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Керенский: трагедия политика новой эпохи

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IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaa I. A.O. Ea?aineee a ia?aua ianyoeu ?aaiethoeee.

1. Ainoiaeaeaiea ia iieeoe/aneee Ieeii.

2. A.O. Ea?aineee – ieieno? thnoeoeee a ia?aii ninoaaa A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

3. A.O. Ea?aineee – aiaiiue e ii?neie ieieno? a ia?aii eiaeeoeeiiiii
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Aeaaa II. Iiiuoee oneeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

1. A.O. Ea?aineee – ieieno? i?aaenaaeaoaeue, aiaiiue e ii?neie
ieieno? ai aoi?ii eiaeeoeeiiiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

2. A.O. Ea?aineee e aunooieaiea E.A. Ei?ieeiaa.

Aeaaa III. Caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe A.O.
Ea?aineiai.

1. Oi?ie?iaaiea o?aoueaai eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A.O.
Ea?aineee – aeaaa Aee?aeoi?ee.

2. A.O. Ea?aineee – aeaaa o?aoueaai eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Iineaaeiea iiiuoee oaea?aeaoue aeanoue.

Caeeth/aiea

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

Ai ana a?aiaia, iniaaiii a o?oaeiua e ia?aeiiiua, iauanoai e eaaeaeue
aai /eai ioaeaeueii noaeeeaathony n ino?aeoeie o?oaeiiiauynieiuie, ii
aeao/eie aii?inaie nia?aiaiiinoe e iuoaaony iaeoe ia ieo ioaao.
Ia?aniao?eaay nai? e?aaei, iauanoai auioaeaeaii ia?auaoueny e enoi?ee,
iaeiieaiiiio a aaeao iiuoo i?aaeeia. ?ao?iniaeoeaiue aiaeec niauoee
aeiae ieioaoeo iicaieyao iaeoe aiaeiaee niauoeyi aeiae naaiaeiyoieo,
?anniio?aoue aa?eaiou i?eieiaaiuo iaeiaaea ?aoaiee e ia iiaii aeoea
nie?aee iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, n o/aoii iiauo oneiaee, aua?aoue oo eee
eioth eeieth iiaaaeaiey e oai naiui caieiooue naycue a?aiai.

Niauoey 1917 aiaea e i?ioeannu, ia/aaoeany a iaoae no?aia a 1985 aiaeo,
?aaiiianooaaiu ii naiei iineaaenoaeyi. Eiia/ii, enoi?ey ia iiaoi?yaony
aoeaaeueii, iuiaoiyy niooa au? ia caeii/eeanue, ii iu ia iiaeai ia
caiaoeoue eaeia-oi noiaenoai e iiiaeo niauoee, e noaeaa aeaenoaothueo
eeoe yoeo ia?eiaeia. Iiyoiio iiiaea eieeecee, i?ienoiaeeaoea
aeanyoeeaoey iacaae, i?iaeieaeatho aieiiaaoue ian. Iaeuecy io?eoeaoue
aeooaeueiinoue ia?auaiey e iiuoo ?inneeneiai iauanoaa yiioe 1917 aiaea.
Aaaeiaeoea aai niauoey – e?ooaiea iiia?oee, aeayoaeueiinoue A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, e?ecenu A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ei?ieeianeia
aunooieaiea, ieoya?ueneee ia?aai?io – an? yoi naycaii n
aeayoaeueiinoueth A.O. Ea?aineiai.

Caaea/ae ianoiyuae ?aaiou yaeyaony eco/aiea iieeoe/aneie, eiie?aoii
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe Aeaenaiae?a O?aei?iae/a Ea?aineiai ia
iaaieueoii, ii ianuuaiiii e?oiiaeoeie niauoeyie io?acea a?aiaie – a 1917
aiaeo.

A aeaiiie aeeieiiiie ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu ?aciiia?aciua enoi/ieee:
aeieoiaioaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, naaaeaiey ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe, aieueoie
e?oa iaioa?ia e ainiiieiaiee, a oii /enea e naiiai A.O. Ea?aineiai,
e?eoe/anee i?iaiaeece?iaaia eeoa?aoo?a, noaouee iineaaeieo eao. A
ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?eia?aoee iao iiiia?aoe/aneeo o?oaeia i Ea?aineii.

Ai anae, ecaanoiie ii oaia, eeoa?aoo?a iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa aieueoea
a?oiiu: ia?aay – ioeaieaaao Ea?aineiai eae auaeathuaainy iauanoaaiiiai e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey, aoi?ay, iaiai?io, n/eoaao aai iia?aoi/iie
oeao?ie, neo/aeii aicianoaeny e aa?oeiai aeanoe, o?iaeiaaee aai ii?o?ao
aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue.

A ieienoa?neie ea?uea?a A.O. Ea?aineiai auaeaeythony /aou?a yoaia:
ia?o-ai?aeue 1917 aiaea (ieieno? thnoeoeee); iae-ethiue 1917 aiaea
(aiaiiue e ii?neie ieieno?); etheue-aaaono 1917 aiaea
(ieieno?-i?aaenaaeaoaeue, aiaiiue e ii?neie ieieno?); naioya?ue-ieoya?ue
1917 aiaea (ieieno?-i?aaenaaeaoaeue e aa?oiaiue aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee). Ia
eaaeaeii ec yoeo yoaiia i?anna ienaea i i?i ii-?aciiio.

Iaioeaieiui iiaenii?ueai a eco/aiee yiioe 1917 aiaea e oaiu ianoiyuaai
enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony ?aaiou, iaienaiiua Iaaeii Ieeieaaae/ai
Ieetheiaui (“Enoi?ey aoi?ie ?onneie ?aaiethoeee” e “Ainiiieiaiey 1859 –
1917 aa.”). I.I. Ieetheia aue ia oieueei auaeathueiny o/aiui-enoi?eeii,
ii e eeaea?ii eaaeaoneie ia?oee, aeaaie aeoineie iiiiceoeee, ieieno?ii
eiino?aiiuo aeae… Aai aeieaee aeeciaiiue iooue aue naycai e n Ea?aineei.

Eceiaeaiea niauoee io oaa?aey aei ieoya?y 1917 aiaea a eiii naaoa, n
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie oi/ee c?aiey, /ai o I.I. Ieetheiaa, aea?ony a “Caieneao
i ?aaiethoeee” Ieeieay Ieeieaaae/a Nooaiiaa-Aeii?aa, eioi?ue noiye aeaai
io i?aayuaai oeaio?a, i?aaenoaaeaiiiai Ea?aineei, ia aeioiaey, iaeiaei,
aei aieueoaaeeia. Ieetheia noiye ai?aai io oeaio?a.

“Caienee i ?aaiethoeee” – ?aaioa iaeiiai ec eo/oeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
iaeeiao?aeoaciie aeaiie?aoee, eae iacuaae Nooaiiaa A.E. Eaiei, e?iia
oiai eco/aeenue e eniieueciaaeenue I.I. Ieetheiaui, E.Ae. O?ioeeei, E.A.
Noaeeiui, I.I. Iie?ianeei, N.I. Iaeueaoiiaui, ae?oaeie iieeoeeaie,
enoi?eeaie, ioaeeoeenoaie.

Iiaue yoai a enoi?eia?aoee ia/aeny n eiioea 50-o aiaeia, ii ioeaiea
enoi/ieea an? au? i?aaeacyoay. Aianoa n oai “Caienee i ?aaiethoeee”
yaeeenue aaaeiie ninoaaiie /anoueth enoi/ieeiaie aacu ca?oaaaeiie
enoi?eia?aoee. A iaoae no?aia oe?ieie /eoaoaeueneie ioaeeea iie auee
iaaeinooiiu, oae eae iaoiaeeeenue a niaoeo?aiao.

A oeaeii io?eoeaoaeueii oa?aeoa?ecothuee A.O. Ea?aineiai Aioii Eaaiiae/
Aeaieeei a naiae ?aaioa “I/a?ee ?onneie nioou”, ecaeaiiie a iyoe oiiao a
Ia?eaea a 1921-1926 aiaeao, auniei ioeaiee oio aniaeo aeayoaeueiinoe
Ea?aineiai, eioi?ue iienuaae Nooaiia, A.E. Aeaieeei ienae: “Aue,
ianiiiaiii, oaeie e?aoeee, ii aeiaieueii y?eee ia?eiae a aeecie
Ea?aineiai – aiaiiiai ieieno?a – y aai ioiioo i?eaeeceoaeueii e etheth,
ia oieueei oe?ieea e?oae ianaeaiey, ii e ?onneia ioeoea?noai
iiae/eieeinue iaayieth aai yecaeueoe?iaaiiie o?acu, aai enoi?e/aneiai
iaoina. ?onneia ioeoea?noai, i?aaeaiiia ia caeeaiea, oiaaea an? caauei,
an? i?inoeei e io/eoaeueii aeaeaea io iaai nianaiey a?iey”.

Iaeuecy ia o/eouaaoue e ioeaieo, aeaiioth A.Ae. Iaaieiaui – iaeiei ec
eeaea?ia ia?oee eaaeaoia, ii iiaieth I.I. Aeiaaa?a, ecethaeaiiui a aeie
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa aeey “eaauo”, a /anoiinoe aeey Ea?aineiai,
eaiaeeaeaoii ec eaaeaoia. ssaeyynue oi?aaeythuei aeaeaie A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, A.Ae. Iaaieia aeaeae a “aicianaiee” iineaaeiaai eeoue
ineoic oieiu, eai “ca iei iao oaeeo caneoa e oinoaaiiuo eee i?aanoaaiiuo
ea/anoa, eioi?ua au ii?aaaeaee oaeia enoa?e/aneia ainoi?aeaiiia
ioiioaiea…”

Ieeoi ec nia?aiaiieeia Ea?aineiai ia iicaieee naaa noieue a?aiiie
?eoi?eee, eae A.E. Eaiei, – iniaaiii, anee ?a/ue eae?o i ainnoaiee
“I?ioea ecaa?aa-eaeeioa ?iiaiiaa eee aeo?i/ea – oaanooieoee Ea?aineiai”.
Aeueyin yoeo iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae aue, aanueia, ethaei Eaieiui.

Ethaeiue eaeoiioea eaieineeo ?a/ae e noaoae, eanathueony Ea?aineiai, yoi
iaaeiaiea aai a oaeiuo aeiaiai?ao n nithcieeaie. Ea?aineee “n/eoaeny
yna?ii – e eae aoaeoi nioeeaeenoii, e eae aoaeoi au ?aaiethoeeiia?ii, a
ia naiii aeaea i?aaenoaaeye ec naay eiia?eaeenoa, eioi?ue i?yoae oaeiu
aeiaiai?a a ea?iaia”.

Iniiaiay /anoue ee/iiai a?oeaa Ea?aineiai – aeo?iaeenoneia e
eeoa?aoo?iia ianeaaeea, aeieoiaiou – aei neo ii? inoaaony iaecaanoiie.
A?oea aue i?eia?ao?i a 1968 aiaeo ca aeaa aiaea aei nia?oe aai
aeaaeaeueoea, Oeaio?ii aoiaieoa?iuo enneaaeiaaiee eiaie Aa??e ?ainoia
Oaoanneiai oieaa?neoaoa, ?aniieiaeaiiiai a noieeoea ooaoa ai?iaea
Inoeia. N?aaee 217 aaeeieoe o?aiaiey, niaeanii iiene oiiaea Ea?aineiai,
iaoiaeyony ?oeiiene, n?aaee eioi?uo anoue e iaiioaeeeiaaiiua, ia?aienee
n ?onneeie iieeoe/aneeie yiea?aioaie (A.Ae. Eoneiaie, I.I. Ea?iiae/ai,
I.A. Iaeeaeiaui, A.E. Eiiiaaeiaui, A.I. Caiceiiaui, A.I. *a?iiaui, I.E.
Oa?auaiei e ae?.), ienaoaeyie (I.A. Aeaeaiiaui, A.A. Iaaieiaui, E.A.
Aoieiui, I. Aa?aa?iaie, N. Iiyiii). Caeanue aea nia?aiu iiaeoeaee aacao,
eioi?ua Ea?aineee ecaeaaae a yiea?aoeee: aacaoa “Aeie” auoiaeeea ai
O?aioeee n 1928 ii 1933 aa., “Iiaay ?inney”, ia/aoaaoayny a Ia?eaea a
1936-1940 aa., i?ioieieu canaaeaiee, i?iaeou e ?aciethoeee yiea?aioneeo
i?aaiecaoeee 20-o – 50-o aiaeia, a eioi?uo o/anoaiaae Ea?aineee,
caieniua eieaeee e eieae ec ee/iie aeaeeioaee.

A 20-a – 50-a aiaeu ia auoiaeeei ieeaeeo ?aaio, iinayu?iiuo A.O.
Ea?aineiio.

50-a – 60-a aiaeu, naycaiiua n e?oiiuie iieeoe/aneeie ia?aiaiaie a NNN?,
i?eaaee e iiyaeaieth ioaeaeueiuo noaoae ia yoii /aeiaaea. A yoe aiaeu ii
ano?a/aaony n iaeioi?uie ethaeueie ec Niaaoneiai Nithca, eioi?ua
inoaaeee naie ainiiieiaiey i i?i.

A yiaa?a 1964 aiaea a NOA i?iecioea ano?a/a A.A. Oaoiaa n A.O.
Ea?aineei. Ainiiieiaiey Oaoiaa i?eaiaeyony a aeo?iaea “Aii?inu enoi?ee”
a 1991 aiaeo, a nayce n ia/aeii ioaeeeaoeee iaioa?ia A.O. Ea?aineiai.
Aaoi? noaouee ieoao: “…A iaeeea aai ia /oanoaiaaeinue e iai?ea ia oa
“aiiaia?oenoneea” /a?ou, eioi?ua i?eaeaaaee aio aaoi?u iaoeo eeiiea?oei,
ia iuouaeinue ieeaeiai no?aieaiey ea?aoue “ia ioaeeeo”, eae ioia/aee aai
nia?aiaiieee – iaaeia?iaeaeaoaee. A i?i, nei?aa, oaaaeuaaeny oei
?onneiai eioaeeeaaioa – ?acii/eioea”.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iiyaeeinue iiiai noaoae, iinayu?iiuo A.O. Ea?aineiio,
eioi?ua nicaeatho iauaeoeaioth ea?oeio 1917 aiaea.

Yoi: noaouey A.E. Noa?oeaaa a iao/ii-iiioey?iuo i/a?eao “Ano?a/e n
enoi?eae” ( I., 1987 aiae), eioi?ay iacuaaaony “Ace?o e iaaeaiea
Aeaenaiae?a Ea?aineiai”, noaouey A. Aiiaea?aaa “Ea?aineee e Ai?aa/aa:
aeaa yiioe e aeaa ae?aiu” a aeo?iaea “?iaeeia” (I., 1992 aiae), noaouey
A.A. Aieeeiaa “Oaiiiai Ea?aineiai” a aeo?iaea “Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey”
(I., 1992 aiae), noaouey A.E. Eieiieoeeiai “Ea?aineee e e?oa
Ia?aaeeianeeo a 1917 aiaeo” a aeo?iaea “Eeoa?aoo?iia iaic?aiea” (I.,
1991 aiae), noaouey A.I. Iiaeeiaa “Ia a?oeaa A.O. Ea?aineiai a Oaoana” a
aeo?iaea “Iiaay e iiaaeoay enoi?ey” (I., 1993 aiae), a oaeaea ae?oaea
?aaiou. Iie ?ane?uaathony a oiaea ianoiyuae ?aaiou.

Ecia?aaeaiea enoi?ee ?onneeo ?aaiethoeee a iniaaiiii naaoa aiieiuaaony a
i?iecaaaeaiee A.E. Nieaeaieoeuia “E?aniia eieani”.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey auioneiie eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony
Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey a ia?eiae iaaeaeo Oaa?aeueneeie e Ieoya?ueneeie
niauoeyie (iiiuoea noaiiaeaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa n
iiiaiia?oeeiie nenoaiie).

I?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony aeayoaeueiinoue A.O. Ea?aineiai eae
iieeoeea iiaie yiioe e ?aaeecaoi?a aeaiiie eaeae.

Oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiey auioneiie eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony
aiaeec niauoee ?acaeoey ?innee n oaa?aey ii ieoya?ue 1917 aiaea.

Caaea/aie enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony:

1. Aiaeec yoaiia ?acaeoey iieeoe/aneie ea?uea?u A.O. Ea?aineiai.

2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ianoiyoaeuenoa e oneiaee, i?eaaaeoeo A.O. Ea?aineiai e
iieeoe/aneiio Ieeiio.

3. Aiaeec i?e/ei, i?eaaaeoeo e e?aoo iieeoeee A.O. Ea?aineiai.

Aeiioaca auioneiie eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou – aeaiie?aoe/aneay eaeay
?acaeoey ?innee ia iieo/eaoay ?aaeecaoeee a neeo noauaeoeaiuo e
iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia, naycaiiuo n aeayoaeueiinoueth A.O. Ea?aineiai.

Naaiaeiy eae?o ia?aioeaiea oeaiiinoae e iai iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue aeaaiia
e?aaei iaoae aeecie. Eaeei iii aoaeao? A.O. Ea?aineee eioa?anai eae
ioaoe oai?ee yaiethoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey ?innee. A 1917 aiaeo ii, oau,
aaconiaoii iuoaeny i?eie?eoue iai?eie?eiia – “i?aauo” e “eaauo”.
Oaeanony ee naaiaeiy i?iaeieaeeoue yaiethoeeiiiia ?acaeoea ?innee?
Iienee ioaaoa ia yoe aii?inu e i?eaaee e auai?o oaiu ianoiyuae auioneiie
eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou.

Aeaaa I. A.O. Ea?aineee a ia?aua ianyoeu ?aaiethoeee.

1. Ainoiaeaeaiea ia iieeoe/aneee Ieeii.

A iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe A.O. Ea?aineiai inoa?ony iaiaei aii?inia,
eioi?ua auoiaeyo ca ?aiee ianoiyuaai enneaaeiaaiey. Iaeei ec ieo: ii/aio
eiaiii Ea?aineee, ia i?eiaaeeaaeaaoee e ae?aaiaio ?iaeo e ia noieue
ecaanoiue eae ae?oaea iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee, eioi?ua oee e ieienoa?neei
e?aneai aeanyoeeaoeyie, noiae iiaeiyoueny ia iieeoe/aneee Ieeii noieue
no?aieoaeueii?

I?e/eiu yoiai naycaiu n ianeieueeeie oaeoi?aie. Ii iaoaio iiaieth,
aeaaiay i?e/eia aai ace?oa ei?aieeanue a aai ana?inneeneie ecaanoiinoe
eae aaeaieaoa, ?aoeoaeueiii e niaeii o/anoee ai iiiaeo iieeoe/aneeo
i?ioeannao. Nua?aee ?ieue aai aeo??neea aeaiiua, aeanoyuaa i?aoi?neia
eneonnoai. Iiyoiio, eioa?anii aoaeao ia?aoeoueny e iaeioi?ui aniaeoai
aai aeayoaeueiinoe aei 1917 aiaea.

Ii ieii/aiee oieaa?neoaoa, aaea ii o/eeny n 1899 ii 1904 aiae aia/aea ia
enoi?eei-oeeieiae/aneii, a aiae nionoy ia th?eaee/aneii oaeoeueoaoa,
Ea?aineee anooiaao a Iaoa?ao?aneoth eieeaaeth aaeaieaoia, i?enyaeiue
iiaa?aiiue. Ai a?aiy ?aaiethoeee 1905-1907 aa. aio?e a nicaeaiiue
eieeaaeae aaeaieaoia eiieoao ii ieacaieth iiiiue aea?oaai “E?iaaaiai
aine?anaiuey”, ?aaioae th?eneiinoeueoii n?aaee ?aai/eo. Ii i?eiye
aeoeaiia o/anoea a iciaeiieaiee n iieiaeaieai a ?aai/eo eaa?oaeao e
ooi/iaiee iineaaenoaee o?aae/aneeo niauoee. Niauoey «E?iaaaiai
aine?anaiuey» i?iecaaee ia iaai oyaeaeia aia/aoeaiea, aai aiciouaei, /oi
a?iey iiae/eieeanue i?eeaco no?aeyoue a ?aai/eo. Ii ieoao ienueii
aaa?aeaeneei ioeoea?ai, aaea iaiiieiaao ei i oii, /oi eae?o aieia e
a?iey iaiineo oua?a i?anoeaeo noaiu, no?aeyy a ?aai/eo.

I?eiueay e ia?oee yna?ia, Ea?aineee noaiiaeony nio?oaeieeii
?aaiethoeeiiiiai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai atheeaoaiy «Ao?aaanoiee», eioi?ue 4
aeaeaa?y 1905 aiaea aue i?aia?aciaai a ia/aoiue i?aai aeaiiie ia?oee. 21
aeaeaa?y Ea?aineee aue a?anoiaai ii iiaeic?aieth a i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e
aiaaui ae?oaeeiai yna?ia. A oth?ueia ii iiiye, /oi «a ?innee ieeiaaea ia
aoaeao iiaeeeiiie aeaiie?aoee aei oao ii?, iiea a? ia?iae ia naeaeaao
niciaoaeueiiai oaaa e aaeeiaieth ai eiy aeinoeaeaiey iauae oeaee. ss
oaa?aei ?aoee, /oi iinea oth?ueiu ioaeai ana neeu niei/aieth
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ia?oee a ?innee». Iinea inaiaiaeaeaiey Ea?aineee
inoaaeyao i?aeoeeo iieiaeiai oaeaioeeaiai aaeaieaoa e anaoeaei ioaeaaony
iieeoe/aneei i?ioeannai.

Ia?aui i?ioeannii noaiiaeony i?ioeann ii aeaeo e?anoueyi a ?aaaea,
?aca?aaeaoeo iiianouea ianoiiai aa?iia. Iinea oniaoii caaa?oeaoaainy
aeey Ea?aineiai i?ioeanna, ii i?eia?aoaao oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue. N yoiai
a?aiaie ?aaeeee ec e?oiiuo i?ioeannia iaoiaeeony aac iaai. Ea?aineee
anooiee a Iaoa?ao?aneia iauaaeeiaiea aaeaieaoia. Iaeaieaa oyaeaeui
noaiiaeoueny i?ioeann aeaoiaeoeoothiia (oae iacuaaee naay a?iyineea
nioeeae – ?aaiethoeeiia?u), ninoiyaoeeny a 1912 aiaeo. Ea?aineee ni anai
iueii aaeaieaoa e ?aaiethoeeiia?a a?ineeny e iaee/aieth noaeae. Ii
iainii?eii aeieacuaae iiaeeiae a noaeaaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoaao –
iiae/enoee, iiaei?aaee, aeaeieciaiaiey: yenia?oeca onoaiiaeea, /oi iie
naeaeaiu ?oeie iaeiiai ec neaaeiaaoaeae. Aeaaiaea?y Ea?aineiio ec 145
iaaeiyaiuo – 95 auee ii?aaaeaiu.

Ae?oaei auaeathueiny aeaeii auei aeaei «Eaia». A.O. Ea?aineee aue
iacia/ai aicaeaaeyoue eiienneth aaeaieaoia, eiiaiaee?iaaiiuo ia cieioua
i?eenee aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa iiiaiiieueiia iieiaeaiea
eaiiaiee auei eeeaeaee?iaaii, a aa aaeieieno?aoeey iieiinoueth
?ai?aaieciaaia. O?ouiau, a eioi?uo aeeee ?aai/ea e eo naiuee ?ac?ooeee,
a ia eo ianoao iino?ieee iiaua aeiia.

A 1913 aiaeo A.O. Ea?aineee i?eiye o/anoea a ?acae?aoaeuenoaa ii aeaeo
aa?ay Iaiaeaey Aaeeena, eioi?ue aue iaaeiai a niaa?oaiee ?eooaeueiiai
oaeenoaa iaeieaoiaai iaeue/eea – o?enoeaieia Aiae?ay THueineiai.
Aeaaaeoeaoue iyoue aeaeiuo aaeaieaoia, n?aaee eioi?uo aue Aeaenaiae?
Oaaei?iae/, iiaeienaee ?aciethoeeth i?ioanoa. Ea?aineee aue i?eaiai?ai e
ainueie ianyoeai oth?aiiiai caeeth/aiey.

Eioa?anai e oio oaeo, /oi a oaa?aea 1915 aiaea Ea?aineee i?eieiae
o/anoea a i?ioeanna aieueoaaenoneie o?aeoeee a IV Ainoaea?noaaiiie
Aeoia, a eioi?oth ii nai aioae a 1912 aiaeo.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi Ea?aineiai a aeoineie eiaea oaeaea
aeaaii?eyonoaiaaei aai ea?uea?a. Ia?oey yna?ia aieeioe?iaaea auai?u a
IV Ainoaea?noaaiioth Aeoio, ii ia cai?auaea ioaeaeueiui /eaiai ia?oey
i?ioiaeeoue ia auai?ao. Ia yoii iniiaaiee oeaio?aeueiue eiieoao
«o?oaeiaie a?oiiu», noaaeaoee naiae caaea/ae iauaaeeiaiea anao
ia?iaeie/aneeo oa/aiee, ?aoee ia?yaeo n o?oaeiaeeaie i?iaiaeeoue a Aeoio
e ioaeaeueiuo nioeeae – ?aaiethoeeiia?ia. Ea?aineee aue eca?ai a Aeoio
ii ai?iaeo Aieueneo Na?aoianeie aoaa?iee e aue aua?ai aeaiooaoii io
Na?aoianeie aoaa?iee. A Aeoia ii noae eeaea?ii o?oaeiaie a?oiiu e a
oa/aiea anao iyoe eao noa?aeny iauaaeeieoue ana ia?iaeie/aneea oa/aiey —
io i?aauo aei eaauo — a oeaeyo ai?ueau n naiiaea?aeaaeai. Io/aou Aeoiu
iieiu ?a/aie Ea?aineiai, i?ieciineaoeieny n iiaeuaiii, e?aneauie ii
oi?ia. Ia?a?uau iaaeaeo nanneyie aeey iauacaeia i?iaeioeee n ?yaeii
eaeoeee ia eaoo/ea oaiu iieeoe/aneie aeecie oiai a?aiaie.

16 aeaeaa?y, ca aeaa n iieiaeiie ianyoea aei ?aaiethoeee, A.O. Ea?aineee
aiai?ee: «Ainiiaea, oaia?ue au naie aeaeeoa, /oi ana neiaa, eioi?ua
iiaeii neacaoue i aeanoe, eioi?uie iiaeii caeeaeieoue aeanoue,
i?anooiioth ia?aae ainoaea?noaii, ana neacaiu. Iu neuoaee caeanue ec ono
ia eaauo ethaeae, ia ?onneeo eeaa?aeia, a ec ono ieoya?enoia e
eiina?aaoi?ia, /oi ««aeanoue aoaeo no?aio». Au, ainiiaea, iiae neiaii
?aaiethoeey iiieiaaoa eaeea-oi aeaenoaey aioeainoaea?noaaiiua.
?ac?ooathuea ainoaea?noai. Eiaaea any ie?iaay enoi?ey aiai?eo, /oi
?aaiethoeey auea n?aaenoaii nianaiey ainoaea?noaa. E ?ac iaanaaaea
aeiaaaeaeoanue, /oi au o/anoaoaoa a oaeii i?ioeanna ?innee, eioi?ue
iacuaaaony i?ioeannii ?aaiethoeeiiiui».

A a ia?aue aeaiue iineaaeiae aeoineie nannee 15 oaa?aey 1917 aiaea, ca
aeaa iaaeaee aei ?aaiethoeee, Ea?aineee neacae i oii, i /ai aeoiaee, ii
ia ?eneiaaee, ioe?uoi neacaoue aeaiooaou Aeoiu: «Iai aiai?yo;
i?aaeoaeuenoai aeiiaaoi, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua ethaee, eioi?ua eae oaie
i?eoiaeyo e ooiaeyo n yoeo iano. Ii iinoaaeee ee au naaa aii?in : eoi
aea oa, eoi i?eaiaeeo nthaea yoe oaie? E anee au aniiiieoa, iiiai
caeanue aiai?eeinue ia yoeo «oaiiuo neeao»… E aio yoe oaiiua neeu
en/acee! En/ac ?aniooei! *oi aea, iu anooieee a yiioo iiaie ?onneie
aeecie? Eciaieeanue ee nenoaia? Iao, ia eciaieeanue, iia oeaeeeii
inoaeanue i?aaeiae… enoi?e/aneie caaea/ae ?onneiai ia?iaea a ianoiyuee
iiiaio yaeyaony caaea/a oie/oiaeaiey n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ?aaeeia
iaiaaeeaiii, ai /oi au oi ie noaei…Eae iiaeii caeiiiuie n?aaenoaaie
ai?ioueny n oaie, eoi nai caeii i?aa?aoee a i?oaeea ecaeaaaoaeuenoaa
iaae ia?iaeii?… N ia?ooeoaeyie caeiia anoue oieueei iaeei iooue –
oece/aneiai eo ono?aiaiey».

“ss oi/o, ainiiaea, /oiau iaoa nanney e yoe aeie i?ioee au a iieiii
niciaiee aaee/aeoeo no?aaeaiee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eioi?ua nei?i iaaeoo
ia ian anao aac ?acee/ey iaoeo iieeoe/aneeo oaaaeaeaiee».

Ea?aineee ia oieueei i?aae/oanoaiaae ?aaiethoeeth, aa oiaaea
i?aae/oanoaiaae eaaeaeue ia?aaeiaee i?iaeioeeaeueiie aacaou, ii e noiae
i?aaeoaaaeaoue aa iauaiaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Eiaaea neiaa Ea?aineiai
aeioee aei oea?eoeu, iia oaaaeaeaea oea?y: « Ca iiaeiaiua ?a/e
«Eaae?aineee» (iia niooaea oaieeeth) aeieaeai auoue iiaaoai». A naieo
iaioa?ao, “?inney ia enoi?e/aneii iiai?ioa”, Ea?aineee iienuaaao
iineaaenoaey aai ?a/e 15 oaa?aey: « Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue eee, auoue
iiaeao, aeiai iicaea I?aaenaaeaoaeue Aeoiu iieo/ee io ieieno?a thnoeoeee
ioeoeeaeueiia cayaeaiea n o?aaiaaieai eeoeoue iaiy ia?eaiaioneie
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe aeey i?eaea/aiey e noaeaaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
niaa?oaiea oyaeaeiai i?anooieaiey i?ioea ainoaea?noaa. Iieo/ea yoo iioo,
?iaecyiei oio/an i?eaeanee iaiy a naie eaaeiao e, ca/eoaa aa, neacae: «
Ia aieioeoanue. Aeoia ieeiaaea ia auaeaao aan.»»

Aica?auaynue e iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe Ea?aineiai ca a?aiy
aeaiooaonoaa, ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iia auea iai?aaeaia ia iauaaeeiaiea
anao ia?iaeiuo oa/aiee. Eaoii 1915 aiaea ii i?iaoao i?iaanoe ieai
iauaaeeiaiey anao ia?iaeie/aneeo oa/aiee e ionoaeaaao iuneue i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicuaa Ana?inneeneiai nuacaea nioeeae – ?aaiethoeeiia?ia,
o?oaeiaeeia, ia?iaeiuo nioeeaeenoia, aeey /aai iauacaeaao tha ?innee e
Iiaieaeuea. A oa/aiea anaai 1915 e ia?aie iieiaeiu 1916 aiaea Ea?aineee
acaeeo n aeieeaaeaie e i?iiaaaiaee?oao yoo iuneue a ?acee/iuo ai?iaeao
?innee, i?e/ai ni?aaee i aai aeayoaeueiinoe oe?ieie aieiie euethony a
aeaia?oaiaio iieeoeee. Iineaaeiee, iaaniieiaiiue aaeoaoeeae Ea?aineiai,
?annueaao 16 yiaa?y 1915 aiaea neaaeothuee nae?aoiue oee?eoey? ca
iiia?ii ?165377 ia/aeueieeai aoaa?ineeo iaeanoiuo e ai?iaeneeo
aeaiaea?ineeo oi?aaeaiee, ioaeaeaiee ii io?aia iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe
e ii?yaeea, ioia/ay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue Ea?aineiai e o?oaeiaeeai.

“Ii iinooieaoei a aeaia?oaiaio iieeoeee aaaioo?iui naaaeaieyi, a
aeayoaeueiinoe /eaiia o?oaeiaie a?oiiu Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu
iaaethaeaaony ca?iaeaeaiea iiaiai oa/aiey, au?aaeathuaainy a no?aieaiee
e iauaaeeiaieth anaai eaaiai yeaiaioa, iacaaeneii io i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e
oie eee eiie ia?oee, a oeaeyo i?ioeaiaeaenoaey eiathuaiony a nayce n
ianoiyuae aieiie iii?aaeaieth ianaeaiey. Ii oai aea naaaeaieyi, iaeei ec
iaeaieaa y?eeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oaeiai oa/aiey yaeyaony /eai o?oaeiaie
a?oiiu Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue A.O. Ea?aineee…

Icia/aiiue Ea?aineee, niaa?oay /anoua iiacaeee ii ?innee e eiay ai a?aiy
yoeo iiacaeie naeaeaiey n ecaanoiuie aio iaaeaaiiaaeaaeiuie eeoeaie
?aciuo eioaeeeaaioneeo i?ioannee, a eiioeaeaioeeaeueiuo niaanaaeiaaieyo
n ieie auneacuaaaony i iaiaoiaeeiinoe yia?ae/iie ?aaiou a oeaeyo
niei/aiey eaauo yeaiaioia no?aiu, eaeiaay ?aaioa aeieaeia aanoenue ia
oe?ieeo ia/aeao, eae eaaaeueii, oae e iaeaaaeueii.,.

A oeaeyo aeinoeaeaiey iaeaieueoaai oniaoa a aeaea oaeiai iauaaeeiaiey
eaauo yeaiaioia ianaeaiey a Iao?ia?aaea, ii neiaai Ea?aineiai, eiaao
ianoi auoue i?aaieciaai ?oeiaiaeyuee eiieoao, aeathuee aee?aeoeao
ianoiui eiieoaoai… Niiauay ia eceiaeaiiii, aeaia?oaiaio iieeoeee
i?ineo aan i?eiyoue ana ia?u e inaauaieth aeayoaeueiinoe, a i?e
iaia?oaeaiee aeaiooaoa Ea?aineiai ia aeeoaeuenoaa ai aaa?aiiie aaoaio
iaaethaeaieth ianoiinoe onoaiiaeoue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth aai niaa?oaiii
nae?aoiia e ia?oaeiia iaaethaeaiea e i aai i?eacaeao oaaaeiieyoue
iiaeeaaeauea ?icuneiua i?aaiu…

Aee?aeoi? A?thi aea Naio Eiiieeo

Caa. aeaeii?iecaiaenoaii I. A?iaoeeee».

Iaoa?eaeu aeaia?oaiaioa iieeoeee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi Ea?aineee
ia oieueei aicaeaaeye Oaa?aeue, ii e caeeaaeuaae aai ooiaeaiaio.

Aieueooth ?ieue a i?iaeaeaeaiee Ea?aineiai ii iieeoe/aneiio Ieeiio
nua?aei aai o/anoea a iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee ianiiia.

N?aco aea iinea eca?aiey a IV Ainoaea?noaaiioth Aeoio Ea?aineee aioae
aeoineoth ianiineoth eiaeo, a Aa?oiaiue Niaao ianiiia.

A 1915-19116 aiaeao aai nae?aoa?ue A.Eiooa a noaouea “Ienoa?ey ea?aiueiu
” ieoao: “I?aaiecaoeey iieeoe/aneiai ianiinoaa” auea iaaaeeea – ia aieaa
300-400 /aeiaae. Iie ?ani?aaeaeyeenue ii eiaeai e auee naycaiu “eeyoaie
iie/aiey” – iniaaiii aiai?y, ie/aai ae?oaiai niaoeeoe/anee ianiineiai a
eiaeao ia auei. Aio a iaeio ec oaeeo eiae, ia?aciaaaoothny a IV
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia, “Iaeoth iaaeaaaeeoeo” , e anooiee Ea?aineee”.

Iienuaay naia o/anoea a ianiinoaa, Ea?aineee ieoao; «Ana iaoe oneiaey
eiaee oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiea a ?innee aeaiie?aoee ia iniiaa oe?ieeo
nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i e oaaea?aeueiiai ono?ienoaa». Oaeei ia?acii,
«iieeoe/aneia ianiinoai» noaaeei oa aea caaea/e, /oi e ao?aeoacii-
eeaa?aeueiua ia?oee, ii ana aea ianiiu iuoaeenue nicaeaoue oaeoth
iaaeia?oeeioth i?aaiecaoeeth, eioi?ay iauaaeeieea au eeaa?aeia, ii
e?aeiae ia?a, n i?aaui e?ueii ?aaiethoeeiiiie aeaiie?aoee, n
iaiueoaaeeaie e yna?aie. Yoi aiieia niioaaonoaiaaei oaeei aeayoaeyi, eae
Ea?aineee. E ia/aeo 1917 aiaea ii aue “naiei /aeiaaeii” e a
ao?aeoaciuo, e a eaauo e?oaao.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe Ea?aineiai aei 1917 aiaea iicaieyao iai
naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ii, aii?aee o?aaeeoeeiiiiio iiaieth ioa/anoaaiiie
enoi?eia?aoee, i?eiye o/anoea a ?aaiethoeee ia oieueei ni 2 ia?oa, a aua
caaeieai aei yoiai i?eieiae aeoeaiia o/anoea a iiaeaioiaea oie
neooaoeee, eioi?ay neiaeeeanue a oaa?aea 1917 aiaea. Yoa neooaoeey iaoea
e aino?aaiaaea aai, ii ioaa/ae ae i?ioeai?a/eauie, ianiaaeeiaiiuie
/a?oaie naiaai oa?aeoa?a, naiei iniaui ianoii a neiaeiii eiiaeiia?aoa
iieeoe/aneeo nee, i?ioeainoiyueo aeanoe.

A eaioi 1917 aiaea iuouaiea, /oi «?aniooeineee» ?aaeei iineaaeieo
?iiaiiauo caaae no?aio a ooiee, ?acaeaeyeinue i?aeoe/anee anaie. Aeanoue
ieacaeanue iieeoe/anee eciee?iaaiiie. Oaa?aeueneay ?aaiethoeey i?eoea
eae iauaiaoeeiiaeueiay. Iaoiaeynue a aeaeaeie Oaaeoea?ee, A.E.Eaiei
ioiaoee yoi, eiaaea ienae i oii, /oi anee ?aaiethoeey iiaaaeeea oae
nei?i e ia ia?aue acaeyae ?aaeeeaeueii, oi eeoue iioiio, /oi a neeo
/?acau/aeii i?eaeiaeueiie neooaoeee neeeenue niaa?oaiii ?acii?iaeiua
eeanniaua eioa?anu. Iieeoe/aneay i?iiaaeooi/iinoue Ea?aineiai i/aiue
oi?ioi iiaeoiaeeea aeey nicaeaaoaeny neooaoeee.

Oeacii io 25 oaa?aey 1917 aiaea Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia auea ?aniouaia.
Ia canaaeaiee niaaoa noa?aeoei , oae iacuaaeenue nia?aiey
i?aaenoaaeoaeae o?aeoeee Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu, Ea?aineee ai?y/i
oaaaeaeaao iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae ia iiae/eieoueny yoiio oeaco e ia
?anoiaeeoueny. E /ano aeiy oiai aea aeiy, 27 oaa?aey, a Aeoio oaea
yaeeenue i?aaenoaaeoaee io 25000 ouny/ ainnoaaoeo nieaeao, aneaae ca
ieie noyioeenue e Oaa?e/aneiio aeai?oeo io?yaeu aii?oaeaiiiai ia?iaea.
Ea?aineee acye eieoeeaoeao a naie ?oee a oio iiiaio, eiaaea /eaiu
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu iaoiaeeeenue a iieiie ?anoa?yiiinoe.
“I?ienoaaeoaa iiaeoaa?aeaeaao , /oi iaaeeeoue iaeuecy! – neacae ii – ss
iinoiyiii iieo/ath naaaeaiey, /oi aienea aieiothony! … ss nae/an aaeo
ii iieeai … Iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau y ciae, /oi y ei iiao neacaoue. Iiao ee
y neacaoue , /oi Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia n ieie, /oi iia aa?ao ia naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue, /oi iia noaiiaeony ai aeaaa aeaeaeaiey ? ” – oae
iienuaaao neiaa Ea?aineiai A.A. Ooeueaei .

Ooeueaei ioia/ae, /oi oeao?a Ea?aineiai « aae?oa au?inea a
«cia/eoaeueiinoue» a yoo ieiooo… Ii aiai?ee ?aoeoaeueii, aeanoii, eae
au ia ?anoa?yaoenue… Neiaa e aeanou auee ?acee, io/aeaiaiu, aeaca
ai?aee.. Eacaeinue, /oi yoi aiai?ee « aeanoue eiathuee»… – Ii o ieo –
aeeeoaoi? – i?ioaioae eoi-oi ieiei iaiy…».

I?iaeieaeay oa?aeoa?enoeeo Ea?aineiai, Ooeueaei ienae: « Ii ?in… ?in ia
ia/aaoainy ?aaiethoeeiiiii aieioa, ii eioi?iio ii i?eaue aaaaoue e
i?uaaoue, a oi a?aiy eae iu ia oiaee aeaaea oiaeeoue».

Aunooiay ia?aae iiaeuacaeii Oaa?e/aneiai aeai?oea io eiaie aeaiooaoia
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu, i?e aieueoii neiieaiee ?aai/ae e a?aaeaeaineie
ioaeeee A.O. Ea?aineee neacae: « Oi, /oi iu nia?aeenue caeanue a yoio
ciaiaiaoaeueiue aeaiue aeaao iia aa?o a oi, /oi noa?ue aa?aa?neee niinia
iiaea aacaica?aoii..,, ss i?ecuaath aanue ia?iae caeeth/eoue nae/an
iaeei i?i/iue nithc i?ioea naiiai no?aoiiai iaoaai a?aaa – i?ioea
noa?iai ?aaeeia.». Naith ?a/ue Ea?aineee caeii/ee neiaaie: « Aea
cae?aanoaoao naiaiaeiue a?aaeaeaiei naiaiaeiie ?innee!» Aeieaia «o?a»
auei ioaaoii ia ia?.

Nai A.O. Ea?aineee aniiieiae i ia/aea 1917 aiaea oae: «Any iiy
i?aaeoanoaothuay aeeciue auea eeoue nooiaiueeie e yoiio aiaeo. Eiy iia
noaei aeinoiyieai enoi?ee, ana inoaeueiia auei oaea iaaaaeii. N ia?auo
aeiae oaa?aey y iiiye, /oi yoi iiy ?aaiethoeey, /oi oieueei y niiao
au?aceoue ana oi, i /ai ia/oaee iieieaiey eo/oeo ethaeae ?innee. Eoi aea
aua? Yoio oienoye ?iaecyiei, aiyaoeeny nianoaaiiie oaie? Ao/eia – n aai
i?yiieeiaeiinoueth aeoyeyioa? Ieetheia, eioi?ue aaeaieiooii, eae
aioaea?ue, acaaoeaae iaiythuothny neooaoeeth e eaaeaeue ?ac iaaaoeaae
naiiai naay? Iie eieeaaa *oaeaeca – aieueoa anaai ia naaoa aiyaoeeny
i?eeiniooueny e aeanoe? Iaaei auei niaoeoue. Oaeie aeaaii?eyoiue iiiaio,
eiaaea a Ieoa?a ia auei ie iaeiiai ec ia?enenoneeo aeiaiaoia, iia
aieueoa ieeiaaea ia iiaoi?eoueny. Anee oioeoa, Oaa?aeueneay ?aaiethoeey
iiaaaeeea oieueei iioiio, /oi a Iao?ia?aaea aue y e ia auei Eaieia».

E yoei neiaai oioaeinue au aeiaaaeoue, /oi eiaiii aeaaiaea?y Ea?aineiio
oaa?aeueneea niauoey i?ioee aane?iaii. Nae?aoa?oa Ea?aineiai, Ceiaeaea
Iaiaeeia, aniiieiaea: «Eiaaea auea no?aoiay ii/ue a?anoa oea?neeo
naiiaieeia a oaa?aea 1917 aiaea, ?iaecyiei e Ea?aineee aeaia nooie
iiae?yae aei o?eiiou caueuaee a?anoiaaiiuo. Iinea ii/iiai iaunea a
Ia?eeineee aeai?aoe i?eaiaeeee iieoiaeaouo e enioaaiiuo noa?eeia.
Ea?aineee, noiy ia nooiaiueeao aeai?oea, e?e/ae: ” Ia i?eeanaoueny e
yoiio /aeiaaeo! Ii iaoiaeeony iiae caueoie caeiia”. Ii ni?aae aiein a oo
ii/ue, ii ieeiai ec “auaoeo” ia ?anoa?caee.

Oaa?aeueneay ?aaiethoeey ioe?uea ia?aae no?aiie aeaa aiciiaeiuo e i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ii naiae nooe e iai?aaeaiiinoe iooe iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey. Iieaeao ee ?inney ?aoi?ienoneei iooai e eaieoaeecio eee
ono?aieoueny i?ieaoa?nee – ?aaiethoeeiiiui iooai e nioeeaeecio? Iniiaiui
ai acaeiiioiioaieyo eeannia e ia?oee iaaeaeo oaa?aeai e ieoya?ai 1917
aiaea noaea ai?ueaa ca iaeei ec yoeo iooae.

Ao?aeoacii – eeaa?aeueiay iiiiceoeey niaoeea iieeoe/anee
i?aaieciaaoueny, /oiau caoaaoeoue aeanoue, auiaaooth ec ?oe oea?ecia, e
i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue yoo aeanoue ?acaeaathuaeny ?aaiethoeee. Oaea 27
oaa?aey 1917 aiaea iiae aeaaeaieai niauoee aue i?aaieciaai A?aiaiiue
eiieoao Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii I.A. ?iaecyiei.
I?aaeeiaeaiea aieoe a iaai auei naeaeaii Ea?aineiio e *oaeaeca.
Iineaaeiee ioeacaeny, a Ea?aineee niaeaneeny e noae, eae ii ieoao a
naieo ainiiieiaieyo, iacuaaoueny “caeiaeieeii aeaiie?aoee”. A ia/aea
ia?oa 1917 aiaea A?aiaiiue eiieoao i?aaieciaae A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai
(aei nicuaa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey) iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii A.A.
Eueaiaa.

Ia?aeeaeueii n nicaeaieai yoeo i?aaiia nicaeaaony Iao?ia?aaeneee Niaao,
a eioi?ii aieueoeinoai iano iieo/eee iaiueoaaeee e yna?u. Iineaaeiee
niaeaoaeny ia nicaeaiea ao?aeoaciiai A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ii naieo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae a iaai iinoaiiaee ia iai?aaeyoue,

Ea?aineee, yaeyaoeeny oiaa?euai Eniieieoaeueiiai Eiieoaoa
Iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa, iiiae a o?oaeioth neooaoeeth, eiaaea aio aue
i?aaeeiaeai iino ieieno?a thnoeoeee ai A?aiaiiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A ii/ue
n 1 ia 2 ia?oa ninoiyeinue niaianoiia canaaeaiea eiieoaoa
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu e Eniieieoaeueiiai eiieoaoa Niaaoa ii aii?inai ia
i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe. Eniieieoaeueiue Eiieoao aeiaiai?eeny i
aeaeea?aoeee, eioi?oth aeieaeii auei auionoeoue A?aiaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai. ?aciiaeanea auoei oieueei n Ieetheiaui, eioi?ue
ionoaeaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue iauyaeoue ?inneth eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oeae n
eiycai Ieoaeeii ai aeaaa. Iioii, eae ecaanoii, Ieetheia ia?ooeaaeny ia
Ea?aineiai ca oi, /oi ii aei ?aoaiey O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey, aiai?ee
i ?innee eae i ?anioaeeea. Auei au eioa?anii a yoii ianoa i?aaeaoue yoi
neiai I.I. Nooaiiao: “Auei ieiei 4 /ania oo?a, eiaaea inoaaeee eiiiaoo
Aeoineiai eiieoaoa… Ec eiiiaou, aaea iu canaaeaee, auoae Ea?aineee, e
niiauee iai, /oi aio i?aaeeaaatho ii?ooaeue ieieno?a thnoeoeee.
Ea?aineee ni?aoeaae, eae iinooieoue … “Nooaiia ioaaoee, /oi iaaei
eaoaai?e/anee ioeacaoueny . Ii yoi ia oaeiaeaoai?eei aai. Aai aii?in
naiaeeeny ia e oiio auoue eee ia auoue ieieno?ii… oeaeue aai ?acaiai?a –
ociaoue, iiaeaea?aeeo ee aai Niaao a eeoea aai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, i?eciaao
ee aai naiei, eiaaea ii aoaeao ieieno?ii”.

N yoei aii?inii Ea?aineee ia?auaeny ia oieueei e iaeiiio

I.I. Nooaiiao. Aio /oi aiai?eo ii yoiio iiaiaeo Inoeneaaneee a eieaa «
Iyoue aeiae»: ” Iiae aa/a?, i?ioiaey ieaeiei i?aaui ei?eaei?ii
Oaa?e/aneiai aeai?oea y i?ioyioe oaea ?oeo aeey i?iuaiey, eiaaea
Ea?aineee, neiaii aiacaiii ?aoeaoenue, iooyioe iaiy a noi?iio… e neacae
aiieaieina e auno?i: “Iia i?aaeeaaatho aieoe a eaaeiao, eioi?ue
oi?ie?oao Eueaia, ieieno?ii thnoeoeee. Aieueoa nioeeaeenoia a eaaeiaoa
iao. Eae, ii-aaoaio: eaeoe eee iao?” ss iiaeae iea/aie. “?acaa i?e
oaeeo ?aoaieyo iiaeii niaaoiaaoue eee niaaoiaaoueny?” Ea?aineee
ae??ioeny anai oaeii e aui?yieeny. “Cia/eo e au ia ciaaoa?” – ?acei
oaea?yy ia neiai “au” i?iaiai?ee ii neaicue coau.

N oaeei aea aii?inii Ea?aineee ia?auaeny e e ioeoea?o, /eaio ia?oee
nioeeae – ?aaiethoeeiia?ia A.A. Noaieaae/o, eioi?ue ieoao; «A iaeei ec
ia?auo aeiae, eiaaea aua aaeenue ia?aaiai?u ioiineoaeueii ninoaaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, Ea?aineee oaeaey iaiy ieiei eaaeiaoa ?iaecyiei, iiaeioae
ei iia e cayaee: «Ciaaoa ee, iia i?aaeeaaatho ii?ooaeue ieieno?a
thnoeoeee. A?aoue eee ia a?aoue?» Aii?in aue a oie ieineinoe, /oi
aeaiie?aoe/aneea ia?oee aiiaua ioeacaeenue io o/anoey a i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
Ea?aineiio i?eoiaeeeinue eaeoe i?ioea iano?iaiee naieo ae?ocae. “Ana
?aaii, aicueiaoa eee iao – ana i?iiaei”, – ioaaoee y. « Eae ana i?iiaei?
Aaaeue ana eaeao i?aainoiaeii.» – «A?iey ?aceaaaaony . Ii iiaeao auoue,
au aua nianaoa. Eiia/ii, a?aoue.» « E y iioeaeiaae aai».

Ia yoii aea Ea?aineee ni?aoeaae i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai Aeaiueyiiaa,
eiaeaia?a Iaea?ueaaa e ae?oaeo. Eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao ia cai?in ia
yoii aea ioaaoee aio eaoaai?e/aneei ioeacii. Oai ia iaiaa, 2 ia?oa A.O.
Ea?aineee aeae niaeanea Ieetheiao ia i?eiyoea ii?ooaey ieieno?a
thnoeoeee, a aa/a?ii oiai aea aeiy ia canaaeaiee Niaaoa ?aai/eo
aeaiooaoia, ai a?aiy i?aiee, naycaiiuo n i?aaiecaoeeae A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, Ea?aineee iii?inee neiai aeey aiai/a?aaeiiai cayaeaiey.

A naiae ?a/e ii cayaee: « Oiaa?eue! A iieo ?oeao iaoiaeeeenue
i?aaenoaaeoaee noa?ie aeanoe , e y ia ?aoeeny auionoeoue ec naieo ?oe.
ss i?eiye naeaeaiiia iia i?aaeeiaeaiea e aioae a ninoaa A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a ea/anoaa ieieno?a thnoeoeee. Iaiaaeeaiii, ii
anooieaieth ia iino, y i?eeacae inaiaiaeeoue anao iieeoe/aneeo
caeeth/aiiuo, aeaaea oa??i?enoia, e n iniaui ii/aoii i?ai?iaiaeeoue eo e
iai ec Neae?e. ss caiye iino aei nicuaa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey,
eioi?ia aeieaeii aoaeao, au?aaeay aieth ia?iaea, onoaiiaeoue aoaeouee
ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie ?innee. Aei yoiai iiiaioa aa?aioe?iaaia naiaiaea
i?iiaaaiaeu e aaeoaoeee ii iiaiaeo oi?iu aoaeouaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa ?innee, ia eneeth/ay e ?anioaeeee (aieiaeeniaiou) .

A aeaeo oiai, /oi y i?eiye ia naay iaycaiiinoe ieieno?a thnoeoeee aei
iieo/aiey io aan iieiiii/ee, y neaaath n naay caaiea oiaa?eua
i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa ?aai/eo aeaiooaoia. Ii aeey iaiy aeeciue aac
ia?iaea iaiuneeia, e y aioia i?eiyoue ia naay yoi caaiea, anee au
i?eciaaoa yoi ioaeiui. (e?eee: «I?inei-i?inei»).

Oiaa?eue! Aieaey a ninoaa A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, y inoaeny oai aea,
eai aue – ?anioaeeeaioeai. A naiae aeayoaeueiinoe y aeieaeai iie?aoueny
ia aieth ia?iaea. ss aeieaeai eiaoue a iai iiao/oth iiaeaea?aeeo. Iiao
ee y aa?eoue aai, eae naiiio naaa? (e?eee: “Aa?ue! Oiaa?eu, aa?ue! Aea
cae?aanoaoao ieieno? thnoeoeee!)

Oiaa?eue! Iicaieueoa iia aa?iooueny e A?aiaiiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao e
iauyaeoue aio /oi y aoiaeo a aai ninoaa a aaoaai niaeaoaiey e eae aao
i?aaenaaeaoaeue. ( Iaaoeey: «Aea cae?aanoaoao Ea?aineee!»)»

Ia iaiaa iieii i?iyaeeny oa?aeoa? Ea?aineiai i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i
aeeianoee. A ia?aua aeie ?aaiethoeee, aac aaaeiia A?aiaiiiai
Eniieieoaeueiiai Eiieoaoa Niaaoa ?aai/eo aeaiooaoia, ?iaecyiei nia?yaeee
a Noaaeo e Ieeieath II yeniaaeeoeeth Ao/eiaa e Ooeueaeia, n oeaeueth
au?aaoue o oea?y io?a/aiea a iieueco nuia.

Eae ecaanoii, Ieeieae II ia?aaeae a?acaeu i?aaeaiey Ieoaeeo
Aeaenaiae?iae/o. Aua aei iiacaeee Ao/eiaa e Ooeueaeia Ieeieae II
i?eaeanee e naaa ?iaecyiei. Iaeiaei aeaeaciiaei?iaeieee ioeacaeenue
i?iionoeoue aai iiacae e oea?th aac ?ac?aoaiey Eniieieoaeueiiai
eiieoaoa. ?iaecyiei auioaeaeai aue ia?aoeoueny e *oaeaeca. Aii?in
ianoaeaeaeny a ionoonoaea Ea?aineiai e i?inueaa auea ioeeiiaia.

?ieue, eioi?oth ea?ae i?e yoii yieciaea Ea?aineee, /?acau/aeii
oa?aeoa?ia. Aio eae ?anneacuaaao i iae Nooaiia: «Aii?in i iiacaeea
?iaecyiei aue ?aoai i/aiue auno?i iaeiei ae?oaeiui iaoeneii … ss
aiai?ee: ?iaecyiei ioneaoue e aea?th iaeuecy,… Iaeuecy nicaeaaaoue
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aciaaiey eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie neeu iiae aeaeii
iauaaeeiaiey oea?y n ia?iaeii a eeoea ia?iaeiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa…»
E /oi auei ia iiae neeo iaeiiio oea?th, oi ii eaaei iiaeao naeaeaoue i?e
iiiiue Aeoiu e ?iaecyiei: nia?aoue e aeaeiooue neeu aeey aiaeai?aiey
«ii?yaeea» a Iao?ia?aaea».

Yoe iunee iiaeoaa?aeee I.I. Ieetheia, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo naith ?a/ue oaea
iinea io?a/aiey Ieeieay II ai a?aiy ia?aaiai?ia n Ieoaeeii
Aeaenaiae?iae/ai: “E oiio aea aia Iao?ia?aaea anoue iieiay aiciiaeiinoue
nia?aoue aiaiioth neeo, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey caueou aaeeeiai eiycy”.

Aica?aoeiny e eceiaeaieth I.I. Nooaiiaa: «Auei iinoaiiaeaii a iiacaeea
?iaecyiei ioeacaoue… Iu ia?aoeeenue e i/a?aaeiui aeaeai…. A yoi
a?aiy a eiiiaoo aeaoae aeaaeiue, oaea niaa?oaiii eno?aiaiiue Ea?aineee.
Ia aai eeoea auei io/ayiea, eae aoaeoi i?iecioei /oi-oi oaeaniia. “*oi
au naeaeaee? Eae au iiaee?” – caaiai?ee ii i?a?uaathueiny o?aae/aneei
oaiioii. «Au ia aeaee iiacaea … ?iaecyiei aeieaeai aue aoaoue e
oea?th, /oiau canoaaeoue Ieeieay iiaeienaoue io?a/aiea, a au ni?aaee
yoi. Au nua?aee ia ?oeo iiia?oee, ?iiaiiaui. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue aoaeao
eaaeaoue ia aan…» «Ea?aineee caaeuoaeny, e nia?oaeueii aeaaeiue, a
iaii?iea eee iieoiaii?iea oiae a e?anei… Ea?aineee ia aoi?ie aeaiue
?aaiethoeee yaeeny ec i?aaiai e?uea a eaaia i?yiui, oioy e
aanniciaoaeueiui, i?oaeeai e ?oii?ii Ieetheiaa e ?iaecyiei».

Yoio yieciae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi Ea?aineee i/aiue auaeaeyeny
n?aaee anao a ia?aua aeie ?aaiethoeee. Iaeiaei yoio yieciae a?yae ee
icia/aao oi, /oi Ea?aineee yaeeny n ia?auo aeiae ?aaiethoeee i?oaeeai
i?aauo nee, iai?ioea, ii no?aieeny iauaaeeieoue e?ueuey

Ia oo?aiiai niaauaiey 3 ia?oa n?aaee /eaiia A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
aiciaeaaeaei iiaiea Ea?aineiai i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaaaeeoue aaeeeiai eiycy
Ieoaeea io?a/ueny io i?anoiea. Eae ecaanoii, eiaaea o aaeeeiai eiycy ia
Ieeeeiiii nia?aeenue /eaiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa; A.A. Eueaia, I.I, Ieetheia,
I.A. Iae?ania, I.E. Oa?auaiei, E.A. Aiaeiaa, A.I. Eueaia, A.M. Ao/eia,
A.O. Ea?aineee, /eaiu A?aiaiiiai eiieoaoa I.A. ?iaecyiei, A.A. Ooeueaei.
E.I. Ao?aiia, I.A. Ea?aoeia, oi iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioeaca io i?anoiea
iioeae?iaaee ?iaecyiei e Ea?aineee. I?ioea ieo noiye Ieetheia . Ianiio?y
ia ?aoeoaeueioth iiceoeeth, Ea?aineee ana aea cayaee, /oi a neo/aa
?aoaiey ni noi?iiu aaeeeiai eiycy, ia niaeaniiai n aai iiaieai, ii ia
aoaeao ieacuaaoue i?aiyonoaey e iiaeaea?aeeo i?aaeoaeuenoai, oioy
o/anoaiaaoue a iai ia aoaeao. Eiaaea Ieoaee Aeaenaiae?iae/ ioeacaeny,
Ea?aineee iacaae aai aeaai?iaeiui /aeiaaeii.

Aii?in i aeeianoee aue aieueiui aii?inii ia oieueei aeey Ea?aineiai.
Ianiio?y ia eaiiaieth ii aeene?aaeeoaoeee auaoaai oea?y e aai noi?oae,
Ea?aineee any/anee iuoaeny ia?aaeeoue ?acaeoea /oanoaa iaiaaenoe e
iuaiey.

Eoae, A.O. Ea?aineee aue iiaeiyo ia aieia iieeoe/aneeo «ianoaeueiuo»
iano?iaiee, aucaaiiuo auno?ui e?ooaieai oea?ecia. Ia eaeia-oi a?aiy
naeaaeeeenue ino?aeoea eeanniaua i?ioeai?a/ey, ii iie aeieaeiu auee
iaiaaeeoueny. Oae a aoaeouai e i?iecioei.

2. A.O. Ea?aineee – ieieno? thnoeoeee a ia?aii ninoaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

N iiiaioa iaaeaiey iiia?oee Ea?aineee ieacaeny a oeaio?a niauoee. Yoi
aue oio enoi?e/aneee iiiaio, eioi?ue ii?iaeee eaeaaeueioth, a
i?aaenoaaeaiee Ea?aineiai, ?inneth. Ia?aua aeaa iaaeaee nouanoaiaaiey
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa noaee naiuie n/anoeeauie a iieeoe/aneie
ea?uea?a Ea?aineiai, Ec 11 /eaiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii aue aaeeinoaaiiui
nioeeaeenoii, inoaeueiua i?eiaaeeaaeaee e eeaa?aeueiie e
oia?aiii-eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oeyi. Oai ia iaiaa, A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai
auei iiaeaea?aeaii eae eaauie – ?aaethoeeiiii – aeaiie?aoe/aneei
eaaa?ai, oae e i?aaui — ao?aeoacii-iiiaue/ueei. Ea?aineee, iie?aynue ia
naycaiiuo n iei ianiineeie ocaie A.E. Eiiiaaeiaa, I.A. Iae?aniaa, I.E.
Oa?auaiei, caiye a iai aeiieie?othuaa ianoi. «Aaeeinoaaiiue aiein aeanoe
a canaaeaieyo i?eiaaeeaaeae Ea?aineiio, ia?aae eioi?ui i?aaenaaeaoaeue
niaa?oaiii noooaauaaeny».

Any aeayoaeueiinoue Ea?aineiai a yoio ia?eiae auea nin?aaeioi/aia ai
A?aiaiiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia ii n/eoae aa?oiaiie aeanoueth, –
«ene?aiii n/eoae, /oi A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaeaaeaao aa?oiaiie
aeanoueth e /oi Eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao ia ai?aaa aiaoeaaoueny a aai
aeayoaeueiinoue» .

Ii, n i?enouei aio a yoio ia?eiae ?iiaioeciii, aeoiae, /oi anao /eaiia
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa «iauaaeeiyei /oanoai aeieaa», eioi?ia iie
«noaaeee i?aauoa i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e eaeie-eeai ia?oee». A?yae ee yoi
auei oae.

Ia?aae A?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii noiyee, ii iiaieth Ea?aineiai,
/aou?a iaeaieaa aaaeiua caaea/e:

1.I?iaeieaeeoue caueoo no?aiu.

2.Ainnicaeaoue ii anae no?aia aeaenoaaiiue aaeieieno?aoeaiue aiia?ao

3.I?iaanoe iaiaoiaeeiua ei?aiiua iieeoe/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua ?aoi?iu.

4.Iiaeaioiaeoue iooue aeey i?aia?aciaaiey ?innee ec e?aeia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa a oaaea?aeueiia.

Ea?aineiio auea a?o/aia noaeueaa i?aainoaeey.

A 3 /ana 3 ia?oa Ea?aineee i?eaue a iiiauaiea ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee,
aaea oaea nia?aeenue ana aunoea /eiu yoiai i?aaia, ai aeaaa n auaoei
oiaa?euai *aauoaaui, Eeueyuaiei e *aieeiui.

A?aiaiiue eiienna? ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee A.I. Aanaeia naeaeae niiauaiea
i iieiaeaiee aeae a ieienoa?noaa e a oth?aiiii oi?aaeaiee, e ia?aaeae
ana aeaea Ea?aineiio, iinea /aai neiaeee n naay iieiiii/ey eiienna?a.

N naiiai ia/aea naiae aeayoaeueiinoe Ea?aineee iuoaaony i?aaeioa?aoeoue
i?ieeoea e?iae, «iaiaaeoiaiiua, iaaeiionoeiua ianeeey, oioy au e
aucaaiiua anoanoaaiiui aicaoaeaeaiea a?aaeaeai». N yoie oeaeueth ii
i?ecuaaao anao a?aaeaeai e io?aiaieth iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai, eoi
au ii ie aue.

Iiyoiio, iaeiei ec ia?auo i?eeacia noaiiaeony i?eeac io 3 ia?oa 1917
aiaea ia ia?aciaaiee a?aiaiiuo noaeia, a eioi?uo ono?aiyeenue au
iaaei?acoiaiey. aicieeoea a ai?iaea iaaeaeo nieaeaoaie, ianaeaieai e
?aai/eie. Yoi auea ia?a a?aiaiiiai oa?aeoa?a e i?aaeiieaaaea canaaeaiey
a ninoaaa o?ao /aeiaae: ie?iaiai noaeuee, i?aaenoaaeoaey a?iee e
i?aaenoaaeoaey ?aai/eo a iiiauaiee eaia?u ie?iaiai noaeuee.

2 e 3 ia?oa auoiaeyo ?anii?yaeaiey A.O. Ea?aineiai i iaiaaeeaiiii e
iieiii inaiaiaeaeaiee /eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu Iao?ianeiai,
Io?aiiaa, Aaaeaaaa, Oaaaaaa, Naiieeiaa, A?aoei – A?aoeianeie e
iaania/aiee ei ii/aoiiai aica?auaiey a Iao?ia?aae.

O?iieea aacaou “Aanoiee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa” aeaao naaaeaiey i
oii, /oi aa/a?ii yoiai aea aeiy Ea?aineee anooiaao a ia?aaiai?u ii
oaeaa?aoiiio i?iaiaeo n aeaiooaoaie io iao?inia ia Aaeoeeneii oeioa,
aaea i?ioiaeeee aieiaiey. A.O. Ea?aineee i?inee iao?inia i?ae?aoeoue
?aca?ii ?onneiai oeioa. Yoio oaeo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii. /oi
aeayoaeueiinoue ieieno?a thnoeoeee ia ia?aie/eaaeanue oieueei
th?eaee/aneie iaeanoueth. Oaea a yoi a?aiy Ea?aineiai eioa?aniaaee
aii?inu aiaiiua e ii?neea, /oi iicaieeei iaeioi?ui aaoi?ai aeaeaoue
auaiae i oii, /oi ieieno? thnoeoeee, ia oniaa iieo/eoue ia?aue iino,
noae a?aceoue i aiaiiie aeanoe. Yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea niaa?oaiii ia
niioaaonoaoao iiaaaeaieth Ea?aineiai, eiaaea aio yoio iino i?aaeeiaeeee.

Ea?aineee i/aiue /anoi niaiauae iaycaiiinoe i?aaenaaeaoaey A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa A.A. Eueaiaa.

Oae, 5 ia?oa ca eo iiaeienyie aeathony oeacu i?aaeoaeuenoaothuaio
naiaoo: o/?aaeeoue iniaoth neaaenoaaiioth eiienneth aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey
i?ioeaicaeiiiuo aeaenoaee naiaoi?ia oaieiaiiai eannaoeeiiiiai
aeaia?oaiaioa i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai naiaoa, i?e ?anniio?aiee aeae ii
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?anooieaieyi; o/?aaeeoue aa?oiaioth neaaenoaaiioth
eiienneth aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey i?ioeaicaeiiiuo ii aeieaeiinoe aeaenoaee
auaoeo ieieno?ia, aeaaiioi?aaeythueo e ae?oaeo eeoe; oi?acaeieoue
onoaiiaeaiiua a caeiia iniaua noaeu (aa?oiaiue oaieiaiue noae, noaeaaiua
iaeaou n o/anoeai nineiaiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae) e ae?oaea i?aaeienaiey.

7 ia?oa aue iioaeeeiaai i?eeac Ea?aineiai ia aiienoee, eioi?ue
i?aaeoniao?eaae inaiaiaeaeaiea anao caeeth/aiiuo ii iieeoe/aneei
i?anooieaieyi anao eaoaai?ee, a oii /enea e ?aeeaeiciuo. Auee nie?auaiu
n?iee caeeth/aiey eeoeai, niaea?aeaueiny iiae no?aaeae ii i?eaiai?ai
noaeia ca iauaoaieiaiua aeayiey, e iaoiaeyueony a aaaao a neo/aa
aeia?iaieueiiai eo aica?auaiey. Eioa?anii, /oi Ea?aineee i?aaeeaaae
i?ieo?i?ai noaeaaiuo iaeao e ie?oaeiuo noaeia i?iecaiaeeoue
inaiaiaeaeaiea ee/ii, /oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey ieieno?a thnoeoeee Ea?aineiai,
n oiiieiaieai i?eaaonoaey io aai eiaie eaaeaeiio.

Ea?aineee a i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ieetheiaa aea?aeae naay i/aiue i?inoi,
aeaiie?aoe/anee, aeae ?oeo oaaeoea?ai e i?i/aa, oioy a yoii, aaconeiaii,
i?enoonoaiaaei i?iyaeaiea aai oyae e oaao?aeueiinoe.

7 ia?oa ia?aciaaiiua ii i?eeaco io 3 ia?oa a?aiaiiua noaeu aeey ?acai?a
oaieiaiuo aeae ia/aee naith ?aaioo a Aaneeueaaneii, Iao?ia?aaeneii,
Auai?aneii, Eeoaeiii, Iineianeii, Ia?aneii, ?iaeaeanoaaineii,
Eieiiaineii, Eacaineii, Nianneii, Aaeie?aeoaeneii,
Aeaenaiae?ianei-Iaaneii ?aeiiao.

A yoio aea aeaiue Ea?aineee oo?ii i?eaue a Iineao. Eioa?anii iienaiea
aai ano?a/e: «aue ano?a/ai ia aiecaea i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey ano?a/e aue io?yaeai ii/aoiue ea?aoe io
Aeaenaiae?ianeiai aiaiiiai o/eeeua. Io eiaie iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee ieieno?a i?eaaonoaiaaee Ae.E. Oaoianeee,
i?aaenoaaeoaeue iaaeno?aoo?u, i?aaenoaaeoaeue noaeaaiie iaeaou Aeeie
e i?ieo?i? noaeaaiie iaeaou *aauoaa.Io aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ?aai/eo
i?eaaonoaiaae iaeei ec ?aai/eo, eioi?ue iacaae aai oiaa?euai. Ieieno? n
iei ?anoeaeiaaeny…»

Ia?auaynue e aaeaieaoai, ii i?ecuaaao ca/eneeoue a nineiaea aaeaieaoia
aeaiuei th?enoia. Ii niiauee, /oi aeey aeaea ii inaiaiaeaeaieth
iieeoe/aneeo ni anao eiioeia ?innee oaeoo e?oiiua iiaea?oaiaaiey. Oae,
eiini?oeeoi iao?ia?aaeneeo aaieia iiaea?oaiaae 500 ouny/ ?oaeae. Ia
canaaeaiee niaaoa ioeoea?neeo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia ii ia?auaaony e
iei n aii?inii: «Iiao ee y niiaueoue A?aiaiiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao, /oi
iineianeay a?iey, /oi iineianeea nieaeaou e ioeoea?u, /oi iie iaoe, /oi
iie aa?yo iai, e /oi iie naeaeatho ana, /oi iu ei neaaeai (Aoe anae
aoaeeoi?ee: «Aa?ei, aaoe!». Ao?iua aieiaeeniaiou)… aiia?ao aeeianoee
iaaca?aaeai. Nicaeaaaeoa iiaue ia?iae e iiaoth a?ieth, a ana, /oi
inoaeinue iicaaee, ioaeaeoa iia.

Ia yoii ?a/ue Ea?aineiai ia?uaaaony n iei i?ienoiaeeo iaii?ie. *a?ac
ieiooo ii i?eoiaeeo a naay. Iaeei ec i?aoi?ia iauyniyao, /oi ieieno?
oaea iaaeaeth ia niae e nianai auaeeny ec nee».

Caoai Ea?aineee iai?aaeyaony ia canaaeaiea eiieoaoa iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, aaea aiai?eo, /oi aeaaiui i?eioeeiii aai aeayoaeueiinoe
yaeyaony aa?a a /aeiaaea.

“Iniiaiie i?eioeei – noae i?enyaeiuo. Aeaei auaoeo ieieno?ia oaeaea
aoaeao i?aaeaii yoiio noaeo”. A oanoue /ania Ea?aineee i?eiye
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia/aoe, a a 11 /ania 30 ieioo oacaeaao ec Iineau.

Eaaeaeue aeaiue yoiai /aeiaaea aue /?acau/aeii ianuuaiiui, ii aeoeaii
acyeny ca aeaei i?aaiecaoeee iiauo ia/ae ii noaeaaiiio aaaeiinoao.

8 ia?oa ecaeaaony i?eeac ?4 ia ia?aciaaiee eiiennee aeey ?ac?aoaiey
aii?inia, eanathueony ?aciauaiey e niaea?aeaiey a?anoiaaiiuo a
Iao?ia?aaea.

11 ia?oa auoei iieiaeaiea i /?acau/aeiie neaaenoaaiiie aeey
?anneaaeiaaiey i?ioeaicaeiiiuo ii aeieaeiinoe aeaenoaee auaoeo
ieieno?ia, aeaaiioi?aaeythueo e i?i/eo aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe;
/?acau/aeiay neaaenoaaiiay eiienney o/?aaeaeaaony i?e ieienoa?noaa
thnoeoeee, a ea/anoaa aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a…,iieuecothuaainy i?aaaie
oiaa?eua ieieno?a thnoeoeee, aeaoo oiaa?euae i?aaenaaeaoaey e /aou?ao
/eaiia, iacia/aaiuo i?eeacaie A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. I?e eiiennee
ninoiyo eeoea, eiiaiaee?oaiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa neaaenoaaiiuo
aeaenoaee, . . aeou ieii/aoaeueiiai ?anneaaeiaaiey eiienney
i?aaenoaaeyao ni naiei ienueiaiiui caeeth/aieai aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?o aeey
aeieeaaea A?aiaiiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao. Iiaeienae: ieieno? –
i?aaenaaeaoaeue eiycue Eueaia. Ne?aiee: ieieno? thnoeoeee Ea?aineee».

Iniaay neaaenoaaiiay eiienney auea ia?aciaaia e 20 ia?oa. Ea?aineee
i?eieiae aeoeaiia o/anoea ia oieueei a aa i?aaiecaoeee, ii e a
ii?aaeaeaiee aa caaea/. Caaea/e eiiennee ?aniaaeaeenue ia o?e a?oiiu:

1. ?anneaaeiaaiea acyoi/ie/anoaa, eaciie?aaenoaa, ceioiio?aaeaiea
aeanoueth, iioai?noai e o.i., oi anoue oa i?anooieaiey, eioi?ua auee
i?anooieaieyie i?e noa?ii no?ia.

2. ?anneaaeiaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe eeoe, eioi?ua ioeoeeaeueii ia caieiaee
ieeaeeo ioaaonoaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae, ii, iieuecoynue aeecinoueth e a.
oea?th e a. oea?eoea ieacuaaee aieueoia aeeyiea ia iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue
iauanoaa.

3. ?anneaaeiaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe io?aieoaeae i?aaeiaai no?iy a i?yiii
niunea yoiai neiaa: aeayoaeueiinoe /eiia aeaia?oaiaioa iieeoeee, ei?iona
aeaiaea?iia e ae?.

13 ia?oa Ea?aineee ooaa?aeee i?aaeeiaeaiea i?ieo?i?a Iao?ia?aaeneie
noaeaaiie iaeaou I.I. Ia?aaa?caaa, a eioi?ii aiai?eeinue i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aciaaiey eiiennee ia a?anoiaaiiuo (aa?iyoii, yoi
neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue, eae i?iaeieaeaiea i?eeaca io 8 ia?oa 1917
aiaea), eieo aeioei aei ianeieueeeo ouny/, eioi?ay aeieaeia aoaeao
i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo a?aiaiiuo noaeia, ?aaeno?e?iaaoue anao
a?anoiaaiiuo, ?acaeaeyoue eo ia a?oiiu e i?i/aa.

Ca aeaiue aei yoiai 12 ia?oa 1917 aiaea Ea?aineee ecaeae oeac ia ioiaia
nia?oiie eacie, caiaia aa eaoi?aie n?i/iie eee aann?i/iie.

Cayaeyeinue ia iaeaa/aiee o/anoe eeoeai, niaa?oeaoei oaieiaiua
i?anooieaiey. Auee ioiaiaiu iaeacaiey aeey nnueueiiiinaeaioeaa e
a?anoaioia ?icaaie. a oaeaea iaeiaeaiea ieia e iaaeaaaiea “nie?eoaeueiie
?oaaoee”.

N na?aaeeiu ia?oa Ea?aineee niaa?oaao iiacaeee ii ?innee,

15 ia?oa auacaeaao a Naaaai?a e Aaeueneiaoi?n. Ea?aineee i?eaue a
Aaeueneiaoi?n 16 ia?oa. Ia aiecaea ii i?iecian ai?y/oth ?a/ue, a eioi?ie
i?eaaonoaiaae naiaiaeioth Oeieyiaeeth.

18 ia?oa aianoa n ae?oaeie ieieno?aie Ea?aineee i?eaue a Iiaeeaa. 22
ia?oa a o?iieea aacaou “Aanoiee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa” i?eaiaeeony
caeeth/aiea Ea?aineiai i ninoiyiee a?iee ia o?iioa, eioi?ia ii naeaeae
ec naiaai iinauaiey Noaaee e aeeceiai iauaiey n ioeoea?aie e nieaeaoaie.
Ii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iiaie «ineoieiaee aieneiaie n?aaeu, ii eioi?ie
aeenoeeieeia a a?iee yaeyaony oaea ?acoeueoaoii acaeiiiai iiieiaiey e
nieeaea?iinoe iaaeaeo ioeoea?aie e nieaeaoaie».

20 ia?oa auoei iinoaiiaeaiea A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia ioiaia
aa?ieniiaaaeiuo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aie/aiee. A yoio aea aeaiue auoae
oeac A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ii eioi?iio aeieaeiinoue noaeuee
?acee/iiai ?iaea iiaee caieiaoue ethaee i?ineoaeeaoea a noaeaaiii
aaaeiinoaa:

a) Aeey aeieaeiinoe /eaia eee oiaa?eua i?ieo?i?a ie?oaeiiai noaea – 4
aiaea;

a) Aeey aeieaeiinoe i?aaenaaeaoaey, oiaa?eua i?aaenaaeaoaey eee
i?ieo?i?a ie?oaeiiai noaea eee oiaa?eua i?ieo?i?a noaeaaiie iaeaou – 6
eao;

a) Oiaa?eua iaa?-i?ieo?i?a naiaoa – 8 eao;

a) Aeey aeieaeiinoe naiaoi?ia e iaa?-i?ieo?i?ia eannaoeeiiiuo
aeaia?oaiaioia naiaoa- 10 eao.

Aeaiie?aoeci Ea?aineiai y?ei au?aceeny a ioiioaiee e iiia?oo,
io?aeoaiony io o?iia. Ieieno? thnoeoeee n/eoae, /oi iaeuecy i?aa?auaoue
oea?y a io/aieea; yoei naiui auea aic?iaeaeaia iiia?oe/aneay eaaaiaea.
Aua 7 ia?oa, aunooiay a Iineianeii Niaaoa, ii cayaeye: “Nae/an Ieeieae
II iiae iiei ee/iui iaaethaeaieai aoaeao ioaacai a aaaaiue e ioooaea ia
ia?ioiaea ioi?aaeony a Aiaeeth”.

Eae ecaanoii, a?eoaineea aeanoe aei ieii/aiey aieiu ioeacaeenue i?eiyoue
oea?neoth naiueth. Oiaaea A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai auaacei Ieeieay II a
Oiaieuene. Aei yoiai a?aiaie ?iiaiiau iaoiaeeeenue a Oea?neii Naea.

Nthaea auaoae Ea?aineee 21 ia?oa 1917 aiaea, /oiau iciaeiieoueny n
ii?yaeeii niaea?aeaiey iiae no?aaeae eiia?aoi?a e aai naiuee I?eciaa
ii?yaeie aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae io?aiu oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui, Ea?aineee
aeae iaeioi?ua eino?oeoeee io?aia Aeaenaiae?ianeiai aeai?oea.

25 ia?oa A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iinoaiiaeei:

1. Ia?aciaaoue i?e ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee eiienneth aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey
iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee noaeaaiuo onoaaia n eo i?ienoaaeoae ia?aiaiie iiae
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii Ea?aineiai.

2. Ia?aciaaoue a?aiaiiue aunoee aeenoeeieeia?iue noae, caieiathueeny
aeaeaie iai anao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoeao noaeaaiiai aaaeiinoaa.

3. I?aaeinoaaeoue ieieno?o thnoeoeee i?aai aiineoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ai
a?aiaiiue aunoee noae.

Ea?aineee i?eiye aeoeaiia o/anoea a ii?iaeecaoeee iieiaeaiey a
E?iiooaaeoa. Ii niaeaenoaiaae inaiaiaeaeaieth cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
ioeoea?ia, a?anoiaaiiuo a ia?aua aeie ?aaiethoeee. Aa?ioaoenue ec
E?iiooaaeoa, Ea?aineee aunooiaao 26 ia?oa a Niaaoa Nieaeaoneeo
Aeaiooaoia, aaea aiai?eo, /oi «aue a Iineaa, a Oeieyiaeee, a Noaaea, a
Oea?neii Naea e anthaeo ano?a/ae niieieiia iano?iaiea … *oi aea
eanaaony aieiu e aa oeaeae, A.O. Ea?aineee neacae, /oi n/eoaao
i?iaeieaeaiea aieiu iaiaoiaeeiui aeey aaciianiinoe iiaiai no?iy, ii
i?iaeieaeaiea eaiiaiee ia i?aneaaeoao ieeaeeo caaiaaaoaeueiuo ieaiia.

Niaao Nieaeaoneeo Aeaiooaoia… i?eaaonoaiaae aai e auian aai ec
canaaeaiey ia ?oeao».

28 ia?oa Ea?aineee aunooiaao ia i?eaia A?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii
aeaeaaaoeee io ia?aie a?iee, aaea aiai?eo, /oi «ie/aai ia iiaeao auoue
eiiai a ?onneie aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?innee, eae aeaiie?aoe/aneay
?anioaeeea. Iu aa?ei, /oi au oiaa?eue ia iaeiie aiaoiae aeenoeeieeiie, a
aioo?aiiai niei/aiee nicaeaaeeoa oo ianie?ooeioth no?aio, /a?ac eioi?oth
e iai ia i?iieeaao e a?aa ecaia».

Ea?aineee i?eieiae aeoeaiia o/anoea a i?eaiao ?acee/iiai ?iaea
aeaiooaoeee, /anoi caiauay ieieno?a-i?aaenaaeaoaey. Oae, 30 ia?oa ii
ee/ii i?eiye ianeieueei aeaiooaoeee. Ca aeaiue aei yoiai a Ia?eeineee
aeai?aoe yaeeanue aeaiooaoeey io Aai?aeaaneiai aaoaeueiia. Aacaoa ieoao:
“A.O. Ea?aineee neacae: “Noa?ue ?aaeei aue oaa?ai, /oi n iiiiuueth
Aai?aeaaneiai aaoaeueiia ii nie?ooeo ainnoaaoee ia?iae. Iaeiaei yoio
iineaaeiee iieio nai ia?aoae ia iaoo noi?iio”. Iinea yoiai ieieno?
thnoeoeee A.O. Ea?aineee iaioae anao aeaeaaaoia e iaeiaucaeny n ieie”.

Aiiaua ieieno? thnoeoeee oaeaeye i/aiue iiiai aieiaiey ano?a/ai n
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie a?iee, iiacaeeai ii o?iioai, aaea iuoaeny iaeaaeeoue
eiioaeo n nieaeaoneeie eiieoaoaie, ainnoaiiaeoue aeenoeeieeio.

12 ai?aey ii aiai?ee i?aaenoaaeoaeyi 7 a?iee: « Aeaaiie caaea/ae
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa yaeyaony nae/an niaeaenoaiaaoue aaeeinoa’
iaoeee a ?aoathuee iiiaio aa aeecie… Iu aeieaeiu eniieieoue aeaa
caaea/e: ai-ia?auo, oe?aieoue naiaiaeo, aeaiie?aoece?iaaoue no?aio e
aeiaanoe aa aei O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey, eioi?ia, eae y ia
niiiaaathnue, auneaaeaony ca aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ?anioaeeeo, e, ai-aoi?uo,
iu ia aeieaeiu iicaieeoue i?i?aaoue o?iio, oie/oiaeeoue aeeaoth neeo
ainoaea?noaa e. ioiyoue naiaiaeo … iu ioaeaeaainy a eiio?iea e e?eoeea
Niaaoia nieaeaoneeo, ?aai/eo, e?anoueyineeo e ioeoea?neeo aeaiooaoia,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho ia?iae e ?onneoth aeaiie?aoeth,,.

A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai n/eoaao, /oi 8-/aniaie ?aai/ee aeaiue aeieaeai
auoue ii?iie ?aaiou aeey anao o?oaeyueony e anaai ?aai/aai eeanna, ii
caaea/a iai?iiu o?aaoao iai?yaeaiey e anao nee.

Iiyoiio 8-/aniaie ?aai/ee aeaiue ia icia/aao nie?auaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
o?oaea, oae eae ?aai/ea niaeaneeenue ia naa?oo?i/iua ?aaiou aeey
iaania/aiey a?iee a iieiii iauaia… aii?in i caiea, iiaeao ?aoeoue
oieueei O/?aaeeoaeueiia Nia?aiea.

Iaoa caaea/a iiea – nia?aoue e iiaeaioiaeoue aanue iaoa?eae, /oiau
ia?iaeiua i?aaenoaaeoaee iiaee niieieii e a iieiii ciaiee aeaea
auneacaoue nai? iiaiea, a /oiau ieeoi ia iia aei nicuaa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai
Nia?aiey i?aae?aoaoue aii?ina i caiea ia a iieueco ia?iaea, A?aiaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ecaeano caeii, i?einoaiaaeeaathuee ?anii?yaeaiea
/anoii-caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth… iu iiiai, noieaoee i?eaueee
aeaeaoue, ie/aai ia iieo/ay, a oaia?ue oioei ana iieo/eoue, ia iaeeaeay
ie iaeiiai aeiy. I?aa?aoeoue aceaoneoth iiia?oeth a naioth, auoue
iiaeao, niaa?oaiioth ia naaoa ?anioaeeeo e ia aeiionoeoue ioeaie,
aeaeaaoeony a naia a?aiy caiaaeii. Aa?iiie, – yoa caaea/a ia iiaeao
auoue ?aoaia a ianeieueei aeiae, iia o?aaoao anee aiaeia, oi ianeieueeeo
ianyoeaa…».

A oiaea Ai?aeueneiai e?ecena – aeaiiino?aoeee a ciae i?ioanoa i?ioea
iiou ieieno?a eiino?aiiuo aeae I.I. Ieetheiaa i?aaeoaeuenoaii nithciuo
aea?aeaa i aioiaiinoe A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?iaeieaeaoue aieio aei
iiaaaeu – 24 ai?aey Ea?aineee cayaee, /oi aueaeao ec ninoaaa eaaeiaoa,
anee Ieetheia ia aoaeao ia?aaaaeai ia iino ieieno?a i?inaauaiey.
Iaeiia?aiaiii Ea?aineee iio?aaiaae iaiaaeeaiii aianoe a i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?aaenoaaeoaeae nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ia?oee, iinoaaee naia i?aauaaiea a
ninoaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa a caaeneiinoue io i?eiyoey yoiai o?aaiaaiey.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeaoo canaaeaiee a Eniieieoaeueiii eiieoaoa Niaaoa iooue
e ?aoaieth ninoaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa aue ioe?uo, nioeeaeenou
aioee a i?aaeoaeuenoai.

A iaioa?ao Ea?aineee ienae: « N ionoaaeie aiaiiiai ieieno?a Ao/eiaa
i?ae?aoee naia nouanoaiaaiea ia?aue eaaeiao A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
caeii/eeny ia?aue ia?eiae aai aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aae ?inioneii ia?aue
eaaeiao A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia?aoeeny e ia?iaeo n iieeoe/aneei
caaauaieai, eioi?ia aei neo ii? aieioao aeooo e na?aeoea. Iiaeuoiaeeaay
aaeain naiaai ei?ioeiai, ii e?aeia o?oaeiiai e iai?yaeaiiiai
nouanoaiaaiey i?aaeoaeuenoai aunooieei ni neaaeothuei
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieai, eioi?ia ieacaeinue i?i?i/aneei: «… A?aiaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai n/eoaao naiei aeieaii i?yii e ii?aaeaeaiii cayaeoue, /oi
oaeia iieiaeaiea aeaeaao oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaii e?aeia
cao?oaeieoaeueiui e a naiai iineaaeiaaoaeueiii ?acaeoee oa?iaeaao
i?eaanoe no?aio e ?aniaaeo aioo?e no?aiu e ii?aaeaieth ia o?iioa. Ia?aae
?inneae anoaao no?aoiue i?ec?ae iaaeaeioniaiie aieiu e aia?oee, ianouee
aeaaeue naiaiaeu. Aoaeoaeueiue e nei?aiue iooue, aaaeouee io naiaiaeu
/a?ac iaaeaeioniaea e aia?oeth e ?aaeoeee e aica?aoo aeaniioecia».

A.O. Ea?aineee i?eieiae naiia aeoeaiia o/anoea a iiiuoeao
aeaiie?aoecaoeee a ?innee. Auea onoaiiaeaia iacaaeneiinoue noaeia e
noaeae. Auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu ana niaoeeaeueiua noaeu, a ana iieeoe/aneea
aeaea, eee aeaea, naycaiiua n ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoueth, noaee
?anniao?eaaoueny a noaea i?enyaeiuo, eae e ana iau/iua oaieiaiua aeaea.
Ea?aineee caieiaeny ia oieueei aii?inaie iieeoe/aneeo e a?aaeaeaineeo
i?aa. *anoi aai eioa?aniaaee e aiaiiua aii?inu, eioi?uie n IA*AEII 1917
aiaea ii noae iaiin?aaenoaaiii caieiaoueny, eae iiaue aiaiiue e ii?neie
ieieno? a ia?aii eiaeeoeeiiiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

3. A.O. Ea?aineee – aiaiiue e ii?neie ieieno? a ia?aii eiaeeoeeiiiii
i?aaeoaeuenoaa

Iinea e?ecena A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa anoae aii?in i i?eaiieea A.A.
Ao/eiaa. Ieieno?-i?aaenaaeaoaeue A.A. Eueaia i?aaeeiaeee /eaiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?ieiinoeueoe?iaaoueny ii yoiio aii?ino n aaia?aeii
Aeaenaaaui, eae Aa?oiaiui eiiaiaeothuei. Aeaenaaa ?aeiiaiaeiaae aeaoo
/aeiaae: Ea?aineee e Iaeue/eineee (ai?iue eiaeaia?, aania?oeeiue
iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue). Eueaia aei ia/aea canaaeaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa
aucaae Ea?aineiai e i?aaeeiaeee caiyoue iino aiaiiiai e ii?neiai
ieieno?a: «iai ioaeai /aeiaae n aaoei iieiaeaieai, eioi?iio aeiaa?ytho
no?aia e a?iey. Aao aeiea niaeaneoueny caiyoue yoio iino, e au ia ai?aaa
ioeacuaaoueny». I?eaiaey yoe neiaa Eueaiaa a naieo iaioa?ao, Ea?aineee
ieoao aeaeaa: «I?aaeaaoenue ?aciuoeaieyi a oeoe naiaai eaaeiaoa a
caeaiee ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee, y iiia/aeo iin/eoae aeey naay
iaaiciiaeiui ioeacaoueny oioue ia eaeia-oi a?aiy io o/anoey a i?eiyoee
aeaaiuo iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee a ninoaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iieeoe/aneay
neooaoeey aioo?e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eiaeeoeee auea ianoieueei
ianoaaeeueia, /oi ionoeoue ia naiioae auei iaeuecy. I?eaey e oaeiio
auaiaeo, y iioyioeny e oaeaoiio, iaia?aaaynue niiaueoue i naiai ioeaca,
ii ooo iia iaiaeeaeaiii i?eoea a aieiao iuneue i oii, /oi aeaeao iith
?aaioo, i?aaeoaeuenoai, ?inneth, anee iai aoaeao iaaycaii «ia?aie?ea».
*a?ac aeaa-o?e ianyoea iieiinoueth ?acaaeeoueny ?onneee o?iio, ia
caiaaea caaa?oeoueny oniaoii ieai Aeiaeaiao?aa – Ethaeaiaei?oa, a ?inney
ieaaeaony ai aeanoe aa?iaineeo i?aoaiaeaioia ia ie?iaia ainiiaenoai…
?inney ia iiaeao aeiionoeoue ii?aaeaiey naieo nithcieeia, eai naycaia n
ieie iauae noaeueaie» .

5 iay i?aaeoaeuenoai cayaeei, /oi iaycaiiinoe aiaiiiai e ii?neiai
ieieno?a aiceiaeaiu ia A.O. Ea?aineiai, i?e/ai ca iei inoaaeyeenue
iaycaiiinoe ieieno?a thnoeoeee.

Aua 3 iay ia canaaeaiee eiiennee ii au?aaioea iieiaeaiee, eanathueony
aiaiii-ii?neiai auoa e eiiennee ii ia?aniio?o aiaiii-noaeaaiuo onoaaia
Ea?aineee i?iecian ?a/ue: “Aeaaiia e aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi nae/an noieo
ia?aae iaie – yoi cae?aieaiea ieiaeia ?aaiethoeee e nicaeaiea ec ?innee
naiie naiaiaeiie aeaiie?aoee a ie?a.., aaaeue niaa?oaiii yeaiaioa?iua
aaue: ieeoi e ieeiaaea ia iiaeao aeeoue ia o naay aeiia, e ieeoi e
ieeiaaea ia nie?eony, eiaaea ii a nai?i aeiia ia?anoa?o auoue
oicyeiii.”

Yoe neiaa i/aiue oi?ioi iiaeoaa?aeeeenue anae iineaaeothuae ca aiaeii
aeeciueth Ea?aineiai. Ia?anoaa auoue oicyeiii a naiai aeiia, a naiae
no?aia, ii ia iia ie?eony n yoei. E oioy ii e aeee a ae?oaeo no?aiao, ii
ia a?ae a?aaeaeainoaa, oae eae ia iia “aeeoue ia o naay aeiia” e anaaaea
ia/oae aa?iooueny a ?inneth.

Aunooiay 3 iay ia canaaeaiee, ii ia ciae, /oi iiaaaeaiea, eioi?ia ii
n/eoae iaaeiionoeiui ie i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, aoaeao
i?eienuaaoueny aio iineaaeothueie iieieaieyie. Eiaaony a aeaeo
neaaeothuaa; «Caueuaoue oi, /oi iai aeaee i?aaeee, e oi, /oi iu aeieaeiu
ioaeaoue iioiieai yoi … ia?aiia/aeueiay iaycaiiinoue, io eioi?ie ieeoi
ia iiaeao ioeacaoueny, anee ii oi/ao inoaaaoueny ni caaieai /anoiiai
/aeiaaea, e nae/an iu aea?aeei yecaiai ia oieueei ia ioae?inoue, ii e ia
naioth ia?aiauoioth /anoiinoue, ia oi, /oiau iai ia neacaee aoaeouea
iieieaiey, /oi a 1917 aiaeo a ?innee aeeee ethaee iiaeiaiua iioai e
?anoi/eoaeyi…»

Ia iao acaeyae, Ea?aineee ia ioiineeny e /eneo oao ethaeae, eioi?ua
«i?iiioaee ?inneth aei iieiiai oiaaeea» (auneacuaaiea Nieaeaieoeuia).

Ii auaea?aeao eniuoaiea ia /anoiinoue, ii Eaiei naeae yecaiai ia
ioae?inoue n ai?acaei aieaa aunieie ioeaieie, eioi?oth iinoaaeea aio
neooaoeey a ?innee inaiueth 1917 aiaea.

5 iay Ea?aineee auionoee i?eeac ?5 ii a?iee e oeioo: «Acya ia naay
aiaiioth aeanoue a ainoaea?noaa, iauyaeyth:

1.Ioa/anoai a iianiinoe e eaaeaeue aeieaeai ioa?aoeoue aa ii e?aeiaio
?acoiaieth e neea, ia ace?ay ia ana oyaiou. Ieeaeeo i?inuea ia ionoaaea
eeoe aunoaai eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa, aicaoaeaeaaiuo ec aeaeaiey oeeiieoueny
io ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a yoo ieiooo y, iiyoiio ia aeiiouo.

2. Naiiaieueii iieeioaoea ?yaeu a?iee e oeioneeo eiiaiae (aeaca?oe?u)
aeieaeiu aa?iooueny a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie (15 iay).

3. Ia?ooeaoea yoio i?eeac aoaeoo iiaeaa?aioou iaeacaieyi ii anae
no?iainoe caeiia».

6 iay auoae i?eeac .?269. Ii aeanee: “I?eeacuaath aeiioneaoue ii
oaeinoiaa?aieth no?iaaiai ia/aeuenoaa e i?iecaiaenoao a i?aii?ueee
…nieaeao oioa?-ioeoea?neiai caaiey, ia iieuecothueony i?aaaie ii
ia?aciaaieth ninoiyueo a no?iaauo /anoyo aiene, i?eieiaaoeo
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea a aiaauo aeaenoaeyo».

I?aii?ueeaie iiaee noaoue ethaee, eioi?ua:

1. I?iauee a no?ith, a aeaenoaothueo aieneao, a iaiin?aaenoaaiiii
nii?eeiniiaaiee n i?ioeaieeii – /aou?a ianyoea;

2. I?eciaiu niiniaiuie e eniieiaieth ioeoea?neeo iaycaiiinoae».

Ea?aineiio iinooiaei iiiaeanoai i?eaaonoaee. Oae, iai?eia?, 6 iay aio
iinooieei i?eaaonoaea io *a?iiii?neiai oeioa, a eioi?ii aiai?eeinue;
“E?ee aeooe aaoae iaoae ioeeee a aeooa ieeeeiiia naiaiaeiuo ?onneeo
a?aaeaeai… Ieeaeea oaiiua neeu ia iiaei?aoo iaia?aie/aiiiai e aai
aeiaa?ey ia?iaea… iaycoainy aani?aeineiaii auiieiyoue ana aaoe i?eeacu”.

A ia/aea iay Ea?aineee o/?aaeaeaao iiaua /eiu: ie/iaia aiaiiiai a?aiaie,
eaeoaiaioa aiaiiiai a?aiaie e noa?oaai eaeoaiaioa aiaiiiai a?aiaie. Yoe
/eiu i?ecuaathony ia neoaeao oieueei ai a?aiy ai?iu. A eaieoaiu aoi?iai
?aiaa iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoueny oieueei noa?oea eaeoaiaiou aiaiiiai a?aiaie,
eioi?ua auaea?aeao oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea yecaiaiu. A ie?iia a?aiy
yoe /eiu aiaiiiai a?aiaie iiaoo i?iaeieaeaoue neoaeao oieueei iinea
niioaaonoaothuaai yecaiaia.

Ea?aineee aianoi iaycaoaeueiie ioaea/e /anoe aaae aeia?iaieueiua
acaeiiua i?eaaonoaey. 9 iay ii ee/iiio ii?o/aieth Ea?aineiai aai
caianoeoaeue ii aiaiiiio aaaeiinoao iieeiaiee sseoaiae/ a niaaoa
nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia, ai ecaaaeaiea iai?aaeeueiuo ia?aoieeia, cayaee,
/oi oioy ioaeaaaoue /anoue ia o?aaoaony i?eaaonoaea aeieaeii auoue
iaycaoaeueii, iineieueeo a?iey yaeyaony aaeeiui oeaeui e eaaeaeue
nieaeao i?eiaaeeaaeeo e aaeeiie a?iee.

Ia iao acaeyae, caeanue iieo/aeinue iaeioi?ia ianiioaaonoaea –
aeia?iaieueiia i?eaaonoaea, ii aeieaeii auoue iaycaoaeueii. Yoi aiai?eo
i oii, /oi iaeioi?ua aeaenoaey Ea?aineiai auee yaii iiioeenoneeie.

9 iay Ea?aineee i?eaue a Aaeueneiaoi?n, Aa/a?ii ii aunooiee ia nia?aiee
Niaaoa aeaiooaoia a?iee e oeioa. Aa/a?ii ii aunooiee ia nia?aiee niaaoa
aeaiooaoia a?iee e oeioa. Eae ecaanoii, Eaiei /anoi ienae, /oi Ea?aineee
i?y/ao oaeiua aeiaiai?u a ea?iaia. Ioiineoaeueii yoiai, Ea?aineee,
ioaa/ay ia aii?inu aeaiooaoia, aiai?ee; «Au eiaaoa iaauaiea iaoeo
i?ioeaieeia iauyaeoue oaeiua aeiaiai?a e i?ineoa nia/aea eo. O ian,
neaaa aiao, ethaee, oaeea eae Eeaeiaoo, i?iiiaaaeotho niieieii, a ii
neaeeo a oth?ueia… eiaaea ioaeii aoaeao, ana aoaeao neacaii. Ii yoi
iiaeao auoue naeaeaii oieueei i?e oneiaee, anee a iaeei aeaiue, a iaeei
/an iaa noi?iiu naie oaeiua aeiaiai?a iauyayo, A yoi oaea aoaeao ca
noieii ie?iie eiioa?aioeee. (Ooiiua aieiaeeniaiou, aicaeanu:
“I?aaeeueii, oi?ioi, iu aai aa?ei!”)

Aeaia aeaeaaaoia a?o/atho Ea?aineiio naie Aai?aeaaneea e?anou a ciae
i?aaeaiiinoe e oaaaeaiey. A.O. Ea?aineee, i?e iaueo iaaoeeyo, eiay ia
?oeao eaioo n iaaeienueth «eiiaiaeothuee oeioii», ?anoeaeiaae iaieo
aeaeaaaoia. I?aauaaiea Ea?aineiai a Aaeueneiaoi?na auei nieioiui
o?eoioii aeey iaai».

11 iay auoae i?eeac ii a?iee e oeioo i i?aaao aiaiiineoaeaueo, a
eioi?ii aiai?eeinue, /oi eaaeaeue aiaiiineoaeauee eiaao i?aai auoue
/eaiii ethaie iieeoe/aneie, iaoeeiiaeueiie, ?aeeaeiciie, yeiiiie/aneie
eee i?ioanneiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee.

12 iay auoae i?eeac ii a?iee e oeioo i ianooieaiee “ia aeey caoaaoia e
ianeeey, a ai eiy nianaiey naiaiaeiie ?innee… au iieaeaoa ooaea, eoaea
iiaaaeoo aan aiaeaee e i?aaeoaeuenoai. Au iiianaoa ia eiioeao ooueia
aaoeo ie?, i?aaaeo e ni?aaaaeeeainoue. Au iieaeaoa aia??ae no?ieiuie
?yaeaie, neiaaiiua aeenoeeieeiie aeieaa e aacioaaoiie ethaae e
?aaiethoeeiiiie ?iaeeia».

A yoio aea aeaiue Ea?aineee i?eauaaao a Eeaa, caoai ioi?aaeyaony a
Eaiaiaoe – Iiaeieuene. I ainoi?aeaiiuo ano?a/ao ieieno?a oaea iaienaii
ai aaaaeaiee aeaiiie ?aaiou. Yoe ano?a/e, aiciiaeii, oaoeee naiiethaea
Ea?aineiai, ii /anoi ia neiaa, au?aaeathuea /oanoai aeoaieie aa?u a iaai
e ethaae e iaio, ii ioaa/ae, /oi i?eaoae “ia iiaeeiaoue eaa?u i?aoi?a, a
aiai?eoue i oii, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieioao anth ?inneth”.

16 iay Ea?aineee i?ineaaeiaae a Iaeanno. «Aeaeaaaoeey E?anoueyineiai
nithca iiaeianea ieieno?o A.O. Ea?aineiio oeaa-nieue. Aeaeaaaou
nioeeae-?aaiethoeeiia?ia iaaeaee ia ieieno?a e?anioth eaioo n
iaaeienueth «nioeeae-?aaiethoeeiia?», e iiaeianee aoeao e?aniuo ?ic, a
caoai ieieno? i?e e?eeao «O?a!» ia ?oeao aue aeiianai e aaoiiiaeeth…»

Aunooiay ia o?iioiaii nuacaea, ii aiai?eo: «Iaoei eicoiaii aeieaeiu
auoue ia ethaee, a eaeae, iao eicoia – naiaiaea, ?aaainoai e a?aonoai,
iao aeaaec — aia?aae!».

Ii a ieiiao a ia?eiae ianooieaiey neaeaee ethaee, a ia eaeae, aeey
eioi?uo aeaaiui auei iiauno?aa aa?iooueny aeiiie.

Oaeia iano?iaiea iaino?eeinue ianeieueei iicaea. A iiea 16 iay Ea?aineee
a Eaaa?iii iiea a Iaeanna i?eieiae ia?aae aiene, a eioi?ii o/anoaiaaee
oaeaea na?aneea ainea. Nieaeaou oee n e?aniuie e oe?aeineeie ciaiaiaie.
Iaae iieai eaoaee ay?iieaiu. Aienea i?eaaonoaiaae ieieno?:
«Cae?aanoaoeoa, oiaa?eue!». Ia ia?aaea i?enoonoaiaaee eiinoeu nithciuo
aea?aeaa. Aiaaoth aioiaiinoue Ea?aineee ioeaiee, eae aioiaiinoue ia
aeieaeiie aunioa. Aica?auaynue a ia?aae, ii iinaoee eaaeaoneee ei?ion.
Caeanue i?iecioae eioa?aniue yieciae.

Ea?aineiio aue i?aaenoaaeai eaaeao – nui aiaaiaeu Iooieea. Iinea yoiai
ieieno? ia?aoeeny e eaaeaoai ni neiaaie, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ioaeiu
iiaua ethaee, eioi?ui iaeuecy aeoiaoue oieueei i ea?uea?a e oaeianoaao.

A ii?oo ieieno? iaoiaeeo ?yaeu ii?yeia, iiaeeiay ei ?oee.

17 iay Ea?aineee iinauaao Naaanoiiieue. Ioaa/ay ia aii?inu o?iioiaiai
nuacaea, ii aiai?eo: «Aieaa anaai aeieaeii ian aieiiaaoue niioaaonoaoao
ee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa oeaeyi: noieo ee i?eiineoue
aea?oau ia o?iioa; ia aoaeoo ee yoe aea?oau aeey ae?oaeo. Ana noiaeyony
a oii. /oi o ?innee iao caoaaoie/aneeo oeaeae a yoie aieia. Anoue
caaea/e caueou e io?aiu i?aaa ia ?acaeoea, A ae?oaeo no?aiao ia iaeie
eaieoaeenou noiyo ca caoaaoie/aneoth aieio. Aai aiai?yo i Eeaeiaooa, ii
ea aiai?yo i Eaieia…, eioi?ue auneacuaaeny ca aieio a eioa?anao
Aa?iaiee. ?onneay ?aaiethoeeiiiay aeanoue ioa?ineea aiiaeneiiiua
eicoiae, …oae eaaei eae iu ioaeaeaeenue io Ieetheiaa (a ae?oaeo
no?aiao) aai au yoiai ia oaeaeinue».

20 iay aeey ?anniio?aiey oiaeaoaenoa e i?ioaiee i iiieeiaaiee e
niya/aiee o/anoe eeoe, inoaeaeaiiuo aiaiiuie e ii?neeie noaeaie,
o/?aaeaeaia iniaay eiienney iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii A.Ae. Eocueieia –
Ea?aaaaaa.

O?iieea aacaou “Aanoiee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa” aiai?eo i
iinoaiiaeaiee iaa?aaeaeaiee Ea?aineiai Aai?aeaaneei e?anoii. Ii
ii?o-iaieth aai?aeaaneeo eaaaea?ia 3-ai Eaaeacneiai a?iaeneiai ei?iona a
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eauea aeaeaaaoeey aeey a?o/aiey aiaiiiio e ii?neiio
ieieno?o Ea?aineiio Aai?aeaaneiai e?anoa II_ie noaiaie ca?27087, oio
naiue e?ano, eioi?ue a?aaeaeaiei nieaeao 3-ai Eaaeacneiai
eiaeaia?iiai iieea Ae.A. Aeiia?aaeia, aiiaeooaaeaiiue i?ecuaii ieieno?a
e naiaiaea ?innee, ni?aae ni naiae a?oaee e ia?aaeae ieieno?o…

22 iay 1917 aiaea auoiaeeo i?eeac Ea?aineiai ii aeaaiiio oi?aaeaieth
aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa:

1. «Anao ioeoea?neeo /eiia, ia i?eciaiiuo ii ninoiyieth caei?iauey
aiaeiuie aeey caiauaiey oieueei iano?iaauo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
aeieaeiinoae…ioeiiaiaee?iaaoue a oa/aiea 3 iaaeaeue ni aeiy iieo/aiey
i?eeaca aeey ioi?aaeaiey a no?iaaua /anoe aeaenoaothuae a?iee.

2. Anao nieaeao, naieoa?ia, a ?aaii aiaiiiiaycaiiuo, iieuecothueony
ion?i/eaie., iieiaea 40 eao, e?iia iai?eaiaeiuo aeey neoaeau a no?ith .
. . ioeiiaiaee?iauaaoue a caianiua /anoe aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee e ioi?aaeaiey caoai n ia?oaauie ?ioaie.

3. Ieeaeeo ecuyoee ec naai ie aeey eiai ia aeiioneath e eaoaai?e/anee
aini?auath oaeiaeaoai?youe oiaeaoaenoaa…

4.… Ia yaeaoeany a n?ie ii iacia/aieth aoaeoo n/eoaoueny
aeaca?oe?aie.

5. Ioeiiaiaee?iaaoue ioeoea?ia … caiaiyoue eeoeaie, iai?eaiaeiuie e
no?ith».

23 iay Ea?aineee i?eaue a ?eao. Iano?iaiea ii neo/ath i?eacaea
Ea?aineiai auei i?acaeie/iia. «Ia oeeoeao oiaea?aie noiyee aienea.
Iano?iaiea a ai?iaea ii neo/ath i?eacaea Ea?aineiai i?acaeie/ii, aacaea
ianna Ia?iaeo. Iieee aeaoeee?otho n e?aniuie ciaiaiaie».

Caoai ieieno? ioi?aaeyaony ia o?iio. Ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey a ieiiao
i?iecioae eioa?aniue neo/ae.

«E ieieno?o iiaeioae ioeoea? e neacae, /oi io eiaie oiaa?euae ii
oiieiiii/ai cayaeoue, /oi i?ienoiaeyuaa a oueo aiooaao iianaiey, /oi
a?iey ia niiaeao iieo/eoue ai a?aiy ?aca?aa…ieieno? neacae aio:
«Eiaaea iu – eo/ea ?aaiethoeeiia?ia a?ineeenue ia ai?ueao ni neiaeiui
iaoaieciii noa?iai ?aaeeia, iu ieeiaaea ia iaeyaeuaaeenue ia oue, iu oee
ia ai?ueao aac iaeyaeee. … Anee aai aei?iaa naiaiaea, ?aaiethoeey e
aai iiiaaeiaeony eaeoe, e anee au iieaeaoa iaeie – eaeeoa, e anee ioaeii
oia?aoue — oi?eoa» Acaieiiaaiiue e iio?ynaiiue ioeoea? i?iecian «ss
iieaeo!»

26 iay Ea?aineee i?eaue a Iineao, aaea i?enoonoaoao ia nuacaea
nioeeaeenoia-?aaiethoeeiia?ia. Ia iai ii cayaee, /oi iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
ioiioaiey oi?i/eaathony, i?aaeoaeuenoai aoaeao aeinoieii aeaenoaiaaoue n
nithcieeaie, ia iaaycuaay neeu a aii?inao aieiu. Ii neacae oaeaea, /oi
nae/an a a?iee ia ano?a/aaony cao?oaeiaiee aeey ianooiaoaeueiuo
aeaenoaee.

I?eeac Ea?aineiai io 29 iay iieiinoueth ii?iaa?aaao neacaiiua ei naiei
neiaa. Ii aeaneo: « Iieacaieyie acyouo a ieai aa?iaioeaa, iaia?oaeaii,
/oi ia ?acee/iuo o/anoeao o?iioa – o i?iaiei/iuo caa?aaeaeaiee e a iaoeo
ieiiao nieaeaou iaiaieaatho iaioeai auaeaiiue ei oeaa, naoa? e iuei ia
eioaeueee, ia?i/eiiua iiaee, a?eoau, /anu e o.i. …. Aiaiyth anai
ia/aeuenoaothuei eeoeai a iaycaiiinoue ia aeiioneaoue ia?aaea/e ieeaeeo
i?aaeiaoia…iai?eyoaeth, i?aneaaeiaaoue anyeia niioaiea n ieie e
aeiiaiuo i?aaeaaaoue noaeo…»

N 3 ii 24 ethiy i?ioiaeeo Ana?inneeneee nuacae Niaaoia ?NAe, ia eioi?ii
Ea?aineiai aua?aee /eaiii AOeEE. 4 ethiy ii ioia/ae: « A ioiioaiee
Oeieyiaeee e Oe?aeiu iu yaeyainy ai?y/eie caueoieeaie eo aaoiiiiee. Iu
aiai?ei oieueei iaeii: «Iu, eae A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, ia
iaeaaeathuaa, ia aeaeathuaa eiaoue naiiaea?aeaaiuo i?aa, iu aei
O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey ia n/eoaai naay ai?aaa aeene?aaeeoe?iaaoue oie
eee ae?oaie /anoe oa??eoi?ee».

Ia?auaynue e aieueoaaeeai, Ea?aineee aiai?ee: “Au i?aaeeaaaaoa eaeoe
iooai, eioi?ui oea o?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey a 1972 aiaeo… Au
i?aaeeaaaaoa iooue aeaeueiaeoaai ?ac?ooaiey. Ec yoiai oaina ainnoaiao
aeeeoaoi?, – ia y, eioi?iai au noa?aaoanue ecia?aceoue aeeeoaoi?ii,
eiaaea au aanniciaoaeueiui, aacoiiui nithcii n ?aaeoeeae oie/oiaeeoa
iaoo aeanoue, au ioe?iaoa aeaa?e iiaeeeiiiio aeeeoaoi?o”.

«E aio iao aeiea, neacaoue: ia iiaoi?yeoa ioeaie enoi?ee, ana ciaoo ia
iooue, eioi?ue eae eiaaea-oi O?aioeeth, i?eaaaeao ?inneth e iiaie
?aaeoeee, e iiaui iioieai aeaiie?aoe/aneie e?iae».

9 ethiy ia nuacaea Ea?aineee aunooiae iinea Eaieia: «…Iai aiai?yo i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ioeaca io iiaeaea?aeee nithciuo eaieoaeenoia. Iai
aiai?yo, /oi oieueei oaeei iooai iu i?eaeai e oi?aeanoao ie?iaie
?aaiethoeee… oa i?ia?aiia, eioi?ay aai i?aaeeaaaeanue,… aoaeao
icia/aoue ia ia/aei ie?iie ?aaiethoeee, a eiiaoe ?aaiethoeee a
?innee…»

«Aaaeue e a?aaeaeaiei Eaiei aiai?ee aai, /oi eaieoaeeci yaeaiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia, /oi- oi, /oi nae/an i?ienoiaeeo, yaeyaony ia
?acoeueoaoii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aiee ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae,
i?aaenoaaeythueo eeann, a ?acoeueoaoii yeiiiie/aneiai e enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey… iooai oece/aneiai ono?aiaiey, iooai ecuyoey iaeiie ?innee ec
caeiiia e i?ioeannia iauaenoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, – e /aai iu aeinoeaaai?
Iu auaiaeei ?inneth e ?onneoth aeaiie?aoeth ec oao enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee,
a eioi?uo iaoiaeeony aanue ie?. Iu aoaeai iuoaoueny aeaeaoue aoio ia
i?ioea ethaeae, a i?ioea yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia ?acaeoey…

Eiia/ii, oiaa?eue, yoio iooue ia i?eaaaeao ie e eaeei ae?oaei
?acoeueoaoai, e?iia iiaiai e?aoa, iiaie aeaaee oao ia/eiaiee, oao ia/ae,
ca eioi?ua iu ai?ainy».

A iaa-ethia Ea?aineee i?eeiaeee eieinnaeueiua oneeey e i?aaiecaoeee
ianooieaiey ?onneeo a?iee.

18 ethiy ia/aeinue ianooieaiea ?onneeo a?iee. Eae ecaanoii, ianooieaiea
ia THai-Caiaaeiii o?iioa i?iaaeeeinue. A naeo iaioa?ao, Ea?aineee ienae:
«Aeaaiay i?e/eia i?iaaea ianooieaiey caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi anee a
ia?eiae aeenoaoaeueiiai ianooieaiey aaia?aea A?oneeiaa a 1916 aiaeo aio
i?ioeainoiyee aano?eeneea iieee, iiiaea ec eioi?uo auee oeiiieaeoiaaiu
aiaiiineoaeaueie ec neaayi, ia/oaaoeo naeaoueny ?onneei a ieai, oi a
1917 aiaeo ia?aae ?onneie a?ieae noiyee ioai?iua aa?iaineea /anoe,
iiaeaea?aeaiiua iiuiie a?oeeea?eae».

Ec caienie auaoaai o?aioeocneiai iinea Iaeaieiaa iai ecaanoii, /oi
iiaeaioiaea e ianooieaieth i?iaiaeeeanue Ea?aineei iiae aeeyieai
nithcieeia. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo iiaeii ia?aoeoueny e ainiiieiaieyi aaia?aea
A.N. Eoeiineiai, auaoaai oiaaea ia/aeueieeii ooaaa Aa?oiaiiai
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai: «Nithcieee ianoaeaaee ia ia/aea aeoeaiuo aeaenoaee
ia iaoai o?iioa. Iaeaieaa neeueiue oaea? iaia/aeny ia THai-Caiaaeiii
o?iioa. Aeaau iiaeaiae?eoue aienea e aeeoue a ieo ?aaiethoeeiiiue ii?ua,
Ea?aineee ioi?aaeeny ia THai-Caiaaeiue o?iio».

Iienuaay i?e/eiu i?iaaea ianooieaiey, A.A. Noaieaae/ ienae: «Ii aeaaiay
o?oaeiinoue auea a oii, /oi ia auei ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ia?aiiu
aeayoaeueiinoe. Oi?iaeueii, neiaanii, aii?in noaaeeny i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
no?ieoue «iiaoth, ?aaiethoeeiiioth» a?ieth. Ii nouanoao aea, iineieueeo
aeaaiie caaea/ae noaaeeinue i?iaeieaeaiea aieiu ia o?iioa, a iniiao
aeayoaeueiinoe iia auoue iieiaeai eeoue /?acau/aeiue eiina?aaoeci,
oeaieia oii?iia ionoaeaaiea anaai noa?iai e, iiaeaeoe, eeoue
auaeaeaeaiea iiauo eeoe».

A.E. Aeaieeei, iacia/aiiue Aa?oiaiui aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei iinea aaia?aea
Aeaenaaaa, n/eoae, /oi oaeay iieeoeea aaaeao e iieiie aeaii?aeecaoeee ia
oieueei aiaiiiai ieienoa?noaa, ii e anaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

«Ionthaea — yoe no?aiiua ia aeae i?ioeai?a/ey…Ea?aineee – eaeaieia
nieaeaoneeo eiieoaoia n o?eaoiu e Ea?aineee – a naiai aaaiia ia?aii
a?inathuee aaeuthoaioo: « Aiieoa au yoe i?ieeyoua eiieoaou a oath!»

« *oaeaeca e Neiaaeaa – a canaaeaiee a /anoiii ?acaiai?a ca noaeaiii /ay
i?eciathuea iaiaoiaeeiinoue no?iaie aiaiiie aeenoeeieeiu e naia aanneeea
i?iaanoe eaeath /a?ac Niaaou».

Iaoaea/e ia o?iioa iaino?eee aioo?eiieeoe/aneoth ianoaiiaeo. Aneaaenoaea
ino?uo ?aciiaeanee ii oe?aeineiio aii?ino ieieno?u-eaaeaou 2
ethey iiaeaee a ionoaaeo. 3-4 ethey a noieeoea ninoiyeenue
aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aii?oaeaiiua aeaiiino?aoeee, aicaeaaeaiiua
aieueoaaeeaie. Eiycue Eueaia, niiauay Ea?aineiio i ieo «aucaae aai
iaiaaeeaiii a Iao?ia?aae, ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeae, /oi ia ?o/aaony ca
aaciianiinoue aai aeecie».

7 ethey Eueaia ooae a ionoaaeo, a 8 ethey ieieno?ii-i?aaenaaeaoaeai noae
Ea?aineee n nio?aiaieai iinoa aiaiiiai e ii?neiai ieieno?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, A.O. Ea?aineee, eae noi?iiiee aaeeinoaa, eiaeeoeee anao
iieeoe/aneeo nee no?aiu, ieacaeny eae au iaaeaeo aeaoo iaiae. Ia iaeiii
iiethna e aania 1917 aiaea /aoei iaicia/eeenue oa neeu, eioi?ua oioaee
aeiaanoe ?aaiethoeeth a ?innee aei eiae/aneiai eiioea, – aieueoaaeee ai
aeaaa n Eaieiui; ia ae?oaii iiethna — oa neeu, eioi?ua ia?aie/eaaee naie
caaea/e naa?aeaieai naiiaea?aeaaey.

I?aaiecaoeey iiaaaeiiiniiai ianooieaiey ia o?iioa – aio oi caaii, ca
eioi?ia ?aoee ooaaoeoueny A.O. Ea?aineee, /oiau oe?aieoue ?aaeei
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e naia ianoi a yoii ?aaeeia.

?an/ao aue i?ino: oniao ianooieaiey iia nienaoue a?aoe
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a aiciiaeiue i?iaae iicaieee au acaaeeoue aeio ia
aieueoaaeeia, ?aceaaaaoeo naiae i?iiaaaiaeie a?ieth.

Aaniie 1917 aiaea Ea?aineee i?eieiaao oaae e oiio, /oiau aic?iaeeoue
aiaaoth iiuue a?iee ia iniiaa «?aaiethoeeiiiiai yiooceacia e
?aaiethoeeiiiie aeenoeeieeiu». Iaeiaei, ieaiu, naycaiiua n ianooieaieai
i?iaaeeeenue. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?aca?ii auea aiceiaeaia ia
aieueoaaeeia.

Eiio??aaiethoeey i?aaieciauaaeanue, e A.O. Ea?aineee iiieue ia yoie
aieia.

Aeaaa II. Iiiuoee oneeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

1. A.O. Ea?aineee – ieieno?-i?aaenaaeaoaeue aiaiiue e ii?neie ieieno? ai
aoi?ii eiaeeoeeiiiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

I.I. Ieetheia iaoei oa?aeoa?ecoao aeayoaeueiinoue Ea?aineiai a ?acee/iuo
ninoaaao A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa: “Ee/iay ?ieue Ea?aineiai a ia?aii
ieienoa?noaa a ea/anoaa “caeiaeieea aeaiie?aoee” naiaeeeanue e
ia?aeeciaaieth anao iiiuoie aeanoe auoue aeanoueth e anao aa oneeee
aini?aiyonoaiaaoue i?ioeanno i?aaiecaoeee “?aaiethoeeiiiie aeaiie?aoee”
iiae ia?oeeiui oeaaii.

Ai aoi?ii i?aaeoaeuenoaa A.O. Ea?aineee i?eiye ia naay iieiaeeoaeueioth
?ieue aic?iaeeoaey aiaaie iiue a?iee ia iniiaa ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
yiooceacia e “?aaiethoeeiiiie aeenoeeieeiu”. Eiie?aoiay caaea/a
iinoaaeea aai eeoeii e eeoeo n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?eiyoey eiie?aoiuo
ia?, ia oeeaaeuaaaoeony a eiaeaen “iai?ioeaeaiey”. A yoi i?eaaei aai e
iieiiio i?ioeai?a/eth n ia?oeeiuie aaeeiiiuoeaiieeaie e naiei niaith.

Ec yoiai aioo?aiiaai i?ioeai?a/ey aio oae e ia oaeaaony aunaiaiaeeoueny,
eiaaea oiae niauoee auaeaeaaao aai ia iino aeaaiiai iineoaey aunoae
aeanoe. Iinoaiaiii i?ioeai?a/ea noaiiaeony ana aieaa caiaoiui e aeey
ie?oaeathueo.

Aianoa n oai ana aieaa auaeaeaaaony ee/iue yeaiaio iiaaaeaiey yoiai
iauanoaaiiiai aeayoaey. Anae neeie ia?aaeaay ?aaiethoeeiiioth eieanieoeo
a noi?iio oaa?aeie aeanoe, iniiaaiiie ia ?aaeueiie iiaeaea?aeea, ii ia
?aoaynue ii?aaoue n ooiieae… Ea?aineee /ai aeaeueoa, oai aieueoa
noaiiaeony aaeeinoaaiiui naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo oeaiaaie, oo?aoeaoeie
acaeiiia iiieiaiea, i?e oeaio?a, i?iaeieaeathuai oa?youe iiaeaea?aeeo
iannu. Iieeoe/aneay iiceoeey, aia/aea iiiyoiay e aeaaea iaecaaaeiay, ana
aieaa i?aa?auaeanue a iaeeiieoth iico, auaea?aeeaaoue eioi?oth
noaiiaeeinue o?oaeii aeey aeoa?a, a iaaethaeaoue ni noi?iiu – iaauiineii
aeey c?eoaey”.

7 ethey A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iinoaiiaeei iacia/eoue

A.O. Ea?aineiai ieieno?ii-i?aaenaaeaoaeai, n nio?aiaieai ca iei
aeieaeiinoe aiaiiiai e ii?neiai ieieno?a. Iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiae
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii Ea?aineiai iiiieieeinue iiauie eiaiaie. Ieieno?ii
aioo?aiieo aeae noae iaeei ec eeaea?ia iaiueoaaecia E.A. Oea?aoaee.
Ieieno?ii caieaaeaeey inoaeny A.I. *a?iia. Oaeei ia?acii, o?e aeaaiaeoeo
ii?ooaey i?eiaaeeaaeaee i?aaenoaaeoaeyi yna?ia e iaiueoaaeeia. Iiaia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia/aei aeaeea?aoeee. Iii iaauaei aeaenoaiaaoue n
“yia?aeae e ?aoeoaeueiinoueth” ia iaa o?iioa i?ioea aia?oee e
eiio??aaiethoeee. OeEE Niaaoia i?eiye ?aciethoeeth iaiueoaaeea O.E.
Aeaia, a eioi?ie iauyaee:

1. No?aia e ?aciethoeey a iianiinoe.

2. A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iauyaeyaony i?aaeoaeuenoaii nianaiey
?aaiethoeee.

3. Ca i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?eciathony iaia?aie/aiiua iieiiii/ey aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee e aeenoeeieeiu a a?iee, ?aoeoaeueiie ai?ueau
ni anyeeie i?iyaeaieyie eiio??aaiethoeee e aia?oee.

8 ethey auoae i?eeac ?. 28 ii a?iee e oeioo, eioi?ue aeanee:

“I?eeacuaath ainnoaiiaeoue a aieneao aeenoeeieeio, i?iyaeyy aeanoue a
iieiie ia?a, ia inoaiaaeeaaynue i?e nianaiee a?iee ia?aae i?eiaiaieai
aii?oaeaiiie neeu… ecuyoue ec aieneiauo /anoae ana i?anooiiua yeaiaiou,
aaaeouea iooai ia/aoe e aaeoaoeee i?iiiaaaeue iaiiaeiiaaiey aeanoe…”

Ea?aineee ia/eiaao i?eieiaoue /?acau/aeiua ia?u aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey a
a?iee ii?yaeea.

12 ethey auoiaeeo iinoaiiaeaiea A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa:

1. Ainnoaiiaeoue nia?oioth eaciue ia a?aiy aieiu aeey aiaiiineoaeaueo
ca iaeioi?ua oya/aeoea i?anooieaiey.

2. O/?aaeeoue . . . aiaiii-?aaiethoeeiiiua noaeu ec nieaeao e ioeoea?ia.

Nia?oiay eaciue /a?ac ?anno?ae onoaiaaeeaaeanue ca aiaiioth e
ainoaea?noaaiioth eciaio, iiaaa e iai?eyoaeth, aaanoai n iiey n?aaeaiey,
oeeiiaiea io o/anoey a aith, iiaeaiai?, iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoai eee
aicaoaeaeaiea e naea/a, oeeiiaiea io nii?ioeaeaiey i?ioeaieeo, naea/a a
ieai aac nii?ioeaeaiey, naiiaieueioth ioeo/eo io ea?aoea,
ianeeuenoaaiiua aeaenoaey i?ioea ia/aeueieeia, nii?ioeaeaiea
?anii?yaeaieyi ia/aeueieea, iaiaaeaiea ia /aniaiai, oiuoeaiiia oaeenoai,
ecianeeiaaiea, ?acaie, a?aaaae a aieneiaii ?aeiia a?iee.

Ea?aineee ?acei iiaa?ioe iai?aai e ia/ae oneeeaaoue naith aeanoue.
14 ethey auoei iinoaiiaeaiea i aiaiiie oeaico?a. Iii cai?auaei a ia/aoe
e ?acee/iiai ?iaea ecaeaieyo aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai i?iniio?a aiaiiie
oeaico?ie naaaeaiee, ioiinyueony e aiaiiui aeaenoaeyi ?inneeneeo a?iee e
oeioa, a ?aaii i ninoiyiee a?iee e oeioa…”

Aeiiaiua a ia?ooaiee yoiai iinoaiiaeaiey caeeth/aeenue a oth?ueio, ia
n?ie io aeaoo ianyoeaa aei aiaea, eee ieaoeee aeaiaaeiue oo?ao ia nauoa
10 ouny/ ?oaeae.

13 ethey ia Iauaaeeiaiiii canaaeaiee AOeEE e Eniieeiia Ana?inneeneiai
Niaaoa EAe Ea?aineee cayaee: “Io eiaie A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa y
aeath oi?aeanoaaiiia iaauaiea, /oi anyeay iiiuoea ainnoaiiaeoue a ?innee
iiia?oe/aneee ia?ac iiaeaaeaia naiui ?aoeoaeueiui ia?acii”.

A yoio aea aeaiue ia canaaeaiee ieieno?ia auei ?aoaii, /oi ana ieieno?u
a?o/ao Ea?aineiio naie ii?ooaee, /oiau aeaoue aio aiciiaeiinoue
anooieoue a ia?aaiai?u n iauanoaaiiuie aeayoaeyie i iiiieiaieyie
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e eciaiaiee aai ninoaaa.

Oae, eae aeaaiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey ia?aaiai?ia n ianioeeaeenoe/aneeie
ia?oeyie auei oi, /oi yoe iineaaeiea aiana ia aeaeaee i?eciaoue
caaeneiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa io Niaaoia, oi A.O, Ea?aineee noae ia iiaoth
oi/eo c?aiey. Ii cayaee, /oi aoaeao iiaeae?aoue /eaiia eaaeiaoa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, iacaaeneii io eo ia?oeeiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, e iie ia
aoaeoo n/eoaoueny ioeoeeaeueii aeaeaae?iaaiiuie e ioaaonoaaiiuie ia?aae
naieie ia?oeyie, eae yoi auei i?e ia?aie eiaeeoeee.

Oae eae, yoi inaiaiaeaeaei e ieieno?ia-nioeeaeenoia io oi?iaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae eo ia?oeeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, oi OeE ia?oee
ia?iaeiie naiaiaeu ioioii ?ac?aoee naiei /eaiai, e eioi?ui A.O.
Ea?aineee ia?aoeeny, – A.Ae. Iaaieiao, I.E. Eeoeeio, I.E. Ano?iao –
anooieoue a i?yiua niioaiey n ieieno?ii-i?aaenaaeaoaeai. A
oi aea a?aiy Ea?aineee caaae niioaiey n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiiai eeanna, io eiaie eioi?uo auaeaeaaeenue a
Iao?ia?aaea eaiaeeaeaoo?a I.E. Eooea?a, a Iineaa – N.I. O?aoueyeiaa”.

14 ethey auee ia/aou ia?aaiai?u A.O. Ea?aineiai n OeE eaaeaoneie ia?oee.
Auei aeinoeaiooi iieiia niaeaoaiea a neaaeothueo ioieoao:

1. *oiau ana /eaiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa auee ioaaonoaaiiu eneeth/eoaeueii
ia?aae naiae niaanoueth…

2. *oiau i?aaeoaeuenoai noaaeei eneeth/eoaeueiie oeaeueth io?aio
caaiaaaiey ?aaiethoeee, ia i?aaei?eieiay ieeaeeo oaaia, a?icyueo
aniuoeaie a?aaeaeaineie aieiu, a iioiio inouanoaeaiea anao
nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i aeieaeii auoue ioeiaeaii aei O/?aaeeoaeueiiai
Nia?aiey.

3. *oiau a aii?inao aieiu e ie?a aue niaethaeai i?eioeei iieiiai
aaeeiaiey n nithcieeaie.

4. Ainnicaeaiea iiue a?iee.

5. ?aoeoaeueiay ai?ueaa n i?ioeaiainoaea?noaaiiuie yeaiaioaie.

6. Ainnoaiiaeaiea i?aaeeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaea.

7. Auai?u a O/?aaeeoaeueiia Nia?aiea auee i?iecaaaeaiu n niaethaeaieai
anao aa?aioee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey au?aaeaiey iiaeeeiiie aiee, n
i?aaeinoaaeaieai caaaaeiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaii auai?ia i?aaeeueii
eca?aiiui i?aaiii ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey e o/?aaeaeaieyi, ia?aciaaiiui
i?e eo o/anoee”.

E?iia yoiai, Ieetheia e aai ia?oey iio?aaiaaee oaeaeaiey ec ninoaaa
i?aaeoaeuenoaa *a?iiaa, “eae ieieno?a, i?iaiaeyuaai naith iieeoeeo ii
aii?ino a?iiaaeiie aaaeiinoe a iieiii i?ioeai?a/ee n iniiaiuie
iieiaeaieyie i?ia?aiiu eiinoeoooeeiiiuo aeaiie?aoia”.

15 ethey Ea?aineee niaeaneeny ni anaie ioieoaie, e?iia oaeaeaiey
*a?iiaa. I?ioaiea ia ionoaaea iiaeae E.A. Oea?aoaee. 18 ethey Ea?aineee
ia?anaeeeny a Ceiiee aeai?aoe. 20 ethey ei aue niauai n aeieaeiinoe
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee A?oneeia e ia aai ianoi iacia/ai aaia?ae Ei?ieeia.

A oio aea aeaiue iiaeae a ionoaaeo *a?iia, /oiau ?aaaeeeoe?iaaoueny a
oao iaaeiaieyo, eioi?ua ia iaai aiceaaaea “ieetheianeay ?a/ue”.

A 21 ethey Ea?aineee nai auoae a ionoaaeo, neiaeee n naay aeanoue e
oaoae a Oeieyiaeeth. Ca iei auoae a ionoaaeo ieieno? Iae?ania,
Oa?auaiei, Aiaeiaa, Eueaia. Ao?aiia. Neaaenoaeai aue ?aciethoeey OeEE
Niaaoa, aaea cayaeyeinue i iieiii aeiaa?ee Ea?aineiio e aio ii?o/aeinue
ninoaaeaiea aoi?iai eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

N oo?a 22 ethey Ea?aineee aue iiyoue a Iao?ia?aaea, eae iieiiii/iue
aeaaa no?aiu e i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A yoio aea aeaiue auei iioaeeeiaaii
ia?auaiea ieieno?a-i?aaenaaeaoaey. “Iaia?oaeeaoayny iaaiciiaeiinoue,
iooai acaeiiiai niaeaney ?aciuo iieeoe/aneeo oa/aiee, eae
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo, oae e ia nioeeaeenoe/aneeo nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeioth a
ia?aaeeaaaiue a?iciue /an e?aieoth ?aaiethoeeiiioth aeanoue, auioaeeea
iaiy iiaeaoue a ionoaaeo.

Ninoiyaoaany 21 ethey niaauaiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae nioeeaeenoe/aneeo,
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo e eeaa?aeueiuo ia?oee… i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
i?aaenoaaeaiiua a iai ia?oee iinoaiiaeee ii?o/aoue iia aeaei
i?aia?aciaaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ia n/eoay aiciiaeiui, i?e ianoiyueo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, eiaaea no?aia oa?iaeaao aiaoiee ?aca?ii e aioo?aiiee
?aniaae ioeacuaaoueny io oyaeeiai aeieaa, y iiieiath aai, eae
iai?aiaiiia iiaaeaiea no?aiu nicaeaoue neeueioth ?aaiethoeeiiioth
aeanoue”.

Iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei noi?ie?iaaii ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaiueoaaeeia,
nioeeae – ?aaiethoeeiia?ia, eaaeaoia e i?iiuoeaiieeia. A iaai aioae
ieieno? caieaaeaeey A.I. *a?iia. Aeaei a oii, /oi Ea?aineee niaeaneeny
i?eiyoue i?ia?aiio Ieetheiaa, a eaaeaou niaeaneeenue “?aaaeeeoe?iaaoue”
*a?iiaa. Ao?aiia e nai Ea?aineee naeaeaee aeieeaae i?aaeoaeuenoao i
neooao, eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiyeenue a ia/aoe ii iiaiaeo *a?iiaa. Iiaue
eaaeiao n/eoaeny ‘”nioeeaeenoe/aneei”, eai 4-o eaaeaoia iethn Iae?ania,
Oa?auaiei e Ao?aiia i?eoiaeeeinue 5 yna?ia, 4 nioeeae-aeaiie?aoa e 2
ia?iaeiuo nioeeaeenoa.

Nioeeaeenou auee i?aaenoaaeaiu neaaeothueie aeayoaeyie: Ea?aineee,
Naaaieia, Eaaaaeaa, Aaenaiueaa, *a?iia, Neiaaeaa, I?ieiiiae/, Ieeeoei,
Aa?iaoeeee, Iaoaoiiia e Ca?oaeiue.

I.I. Nooaiia ienae: “Iiaue aeaaa ainoaea?noaa, /eai OeEE, niaaoneee
noaaeaiiee Ea?aineee, ia oi/ao ciaoue ieeaeiai Niaaoa. Ii noae aeaaa
ainoaea?noaa ia a ea/anoaa i?aaenoaaeoaey i?aaieciaaiiie aeaiie?aoee, a
nai ii naaa, aiia?aaeay naay iaaeeeanniaui nouanoaii, i?ecaaiiui e
niiniaiui nianoe ?inneth. E naie oi?iaeueiua, aiiaue i?eia?aoaiiua
i?aaa… eniieuecoao i?aaeaea anaai ia oi, /oiau…aa?iooue e aeanoe
ao?aeoaceth… nicaeaoue iiaoth eiaeeoeeth i?ioea ?aaiethoeeth”.

1 aaaonoa Ea?aineee iaiaieaaeny oaeaa?aiiaie n ei?ieai Aaeeeia?eoaiee –
Aai?aii. Iinueay ae?oa ae?oao i?eaaonoaey iaa aaioeaiinoea –
a?enoie?aoe/aneee e aeaiie?aoe/aneee – aiai?eee i aaaeaiee aieiu aei
iiaaaeiiai eiioea.

1 aaaonoa aaaaeaiu iiaua aeaiaaeiua ciaee – “ea?aiee”, eioi?ua
aiineaaenoaee aoaeoo aaeeinoaaiiui iaiiieiaieai i neiaiea ?aaiethoeee .

4 aaaonoa ia ioe?uaoainy nuacaea aoaa?ineeo eiienna?ia Ea?aineee aiai?eo
: “E a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, iiaeao auoue a?aiy iaeaieueoaai iai?yaeaiey …
a?aiy, eiaaea ana caaiaaaiey ?onneie ?aaiethoeee e aeaaea aoaeouaai
?onneiai ainoaea?noaa iinoaaeaiu ia ea?oo, iu i?eaueee e oiio, /oi neiaa
“Ioa/anoai a iianiinoe ” oiio?aaeythony oae /anoi, /oi ia?anoaee
aeaenoaiaaoue ia ian… Ii… aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia oieueei ?onneay
?aaiethoeey; ii e ?onneia ainoaea?noai ia?aaeeaaao, eee iiaeao auoue
ia?aaeea?o a naiia aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy, iiiaio aaee/aeoeo eniuoaiee e
nia?oaeueiie iianiinoe”. A yoie aea ?a/e Ea?aineee i?ecuaaao
iauaaeeieoueny a ai?ueaa i?ioea aeaoo oeaiaia. “Yoa ai?ueaa ia aeaa
o?iioa oyaeea, ii aua oyainoiaa aoaeao iaoa ioaaonoaaiiinoue, anee iu
ionooiei ia?aae yoie ii/oe ia/aeiaa/aneie caaea/ae”. ?a/ue Ea?aineiai
auea iieia iioeiecia, ii aiai?ee i naiae oaa?aiiinoe a oii, /oi
ianaeaiea ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa auianao ian e aaeeinoaaiiiio
aeaeaiiiio eiioeo – e oi?aeanoao A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e anao nee,
eioi?ua aie?oa iaai iauaaeeiyony”.

Iaeiaei, iioeieci Ea?aineiai, /oiau ieii/aoaeueii inaiaiaeeony io
eiio?iey Niaaoia, e i?iecaanoe aeaaii?eyoiia aia/aoeaiea ia
eiina?aaoeaiua neeu e iaania/eoue oe?ieoth iiaeaea?aeeo naiaio
i?aaeoaeuenoao, e?eoeeoaiiio neaaa e ni?aaa, onei?ee oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooia.

Ii i?aaeeiaeee nicaaoue a Iineaa naiaai ?iaea eiinoeueoaoeaioth
annaiaeath – Ainoaea?noaaiiia niaauaiea. Iii auei, iiaeaeoe, iineaaeiae
?aaeueiie iiiuoeie Ea?aineiai oaea?aeaoue iiey?ecothueany iieeoe/aneea
oeaiae.

Ia ioe?uaoainy, 12 aaaonoa 1917 aiaea a Iineaa, a caeaiee Aieueoiai
oaao?a, niaauaiee, ieieno?-i?aaenaaeaoaeue oioae oneuoaoue iiaeaea?aeeo
naiae eeiee, iaeee “iauee aiein caiee”‘.

Ioe?uaay niaauaiea, Ea?aineee cayaee: “A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?ecaaei
aan nthaea. …aeey oiai, /oiau ioe?uoi e i?yii neacaoue aai iiaeeeiioth
i?aaaeo i oii, /oi ia?aaeeaaao nae/an aaeeeay, ei ecio/aiiay ?iaeeia
iaoa”. Ea?aineee ioaa?a “i?aaue” e “eaaue” yeno?aieci: “Ionoue ciatho
ana, eoi ?ac oaea iuoaeny iiaeiyoue aii?oaeaiioth ?oeo ia aeanoue
ia?iaeioth iiiuoea aoaeao i?ae?auaia aeaeacii e e?iaueth. Ionoue aua
aieueoa inoa?aaathony aua oa iinyaaoaee, eioi?ua aeoiatho, /oi, ianoaei
a?aiy, iie?aynue ia oouee, iecaa?aiooue ?aaiethoeeiiioth aeanoue. Aeey
ian, aeey A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, n naiiai ia/aea e aei neo ii?
eaeouaai… aei?iaie naiiai oe?ieiai iauaaeeiaiey anao ia?aaeaiiuo
?aaiethoeee nee ai eiy iiae/eiaiey naieo ee/iuo e eeanniauo eioa?ania
aeieao nianaiey ianeaaeey iaoeo i?aaeeia e caueou /anoe e aeinoieinoaa
naiaiaeiie ?onneie aeaiie?aoee… ynii, /oi ainoaea?noai iaoa ia?aaeeaaao
/an nia?oaeueiie iianiinoe… aei neo ii? iu oaeiai nia?aiey ia
nicuaaee… Aieiaeathuea ai?iaea, ?anno?aeaathueeny o?ainii?o, iaaeaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?anoeuaiea e en/aciiaaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaaonoa iaeiia?aiaiii nii?iaiaeaeaaony iionoioaieai
ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciu e aaeeeeie oeiainiaui e aeaiaaeiui e?ecenii. Ii
aua

aieueoa iu aeaeei a iieeoe/aneeo iano?iaieyo, aaea i?ioeann ?aniaaea e
?aniueaiey ia a?aaeaeothuea iaaeaeo niaie ia?oee e a?oiiu noaeeeaaaony
ni no?aieaieai iaeioi?uo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae eneaoue nianaiey a
ioiaaeaaaiee noaeueau naiae io ian …oieueei a iauaaeeiythuae,
i?eia?ythuae, ia?aaeaeathuae e aicauoathuae aaoi?eoao iiaie aeanoe –
aa?oiaiie neea. Oieueei a iae anoue nianaiea io ?aniaaea e a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu. E iai?aai, e iaeaai, neaaeo aai – iai?eie?eiui, /oi ioeaaaoanue
au, aeoiay, /oi iioiio, iu ia n aaie e ia n ieie, iu aanneeueiu. Iao, a
yoii e anoue iaoa neea”.

I?e cae?uoee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaauaiey 15 aaaonoa Ea?aineee aiai?ee:
‘”Caaea/a anyeiai A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, anyeiai aiiaua
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ainoaea?noaa ?onneii, caeeth/aaony a
oii; /oiau aeia?iniaanoii, ai eiy aaeeiiai, ai eiy oeaeiai ainoaea?noaa
ana, /oi oieueei iuneeii i?eie?eoue, ana, /oi iuneeii niaeaneoue…”

Ii, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a naieo iaioa?ao Ea?aineee, iienuaay”
Ainoaea?noaaiiia niaauaiea ieoao: “Auee iiiaiou, eiaaea ouny/e
nia?aaoeony a caea ethaeae aeaiiino?e?iaaee aaeeiiaeooioth iiaeaea?aeeo
iiaiio ainoaea?noao e i?aaeaiiinoue no?aia, yoi auee anaai eeoue
iiiaiou. Ca iaaieueoei eneeth/aieai ana aunooiaee n o?aaiaaieai
onoaiiaeaiey ii?yaeea /a?ac “oaa?aeoth aeanoue”. Oaeia aue “aiein” oie
“caiee”, eioi?ay nia?aeanue ii ciao A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Iieeoeea Ea?aineiai no?ieeanue ia aaeaine?iaaiee iaaeaeo i?aauie e
eaauie oeaiaaie. Ea?aineee, ia aeaeay ?aaoue ie n oaie, ie n ae?oaeie,
ieacaeny a oeaio?a, acuaay e aaeeinoao e niei/aieth anao e any. E anee
eaauo (iaiueoaaeeia e yna?ia) yoe i?ecuau ono?aeaaee, oi o i?aauo iie
ana aieueoa aucuaaee ?acae?aaeaiea.

Caaeoiaiiia Ea?aineei Ainoaea?noaaiiia niaauaiea, eae ia?a niei/aiey e
aaeeiaiey aie?oa i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iai?ioea, iaia?oaeeei oaeoaeythueeny
iauanoaaiiue ?aneie. Ieieno?-i?aaenaaeaoaeue iiiye, /oi Ainoaea?noaaiiia
niaauaiea ia aeaaineiaeei iieeoe/aneoth no?oeoo?o, nooue eioi?ie
ninoiyea a eiaeeoeee anao ia?oee (ca eneeth/aieai “e?aeia eaauo” e
“e?aeia i?aauo”).

Ainoaea?noaaiiia niaauaiea aianei a iieeoe/aneoth eeieth Ea?aineiai
ii?aaeaeaiiua ei??aeoeau. Iia naeaeioeanue ai?aai. Ea?aineee ia iia
o/eouaaoue yaiiai oneeaiey i?aauo nee, /oi o?aaiaaei io iaai oaia?ue
oaea iieiie iiaeaea?aeee E.A. Ei?ieeiaa.

2. A.O. Ea?aineee e aunooieaiea E.A. Ei?ieeiaa

naiei aeeaeaeoei iiiiuieeii a aeaea nicaeaiey neeueiie aeanoe Ea?aineee
aua?ae E.A. Ei?ieeiaa, eioi?ue io?eoeaoaeueii ioiineeny eae ne Niaaoai,
oae e e i?aaeoaeuenoao. N aai iiiiuueth A.O. Ea?aineee iaaeayeny
inaiaiaeeoue aeanoue io niaaoneie caaeneiinoe, onoaiiaeoue a no?aia
aeanoeee ii?yaeie.

19 ethey Ei?ieeia iacia/aaony Aeaaeiaa?oii, oiaaea aea iino
oi?aaeythuaai aiaiiui ieienoa?noaii caiye A.A. Naaeieia.

3 aaaonoa Ei?ieeia i?aaeinoaaee Ea?aineiio aa?eaio i?ia?aiiu, a eioi?ie
aaeaeo ia?anoathuaai oicyenoaaiiiai ia?aee/a, noaayuaai iiae oa?ico
niaaaeaiea a?iee, i?aaeeaaaeenue ieeeoa?ecaoeey oaa?ee, caaiaeia,
aeaeaciuo aei?ia e aaaaeaiea nia?oiie eacie a oueo.

A.O. Ea?aineee n/ae aa?eaio i?ia?aiiu /?acia?ii ?aceei ii oi?ia,
iaeaoaiea i?ia?aiiu a oaeie ?aaeaeoeee iiaei, ii aai iiaieth,
ni?iaioee?iaaoue ?aaiethoeeiiiia aunooieaiea. A oi aea a?aiy
ieieno?-i?aaenaaeaoaeue au?acee niaeanea n i?aaeeiaeaiiuie ia?aie.
Iicaea ii ienae: ” Nouanoai o?aaiaaiee aaia?aea Ei?ieeiaa yaeyeinue
oieueei naiaia?aciie oi?ioee?iaeie oao ia?, eioi?ua oaea io/anoe
i?iaiaeeeenue, io/anoe i?iaeoe?iaaeenue A?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii, e yoi
nouanoai ioaa/aei iano?iaieyi ioaaonoaaiiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo e
eeaa?aeueiuo e?oaia”.

10 aaaonoa aei?aaioaiiue oaeno aue aiiaue ia?aaeai Ea?aineiio. Aiaiiue
?acaeae i?aaeoniao?eaae ainnoaiiaeaiea aeenoeeieeia?iie aeanoe
ia/aeueieeia a iieiie ia?a: ?aceia ia?aie/aiea iieiiii/ee eiienna?ia e
eiieoaoia, aaaaeaiea nia?oiie eacie a oueo. A “A?aaeaeaineii ?acaeaea”
i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue iauyaeaiea aeaeaciuo aei?ia e ?aaioathueo ia iai?iio
caaiaeia e oaoo ia aiaiiii iieiaeaiee, cai?auaiea ieoeiaia, caaanoiaie e
aiaoaoaeuenoai ?aai/eo a oicyenoaaiiua aeaea. Iiae/a?eeaaeinue, /oi ”
oeacaiiua ia?ii?eyoey aeieaeiu auoue i?iaaaeaiu a aeeciue iaiaaeeaiii n
aeaeaciie ?aoeiinoueth e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth”.

I?eauaoaio 13 aaaonoa a Iineao Ei?ieeiao auea ono?iaia ainoi?aeaiiay
ano?a/a ia aiecaea. 14 aaaonoa ii aunooiee ia Ainoaea?noaaiiii
niaauaiee. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie ?acaaea a?iee ii iacaae ” caeiiiaeaoaeueiua
ia?u”, i?eiyoua iinea Oaa?aey. Cayaee, /oi ?acieoeu ” iaaeaeo o?iioii e
oueii ioiineoaeueii no?iainoe iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey nianaiey no?aiu ?aaeeia
ia aeieaeii auoue”. A caeeth/aiee iiae/a?eioe, /oi “iaeuecy oa?youe ie
iaeiie ieioou. Ioaeia ?aoeiinoue e oaa?aeia iai?aeeiiiia aaaaeaiea
iaia/aiiuo ia?”.

N ia/aea aaaonoa Ei?ieeia noae ia?aa?anuaaoue e Iao?ia?aaeo aa?iua aio
/anoe 3-e eiiiue ei?ion aaia?aea A.I. E?uiiaa, Eaaeacneoth oocaiioth
aeeaeceth, 5-th Eaaeacneoth eaaaea?eeneoth aeeaeceth e ae?oaea.

A.O. Ea?aineee e iiiaioo Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaauaiey oaea oae a aeiea n
Ei?ieeiaui, ii a naieo iaioa?ao ii io?eoeaao yoi. Aniiieiay ?aaioo
niaauaiey, ii ieoao, /oi “niaa?oee oiaaea iaeio aieueooth ioeaeo. E oiio
a?aiaie y oaea ciae i aioiayuainy aiaiiii caaiai?a… Anee au y ciae a oi
a?aiy, /oi ai aeaaa caaiai?a noieo Aa?oiaiue aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee,
eioi?iai y nai iacia/ee e ia iiiiuue eioi?iai a ai?ueaa n caaiai?ueeaie
iieaaaeny, oi, eiia/ii aea, neacae au ia yoii ia niaauaiee e
iaiaaeeaiii, ooo aea, ia ianoa, i?eiye ana iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u”.

Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi Ea?aineee iuoaaony caeanue inaaoeeoue naith
?ieue, naycaiioth n aunooieaieai Ei?ieeiaa.

Eiaaea iinea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaauaiey Ea?aineee iieo/ee io Ei?ieeiaa
iiaoth oaeaa?aiio n o?aaiaaieai aacioeaaaoaeueiiai aaaaeaiey ia?,
eceiaeaiiuo a aai caienea io 10 aaaonoa, iooyaeaaoue ?aoaiea i?aiuea?
oaea ia iia, oae eae iiieiae, /oi Ainoaea?noaaiiia niaauaiea iieacaei
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaeaea?aeee i?aauo nee.

17 aaaonoa, aa?ioaoenue a Iao?ia?aae ec Iineau, ii aucaae Naaeieiaa e
niiauee aio, /oi i?eioeeieaeueii niaeanai n caieneie Ei?ieeiaa. Aianoa n
oai, ii auaiai?ee Naaeieiao ca oi, /oi “eiio??aaiethoeey iiaeiyea
aieiao” e /oi ii, Naaeieia, oiaea aeiiaao a yoii, iineieueeo
auaeaeaeaiea Ei?ieeiaa – yoi aai ?oe aeaei.

20 aaaonoa ?onneeie aieneaie auea inoaaeaia ?eaa. A nayce n yoei 22
aaaonoa ia eiy Ea?aineiai e Naaeieiaa ec Noaaee i?eoea iiaay oaeaa?aiia.
Ei?ieeia o?aaiaae ” e?oouo ia?” e iaiaaeeaiiiai iiae/eiaiey aio
Iao?ia?aaeneiai aiaiiiai ie?oaa. Ia 24 aaaonoa a Iiaeeaaa auei
caieaie?iaaii niaauaiea n oeaeueth ianoaeaeaiey i?iaeoa iiaiai
iieiaeaiey i eiienna?ao e a?iaeneeo eiieoaoao. Ia iaai aeieaeai aue
auaoaoue oi?aaeythuee aiaiiui ieienoa?noaii A. Naaeieia. Ea?aineee
i?eaeanee aai e naaa e au?acee niaeanea ia aeeth/aiea Iao?ia?aaeneiai
aiaiiiai ie?oaa a ninoaa oi?ie?oaiie Iao?ia?aaeneie a?iee e iiae/eiaiea
aa oaeei ia?acii aeaaeiaa?oo, ii n iaiai?eie: ec ie?oaa auaeaeeoue nai
Iao?ia?aae, eioi?ue ii i?aaeiaio inoaaony a aaaeaiee aiaiiiai ieieno?a.
“Eia/a ian caeanue “neooatho””, – neacae Ea?aineee.

Ia yoio neo/ae, anee a ai?iaea a eiioea aaaonoa i?iecieaeao aunooieaiea
aieueoaaeeia, Naaeieia aeieaeai aue eni?ineoue o Noaaee eaaaea?eeneea
/anoe aeey i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey e ?aca?iia
aieueoaaeeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaia?aiey Ea?aineiai e Ei?ieeiaa niaiaee, aaaeue Ei?ieeia
oaea ioaeae i?eeac i ia?aa?inea 3-ai eiiiiai ei?iona, Oocaiiie aeeaecee
e ae?oaeo /anoae e Iao?ia?aaeo. Ia niaauaiee a Noaaea 23 aaaonoa auea
aeinoeaiooa aeiaiai?aiiinoue, /oi aienea aoaeoo iiaeoyioou e Iao?ia?aaeo
e 28-29 aaaonoa. Oaeei ia?acii, ianiio?y ia iaeioi?ua iaiai?ee e oneiaey
( Ea?aineee au?aaeae iaaeiaa?ea E?uiiao, eae
iiaeic?aaaaiiio a iiia?oecia; “eeeaeaeaoeey” aeaaiiai eiieoaoa Nithca
ioeoea?ia”, eioi?ue aue Ea?aineiio iiaeic?eoaeai), Ea?aineee ii nouanoao
naieoeeiie?iaae aeaenoaey Noaaee, oaea aeaeioaoae aienea e Iao?ia?aaeo.
A Noaaea ainiiaenoaiaaea yeoi?ey. Ia/aeinue niaauaiea ii aii?ino i oi?ia
i?aaeaiey. ?aoeee nicaeaoue ” Niaao ia?iaeiie iai?iiu”. Iaeaaeathuee
anae iieiioie aeanoe. Ai aeaaa Ei?ieeia, aai iiiiuiee Ea?aineee, /eaiu-
aaia?ae Aeaenaaa, aaeie?ae Eie/ae, Naaeieia, Oeeiiaiei.

I?e Niaaoa aeieaeii auoue i?aaeoaeuenoai – eniieieoaeueiue i?aai. A iaai
iaia/aee oe?ieia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai: io auaoeo oea?neeo ieieno?ia
-“eeaa?aeia” I. Iie?ianeiai e I. Eaiaoueaaa aei Ieaoaiiaa. A iauai
caiuoeyee “iaaeia?oeeiia” i?aaeoaeuenoai iiae aeeeoaoi?neie ?oeie
Ei?ieeiaa.

Iaeaieaa ooiaiiui yieciaeii a yoie aeaaa yaeyaony, iaaa?iia, aii?in i
niauoeyo, i?eaaaeoeo e ?aniaaeo nithca Ea?aineiai n Ei?ieeiaui. Yoio
?ac?ua naycai n eiaiai Aeaaeeie?a Ieeieaaae/a Eueaiaa.

22 aaaonoa ii iinaoee Ea?aineiai a Ceiiai aeai?oea, iinoaaea ia?aae
Ea?aineei aii?in: niaeanai ee ieieno? – i?aaenaaeaoaeue aieoe a eiioaeo
n iaeie a?oiiie “iauanoaaiiuo aeayoaeae”, eiathueo aeinoaoi/ioth neeo,
/oiau iaania/eoue aio i?i/ioth iiaeaea?aeeo ni?aaa?

Ea?aineee iio?aaiaae ?acuyniaiee. Ia iieo/ea ioaaoa, ii, i?aeoe/anee,
niaeaneeny ia oi, /oiau Eueaia i?iaeieaeee ia?aaiai?u n yoie a?oiiie
“iauanoaaiiuo aeayoaeae”. Oaeay iiceoeey Ea?aineiai ia i?aaenoaaeyaony
iaiaeeaeaiiie. Inoi?iaeiua ?acaiai?u i eiioeaio?aoeee aeanoe oaea
aaeenue n iei aei aeceoa Eueaiaa. Ea?aineee iiiye, /oi a?oiiie, i
eioi?ie aiai?ee Eueaia auee eaeea-oi “i?iei?ieeianeea” yeaiaiou.

A enoi?eia?aoee ia ?aoai aii?in: aue ee aeceo Eueaiaa 22 aaaonoa e
Ea?aineiio aai ee/iie eieoeeaoeaie, eee ca aai nieiie eoi-oi noiye?
Aeinoiaa?iiai ioaaoa iao. Ii, ianiiiaiii, aeceo aue iaaayi “i?aaie”
n?aaeie, a eioi?ie Eueaia a?auaeny ia Ainoaea?noaaiiii niaauaiee.

Aeey anao aeaeaaaoia niaauaiey auei i/aaeaeia ia?aiciinoue Ea?aineiai,
aeaaea enoa?ey, eioi?ay yaeyeanue io?aaeaieai
iaonoie/eainoe ?aaeeia, iuoaaoaainy “oneaeaoue iaaeaeo aeaoiy
nooeueyie”.

Yoi ii?iaeeei o iaeioi?uo aeayoaeae no?aieaiea iaaeaoue ia Ea?aineiai,
/oiau ii inaiaiaeeeny io aeeyiey Niaaoia e acye “i?aaue” eo?n.

Iieeioa Ea?aineiai, Eueaia aica?aoeeny a Iineao. Caeanue ii iiaeaeaeny n
Aeia?uineei, Aeaaeueeiui, a?aoii Ieeieaai, eioi?ui niiauee /oi Ea?aineee
aeae aio iieiiii/ey ia ia?aaiai?u n Ei?ieeiaui.

24 aaaonoa Eueaia aianoa n Aeia?uineei e Aeaaeueeiui i?eauee a Noaaeo.
Ia cayaeaiea Eueaiaa i oii , /oi ii i?eaue io Ea?aineiai n oeaeueth
auyniaiey oie “eiino?oeoeee aeanoe”, eioi?ay iaoea au iiaeaea?aeeo
Aa?oiaiiai aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai, Ei?ieeia ioiaoee, /oi aaeeinoaaiiui
enoiaeii yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea aeeeoaoo?u e iauyaeaiea no?aiu ia aiaiiii
iieiaeaiee. Ei?ieeia, a ia?aaiai?ao ni Eueaiaui, auaeaeaae oaea aieaa
?aaeeeaeueiua, eaoaai?e/iua o?aaiaaiey, /ai i?e aeceoa Naaeieiaa.

Aianoa n oai, Ei?ieeia ia?aaeae Eueaiao, /oi a nayce n aanii?yaeeaie,
eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeiooue n aaaaeaieai a Iao?ia?aaea aiaiiiai
iieiaeaiey, Ea?aineiio e Naaeieiao eo/oa auaoaoue a Noaaeo. Ianoaiiaea a
Iiaee?aa i?iecaaea ia Eueaiaa oyaeaeia aia/aoeaiea. Ec naiae iiacaeee ii
ociae, /oi ioeoea?noai a Noaaea iaiaaeaeeo Ea?aineiai.

Eiaaea Naaeieia i?eaue a Iao?ia?aae n aeieeaaeii ia eoiaao iiacaeee, oio
oaea eieaaaeny. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi iaiaoeaoeeny aeueyin n
Ei?ieeiaui e Noaaeie, iiaeao iaa?iooueny aeey iaai iieeoe/aneei
i?iaaeii. Ea?aineee io/eoaeueii eneae nianeoaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey. A yoio
iiiaio, aeiai 26 aaaonoa e iaio aoi?ie ?ac yaeyaony Eueaia. Ii niiauee,
/oi i?eaac i?aaeeiaeaiey Ei?ieeiaa:

1. Iauyaeoue Iao?ia?aae ia aiaiiii iieiaeaiee.

2. Oeoe anai ieieno?ai a ionoaaeo.

3. Ia?aaeaoue anth aeanoue — aiaiioth e a?aaeaeaineoth – Aa?oiaiiio
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaio, eioi?ue ninoaaeo iiaue eaaeiao ieieno?ia.

Eueaia ia?aaeae oaeaea i?aaeeiaeaiea Ei?ieeiaa i?eaoaoue a Noaaeo
Ea?aineiio e Naaeieiao, aeiaaaea io naay, /oi yoiai aeaeaoue ia noieo,
oae eae Ea?aineee aoaeao a?anoiaai eee aeaaea oaeo.

Ea?aineee, ainiieueciaaaoenue i?iaieaoeeiiiui aeceoii Eueaiaa, ?ac?uaaao
n Ei?ieeiaui. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia ioaa?aay oneeee Naaeieiaa e
Oeeiiaiei, iai?aaeaiiuo ia niaianoiua aeaenoaey n Ea?aineei,
ei?ieeianeia ie?oaeaiea iaeiia?aiaiii aaei ne?uooth aeayoaeueiinoue,
oeaeueth eioi?ie auei aunooieoue a iaoiae Ea?aineiio. E Ea?aineee, eae
iai eaaeaony, oi/ii oeaaeeaae yoi.

Aai ?aaeoeey ia «oeueoeiaooi» Ei?ieeiaa auea th?eaee/anee
i?ioanneiiaeueiie. 26 aaaonoa Ea?aineee i?eaue a aiaiiia ieienoa?noai e
ii aiia?aoo THca aucaae Ei?ieeiaa. Ii i?eaeaoae ia yoe ia?aaiai?u
Eueaiaa, ii oio iiacaeuaae. Nei?aa anaai, ii iianaeny ia?aaiai?ia.
Aiai?y ca Eueaiaa, Ea?aineee iii?inee iiaeoaa?aeeoue Ei?ieeiaa oi
?aoaiea, i eioi?ii Eueaia aeieaeai aue ecaanoeoue Ea?aineiai. Ei?ieeia
iiaeoaa?aeee, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueii i?inee Ea?aineiai «i?eaoaoue a
Iiaeeaa». Oiaaea Ea?aineee, aiai?y oaea i naaa, ia?aaeae, /oi ii
iiieiaao ioaao Ei?ieeiaa eae iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea neia, ia?aaeaiiuo aio
Eueaiaui, oi anoue aeeth/ee a «ei?ieeianeia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea» ana o?e
ioieoa oeueoeiaooia, i eioi?uo Ei?ieeiao ie/aai niiauaii ia auei.

Ea?aineee eeeiaae. Ei?ieeia nai ?anienaeny iiae naiei oeueoeiaooiii.
Ano?aoea iiicaeaaoaai Eueaiaa oaea ia ia?aoiii iooe a Ceiiee, Ea?aineee
i?eaeanee aai a naie eaaeiao, aaea aua ?ac i?inee iiaoi?eoue
niaea?aeaiea ei?ieeianeiai «oeueoeiaooia». Eae oieueei Eueaia caeii/ee
naie ?anneac, ec- ca oe?iu iiyaeeny ia/aeueiee iao?ia?aaeneie ieeeoeee
iieeiaiee N. Aeaaeineee, eioi?ue iiaeneooae, ii i?inueaa Ea?aineiai,
aanue ?acaiai?. Oaia?ue o Ea?aineiai aue naeaeaoaeue. Eueaia aue
a?anoiaai.

I?eaey ia canaaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa a Iaeaoeoiaue cae. Ea?aineee niiauee
ieieno?ai i neo/eaoainy, eaaeeoeoee?oy aeaenoaey Ei?ieeiaa eae iyoaae.
Ii iio?aaiaae /?acau/aeiuo iieiiii/ee, A naieo iaioa?ao ii ieoao;
«Auneacaaoenue ca iiaeaaeaiea iyoaaea, y cayaee, /oi n/eoath aiciiaeiui
ai?ioueny n iiaeiyoui iyoaaeii eeoue i?e oneiaee, anee iia aoaeao
ia?aaeaia A?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii any iieiioa aeanoe». Ana ieieno?u
oi?iaeueii iiaeaee a ionoaaeo. I?aaeoaeuenoai, ia?aciaaiiia a 20-o
/eneao ethey, i?aeoe/anee ia?anoaei nouanoaiaaoue. Oaia?ue Ea?aineee
niaauaeny oaeoe/anee oieueei n Oa?auaiei e Iae?aniaui.

27 aaaonoa a Noaaeo iioea oaeaa?aiia: «Aaia?aeo Ei?ieeiao. I?eeacuaath
aai iaiaaeeaiii naeaoue aeieaeiinoue aaia?aeo Eoeiineiio. Aai iaaeeaaeeo
iaiaaeeaiii i?eauoue a Iao?ia?aae. Ea?aineee». A yoio aea aeaiue,
aa/a?ii, a Noaaea ociaee, /oi a aacaoao iiyaeeinue niiauaiea,
iaaeiythuaa Ei?ieeiaa a iiiuoea «onoaiiaeoue ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?yaeie,
i?ioeai?a/auee caaiaaaieyi ?aaiethoeee».

“Ei?ieeianeea” aienea i?eaeeaeaeenue e Iao?ia?aaeo. 27 aaaonoa
eiiaiaeothuaio eie E?uiiao i?eoee aeaa oaeaa?aiiu; Ea?aineee i?inee
inoaiiaeoue aeaeaeaiea aiene e noieeoea, Ei?ieeia – ia ia?auae ia
i?eeacu Ea?aineiai aieiaiey. E?uiia, n naiiai ia/aea aunooiaaoee i?ioea
niaeaoaiey n Ea?aineei, i?iaeieaeae aeaeaeaiea ?ann?aaeioi/aiiuie e
aeaii?aeeciaaiiuie ?anii?yaeaieyie Ea?aineiai. E?iia oiai,
E?uiiao ia oaeaeinue iaeaaeeoue naycue ni Noaaeie. Aa/a?ii 30 aaaonoa ii
oacaeaao a Iao?ia?aae, /oi iaianei “ei?ieeianeiio” aeaeaeaieth oyaeaeue
oaea?.

31 aaaonoa E?uiia aue i?eiyo Ea?aineei a Ceiiai aeai?oea, aaea
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ii ia i?e/anoai e iaia?aieth naa?aiooue i?aaeoaeuenoai,
eeyeny, /oi aeaenoaiaae ai eiy ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?yaeea. A yoio aea
aeaiue ii iieii/ee aeeciue naiioaeenoaii. Ea?aineee ia aeii?ina
*?acau/aeiie neaaenoaaiiie eiiennee iieacuaae, /oi, eiaaea noaei
ecaanoii, /oi E?uiia cano?aeeeny, iaeei ec aai ioeoea?ia neacae: «Io,
oaia?ue ana eiioeu a aiaeo». Nia?oue E?uiiaa neiaieece?iaaea eiiaoe
“ei?ieeianeiai” aunooieaiey.

Ea?aineee iiaaaeee aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi naeaeaa e?ai aeaai, ii iieo/ee
iiuioth iiaeaea?aeeo ni noi?iiu ?aaiethoeeiiii –
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee.

Aaia?aeueneee iyoaae ?acaeeny i aaeeiue ?aaiethoeeiiii –
aeaiie?aoe/aneee o?iio. Oau, ii i?inouanoaiaae anaai ianeieueei aeiae.
Eaiei oiaaea ooaa?aeaeae, /oi anee au oiaaea ii nio?aieeny, aeanoue
iiaea au ie?iui iooai ia?aeoe e iiiaiia?oeeiui Niaaoai, a A?aaeaeaineay
aieia, aa?iyoiaa anaai, auea au eneeth/aia. Ii, neiiea “i?aauo”,
Ea?aineee i?aeniieiyeny aa?u a oi, /oi iieii/eo e n “eaauie”. Ea?aineee
eeoeeny “i?aaiai” nooea, a oneaeaoue ia iaeiii ia oioae, aea e ia iia.

Aieueoaaeee ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi Ea?aineee aioiaeo iiaoth “ei?ieeiaueio”.
Ieacaaoenue ia?aae eeoeii ?anoouae ?iee Niaaoia, Ea?aineee aiiaue
ia/eiaao aeaieioth ea?o: i?ioea ionooiathuae “ei?ieeiaueiu” e,
iaea?aeaaoae iiaaaeo, niaaoneie aeaiie?aoeae, a eioi?ie ana aieueooth
?ieue ea?aee aieueoaaeee.

AEanoii a noi?iio Niaaoia noaei niyoea 31 aaaonoa n iinoa
eiienna?aa?oa Oeeiiaiei, oaieueiaiea Naaeieiaa n iinoia aaia?ae –
aoaa?iaoi?a e oi?aaeythuaai aiaiiui ieienoa?noaii.

1 naioya?y Ea?aineee iauyaee ?inneth ?anioaeeeie. A ia/aea naioya?y ec
oth?ueiu auee auiouaiu iiae caeia E.Ae. O?ioeeee e ae?oaea aieueoaaeee.

AEanoii “aeaai” noaei iacia/aiea ia/aeueieeii ooaaa Noaaee aaia?aea
Aeaenaaaa, a eioi?ii “i?aaue” eaaa?ue aeaeae naeaeaoaeuenoai “enoeiii
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaia?aiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa» .

2 naioya?y Ei?ieeia e Eoeiineee auee acyou iiae a?ano.

Ae. Aieeiaiiia a naiai aeaoooiiieea «Eaiei» ieoao: «Aaia?aeueneee iyoaae
noiae n aaaonoianeei ioo/ai 199 eae-oi n?aco iioa?ye nai? aeeyiea, a
/a?ac 74 aiaea, a noiaeiie aaaonoianeie neooaoeee, aai eeoeeny e
Ai?aa/aa. A yoii iianiinoue aaneiia/iiai aaeaine?iaaiey, iaiaa?e?iaaiey,
eioi?ua a ii?aaeaeaiiua iiiaiou ioaeiu, ai nooueth aeieain?i/iie
iieeoeee auoue ia iiaoo. … Aica?auaynue e oai ae?aiaoe/aneei aeiyi,
Ea?aineee oaea a 1919 aiaeo ni?aaaaeeeai ieoao, aiai?y i ei?ieeiaueia:
«Caaiai? ioe?ue aeaa?ue aieueoaaeeai”.

Ioo/ Ei?ieeiaa ieacaeny aeey aieueoaaeeia nianeoaeueiui,
aaeioiiaeythuei, iaiaaeaaeeaathuei; iinea iaai eo aaoi?eoao iioae a ai?o
e auno?i noaei iaaeaoue aeeyiea Ea?aineiai.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiiuoee A.O. Ea?aineiai oneeeoue ainoaea?noaaiioth
aeanoue ia oaai/aeenue oniaoii. A nayce n ionoonoaeai
/aoeie, aaeeiie, i?iaeoiaiiie aei iaeue/aeoeo aeaoaeae,
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiie eaeeie-oi e?oiiuie a?oiiaie, iieeoe/aneie eeiee,
o Ea?aineiai ii/oe ia inoaeinue noi?iiieeia, ie iinoiyiii ie?oaeaaoae
aai oieiu, ie aeaeaaaoeee, ie i?iaeaeoia. Enoi?ey ioaa?ioeanue io naiaai
iaaeieaiai « ethaiaieea».

Aeaaa III. Caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe

A.O. Ea?aineiai.

1. Oi?ie?iaaiea o?aoueaai eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

A.O. Ea?aineee – aeaaa Aee?aeoi?ee.

Iinea “ei?ieeianeiai” aunooieaiey auei au ?aciiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
/oi, iano?aaeaaoenue io “i?aauo”, e, oaaaeeaoenue a ia?iiiie neea
“eaauo”, aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi eioi?uo Ea?aineiio oaeaeinue iiaaaeeoue
Ei?ieeiaa, i?aiuea?-ieieno? naeaeaao ana aiciiaeiia, /oiau ca?o/eoueny
iiaeaea?aeeie yoeo “eaauo” yeaiaioia. Ii, Ea?aineee iao?aaaaiue neeueiaa
/ai i?aaeaea, no?aoaie ia?aae oeueo?aeaauie e an? au? ia
ioeacuaathueieny i?iaeieaeaoue aieio, ia/ae auiaoeaaoue ieai nicaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iaoeaeaiiiai ia i?aaiii?yaeie, a aeaea eiaeeoeeiiiiai
eaaeiaoa “i?aauo” nioeeaeenoia e eeaa?aeia, a eioi?ii eaaeaou eiaee au
neeueiia aeeyiea. Ii ii-i?aaeiaio iuoaaony aanoe “iaaeia?oeeioth”
eeieth, iai?aaeaiioth ia eiinieeaeaoeeth nee aeaiie?aoe/aneiai oeaio?a,
yae?i eioi?iai ninoaaeyea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay eiaeeoeey. Iaeiaei, iinea
iiaeaaeaiey Ei?ieeiaa, ii noaeeeaaaony n iai?eyoeai naiae eaeae n?aaee
iaiueoaaeeia e yna?ia, eioi?ua iiae aeeyieai aieueoaaeeia, caiyaoeo e 31
aaaonoa aieueoeinoai a Iao?ia?aaeneii Niaaoa, «iin/eoaee oaia?ue aaaeiui
ainnoaiiaeoue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth eiaeeoeeth n o/anoeai aieueoaaeeia, ii
aac eaae?ia…»

Ea?aineee, iai?ioea, n/eoae, /oi «ioeo/ay eaaeaoia io… o/anoey a
nicaeaiee iiaiai iieeoe/aneiai, nioeeaeueiiai, yeiiiie/aneiai i?aaiecia,
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia oieueei niaa?oeei au i?anooieaiea i?ioea no?aiu, ii e
ieacaeinue au ii?aeueiui aaie?ioii».

Ii aai iiaieth, ia?oey eaaeaoia i?eieiaea naiia aeoeaiia o/anoea a
?aaiethoeee e a ioee/ea io aieueoaaeeia, ioaa?aaea ethaoth oi?io
aeeeoaoo?u. Ieetheia e aai a?oiia, iiaeaea?aeaaoea Ei?ieeiaa, ninoaaeyee
iaiueoeinoai eaaeaoneie ia?oee.

Oai ia iaiaa, e iaiueoaaenoneee OeE e OeE yna?ia ia iiceoeee
iaaeiionoeiinoe o/anoey ai A?aiaiiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa «oaeeo
yeaiaioia, eioi?ua eeai nio/anoaiaaee a eiio??aaiethoeeiiiii
aeaeaeaiee, eeai niiniaiu ia?aeeciaaoue ai?ueao n iei”.

A yoeo oneiaeyo Ea?aineee auioaeaeai aue a?aiaiii ioeiaeeoue nicaeaiea

eiaeeoeee, aieioue aei a? oi?ie?iaaiey auei ?aoaii ia?aaeaoue aeanoue
Aee?aeoi?ee. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei, 31 aaaonoa ia canaaeaiee Niaaoa
ieieno?ia, aue ooaa?aeaeai i?iaeo Ea?aineiai i i?iaicaeaoaiee ?innee
?anioaeeeie.

1 naioya?y auoei ioeoeeaeueiia cayaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa: «N?i/iay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiyoey iaiaaeeaiiuo e ?aoeoaeueiuo ia? aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey iio?ynaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?yaeea iiaoaeeea
A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aaeaoue iieiioo aeanoe ii oi?aaeaieth iyoe
eeoeai ec aai ninoaaa».

A yoio niaoeeaeueiue i?aai – Aee?aeoi?eth aioee: A.O. Ea?aineee –
ieieno?-i?aaenaaeaoaeue aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee (n 30 aaaonoa 1917 aiaea),
ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae I.I. Oa?auaiei, ieieno? ii/o e oaeaa?aoa,
ioaaonoaaiiue ca ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae Ieeeoei, aiaiiue ieieno?
aaia?ae-iaei? Aa?oianeee, ii?neie ieieno? eiio? – aaeie?ae
Aa?aea?aaneee.

Iaeiia?aiaiii, A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iauyaeei, /oi «ainoaea?noaaiiue
ii?yaeie, eioi?ui oi?aaeyaony ?inneeneia ainoaea?noai, anoue ii?yaeie
?anioaeeeaineee», auea i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeea.

Iicaeiaa, ii?aaeaeyy aeeaae aicaeaaeyaiiai ei A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu, Ea?aineee
ienae: «Auea onoaiiaeaia iacaaeneiinoue noaeae e noaeia. Auee
eeeaeaee?iaaiu ana «niaoeeaeueiua» noaeu «iieeoe/aneea» aeaea eee aeaea,
naycaiiua n ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoueth, ioiuia noaee iiaeeaaeaoue
?anniio?aieth a noaea i?enyaeiuo, eae e ana iau/iua oaieiaiua aeaea.
Auee ioiaiaiu ana ?aeeaeiciua, yoie/aneea e nineiaiua ia?aie/aiey,
i?iaicaeaoaia iieiay naiaiaea niaanoe, Ainnoaiiaeaia iacaaeneiinoue
i?aaineaaiie oea?eae… Anai ae?oaei oea?eayi, naeoai e ?aeeaeyi auea
i?aaeinoaaeaia iieiay naiaiaea ia?auaoue ethaeae a naith aa?o. AEaiueiai
auee i?aaeinoaaeaiu ?aaiua n ioae/eiaie iieeoe/aneea e a?aaeaeaineea
i?aaa, aue ?ac?aaioai Caeii i auai?ao a O/?aaeeoaeueiia Nia?aiea, a
iniiao eioi?iai auee iieiaeaiu anaiauaa ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai e
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai… Ia oao aea ecae?aoaeueiuo
i?eioeeiao auei iniiaaii ai?iaeneia e naeueneia naiioi?aaeaiea. Caeii i
eiiia?aoeaao i?aaeoniao?eaae aeeth/aiea eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey a
yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio no?aiu… /a?ac o?e iaaeaee iinea iaaeaiey
iiia?oee… i?aaeoaeuenoai iioaeeeiaaei aeae?ao ia aa?a?iie ?aoi?ia.
20 iay Aeaaiue caiaeueiue eiieoao iioaeeeiaae Aee?aeoeao ia iaueo
i?eioeeiao, iieiaeaiiuo a iniiao aoaeouae ?aoi?iu… iniiaiui i?eioeeiii
aeieaeia auea noaoue ia?aaea/a anae caiee oai, eoi aa ia?aaaouaaao.
Iaeeaeaeinue, /oi e inaie caiaeueiua eiieoaou caaa?oao
iiaeaioiaeoaeueioth ?aaioo e i?aaeoaeuenoai aianao caeiiii?iaeo i
caiaeueiie ?aoi?ia ia ooaa?aeaeaiea O/?aaeeoaeueiui Nia?aieai. A aaniie
1918 aiaea caiey caeiiiui iooai aoaeao ia?aaeaia e?anoueyiai…
O?oaeiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia anao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iai?iiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo aaaei 8-/aniaie ?aai/ee
aeaiue… yoio ?anii?yaeie noae ii?iie e ia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo
anaai /anoiiai naeoi?a… Auee nicaeaiu a?aeo?aaeiua noaeu, a ?aai/ea
eiieoaou e i?ionithcu iieo/eee i?aeoe/anee iieioth aaoiiiieth..
A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eciaei, /oi naiaiaeiay aeaiie?aoe/aneay
?inney ia iiaeao inoaaaoueny oeaio?aeeciaaiiui ainoaea?noaii… iii
i?iaicaeaneei iacaaeneiinoue Iieueoe e ainnoaiiaeei iieioth aaoiiiieth
Oeieyiaeee… aaoiiiiey auea i?aaeinoaaeaia oaeaea Oe?aeia… e o/anoeth a
?aaioa iiaie aaeieieno?aoeee ia Eaaeaca, a Oo?eanoaia e a Aaeoeeneeo
aoaa?ieyo auee i?eaea/aiu i?aaenoaaeoaee ?acee/iuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae
anae eiia?ee. A ia/aea ethey auea nicaeaia eiienney aeey au?aaioee
iaiaoiaeeiuo caeiiia a oeaeyo i?aia?aciaaiey ?innee ia iniiaao
oaaea?aeecia”.

Aeaa ianyoea, ioaeaeyaoea i?iaae Ei?ieeiaa io acyoey aeanoe
aieueoaaeeaie, auee ioia/aiu onei?aiiui ?aniaaeii iauanoaa e
ainoaea?noaa a oneiaeyo ino?iai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena. Cia/eoaeueii
oooaeoeeinue iinea aunooieaiey Ei?ieeiaa iieiaeaiea a a?iee. Ea?aineee
iiieiay, /oi aaeeinoaaiiie neeie, eioi?ay iiaea nianoe aai, auea a?iey.
Iiyoiio aeaaiie caaea/ae A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa auei ainnoaiiaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?yaeea e aianiiniaiinoe a?iee.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo i?eeacia aa?oiaiiai aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai
A.O. Ea?aineiai noaiiaeoueny i?eeac i ainnoaiiaeaiee ii?yaeea a a?iee.
Aeey yoiai ii n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui: «I?ae?aoeoue a?anou ia/aeueieeia,
i?aai ia oaeia aeaenoaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo neaaenoaaiiui aeanoyi…
i?ae?aoeoue naiiaieueiia oi?ie?iaaiea io?yaeia iiae i?aaeeiaii ai?ueau n
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiui aunooieaieyie… i?ae?aoeoue iieeoe/aneoth ai?ueao
a aieneao e ia?aoeoue ana oneeey ia aiaaoth iiuue».

A oneiaeyo e?ooaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia e oneeaiey iaaeiaieuenoaa
?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey, Ea?aineee oioae oe?aieoue caeiiiinoue
naiaai iieiaeaiey.

4 naioya?y ii ecaeae i?eeac i ?inionea A?E, ia?aciaaaoeony a aeie
“ei?ieeianeiai” aunooieaiey.

A.O. Ea?aineee no?aieeny ca?o/eoueny iiaeaea?aeeie Ana?inneeneiai
Aeaiie?aoe/aneiai niaauaiey, eaeay eioi?iai iiaeieiaaony 1 naioya?y ia
canaaeaiea Ana?inneeneiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Eniieieoaeueiiai Eiieoaoa i?e
ianoaeaeaiee e?ecena aie?oa eiaeeoeee. Aai /eaiu «au?aceee iaia?aiea eae
iiaeii nei?aa nicaaoue nuacae i?aaenoaaeoaeae anao «aeaiie?aoe/aneeo» (a
eo iiieiaiee yoiai neiaa) i?aaiia aeey ?aoaiey aii?ina ia i?aaiecaoeee
aeanoe. niiniaiie aeiaanoe no?aio aei O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey». *oi
eanaaony nouanoaiaaaoaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, oia ii eo iiaieth, aai
neaaeiaaei nio?aieoue aieioue aei nicuaa yoiai «aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
niaauaiey», ii eeoue i?e oneiaee oaniiai aai aaeeiaiey n i?aaiaie
?aaiethoeeiiiie aeaiie?aoee a ai?ueaa i?ioea eiio??aaiethoeee. Ii nooe
aeaea, yoi icia/aei, /oi «nouanoaiaaaoaa i?aaeoaeuenoai iaycaii
i?aaenoaaeyoue ana naie aaeieieno?aoeaiua ?aoaiey ia ooaa?aeaeaiea
AOeEE».

Niaauaiea ioe?ueinue 14 naioya?y. Iii aeieaeii auei i?eiyoue ?aoaiea:
eneeth/eoue eee inoaaeoue a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eiaeeoeee ao?aeoaciua
ia?oee.

Aeaiie?aoe/aneia niaauaiea ?aoeei, /oi aei nicuaa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai
Nia?aiey A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai aeieaeii ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae
ia?aciaaiiui 20 naioya?y Ana?inneeneei aeaiie?aoe/aneei niaaoii
(I?aaeia?eaiaioii). Ea?aineee n yoei ia niaeaneeny. Ia niaauaiee 22
naioya?y A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
niaauaiey, iineianeeo iauanoaaiiuo aeayoaeae e iaeioi?uo /eaiia OeE
eaaeaoia ii aii?inai i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe Ea?aineee cayaee: «Iniiaiuie
ia/aeaie, iaycaoaeueiuie aeey iaoae ?aaiou, yaeythony io?aiaiea eaeae
aaeeinoaa enoi/ieea aeanoe, enoiaeyuae io ?aaiethoeee 27 oaa?aey,
iaoeeiiaeueiie, aaeeiie e noaa?aiiie… A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai
aeieaeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny oieueei i?ia?aiiie, au?aaioaiiie a naiae
n?aaea, eiiaeie?oy eioa?anu anao yeaiaioia, no?aiyueony iiaeaea?aeaoue
?anioaeeeaineoth aeanoue», oae eae «I?aaeia?eaiaio» ia iiaeao eiaoue
ooieoeee i?aaeeueiiai i?aaieciaaiiiai ia?eaiaioa e A?aiaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia iiaeao auoue ioaaonoaaiii ia?aae iei…».

E?iia oiai, /oi Ea?aineee aeiaeeny eiinoeueoaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a
A?aiaiiiai Niaaoa ?anioaeeee (I?aaeia?eaiaioa), auei iaeia?aii
iacia/eoaeueiui /eneii aieinia iinea iiiai/eneaiiuo nii?ia /eaiia
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai niaauaiey o/anoea ao?aeoacee a o?aoueai eiaeeoeeiiiii
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Niaauaiea niaeaneeinue ia o/anoea a i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ii?yaeea aeayoaeae, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e eaaeaoneie
ia?oee.

Oaeei ia?acii, A.O. Ea?aineee iieo/ee aiciiaeiinoue ninoaaeoue
iiaue eiaeeoeeiiiue eaaeiao, i eioi?ii auei ioeoeeaeueii iauyaeaii 25
naioya?y. A ninoaa eaaeiaoa aioee 4 eaaeaoa – Eiiiaaeia, Eeoeei, Nie?iia
e Ea?ouoaa. Oioy, aieueoeinoai ii?ooaeae iieo/eee nioeeaeenou,
aaaeiaeoee ii?ooaeue ieieno?a eiino?aiiuo aeae inoaeny o Oa?auaiei;
Eiiiaaeia noae ieieno?ii i?iiuoeaiiinoe e caianoeoaeai i?aiuea? –
ieieno?a, a Ea?aineee inoaeny aeaaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aa?oiaiui
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei.

Aeiaeaoenue oiai, /oi I?aaeia?eaiaio, n th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey,
aoaeao /enoi niaauaoaeueiui i?aaiii, a i?aaeoaeuenoai inoaiaony
aia noa?u aai th?enaeeeoeee, Ea?aineee oai naiui ioeacaeny io
nio?oaeie/anoaa n aeaiie?aoe/aneeie neeaie, /oi e i?eaaei e iieiie
ecieyoeee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Nocea ooieoeee I?aaeia?eaiaioa,
Ea?aineee oionoee naie, aiciiaeii, iineaaeiee oain oaea?aeaoueny o
aeanoe.

2. A.O. Ea?aineee – aeaaa o?aoueaai eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Iineaaeiea iiiuoee oaea?aeaoue aeanoue.

2 ieoya?y 1917 aiaea auoei iinoaiiaeaiea A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia
o/?aaeaeaiee A?aiaiiiai Niaaoa ?inneeneie ?anioaeeee. Aeiai aai ioe?uoey
iauyaeeinue 7 ieoya?y. I?ae?auaiea aai aeayoaeueiinoe iaia/aeinue ca
iaaeaeth aei ioe?uoey O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey. A iinoaiiaeaiee
aiai?eeinue, /oi I?aaeia?eaiaio ia?acoaony ec 555 /eaiia,
i?eaeaoaaiuo ii i?aaenoaaeaiee ai A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iauanoaaiiuo
e iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, aeey /eaiia Niaaoa onoaiaaeeaaeinue
nooi/iia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a 15 ?oaeae a aeaiue e aeiiieieoaeueii 100
?oaeae aaeeiia?aiaiii.

Aaaeaieth Niaaoa i?aaeinoaaeyeinue ianoaeaeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
i?aaeeiaeaiee, ii eioi?ui A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eciaao iaiaoiaeeiui
eiaoue caeeth/aiea Niaaoa, a oaeaea eo ?ac?aaioea ii nianoaaiiie
eieoeeaoeaa. «Eanathueany A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa aii?inu
i?aaeuyaeytho aio a ienueiaiiie oi?ia ca iiaeienueth 30 /eaiia.
A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?acuyniyao i?eiyoea ei ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?aoaiey a
iaaeaeueiue n?ie. Iii iiaei e ia aeaeaoue yoiai, anee, eae aiai?eeinue a
iinoaiiaeaiee, «yoi aoaeao a eioa?anao ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe».

7 ieoya?y, i?e ioe?uoee I?aaeia?eaiaioa, A.O. Ea?aineee aiai?ee:
«A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai oaa?aii, /oi ianoiyuaa nia?aiea Niaaoa
?inneeneie ?anioaeeee iiaeaea?aeeo A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai a aai
caaea/a io?aiaiey i?aa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey e nei?aeoaai
i?eaeeaeaiey ioe?uoey aai ?aaiou». «A?aiaiiia ?inneeneie ?anioaeeee
I?aaeoaeuenoai… aieath ?aaiethoeee, iaeaaeay anae iieiioie aeanoe,
iaycaii i?enyaith yoo aeanoue ia?aaeaoue iieiiii/iiio i?aaio ?innee –
O/?aaeeoaeueiiio Nia?aieth… A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai n/eoaao, /oi
ieeaeie aeaeueiaeoae ion?i/ee a aai nicuaa auoue ia iiaeao… Caaea/,
ia eioi?uo aeieaeii auoue nin?aaeioi/aii ana aieiaiea, – o?e:
iai?iia no?aiu, ainnicaeaiea aianiiniaiinoe a?iee… Ioaeii nicaeaoue a
?innee yeaiaioa?iue i?aaiii?yaeie, ainnoaiiaeoue i?aai eaaeaeiai ia
ee/ioth iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue e aaciianiinoue aeecie eaaeaeiai
a?aaeaeaieia. Ioaeii ainnoaiiaeoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?iiuoeaiiie
aeecie…» Ii aa?a?iiio aii?ino Ea?aineee ia?aie/eeny oeacaieai ia
oi, /oi ii iiaeeaaeeo ieii/aoaeueiiio ?ac?ooaieth O/?aaeeoaeueiui
Nia?aieai.

13 ieoya?y ai A?aiaiiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ea?aineee ?acaeaae oi/eo c?aiey,
/oi A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ia iaaeiytho a aanneeey aeanoe,
aeieaeii oi?aaeyoue no?aiie aei O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Nia?aiey aac
oece/aneiai i?eioaeaeaiey, iiaouaai niaa?oaiii iiaei?aaoue aai aaoi?eoao
a aeacao niciaoaeueiuo iann, ii iii anaie ia?aie iiaeaaeoue aanii?yaeee,
oa?iaeathuea a?aaeaeaineie aieiie; aeey ai?ueau aea n aia?oeae,
ii?iaeaeaaiie yeiiiie/aneie ?ac?ooie, iaiaoiaeeiu oioy e aanueia
auno?ua, ii caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?u, i?iaiaeeiua n naieoeee
I?aaeia?eaiaioa.

A yoio aea aeaiue a I?aaeia?eaiaioa ii aiai?ee ia iaeeaeaaoainy
aunooieaiee aieueoaaeeia: «A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai a eo?na anao
i?aaeiieiaeaiee e iieaaaao. *oi ieeaeeo iniiaaiee aeey iaieee ia
aeieaeii auoue: anyeay iiiuoea, anee au iia auea, i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue
ano?aoeoue aeinoaoi/iia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea».

17 ieoya?y ia niaauaiee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii niiauaieth
Ea?aineiai e ae?oaeo auynieeinue, /oi aieueoaaeee aaconeiaii aioiayo
aunooieaiea i?ioea A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e I?aaeia?eaiaioa, ii
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai Iao?ia?aaeneiai aa?ieciia ioiineony e
aunooieaieth io?eoeaoaeueii; iiyoiio auea oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi
iiiuoee aucuaaoue aanii?yaeee oaea?ony eeeaeaee?iaaoue a naiii ia/aea.
Ioaeiua ia?u oaea i?eiyou: eiaaony aiaiiay neea aeey io?aiu ii?yaeea.

A ii/ue n 22 ia 23 ieoya?y, ociaa io caianoeoaey ieieno?a-i?aaenaaeaoaey
A.E. Eiiiaaeiaa i ?annueea Iao?ia?aaeneei A?E a /anoe aa?ieciia
oaeaoiiia?aiiu i iiae/eiaiee i?eeacai ooaaa aiaiiiai ie?oaa, anee iie ia
naieoeeiie?iaaiu A?E, Ea?aineee aucaae a Ceiiee aeai?aoe ieieno?ia
I.I. Iaeyiiae/a, A.M. Ieeeoeia, N.I. I?ieiiiae/a. Ia niaauaiee
Ea?aineee i?aaeeaaae i?eiyoue ia?u e ieii/aoaeueiie eeeaeaeaoeee A?E, ii
aaeaeo aeiianaiey aeaaeiia Iao?ia?aaeneiai AI A.I. Iieeiaieeiaa i
ia?aaiai?ao n A?E ia oaaee/aiee /eneaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?e ooaaa
Ea?aineee ioaeae ?anii?yaeaiea ii oaeaoiio ia/aeueieeo ooaaa ie?oaa ss.
A. Aaa?aoeio i?aaeuyaeoue Niaaoo oeueoeiaoeaiia o?aaiaaiea ia ioiaia
oaeaoiiia?aiiu; a i?ioeaiii neo/aa aiaiiua aeanoe i?eioo ia?u aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey ii?yaeea.

A ii/ue ia 23 ieoya?y aiaiii-?aaiethoeeiiiue eiieoao O?ioeeiai ia/ae
ioaeaaaoue i?eeacu i caoaaoa a ai?iaea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e
no?aoaae/aneeo iauaeoia. Ea?aineee, eiay aeieoiaioaeueiua
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey ia/eiathuaainy ainnoaiey, a 11 /ania oo?a 24 ieoya?y
ioi?aaeeny ia canaaeaiea Niaaoa ?inneeneie ?anioaeeee e iii?inee
i?aaeinoaaeoue aio neiai. «ss aeieaeai onoaiiaeoue ia?aae A?aiaiiui
Niaaoii ?inneeneie ?anioaeeee iieiia, yaiia e ii?aaeaeaiiia ninoiyiea
ecaanoiie /anoe ianaeaiey Iaoa?ao?aa, eae ninoiyiea ainnoaiey… A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoi anoue iiiuoea iiaeiyoue /a?iue i?ioea
nouanoaothuaai ii?yaeea e ni?aaoue O/?aaeeoaeueiia Nia?aiea e ?ane?uoue
o?iio ia?aae niei/aiiuie iieeaie aeaeaciiai eoeaea Aeeueaaeueia…».
Ea?aineee cayaee i iaia?aiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?aoeoaeueiuie ia?aie
eeeaeaee?iaaoue ainnoaiea. «ss o?aaoth…, – caeii/ee Ea?aineee, – /oiau
naaiaeiy aea ia aeiaaiii canaaeaiee A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iieo/eei io
aan ioaao, iiaeao ee iii eniieieoue naie aeiea n oaa?aiiinoueth a
iiaeaea?aeea yoiai aunieiai nia?aiey».

Aio eae iienuaaao iano?iaiea Ea?aineiai a yoio aeaiue A.A. Noaieaae/:
«24 ieoya?y y i?eaoae a Iao?ia?aae, n a?oaeie anaaiciiaeiuo aeieeaaeia e
iaoa?eaeia, Ea?aineee ano?aoee iaiy a i?eiiaeiyoii iano?iaiee. Ii
oieueei /oi aa?ioeny ec Niaaoa ?anioaeeee, aaea i?iecian ?aceoth ?a/ue
i?ioea aieueoaaeeia e aue ano?a/ai iau/iuie e anaiaueie iaaoeeyie. – Io,
eae aai i?aaeony Iao?ia?aae? – ano?aoee ii iaiy. ss au?acee iaaeioiaiea.
– Eae, au ?acaa

ia ciaaoa, /oi o ian aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea? – ss ?anniayeny, oae eae
oeeoeu auee niaa?oaiii niieieiu, e ie i eaeii ainnoaiee ia auei neuoii.
Ii oiaea ioiineeny ianeieueei e?iie/anee e ainnoaieth, oioy e
icaai/aiii. ss neacae, /oi ioaeii aoaeao iieiaeeoue eiiae yoei aa/iui
iio?ynaieyi a ainoaea?noaa e ?aoeoaeueiuie ia?aie ?ani?aaeoueny n
aieueoaaeciii. Ii ioaaoee, /oi aai iiaiea oaeia aea e /oi oaia?ue oaea
ieeaeea *a?iiau ia iiiiaoo ie Eaiaiaaui, ie Ceiiaueaaui, anee oieueei
oaeanony ni?aaeoueny n ainnoaieai. Ii ioiineoaeueii iineaaeiaai auei oae
iaei niiiaiee…».

E iieoii/e e Ea?aineiio yaeeanue aeaeaaaoeey io nioeeaeenoe/aneeo a?oii
Niaaoa e a?o/eea aio ?aciethoeeth, a eioi?ie ia i?aaeinoaaeyea aio
o?aaoaiuo iieiiii/ee, Eae ienae nai Ea?aineee – « iia auea iaiiiyoiay.
Aieaa aieiaoaeueii i?i/eoaa aa, y iiiye, /oi a iae niaea?aeeony
au?aaeaiea oneiaiiai aeiaa?ey i?aaeoaeuenoao, ianoaaeaiiia
iiiai/eneaiiuie iaiai?eaie e e?eoe/aneeie caia/aieyie».

A naiae ?aaioa « E enoi?ee iineaaeieo aeiae A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa»
O.E. Aeai iienuaaao ?acaiai?, eioi?ue ninoiyeny iaaeaeo iei, eae aeaaie
aeaeaaaoeee, y Ea?aineei. Iineaaeiee ?ann/eouaae iiaeaaeoue aunooieaiea
ia?ii?eyoeyie aiaiii-oaoie/aneiai naienoaa. Aeai ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aeey
iaai auei aiieia i/aaeaeii, /oi oaeeo aiaiiuo n?aaenoa o i?aaeoaeuenoaa
ia auei e auoue ia iiaei.

I?ia?aiia Niaaoa ?anioaeeee i?aaeoniao?eaaea i?eiyoea n?i/iuo ?aoaiee ii
aii?inai i aieia, caiea e iiiaauaiea anao neiaa ianaeaiey. Aeai, Aioe,
Aaenaioueaa, i?eoaaeoea ia canaaeaiea eaaeiaoa a Ceiiee aeai?aoe
ene?aiia iaaeayeenue, /oi /eaiu eaaeiaoa aeaaeoo niaeanea ia i?eiyoea
?aciethoeee e a oio aea aa/a? aoaeoo ioia/aoaiu e ?aneeaaiu ii ai?iaeo
iauyaeaiey i oii, /oi A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ioeoeeaeueii i?aaeeaaaao
iaiaaeeaiii i?ae?aoeoue ana aiaiiua aeaenoaey e ia/aoue ia?aaiai?u i
anaiauai ie?a, /oi caiaeueiui eiieoaoai ?acioetho oaeaa?aiiu i ia?aaea/a
e?anoueyiai anao iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue, a nicua O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey
aoaeao onei?ai. Aeai e Aioe iuoaeenue aeieacaoue Ea?aineiio, /oi oaeea
ia?u auciaoo ia?aiaiu a iano?iaieyo iann e oe?aiyo iiceoeee oao
aieueoaaeeia, eioi?ua aunooiatho i?ioea iaiaaeeaiiiai ainnoaiey.

Cayaeaiea i ?aoaiee I?aaeia?eaiaioa i?eaaei Ea?aineiai a e?aeiaa
?acae?aaeaiea. A aeiaieueii ?aceie oi?ia ii ioaaoee Aeaio, /oi
?aciethoeey niaa?oaiii iai?eaieaia. Aeai n/eoae, /oi Ea?aineee,
aeaeaaoee i?eiaieoue ia?u aiaiii-oaoie/aneiai naienoaa i?aoaaee/eaae
niauoey iiae aeeyieai naiaai ?aaeoeeiiiiai ooaaa. Ii niiauee, /oi
?aciethoeey aieueoeinoaa Niaaoa ?anioaeeee i?eaaaeao e auno?iio
iaaeaieth aeeyiey aieueoaaenoneie i?iiaaaiaeu. Ii aai neiaai, naie
aieueoaaeee a ia?aaiai?ao n eeaea?aie niaaoneiai aieueoeinoaa ecuyaeee
aioiaiinoue iiae/eieoueny aiea aieueoeinoaa.

Ea?aineee aea, i?eieiay ia?u e iiaeaaeaieth ainnoaiey, oieueei
?acae?aaeaao iannu e iaoaao i?aaenoaaeoaeyi aieueoeinoaa Niaaoia oniaoii
aanoe ia?aaiai?u n aieueoaaeeaie i eeeaeaeaoeee ainnoaiey.

A yoio aea aa/a? Ea?aineee cayaeyao aeaeaaaoeee nioeeaeenoe/aneeo a?oii
I?aaeia?eaiaioa i iaia?aiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa aueoe a ionoaaeo, oae eae. ii
aai iiaieth, oi?ioee?iaea ?aciethoeee niaea?aeaea iaaeiaa?ea
i?aaeoaeuenoao.

25 ieoya?y Ea?aineee e Eiiiaaeia iinea ii/iiai canaaeaiey A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?eiyee o/anoea a aiaiiii niaauaiee a ooaaa ie?oaa; a 7-i
/ano aa?ioeenue a Ceiiee aeai?aoe. Ii iieo/aiee naaaeaiee ia oniaoao A?E
iie aiiaue iai?aaeeenue a ooaa ie?oaa, aaea oaea ia/eiaeanue iaieea.
Caoai Ea?aineee auaoae ec Iao?ia?aaea ia nai?i aaoiiiaeea ano?a/aoue,
aucaaiiua ei n o?iioa, aienea. A Aao/eia ii ia iaoae aieineeo yoaeiiia,
aaeaa ia aue a?anoiaai.

Aa/a?ii Ea?aineee i?eaue a Ineia. Aeaaeii Naaa?iui o?iioii, eioi?ue
«anooiee ai oee?o n aieueoaaeeaie» (auneacuaaiea Ea?aineiai) aaia?ae
A.A. *a?aienia cayaee, /oi i?eeac Ea?aineiai i iinueea aiene a
Iao?ia?aae ei ioiaiai, oae eae o iaai iao aiene, eioi?ua ii iia au
niyoue n o?iioa, e /oi ii ia iiaeao ?o/aoueny ca ee/ioth aaciianiinoue
Ea?aineiai a Ineiaa.

Iinea niaauaiey n i?eauaoei a Ineia aaia?aeii I.I. E?aniiaui e caaa?aiey
iineaaeiaai, /oi eacaee n iaoioie iieaeoo ia au?o/eo A?aiaiiiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao, Ea?aineee ?aoee aianoa n E?aniiaui aoaoue a a. Ino?ia,
/oiau ioooaea aeaeiooueny ia Iao?ia?aae.

A Ineiaa Ea?aineee iaienae i?eeac ?814: «Ianooieaoay niooa, aucaaiiay
aacoieai aieueoaaeeia, noaaeo ainoaea?noai iaoa ia e?ae aeaaee…
Ai?aaeue aei iauyaeaiey iiaiai ninoaaa A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, anee
oaeia iineaaeoao, eaaeaeue aeieaeai inoaaaoueny ia naiai ianoa e
eniieiyoue naie aeiea ia?aae ?anoa?caiiie ?iaeeiie… eae y nio?aiyth
naie iino Aeaaeiaa?oa aei ecuyaeaiey aiee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa».

Oo?ii 26 ieoya?y Ea?aineee ioaeae i?eeac i auaeaeaeaiee 3-ai eiiiiai
ei?iona E?aniiaa ia Iao?ia?aae. 28 ieoya?y i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aienea
aunooieee ec Aao/eiu,

Eae ieoao Ea?aineee: « E?aniia iaoiaeeeny a i?ae?aniii ?aniieiaeaiee
aeooa e aue aaniethoii oaa?ai a oniaoa».

Ea?aineee, neaaeoy ca aieneaie E?aniiaa, inoaiiaeeny ia iieiooe iaaeaeo
Oea?neei Naeii e Aao/eiie, aaea iaoiaeeeanue iaoai?ieiae/aneay
iana?aaoi?ey. «N a? auoee y a iieaaie aeiieeue oaeaeae ?aniieiaeaiea
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aiene, eioi?ua i?eauaaee a ninoiyiee no?aiiie
ianneaiinoe. ss iiaeuaoae, /oiau ?acia?aoueny a i?ienoiaeyuai.
Iauyniaiey E?aniiaa iineee aanueia ooiaiiue oa?aeoa? e auee eeoaiu
anyeiai niunea. Nai ii aea?aeaeny naea?aeaiii e oi?iaeueii. Niaa?oaiii
iaiaeeaeaiii y ?acee/ee a ie?oaeaiee aaia?aea E?aniiaa ianeieueei
ciaeiiuo ethaeae, aoiaeeaoeo a Niaao eaca/ueeo aiene. Yoio Niaao – iaeia
ec iaeaieaa “i?aauo” aioeaeaiie?aoe/iuo i?aaiecaoeee, i?eaea?aeeaaeny
iieeoeee «eniieueciaaoue Eaieia aeey naa?aeaiey Ea?aineiai». E oiaaea y
iiiye i?e/eio aiacaiiie inoaiiaee aeaeaeaiey aiene e Oea?neiio Naeo…
Iia i?eoeinue ieacaoue aieueoia aeaaeaiea, /oiau canoaaeoue aienea
i?iaeieaeeoue aeaeaeaiea”.

E oo?o 29 ieoya?y aienea aeioee eeoue aei Oea?neiai Naea. A yoio aeaiue
a noieeoea aniuoioei ainnoaiea i?ioea aieueoaaeeia. Aai i?aaiecaoi?u
i?ineee i?eneaoue iiiiuue, ii oio aue aanneeai /oi – eeai naeaeaoue.

30 ieoya?y ninoiyeny «oeiaeueiue aeo o?aae/aneie ai?ueau A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ca naiaiaeo e /anoue ?innee» (auneacuaaiea Ea?aineiai). A
aai ?anii?yaeaiee auei 700 eacaeia, a?iiaiiacae, iaoioiue iiee e
ianeieueei iieaauo i?oaeee. Ea?aineee ieoao: «Aaeaa iaoa a?oeeea?ey
ioe?uea iaiiue, nieaeaou Iao?ia?aaeneiai aa?ieciia inoaaeee naie
iiceoeee, e a iiaiith ca ieie a?ineeenue eacaee. Iaeiaei i?aaue oeaia
aieueoaaeeia, aaea iaoiaeeeenue e?iiooaaeoneea iao?inu, ia ae?iaioe… iu
auee auioaeaeaiu ioieoe e Aao/eia».

31 ieoya?y aaia?ae E?aniia iai?aaee aeaeaaaoeeth aeey ia?aaiai?ia n
aieueoaaeeaie i ia?aie?ee. Iie ia/aeenue a ieaeiai caea Aao/eineiai
aeai?oea. Ea?aineee a eiiiaoa ia aoi?ii yoaaea iaeeaeae ?acoeueoaoia.
Auei ?aoaii ia?aaeaoue Ea?aineiai aieueoaaeeai, a eacaeai ?ac?aoaii
aica?aoeoueny ia Aeii. Ea?aineee, ia?aiaeaaoenue iao?inii, iaaeaa
oioa?neea i/ee, aaaeae. Any inoaeueiay aeeciue noaea aeieaei yieeiaii.

Aac?acoeueoaoii iaeioi?ua eeaea?u iaiueoaaeeia e yna?ia oaaaeaeaee
A.O. Ea?aineiai auaeoue ii/ao ec -iiae iia aieueoaaeeia, i?eoaaoea eo
i?eoyaaoaeueiua eicoiae aieiu ie?a. Ea?aineee ia oioae e ia iia
ainiieueciaaoueny yoeie niaaoaie. Ii, oio eoi iaaeeeo n ?aoi?iaie,
iieo/aao ?aaiethoeeth. A eiioea naiaai aeeciaiiiai iooe, Ea?aineee oaea
aiai?ee i ?aaiethoeee: «Iia iiaeao auoue iaecaaaeiie, ii ieeiaaea
aeaeaiiie». Eaiei anaaaea aeoiae eia/a. Ea?aineee, ioeeaaeuaathuee
i?iaeaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i, ioe?ue aio aeaa?ue.

Caeeth/aiea

A aaea?aa ii?o?aoia ?inneeneeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo e aeayoaeae Ea?aineiio
aeinoaeinue aiana ia ii/aoiia ianoi. Ieieno? thnoeoeee a ia?aii ninoaaa
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ii a ethea 1917 aiaea aicaeaaee aai a
aic?anoa 38 eao. A?aiaiiue ?oeaaie aeaaioneie aea?aeaau a io/eia aieiu e
?acaooaaaaoaeny Ia?iaeiie noeoee, aeaeaeeiue yecaeueoe?iaaiiie iaoo?ie,
iueeei /anoiethaeai e ethaiaue e oaao?aeueiinoe, ii ene?aiiei
no?aieaieai e ia?iaeie/aneei eaeaaeai e iaeiia?aiaiii aca?oii ea?iea, ii
?aoeeny aac aeinoaoi/iiai iiuoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey oi?aaeyoue
aaee/aeoae a enoi?ee eiia?eae ai a?aiy aa ?aniaaea. Aeaaiaea?y iieiaeie
yia?aee, oio, i?aoi?neei niiniaiinoyi, iieeoe/aneie eiaeinoe,
aicianaiiue e aa?oeiai aeanoe, ii neiaii caoai iauyaeeny a?aiaiiui
oicyeiii Ceiiaai aeai?oea, /oiau ieacaoueny aua?ioaiiui ca ai?o eeai
aiaiiie, eeai aieueoaaenoneie aeeeoaoo?ie. Oi aue aeenoaoaeueiue, ii
ei?ioeee iooue iieiaeiai eoie?a ?aaiethoeeiiiie ii?u.

1917 aiae caiye aeaaiia ianoi a aai aeieaie aeecie. Eiiaoe yoiai aiaea
ii i?iaae a neeoaieyo ii ioaeaeaiiui naeaieyi iiae Iao?ia?aaeii e
Iiaai?iaeii. A «Aeaea ia?iaea» 5 aeaeaa?y 1917 aiaea auei iioaeeeiaaii
ienueii-noaouey Ea?aineiai io 21 iiya?y, i?ecuaathuay ia?iae iiiiieoueny
e ainnoaoue i?ioea oaeee aacoioeaa, i?ioiaeeioeaa e i?aaeaoaeae; noaouey
caeai/eaaeanue neiaaie: «Ainaiue ianyoeaa, ii aiea ?aaiethoeee e
aeaiie?aoee, y io?aiye naiaiaeo ia?iaea e aoaeouaa n/anouea o?oaeyueony
iann. ss aianoa n eo/oeie i?eaae aan e aeaa?yi O/?aaeeoaeueiiai
Nia?aiey. Oieueei oaia?ue, eiaaea oea?noaotho ianeeea e oaean eaieineiai
i?iecaiea – aai, n O?ioeeei aeeeoaoo?a. – e neaiui noaei ynii, /oi a oi
a?aiy, eiaaea y aue o aeanoe, auea aeaenoaeoaeueii naiaiaea e
aeaenoaeoaeueii i?aaeea aeaiie?aoey».

A ia/aea yiaa?y 1918 aiaea Ea?aineiai oaeii ia?aaacee a Iao?ia?aae. Ii
oioae aunooieoue ia O/?aaeeoaeueiii Nia?aiee, ii a yna?ianeii
?oeiaiaenoaa yoi, i/aaeaeii, ni/ee iaoeaeaniia?aciui. Ea?aineee
ia?aa?aeny a Oeieyiaeeth, a eiioea yiaa?y aa?ioeny a Iao?ia?aae, a
ia/aea iay a Iineao, aaea onoaiiaee eiioaeo n «Nithcii aic?iaeaeaiey
?innee».

Eiaaea ia/aeinue aunooieaiea *aoineiaaoeeiai ei?iona, Ea?aineee iaia?ai
aue i?eieiooue e aeaeaeaieth, ii ?oeiaiaenoai IN? ia ?ac?aoeei aio
yoiai. «Nithc aic?iaeaeaiey» i?aaeeiaeee aio i?ia?aoueny ca a?aieoeo
aeey ia?aaiai?ia ia i?aaiecaoeee aiaiiie eioa?aaioeee a Niaaoneoth
?inneth. A ethia 1918 aiaea Ea?aineee auaoae ca ?oaaae. AEee ai
O?aioeee, n 1940 aiaea a NOA, aaea e ii nae aeaiue a Oaoanneii
oieaa?neoaoa a a. Inoeia o?aiyony 217 iooeuo iaiie e aeiaaieeia,
caienae, ienai, ?oeiiene «Enoi?ee ?innee», i?ioieieu canaaeaiee oea?neie
Aeoiu e A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ana, /oi iaienae e nia?ae ca aeieaea
aiaeu aeecie A.O. Ea?aineee.

Ia?ainiuneeaay i?ioeia, Ea?aineee caaeoiuaaaony iaae i?e/eiaie e?aoa
naiaai i?aaeaiey. A noaouea A.H. Iiaeeiaa «Ia a?oeaa A.O. Ea?aineiai a
Oaoana» i?eaiaeyony i?e/eiu ?acaa?ioaoaeny o?aaaaeee a aeaeaiee
iineaaeiaai iaaieueoaaenoneiai aeaau ?innee. «Aei eiioea naieo aeiae
n/eoay, /oi ?ieiaay noaeueaa ?innee neiaeeeanue a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aie
ie?iaie aieiu, Ea?aineee aa?ee, /oi «aac aieiu 1914 aiaea ?inney noaea
au aeaiie?aoe/aneei ainoaea?noaii ia iicaea 1918-1920 aiaea».

Iiaeuoiaeeaay naie aeeciaiiue iooue, 79-eaoiee i?aiuea? ?innee
ia?a/eneyao «ianiiiaiiua e iaiia?aoeiua ioeaee a 1917 aiaeo». Aio yoa
caienue, naeaeaiiay a 1961 aiaeo:

1. Ia aeinoae eaieineiai oaaeoea?neiai «Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoa» ia?aae aai
i?eacaeii a ?inneth. (Eaieia a ai?aea 1917 aiaea – A.A.), oae eae
noaouey, aaea aiai?eoueny i «a?aoaiee» eae yaiia «eciaiaiea» aeaea au
aiciiaeiinoue a?anoiaaoue aai i?e ia?aii i?ecuaa e a?aoaieth iinea
aiienoee.

2. Ia nianoee Ei?ieeiaa nae/an aea iinea aai iacia/aiey aai Aa?oiaiui,
eiaaea ii i?eneae oeueoeiaooi.

3. Ainnoaiiaee nia?oioth eaciue ia o?iioa, o.e. i?aai oiio?aaeyoue
i?oaeea ia ianoa auei iiie aeaaii a i?eeaca ? 8.

4. Ia neacae ia Ainoaea?noaaiiii niaauaiee i?aaaeo i caaiai?a, uaaey
a?ieth.

5. I?eiye iino aiaiiiai e ii?neiai ieieno?a aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
iauyniaiey ni ooaaii eiiaiaeothuaai a Noaaea.

6. Ia ii?aae n ia?oeae nioeeae – ?aaiethoeeiia?ia iinea aioniiai…
(caeanue o?aca ia /eoaaony)».

E yoie caiene a aeieiioa Ea?aineiai iiaeii aeiaaaeoue, aa?iyoii, aua
iiiai ioeaie. Ii, aeaaiie aai ioeaeie auei oi, /oi ii ia caeeth/ee ie?.
A eiioea naiaai aeeciaiiiai iooe Ea?aineee nai i?ae?anii iiieiae yoi.
Oae, a aeo?iaea «iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aeeciue» iioaeeeiaaia noaouey
ano?a/aaoaainy n Ea?aineei a ieoya?a 1966 aiaea E. Eooaeiaui. Aaoi?
noaouee i?eaiaeeo neiaa Ea?aineiai: «?acaiai? einioeny niauoee
ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee. Iineuoaeny a?iieee aiein Ea?aineiai; – ss
ooaa?aeaeath, /oi iaioeu canoaaeee aieueoaaeeia ia/aoue ainnoaiea,
iioiio /oi Aano?ey, Aieaa?ey e Oo?oeey auee iaeaioia naia?aoiiai ie?a n
?inneae. Aano?ey ?aoeea i?ineoue naia?aoiiai ie?a ca aeaa iaaeaee aei
ieoya?ueneiai ia?aai?ioa. Ia?aaiai?u auee ia aieinea io oniaoa. Iiy
naiay aieueoay ioeaea, -i?iaeieaeaoue auaoee i?aiuea?, – ninoieo a oii.
/oi y ia oi?ne?iaae ia?aaiai?u. Anee au iu caeeth/eee ie?, iu au
nio?aieee aeanoue e iiaeaaeee au ethaua aunooieaiey aieueoaaeeia».

Naaiaeiy, eiaaea io ?ieiaiai 1917 aiaea ian ioaeaeyao aieaa naie
aeanyoeeaoee, iu aeaeei, /oi nioeeaeeci A.O. Ea?aineiai o?oaeii
i?eiaieoue e nia?aiaiiinoe, ii anaaaea inoaaaeny i?eaa?aeaioeai eaeaaeia
naiaiaeu e aeaiie?aoee. I?ieaey aeieaee aeeciaiiue iooue, Ea?aineee,
iaeiaei, oae e ia aeiaeaeaeny eiaaea enoi?ey anao ?annoaeeo. Ii oia? a
1970 aiaeo, eiaaea a iaoae no?aia ioia/aee 100 — eaoiee thaeeae ni aeiy
?iaeaeaiey Eaieia. Ii iioi?iiai a Eiiaeiia, e ?aaeei eoi-eeai iinauaao
aai iiaeeo. Aniiieiathony neiaa Ai?iaeea, eioi?ue a ia?aaea/a
«Iaoaeiaiua ethaee» neacae, /oi a iaoae no?aia i/aiue ethayo iaiyoue
ianoa caoi?iiaiey ethaeae. O ian ia oieueei aeeciue, ii e nia?oue
iiaeaa?aiooa eio?eaai. Ii, ianoii caoi?iiaiey Ea?aineiai aeieaeia auoue
oieueei ?inney. Yoio /aeiaae, aaconeiaii, /anoue iaoae enoi?ee.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. A?oea ?onneie ?aaiethoeee. O.1,I., 1991.

2. Ae?aeaaua aaaeiiinoe, 1917, 21 ai?aey.

3. Aiiaea?aa A. Ea?aineee e Ai?aa/aa. Aeaa yiioe e aeaa ae?aiu.,
?iaeeia, ?8-9, 1992

4. Aa?o I. Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa. I., 1994.

5. Aanoiee A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ?4, ?7, ?15, ?21, jfe48s ?49,
?50, ?52, ?54, ?57, ?58, ?60, ?62, ?67, ?102,?THC, ?105, ?112, ?124,
?131, ?134, ?145, ?165, ?177.

6. Aieeiaiiia Ae. Eaiei, I., 1994, T.I, T.2.

7. Aii?inu enoi?ee, 1990, ?6

8. Aeiieon C.I. Neiyy eieaa: Iaoa?ao?aneee aeiaaiee. 1914-1918 aa., –
Aaea?aae, 1929

9. Aieeeia A.A. Oaiiiai A.O. Ea?aineiai, Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey, ?5,
1992.

10. «Ainoaea?noaaiiia niaauaiea», M.-JL, 1930,C. 65-66.

11. Aeaieeei A.E. I/a?ee ?onneie nioou. E?ooaiea aeanoe e a?iee.
Oaa?aeue-naioya?ue 1917 aiaea., -I., 1991

12. Caacaea Ainoiea, 1962, ?4.

13. Cayaei A. ss oi/o eaeoe iina?aaeeia,. Iineianeea iiainoe, 1989,
?45.

14. Ecaanoey ?4, 1917, 3 ia?oa, 14 ia?oa, 11 ethey, 23 naioya?y, 25
ieoya?y.

15. Eiooa A.3. Ienoa?ey «ea?aiueiu» Ia?aienea ia enoi?e/aneea
oaiu. I., 1989.

16. Eiooa A.C. Ea?aineee e Ei?ieeia, ?ac?ua., Oaeae, I., 1990.

17. Enoi?ey NNN?, 1992, ?1.

18. Ea?aineee A.O. Aeaa thaeeay., I.I. Ieetheia. Nai?iee
iaoa?eaeia ii /anoaiaaieth aai naieaeanyoeeaoey 1859-1929, Ia?eae

19. “Ea?aineee A.O.”. Ii iaoa?eaeai Aeaia?oaiaioa iieeoeee, I., OeE
o?oaeiaie ia?oee, 1917.

20. “Ea?aineee A.O.” . Ecae. OeE o?oaeiaie a?oiiu, 1917.

21. Ea?aineee A.O. Aeaei Ei?ieeiaa, – I., 1918, N.4, 93, 94

22. Ea?aineee A.O. ?inney ia enoi?e/aneii iiai?ioa. , – I., 1993

23. Eieiieoeeee A. A.O. Ea?aineee e Ia?aaeeianeee a 1917 aiaeo.,
Eeoa?aoo?iia iaic?aiea, 1991, ?3.

24. E?aniia I.I. Ia aioo?aiiai o?iioa. A?oea ?onneie ?aaiethoeee., –
I., 1990

25. Eooaeia E.I. Oo?eoe e iieeoe/aneei ii?o?aoai.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aeeciue Ae 991, ?9. N.122.

26. Eaiei A.E. Iieiia nia?aiea Ni/eiaiee. OO. 34, 31, 35, 36, 32.

27. Eoeiineee A.N. Ainiiieiaiey., Aa?eei, 1922. O.1.

28. Iaiaeeia C.I. ss ec “auaoeo”. ?anneacuaaao nae?aoa?oa A.
Ea?aineiai. Iaiyoieee Ioa/anoaa: aeueiaiao, ?4., – I., 1992

29. Ieetheia I.I. Ainiiieiaiey (1859 – 1917)., -I., 1989

30. Ieetheia I.I Enoi?ey aoi?ie ?onneie ?aaiethoeee., – Nioey, 1921

31. Inoeneaaneee N. Iyoue aeiae., – Aa?eei, 1922

32. Iaaieia A.Ae. A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai. No?aia aeaiao naaiaeiy.
Ainiiieiaiey i Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee 1917 aiaea., – I., 1990

33. Iiaeeia A.I. Ia a?oeaa Ea?aineiai a Oaoana. , Iiaay e iiaaeoay
enoi?ey, 1993, ?1, N. 212.

34. Ia?aue nuacae Niaaoia”. O. 1, N.79, 80, 81, 326, 327.

35. Iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee ?innee. 1917. Aeia?aoe/aneee
neiaa?ue, – I., 1993.

36. ?aaeiiae/ A. Aieueoaaeee i?eoiaeyo e aeanoe. ?aaiethoeey 1917
aiaea a Iao?ia?aaea. I., 1989

37. «?aaiethoeey 1917», O.3, O. 5, O. 6.

38. ?a/ue, 1917,13 aaaonoa, 15 aaaonoa

39. ?onneia neiai, 1917, 13 iay, 30 iay, 12 ethey, 8 ieoya?y, 13
ieoya?y.

40. Naa?/eia Ae.O. Ea?aineee., 2-ia ecae., E., 1927.

41. Nieaeaieoeui A.E. Ia?o Naiiaaeoeaoiai., Iaaa, ?2,1990.

42. Noaieaae/ A.A. Ainiiieiaiey 1914 – 1917 aa., – I., 1994

43. Noa?oeaa A.E. Aceao e iaaeaiea Aeaenaiae?a Ea?aineiai. Ano?a/e n
enoi?eae. I., 1987.

44. Noa?oeaa A .E. Aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea A?aiaiiiai
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