninoaaee 36,4% iauaai ie?iaiai yenii?oa.

Iaeiaei ia auee ?aoaiu i?iaeaiu aieiaea e aa?a?iiai ia?aianaeaiey.
No?aia ii i?aaeiaio no?aaeaea io oaoie/aneie, yeiiiie/aneie e
eoeueoo?iie ionoaeinoe. Oae a NOA a n?aaeiai ia oa?io i?eoiaeeeinue
iniiaiiai eaieoaea a ?acia?a 3900 ?oaeae, a a aa?iiaeneie ?innee
iniiaiie eaieoae n?aaeiaai e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa aaeaa aeinoeaae 900
?oaeae. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae ia aeooo naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai ianaeaiey
a ?innee ninoaaeye i?eia?ii 52 ?oaey a aiae, a a NOA – 262 ?oaey.

Oaiiu ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa auee
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeeaiiuie. A oi a?aiy eae a ?innee a 1913 aiaeo iieo/aee
55 ioaeia oeaaa n iaeiie aeanyoeiu, a NOA iieo/aee 68, ai O?aioeee – 89,
a a Aaeueaee – 168 ioaeia. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino i?ienoiaeee ia ia iniiaa
eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, a ca n/ao iiauoaiey eioaineaiinoe ?o/iiai
e?anoueyineiai o?oaea.

?yae aiaoieo ianoiyoaeuenoa (nia?oue Noieuieia, ia/aei aieiu) i?a?aaee
noieuieineoth ?aoi?io.

Anaai 8 eao i?iaiaeeeanue aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia, a n ia/aeii aieiu iia auea
ineiaeiaia – e, eae ieacaeinue, iaanaaaea. Noieuiei i?inee aeey iieiiai
?aoi?ie?iaaiey 20 eao iieiy, ii yoe 8 eao auee aeaeaei ia niieieiuie.
Aaaaeaiea /anoiie iiaeai?iie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth aianoi iaueiiie
oaeaeinue aaanoe oieueei o /aoaa?oe iaueiieeia. Ia?anaeaiea ia ie?aeiu
oae aea ia oaeaeinue i?aaieciaaoue a oaeeo ?acia?ao, eioi?ua niiaee au
nouanoaaiii iiaeeyoue ia eeeaeaeaoeeth caiaeueiie oaniiou a oeaio?a.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Caeii/eianeee I.A. Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa a ?innee. – I., 1968.

2. Aoaaiia A.E., Cu?yiia I.I. Enoi?ey ?innee eiiaoe XVII – XIX a. –
I., 1997.

3. O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee NNN?,1861-1917: O/aa. Iiniaea. — I.:1990.

4. Enoi?ey ?innee n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX aaea.
Eo?n eaeoeee. Iiae ?aae. i?io. A. A. Ee/iaia. Aeaoa?eiao?a:
O?ae.ain.oaoi.oi-o. 1994

5. Eeth/aaneee A. I. ?onneay enoi?ey. Iieiue eo?n eaeoeee a
3ei.Ei.3.Ia?aecaeaiea – I.: Iuneue, 1997.

6. Iooea?aa N. A. Iaci? ?onneie enoi?ee. – Noaa?iiieue: Eaaeacneee
e?ae,1993.

7. Ieaoiiia N. O. Eaeoeee ii ?onneie enoi?ee. – Iao?icaaiaene: AI
«Oieeoi»,1996.

8. Enoi?ey ?innee n ae?aaieo a?aiai aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu O1O a. Iiae
?aae.A.A.Eeiaia.Aeaoa?eiao?a,1994.

9.Enaaa E.A. Enoi?ey Ioa/anoaa: O/aaiia iiniaea. – I.: «TH?enou», 1987.

10. Yaeaeueiai I. ?aaiethoeey naa?oo – I., 1989.

11. A?oaiia A.A. Enoi?ey NNN?. 1861 – 1917a. ?aae. I., 1989.

12. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee A.E. Eaieia – I., 1975.

13. “Yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee” A.I.,
I.,1984.

14. Aioeiia A.A., *a?iooa E. Aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea oea?ecia n na?aaeeiu
50-O aei ia/aea 80-o a.a., 1987a.

15.E. A. Ieeia, I. I. Cu?yiia, A. I. Aioaiia. Enoi?ey ?inney n ia/aea
XVII aei eiioea XIX aaea. – I.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai “ANO”, 1996.

16.Naoa?ia A. I. Aeaenaiae? II: ?inneeneea naiiaea?aeoeu (1801-1917).
I., 1993

17.Naoa?ia A. I. Enoi?ey ?innee n ia/aea XVIII aei eiioea XIX aaea.
I.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai “ANO”, 1996.

18.A?aiy iiainoae:N9, 24 yiaa?y 2005.

19.Eiia?naio-Aeaiueae io 12.12.2005.

20. «Aaiee? Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa»N4, aeaeaa?ue 2005.

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