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EI?Ass A IA?EIAe ?AIIAAI N?AAeIAAAEIAUess

E????? 2010.

IEAI

A?????? ????? ???? e ?????? ???????o ????? Ei??, Iy?a e N??

A??a ??o ????? ??????e. Eo ?i??ey e ??u n E??i e ss???

N????-y?????? ???? E?? ??a ?????y ??iu ?ae ???th ?????a N??

E???ay ?e??a ???i ??????y

N??e ?????

AICIEEIIAAIEA EEANNIAIAI IAUANOAA E OI?IE?IAAIEA ?AIIAOAIAeAEUeIUO
AINOAeA?NOA EIAO??, IYE*A E NEEEA

A??????a ???y E????i ?????a (?????a ??u, ?????? ??????i e ????i ??,
?y??? n ???? ????o ????-?e????? ?i — io ??????? ? th? ? ????o e ???? ?
???, — ????y?? ?y ?iy?y ?????i, ??? ??? e ???, a ??a ?????) ???a ?????
nth? ???? ?e n ????? ????, ?e e n ??????o ????, iiy?? ? ?????? y?????
??? ????? ??? ????? ?ey?a ???e ???i-?????a e ??????a y???u. O? ? ???
???a ??? ????? ??? ??ey? E???? ????? e ???ath?a ??? TH?? I????e (th??
?a?? ?????? N??i-A????i E?ay).

?????a ????? – ???? ????e e ?????a ????? ???? a E??, ?e e ??th?, ?? ?y??
n ???n?i a ???? ???????? ?e. I? i???e ???e ??? n ?????i ???? i??e, ?oy e
??a ?y??ey ??? ??? ??i ????y?? ?c ????ai ??a e ??i ?a ? ????? ?i?i ???ey
???? ??ey.

A??n i ???e ??????y ??? ????? a E?? e ? ????i-y?????? ???? ???ny a
?????? ??a ??????i. Ia ????, ?????? ? a E?? ????????y ???ey, e ?? — ?, ?
??a. I???? ???? ???u ???ue ??????? ?????a ?????????.

A ????? ?ath?y ????y i ???o ????ey ????o ??? ?e i???? ??i ? ????? E????i
??i???. Ia ??? ?? ???a ???, ?ye, ??, a th?oth ??ue (e th? ? ?. O??i)
??ey? ???a ?i, ????ey??ny ? ?e A??: ??i (?e ??? ?i), ???, ???. I????
??ino?? ????i ???? ????, ????? ???, ??? ??? e ???? ?????, ? ???i ?iy??
?? ?????. Nay? ?a ???? ?????y????a ???? — ?e ????? «iy? ???» (??i, y/??,
??, ?n e ???th). Aeey ??aeu ????y? ??? e ???? ??e.

????a ???????? ?e ?a ???i?? ?????a ????? ????e, ? y?o ???n ?e ??????.
E???????? ?????ue ???a ? ??? a ???e e???, ??ey?? ???i ?. A???i (ss?). Ec
??u ????? ??ey?? ???y ??ue, ?????y ??? ?ae ???????. Ec ??e ??u ?a ????a
??ey (???? ??y), ? ??o ???eyo ????a ???? oy?u e ????? ? ?????a ?????ey,
?????? ??????a ?y ???y ??????o ?? ??? ???e. O?? ???a, ?e ?? e ?ye, ??? a
?????ue ? ??? e ?a?? ? ?? ???, ???i, ??ey? e ??e, ???ey? ???, ??????y
???e?? ??????? ????? ??????. A ? ??y e? ??ue ?????ue ? ?? ???e ???,
????ue a ?ee e ??o, ???? ?ay ???i e ????i, ?y??a ????e, ??? ??y ??u, ???
e ??? n ???? ????? ??? ???ey? ?? ??n y??????? — ??? ??u.

Ia th? ???n ?????y ????? ????, ???, ?????. O ??? ?i, ??????o a ??e ????e
78 ??i???? ??i, ????o a ????i ???e? ??????e, ???y?? ?????a ???o?.

I???i, ?i o ??? ??? ????ue ????o??ay ?????y. A??e ?a?? ??ue a ???? ??
(??ey) ????ny ? ??a ???th??ny ?????a, a ???y ?????ey ?????? a ???-???oth
??ue, ????ey?othny a E??? ? 12 ??y?a, ????????o ?????o ????th a ??????e.
Ec ????o ?o??? ???? ??a i ???? ???a ?y ??? ???e ??????e: ? ????i
???????ue ????????a ????? o?????, a a ??? ????y ??a ?ae?o ??o ????i ??
????? a ?aa. I a??? ?????y ?????a E??? ???i ??ey o ??????? i?, ? ????,
?i a ??a IV e a V a. E??? ?? ?a ???i ??????, ????? ???oth ????eth ??
?a??e ??e E????i ?????a e ???? ????? Ey????i ?????a.

Ia th? E????i ?????a ?????a ?????a ??????? ??e??? ??a ????e e ???? ????e
e ???? (iy?a, ??, ?y e ?.) ??o ???e. A?????y ?????o ??? ????? ????ue n
???e ??ueth ??i-?????? a ?? ?????th?e ??n. I??a iy?a a III—IV ?. ????
???ea ??? e ???a. A?????y iy?a ?c?? ???? ???a ?????i a th?-??ae?e ??e
E??, a ???yo ?e O?-?i e E??i.

A V—VI ?. n ?????i ????? – ???? ????e ??e ??? th?-????e /?? ?????a
????ue ?????i N??. ss?? ?i ??a ??? N?i, ?e N??ue (????ay ??i ??????
E???), ????? ?????ay ????? ?ae ????e ???? ?. I????. A ii?i ?????a ?e
???i ???????e ???i a???????? ???y, ??? ??? ???o ????? n ??????? ? ???.
A?o???i N?? ????i ?? ?thc ??i eay ? ???i th? e ????? i. O?i (?????e
O???).

O?? ????, e VI a. ?????? ?e ?????a — E???, Iy?a e N??, ??o ???? ??????
?????ay ??? ? ?????? ? E???? ?????a.

A??n i ????a ????i-y?????? ????e a y?o ?????? ??? ??y ?e ????i ????e e
??? a ????e ??????e, O?y ????a e???? ???? ??atho y? ?e ?????a ?????????,
?????i ? ???tho, ?i ????y ? ????th ?? ????????? ??? a ?????? ????yo, ?e
?? a ??i ?????. C????yny ???????y ?????y ???i ??? ????a ?e ???ay ??,
?????ay ?i???th ??????ue ? ??th e y?????th ????? ???y??a ?????th?i ???i
???????a-????. Oe?? ???y??a ??iu a ???? ????o ????o?-?????y ?y?? ??
???ue ??? e ???y? ????? (???? ???a e ????: ? ??????o ???a, ??a, ????e e
o. ae.) a ??? ?????a, ?a??i ????i ??????i ??e, ?e ????o ????-?????, ??a
????a ? ???a ?????? ??? ???? «???? ???» ?e ?? ?????y ? ?????a. E a E???,
e a ?????a N?? ??? ???????? ???a «??e??», ??ue ?????y ?y ???i ?????.

??u, ???, ? ??? ?? a ??????. O????i ??????a a ?e???? ??y ????a ? ????i
???iey. O?, a ??? VI a. a ?????a N?? ?e ???i ???, ? ???? ?e ?o??? ??ey
???e ? 10 ??a. Eth???i e ????a ???? i ?i, ?i a 558 a. ??a ????y ??i ?y
????? ?????? N???, ????? a ???o 200 ???o, ? ????e ? a ??a, a ???? «?
?eth» a ???? ???o ?????? e ?i ???? ????a eth?e.

Aeey ????ey ??? a????a ??y?e ??n ?????e ? ?????i E?ay ? ??? ??o ???????e
?????e, ? e ????th. I???eyi ????o ????? ??? ?????? ??????i n ?i ?????i i
???????i ?????e ???o ???i e ??a?? — ??eth. I????a ????? ?y ???????e ???
?????a a ?????o ??????o ???o ????yo ?????a; ? ???e ????y ???ey?? ?
??????e ??? ?????? ????y.

Ec E?ay ??? a ????a ????o? e ???i, ????e a??th ?? a ?????? ?????i ??y.
A??? n ?i ????e ?a????e e ????? ?cy??? ????? ?? ???i ?th??? a?????e a
??? ? ????? e ???? ?????a ??. I??a a????a ??? ?y??? a E??? a 372 a., ?e
???? n ??e ????ea ??u e ?????y ??. A?c I??y? ????e ?a ????? ??n??y.

A 384 a. ? ???a ??ey Iy?a a ?i ???o ???e ????? ??? ? TH??i E?ay. I????
Iy?a, ???i ????oy ???????th ????, ????? ?????o ???a ????a a???y.

A ?????i N?? ???i ??? ? E??? e i??? ???????a n ??? ???? VI a., ??a a
???? ?????y ???n ????ey ???????e ?????e. E y?? ???e ????ue N?? ??ye
??????? ? E?ay ??e ?? (??ey ?e ?ycy), ?? ?????i ???????? ???a ??? ? ???e
e ??u, ?? a ???? ????? ?????ue ??????e ????e ??????. N??? ?????a — E??i
(?????e E???) — ?????? a ???e ??ae. Aeey ??ey?? ?y? ? ? ??e ??y? ??? ?ea
?????? ??? ???? ???e ? ???o ???o e ????e ia ????o ??? ?oyo.

AI?UeAA IAAEAeO EI?AENEEIE AINOAeA?NOAAIE. EO IOIIOAIEss E AIEIU N
EEOAAI E ssIIIEAE

A? ?e ?????a ??i ???e ??o ??e ?e n ??????e, ??ae???ny ? ????e ?????a.

A????? E??? ?????? ???? ????y ??e ????o ????. A 245 a., a ??? ?????ey a
E??, ??ea N???? Aye ????ue a E??? e ????e ???o, a ????th E?o? ???? ??? a
???u ????? ???e ??. A ?th? n eth?? ?? ???i E??? ???ue ???? ????a e ???ue
?????. A IV a. E??? ????? ????oth e oy??th ??? n ny????e, ?????e ?????i
ss? a N???i E??. A 342 a. ????ny a E??? ny????a ??? ??a?? ???o e ??e
?????? ????i ?? E????. E? ???tho ????, ????ue ny???? Iothi O?i ? ???
???? a ?? ?iueth ??, ? e ?? ?? ?i ?? ? ???, ??u ???ue ??????a E????.
Iothi O?i ???? ??a «?????e ??? ????e, ???o??y a ???? ????, ???? ??? 50
?n. ?o ??? ??, ?? ?i?u e, ???? ???? O??i (???o E??? — ? ?. A??. — I.
I.), ???ny a i.???e ??». I?? y?? E???i ?e ???? ???? ?ay ???? ny?????
Iothi O??. I??i ????? ?????? e ???e ?? ????i ?n???? E??? ?? ??? ny????e
????. A ????? ???e a??u ???ue ????ue ny???? e ?iy? ?th ????eth Ey????i
?????a, a ??i e ??? ????o ???a ? E???? ????i?. O?, a ??a IV — ??? V a. a
i???? ?? E??y?i ????ey E??? ?????i ???a.

?????a ????? E??? a th?? ????i? (???a ?? ????? a I??yi) ???i e ???i
?????eyi n ?????? Iy?a. A ??a ??? ?????o Iy?a ???? ?????y.

I?? ????? ??????e e E??i ?????ue ??a ????? e y?????? ?y?. A ??? n ????e
??n?y? E?ay ????a ?????a ????ue ?????? ?y? n th?u? ???ey?; ? TH??i E?ay
?e ?????? ?????a e ?????? ??, a ????e ????? ????? ??????a e ??o???? ???,
???a ?????e a ?????e ???????o ????? e ? ???i? ??e ????. E???? ?????a
???i ????? ???? ???? – ??????a ? E?ay. A E?? ?????iy?? ?oa??y ????? e
??????. I???yy ???a e ?y ???? ???a ? ???i y?? e ???ey ?????e e????u.

Ii-???o ?????? ????y ????o ????? n y???e, ???a ????? ia ??a ??? ???e
????ey ????ii – ????i ??y. N??? ???? i???ey n ?? ?????? ?e ????? ?y??
?????a, ?e ?????y th?? ?????o (?e ?????) ???, ??ey?? ??i a ??? ???e ?.
I????. I? ????e y??? ???, ???, ???i, ??e e ??i. A???i, ? ?y?? ??a ????e
????e ????y y??? (??a E?a), ???a ?e ????? ????? a ???a ?? ?y ???? ??iy,
????o ?y?? ??? ????? ?????? ? ??? ?y ??? ??? ??????ny ? ????o ?????a
N??. Ii y? ??? y??? ???ee ??????? ??? ? ???u ?????a N??, ???a a ?th? i
E??? ? ??? ????i y???; ? e ??????? ????iy? e ??i ???eyi ??e eay?? ??i,
?? ?e ? ai?e ????th a ??? ?????a N?? (? ??? ???? VI a.). Ii ??? a ?? y?e
??? ????e N??, ??u ??????ue ????a ??? y???, ??th?? ??a??y i ?? (???y a
ss??th ?????), ????e y???o ??? e o. ae. Ii?th ????e ????o ????? (??aea
??i Iy?a) ????e e ??? ??y?a y???o ????a a ??? ??? ??o ???e.

E?? ?????i E??? a V a. ?iyei ?th ???oth ??ue E????i ?????a e ??i ???ue
Iy?a, ????a ??i ? ????a n ?????? N??, ???a ????ue a VI a. A 551 a.
?th??? ?a?? ????ue E??? ? ???? ?. O??i, ? ?????a ??e ? ?? ????? Iy?a — ?
????i ??a ???a ?????i N??; ?thc ???ny. A ????? Iy?a ?e?a ????y n E??? e
????e y???. E?? E??? e Iy?a ??th?? ?thc ??? ?????a N??, ????a a ?ith
???ue ??i ??? ?th? n E??i.

A ??a VI a. ????e E?ay, ??ay E??? ???i ?????i, ??y?? ??o ??? y?? a?????.
A 598 a. ????? ???? N? ???? ?y ????ey E??? ???oth ??th e ??, ? ????
???o.

N?? ???e ??ae ?e ????yo ???i ?????i ssi A??i. A 612 a. ??? E??? ?? ???a
????y ??y, ? ????y ???? ??????th ??i ????y E??? e ???? ???? ?a????? U??
I??? ?????e ????e ??? ????a. A???????e ????ue ??? ???o ??e a 613 e 614
?.

I?? y?? E??? a ?th? n Iy?a ?????i ???a ???ey ??? ?????a N??, ???a ?????
? ???th e ??e ????e ???? — O?, ?????, ??i ???i, ?????ue ?y?? ??????a a
????a ??. A 645 a. ???a ??? ?ae ????????i ????? ????ue a E???. I? ?o?a??
??ue ???a ??????a, ???? o ???? A?e (?e A?? a Ey??a). E???? ???, ????a ?
A???i ?y ???a I??y?, ??a ????e ????a e ????e. I?? y?? ??????ue ????y
E??? e Iy?a ? ?????i N??, ???a ??i ??ue ????? ????ny ??? O??? ???e. A
660 a. ? Iy?a ??? 50-?ny?ay ??y ?????a N?? e ????a ??i ?i?? ???, ??????a
??a 130 ?n. ???e. A ??th?i ???? ? ????o e ???a Iy?a — N?e — ?????? ???
????? iy???th ??th. A ????? ???a ??, a ????ay ?a? e ??? ???ue ? ???ue
?????e. Any ????ey Iy?a ??a ????? O??? ???e. ????a ? ? iy? ????, ???a
????e ????? a ?o ?? ???.

I?? Iy?a ? ???ny n ?????i ???a??e e ??y?y ? ??? n ??. Ai ??a ???ey ?iy?
??????e ???e ??e e ?????i ?????a. A ????? ????y ?? ?????a ?????ay ??ue
???, ??? a 663 a. ????a ???-. ?, I?? y?? ??? O??? ?i?? e ????? N?? ?????
? E???. E??? ??a ????? a oy??i ?e???. Ii ????i ??? ?????, ??i ????, ?i
????e ????ey ???o ?e E??? ?? ????a ?ia??? ???y??a e ??ay ??? ??o ??????i
???y??? e ????? ??ueth. Ia ???? ????? ??e e ??????? ????e a ? ??a
????????a ??ay ?????ay ???, ???y ?????ue ??a ??? ?????? ??eo?y ?????a
(???i ???? — i???e) ?i E????. I?i ? ?i ???e, ????? a ??o ????yo, ?????ny
? ???o O??? ???e e ???? ? ??????a ??????? ??e. I?? ??????y ???o ???? ???
E??? a 668 a. ???a e ????? ??? ????e ???o E??? I??yi. O????ey y?? ?????a
????ue ?ae ???th ???o ????.

NIOeEAEUeII-YEIIIIE*ANEIA ?ACAEOEA EI?AE IINEA IAUAAeEIAIEss NO?AIU IIAe
AEANOUeTH AINOAeA?NOAA NEEEA

I???? ????? ?a???? ???i ??ue ??i ?????? ???? ????y. O??? ?????yi ? ???ue
????ue ?? ????? ? ?ao ??? ??yo Iy?a e E???, ?e ?e ?????ayny ??ue ???ay
??? ???? ????o ????? ?????a N??, ?oi?a ??a ? ??? ????ue ????? ????o ????
? ?????a. O? ?e ????a E??? e Iy?a oy?o?i e ???? ? y??, ??ayi e ?e??a
?????o N??, ????a ??? ?n??? a ?? ?????ey ??? ?? ?????. Y? ?ea?i e ????o
n O??? ????. A 670—676 ?. ???i??ue ?e ??o ???? e ?????e ????. A ????? ?y
????ey E????i ?????a e th? ? ?. Oy??? ?o? a ??? ?????a N??, ?i a e?? ???
???? e O??ay ???ey.

I????? ??? ?????? N?? ?a? ??? y??i e a ?????e ?????i ???a ?????? a E??.
I????? ?????? ?? e ?????? ??? ????e n ????e ??????e ?????i ??ey? ? ????
???????? ?e ???. N????e ?i I??, ????y?ee ??u ? ?????a, ? ?c ???? ??e a
????e (681 a.) i ?i, ?i ? «??? ???? ??? ?? e ?????, ????? a ???????a
??ey ???n?a ??y, ???? e ???? ??? e ?a???e, ??u a ??o eth? ???e ????, ???
??? ?????a e ????e ??y?e ? ?? ???, n??e ???a, ?e ??, ??? ??a…». Ia???y
? ??????y y???u ???????ey, ????a y?? ???aey ???? e ???a ??i ??? ????.
O?, ????, ????ey??ny ????o?i ??????i ??o ??????o ????? ???? ???
?????y????o ???? e ????i ??o.

????a ????? ????e ?????i ? ??? ???????e ??????e ? ??th. A??oth ??ue
????? ??a ??? ???ey? ??? ??? (??? ? ???tho «?????e ?ey?»), ?????ny a
???? o ???yi, ?y??? ???ue ?????o ??o-??a e ??e ?????????a ???? ?e ???a
?????. I?oe???a ?????? ????o ??e ????i a 722 a., ??a ?a ???y??a ??e
?uy?? ???????e ??????ueth. I???ay ???a y?y?? ??? ?????ey ??oueyi e ??a e
y?????e ? n ??uueth ????????i ???????? ai???. I?a ?????? y? ???a,
???y??a ??e a ??e-? ?? ?? a?????? ? ???? ???? ????????. Ii ? ?? ???ey
????o ????ue ??? ??? ??????th ???a ???i? ???yi ? ???????e ??a, ?e ?e a
??? ???????e ??????e ????? ????e e ???y?? ????? ???ey a ??a ????o ?????e
?????i ?e ???i ??i ?e «???? ???? n ??? ??a ??u-i??a n ?????? ????? ?e
????i?? ei???? ???. Ae???i i?? ??? ??? a ???y??a ????? ???? ??e e ?????i
?????a. I???y ? ??????a (????, a 685 a.) ???u, ????a ???e ?????, ???ya?a
?????th ???, ?a ??i ????eye?ue e ????e ???a ?????i?, ???i ??????ny a
?????th ??????ue.

A VIII a. ???????y ??????ue ?? ?a ???e e ?y ?????y ??ey??i ?????y ??u ?
?? ??? e ?????y ???yi e ????eth ???????o ?????e ?????e ????????
???-???????? ???o ????ey ????. A ???? VIII a. ?? ?????i ???????? ???a
????? ? ?ay? ?e??e (?e ? ???i ????? ??yo, o? — ? ??? ????? e ?e — ? ???
iy???o.) e iy? ?i????? (?e «??o ???»), a ??a ???a ? ??? e ??u. I??oth
??????eth ????y? ?????a ? ???u ??a??e. A ?eyo ????? ????? ?? ???a
???????y ??ay ??a, a ? ?iy?a ????? ?? ???u a??????? y???u.

N??? ?????a, ?a ???a ????????y ???ay ?????ey, ??a ????? ???i, ??????i, ?
???eyi ??????o ????a, ? 170 ?n. ???. Ae?a ???e ????? ???ueth e ??????.
Ae?a ? ????? ??e ????? ???i. A ???a ????ue ???? ??????, ??????a
?????th?e ??n. N?y ? ??????? ?????i ????? a ???a, ????ath?e ??? ???a ??
????, ????? ? ??a ????, ?e???? e ???????i ????eyi.

N ???? ????ey e ???e ??i ????i ???? ????. E??ey ???n?o ??????a e ??????a
???? ???y??o ????a ???? ?? ??? ? ????e ???. I???i ????oth ???eth ??
????? ??u n E??i e ss???.

EI?AENEAss EOEUeOO?A ?AIIAAI N?AAeIAAAEIAUess

A ??? ?? ????? ?????ue ????, ?????y ???e ?y ??????e ??????e ????. A
????e ?? ???e ?????ue i??? ?????o ????? e ??????e — ????? ????i ??eyi,
??i ???a e o. i. I??i n ??????? ??????a e ?????ai ???? ?e ?????e ???e ?
?c??a ???? ??a ????ue ?????? a?y?a ????y ?n????ue e e????a. A???e ??u ?y
????? ?????, ? ????i y?? ?????ue ??? ?????? ?????ey.

Ia ??? ???ey ?????u e ???????? ????a a E??? ??????otho ??????y a N???e
E?? (a E??, A?? e ?.) ???? ????? ?a?, ?a ?ae ???? ????e ??? ????a ???u n
?y??e ????e, ????th?a ? ? ????? a ??? ??e. C?????a ????y ???? (?????y
??a, ???o???o ???? e ??) ? ??? e ???? ???oe. I ??????? ???? ?????a N??
??i ??? ? ???????i ?iy??? ? ??? E???. N??e ?o ???? ????u ?y?i ????ay ???
? ???i ???, ???a ???, ???, ????, ??e ??a, ??? e ?o?a ???? ? «E??? ???e
???», ??ny??ny e V a. i. y. I ???? ???o ??? a ?????a N?? ???yo ??????y a
E??? ???e ???????e ??????, ?????e a ???? VII a.

N ??????i ??????i y?? ?e ?a?i ??? ?a e ?????th ?i a ?????. A ??a VII a.
?a?e N???i ???e ???o ??? ????e ?? ?e ??? ????e ?????e a ?????? n ????e e
??????? ??? ????? y??.

I???ue ??????e ????e (? i??a ??????a e ???? e ?.) ??????? ?????th ???
????? ?y?e ??o ?????? N?? e O??? ????. A ???? ??????? a ??oth ???????th
??o ????? ????o ???. I??a ??????e ????? ?e????e ?y ????ey ??? ?????y
???? a ???o O??? ???e (*???). N?? ?o ?e e ????? ??o Oa *? (VIII a.),
?????e ? E?ay ?????a a E?eth e N??thth A?th. N?????ny ????u ?i «????? i
???i? ???e? ???» y?yth?y ???e ???????e i ??e ???a y?o ??i. N?? ????a,
????? ?????a a E??, ?e e ????? ??? e ???? *?a *??i (858—951). Ia ?????e
??? ?????ue ?????ay ???y ?y?y e ????? ii????a ???? ??a.

E ??th??y ?iy??? ?????i ??n?? (???a ???? ?????i ???? i?? ?????y ??? ?ae
?????i ??ae??? N??) ??ny?y ??y?y A?? a e?????? ??a N???i (?????aey?i
???? ?ai) e ???ay ??? O???i ? ??a I????. A???? ???e ? ??a I???a ???
??????? ???ai ??iy ????? ??y. I????? ???? ?? ???a ????? ?????y?, ?ai
?????aey?? ???u ???? ??e e ???ue ????? ??????.

E a ???e ???? ??? ????i?? ?????a N??. ??? ??e ?????th?? ???ey ???????e
???? ? ?? ?? ??????.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. E??ey ??i A?e e A??e a ???a ??. *.1. I.: E????o? I????? ??????. 1987.

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