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Кавказ и русское государство XVI–XVII вв

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«E??c e ???? ?????? XVI–XVII ?»

A? a 1492 ?aeo ?????e ?? A???? ???? a I??o ????? n ???????e ???e. A
????? ???e ???u I???, Ae??? e ???oe O????, ??? ????a ??? ??????otho, ?i
????? ???? ???? ? ??? E???, ? e ???? n ?e ????o ????oa. Ai ?y?i ???, a
1640 ?? ?????e ?? O???c ??e a ????, /? ?i ????? ??e ??? ???u, ??? ??a
????a ?? e ???, ?e ?? E??a. Oe?ue A????, ?????e a I??o ?????, ?e ?????
E??a ? ?????i ??a.

I??i ????? y? ?? e ??? XVI ?? ??? ??th???, ?i i???i: ?????? ????a ????i
?????a ??a ??? e ?i th?? ???i ???? ??? ???y? ??? ???i. A ??? ???? XVI ??
??iy?? 43 ???? ??? ? ???th, ? ??ay ???a ??? ?????. E??a a ???? ???o
????e ???a ? ???a ????a e ????. A 1523 ?? ???? ?i, ???? ????? I??a, ??e
a ?i ??oth?a: «…?? A?????e ?a ??. E???? N?i-A?? – ??, I??, *??? e
Oth?? ?????. Aea e ?? ? ?? ????a ?y?y ? ??? ?a??? ? I??u ??, ? ????? ?
???? ?ycy ?????i ??i?ey ??e ? ?o ?????e, a ????i ??? ???e ???? I??o.
E?ue ?????, n ????? ??ue th?? ???? ???u ????a e???? e ???? ???a e n ??i
????i I????? ?????a ????y ??o ???? e ?????e ???? ??e ?iy?ny.

I??a ??e? ???? ? N???i E??? ?y??? a ???? XVI ??. Eo ??????a ???? ?e
????i ???o ?????, ????? ???e ?th?? ?????, ????e ??? a ????e ????, ?e e
???? ??????a, ???th??ny ????? y? ???? a ???e ??o ??? ?ey?y. A 1566 ?? a
I??o ???i ????a ?????? ????? ? ??y Ea?a A???i ?ycy O??th? E??? n ????
????ue ???? a ??a N?? ?y ??? ? ???a ???? ??? e ???a.

Oe?ue ??a??y e ???e ????ue ??th ???? «? ????th ??????i O??th? ?ycy
*?????. E???ue ?? ????a ? ?ae e ???? ????? ? ????a, ???a e ?y??o ??e, a
??a ?????e. A?????? ???e ?? ?? ???iy? a N???a e E?? ????i ????i, ?i, a
??a ???, ?? ?e ???? ????ue ?u? ????.

E???ue ? O??a ?a-?? ?? ????a, ? ????i ???a, a 1588-1589 ??o, a ??a O??a,
? ?? Oth??a, e ???? ??a?a O??. E ??? XVII ?? ??ae O?? ?a ?e ??? ???i,
???? e ?????? ???i ???a. O??eye ???i e ????? ???a, ?????ny a ????? o
??????i ???u, ???? ? ??iye ? ????a, ???o ???a e ?????? ? ???. A ?????e
??e O??a ????ny ?????e I?? ??ae, a ???i ????y ????? ??, ????y ??, ???e,
???e ??ae, ?????? ??? e ???u ??e ??o ??a. E I??o ??? ???? A??? ??ae,
????? ??y?i ??i, ?oiy? e ?????. A??e A???i ??? ???ue ???? ?y?, ?e ?n???,
????, ?a ????? ???, ???y, ???u e o.ae. A?iy ? ???e O?? ??? (1644, 1688
?.), ? ??a ???a ??a ??????ue. Ec ??e?i ????y e ???e ?? O?? ??? ?????? a
??ae, ?a a ?e?? ????? ?? ???u n N???? E???. O?, ?a a 90-o ??o XVI ??
nth? ?????ue ? E??? ?y?y E??? E????a e N???e ss???a ? ??? O?aiy? a ????,
???a e ??? ???? ???e ??? ????? y?o ?????e ??ae ???u, ???, ???, ??? e ?.
A ??? ???? XVII ?? O?? ???ee ???u, a ???o ????e eth? ???????? ???????e:
*????y, I??ay, I??????y e O???ay, ? ???? a ??? ?n? ???? n N???? E??? ??e
a ?e ?c ?????? ??i ???? ????y. E??a a Oa?e ??? ????a ???o ?y?e, ???, ??
??? ???? ?????a, ??? ?i ??ae ?a ? ??e ??a. A??ay ??ue ????y ???, ??a
???, ??iy? ? eth?e, ??aey??y ? ??? o ????i ?????a, — ???a, ????e?, ??u,
????? e o. ae., ?i ??????i ???? ?? ??????? ????th ???e e N???? E???.

I??y ??a?a XVI ?? ??? a ??????? ???o ????a ? ???? ???? e E???. E???i, ?i
???? ?i ? ??? ??ae ??e ??? ?????e ???, ?????y? ?? ???? ??? ?e ???i ???
??. I???a ??? ? ???? ???a ??y?o ?e: «Anth ??th *???oth ???e e ?? e ae?u
e ?? ??e e ???? e ?? ????». *?? ??? ??a a I??a e???e ?i Ae??o-A?? a ???
70-o ??a XVI ?? ??? ????ny, ?i ???? ??e ????tho ?i a ???? n ??e ??ey
????ue. I??i ? ??i ?iy? ??ay I???ay ???y, ??????ay ? ??a ??? ??a ???
??ea ?????? ??. N y?e ??th N??? ???ny ????? e ??o ????oth ??ue, ??u
????ue ?? ??????a a E??? e e ???. O?, ?i ???a N??a N???i, ???e ??????
????, ? 1512 ?aea ?e ????? a E?a. A? ??? ??e ?? ????? ???? ??, a ? e
N???? ?i I??? ????a ??y y?y?y ?????i ???ea. A 1553 ?? ? ????eth ?? I???
?e ?? ?-? ????ey a ???, i??? ?e ?? e ?i ????? ?i. I? ??a ???a N????
????? e ??? ???u. I????, ???? ?e ????? N???? E??, a 1569 ?? ??? ??e a
E?a.

A????? ???u e ?e ???? ??a. I??y ?? Ae??o-A?ay, ?? ????ea ???? I??o-A?ay
?? ???th ?????i ?ycy O????, ?e ??a ? ?? ???e e ??uey ?y?y *????a O??-??a
e A??-A??. I??ay ?? ?? ??a ?? ?????e, e ? ?? ??? ?e ??a. E?th?? e o ??,
e o ????? ?? ???u — ?y? O???? e ?y? A??? *????a. I????? ???? ? ???oth
??? ??????? ? ????? a ??i (? ?? ???u ?? ?? y????e, ?? ???a?? ????? ??a).

I? y?i a 40 —50-o ??o XVI ?? ?i??ey E?? n ????e (e n ????, e n ??????e)
?? ??? ? i???. O? N??-A?? 1545 ?? ??e ???i e ? ???? ????, ? E???, ??? ??
? ??o ?? ?????ue e ?? ?a ??????. A?e?, ?o y? ?????ue, ??? ?i a 1547 ?? ?
?y? ???? ??a ? N???e E??c, ???a ???? ??th ? ??? ??? e ??????e ???oy?, ?
e eth??. E???i, ? ?y?i ???, ?i e ????, e ??e ???? ? ??? ?? eth??, ?e,
????, a 1566 ?? ??? N??, ???e ? ??a I?? ??a ??? N????. ?????y, ???u ???
?? e?????ue eth?th ?????ue, ??u ?????y? ???i.

E???i, ?i a ?y?a 1552 ?? e E?? A???o, ??o???y ??a ?y?y E??e, y??? ?????
a ???a ????? ?y?e I??a (I????), E?? A????? e O???a, ????o ??y? ? ??e ?ae
?? ???????i. A eth? 1553 ?? ???a ????? ???? a I??o, ?i ???? ?i ???o ??
?y ??? ? ?????a ??e. E?i A??? ???? ? ??? ??? a ?????e E???, ??/??ay
?????ue ??? ???? ? I??u. A? ?a ?i ??y? ?? a Na??? e E??o, ??? ????? ?y?y
??a ??y? ???a a ???? ? ???a ???o ??e. I??i ?i Ae??o-A??, ??a, ????, i
????? ????? e E?? A???o, ???? ? ??e ???. I?? ?i ??e ????? ?????e ????, i
?i ????ny ???? ? ???????? ??? Ae??o-A?ath ? ????i ??ey N????a A???.
E??ue ??? ???? ???i ????? iy????o ???? e ? ?ycy A???y, y?y???y ??i E??
A?????, «???e ??e o??e ? ???i ?? ?ye ?e, ????ny n ?y?i ???i I????i, a ?
?i ??th ? ? ???e, a n ???th A??th e ??? ?i ???e ?? e ae?o e c ???». I???
???? i ?????, iy????a ?y?y ??a?? ??e, ??????? ???a ??th ??o n ?y?? i
????.

Aeey ???ey ? ??? ????? ??? n ?y?y? ?e ??? ?y??e ?i A??e O???? U???a. *?
???ny N????a, ? E?i A???, ???eyy e ?i ??o ??? ??????y O??a A???? a ??y?a
1554 ??, ?a???i ????????e ?i ? ??? ???a i iy????o ???ao. A???i ??? ?e
???? ????ue ????? ????o ??eth, e? ? ????e ???a, ?i ??a ??? ????? ?y?e
«?? ?a ??? ????th ???, e ?e ? ???? ??o, e ?e ?e e ??th?.

A??e U???a, ??y??? ? N???e E??c, ???ny ???i a 1555 ?? a ??????e ???, ??a
???????i ?????, ?i ?? ??? ?uy??i: ? ?ae ? ?? ???? ?i ???? ??a ? ????. A
????? ???e ?y? O??? A???a, ?y? Ne?e n ??i E?a-Ae?? e ??? A????, a ??a
150 ???e ??????y. I??? ?? ? ?, ?i e a ???e ??: ???? ? ????i ?? a ??i ?
???ae a ?????. U???a ?????, ?i ???u «?? ??? ?ath ??ath». Ia ??th??, ?i
????? ????? a I??o a 1558 —1555 ?ae? ??e ??a-? ????a e ??? ?????i ??
I???, ?? ???? ?? ?????e (?oy?ue 1553 a.), ??? ????? ? y?o ?? ? ?o????.

*????a ????? ?? ????u a I??a ?a?a ??????: ?????ue ?????ue ???ue ? ?????
??yo ???? ?y ???????y E?? e ???i, a ??a ???? ???i??ey ??? ? E??c. I??i
????i n ???? ?e ??, e, ??ay ?u?o ? ????a, ???e ?? ???? ?? ?????a ? ????
???a. A ??? ???? ? ??? ??o ??o e ??? ??? ????o a i?? ?a ?? ? 1555 ?? ??
??? «? ???? ??? ???a ??? ? ??a n ?y??i E??i A?????i O?????: ??th ??? ??
?a???a ????i ?? ? iy????o ????. I??i ??ae O????a ?? ?????e ????o.

???? ?? ?????e 13 ?n. ???e ??e ?y??o, ? eth?e, ???a e ????a. 22 ethiy ?
??a O???? ???e ????, ?i ?????? ?? ???i? ?? a y? ??y ??ath?y a ??ue ????i
?????a ??? ???i, ??? ???? i ???i ??? ??? ? ?atho. I???a ????i a I??o e
???a ??ue ??e, O???? n ????ny ??y?i ???ny ????? ???e?. Ca N??e, ? ???y?e
???? ??o ? O?u, O???? ????ny ??? ????i ??, ???e ?e ??ae, a E?i, ??a i
???? ???o ??e. 3—4 ethey ????i ?????a ???? ? N????, ???i ???a ?????y?
????aey?i ????i ??i.

I??th 1556 a?a ?????? n ????? ??????? ? ???a E?? A???i ?ycy A?????i ?
???oth ???? E??-E??i iy????a ???? ?y?y O??? e N?? ?y? ???? ??? O??the e
O??ue, ??e??? ?e ??a ??e, ????? ? ?????i ??y. I??i ??i ?a???y ? O????
?????a ? ? ???ue, e a 1557 ?? ??? ???n?a ?y?y ? ??a n N??? e I??? ????
??? e ??? a I??o. O? N?? e I?? ????? e ???? ? ??y ?????oth?th ???.
I????y a I??o e ??i Ae??o-A?ay O??-??a, ??? ??i ??a? a ???a ? ???e: ???
????? ??y? ?? ?????? a Ee??th, ?a ??? n ???? ?????e a ??a. E?????a
????ue ???ey? ???? ??? ? ???? ??.

I?? ?y?y ???? A???? ?????i ????? ???? e ?????? ?y? O??the A???? (E??a),
?? ?o??i ????ue ?e ??cy ??a ??? ?y ??? ?????ny ??? E?? A?????o. A 1558
?? ??e ?ycy A??th? E??? ?e ????i e ??? ???o n ????i?i ???ue ??? e ????y
? ??? A?????o ?? A??. I??th 1559 ??e A?????o ? Ae? ??? ??a E??e, ????
A????? acye n ??e a I??o. I????yy ???? ???, ??a «?e ??? ??th, «?i – ? ?
???? ????e, ?e ? ???o ??? a *??? e ??e ? ? ?? ????». E??e ???e, ?i a
???yo ???i-???? ??e??iy?y ???y ??? ??? ?????oth ??. I?????y ??i? ????a
??e ???? ?ey?a n ?????? ??? e ??? ?yc???ue a ???? n ???i ???? ??????,
??i ? — n E??i e ????. A 1560 ?? ?? ???? ? I??u ?y?y N?? e I??, ????any
n E???? ??u. A??a a ?? ????ny ? N???e E??c e ?y? A????? ? ??? eth??. E
???u, ?????y ???? ??a, e Ae????e ???? ? ??y ??? ???ue ??? ????i ??, ?i e
c?y?? n ????i ???i e e ???? ??????eth ?e N???a, ?e e ?????o ???, ???? a
???? ???o ????th?e ??? ???e y????.

I??? ???e I??u a C???e *???? ??e??? ???e. N??? N???? A??o ?? ????? e ??
Ae??ey A?????i, ? ?????i n E??i A???, ??i e ???u ???? e ?th? n ????. A??
??, ????a ????? ?y?y ? ??? ?o??? ??y? ?????a ????i ??ey e ????e ? ??? a
A??? ?y??? E????.

Ni ??? ???? 50-o ??a XVI ?? ?????? ???y?y ????i-???a ?y?. Y?? ???????
???? E?? IV a 1561 ?? ? ??? O??th? E???, ????? a I??a ??a ???ey ?y I?ey,
??? ?? ? ???e, ?i ???o y?? ??o ?????? ????. Aei ?? ? ???e ????? n ??????
??e ?? a I??o e O??th, ??? ???e ?e?. I?????? E??? ????i ? ??????? ????i
?? e ???? ?????i ? a????? ?? ? th?. I??i ????a ?????a ????? ???? ??y e ?
??? ?????o ? ???? ?eth??y E??? a ???????a ???u e ? ?? e ????eth ?? ???e
??????e. ???????? E??? ? ????a ??u ????a e ??, ?i ??? ? ??? e ? ?a
?????? ?y?y ???? ?ay ????e ?????i oe?y. I??i ??? ?????? ????? n ????
??y? a ?? ?a?? y??? a I??o a 1557 ??, ??? ????ey? ????? ? ??? ????i ??o
??a (E????e e O??????), ? e ?th?? ?? ?o???a.

A 1558 ?? ??????? ????? ?y? O??the ???e a I??o ??o ???e A???? e N??? (
N????a) n ???? ?????? ? O???. N??e ?e ???, ???a ?y I??e, ???ny ???a e,
????ue ?e ??a E?? A???i, ?? ?????? ??i ec ??? ?????. I???e ?e ??a ??y e
??? ???y O??th?, a ia ?i ??? ?? ???y. Io y?? ??a ?e ?i A???, ?? ???e.

I????i ???ae ?????a ?ae ???????i ???? ??y ??iy?y a 1561 ??, ??a ? I??u e
O??th? ?? ??a??i n ???? ??? ????? e O??the ???e ?? ???ae ? ???th ???.
E?i A???, ????ue ? I?? O??th??a, ??e ??o ?????o ?y?e e ? ????e E???. I?a
? ??? ?i ?? — A???/ ?? ???i ? ?????? ????i A????i, ??? ???? Oi???a
??????ny ? ??? a I??o a 1556 ??. A 1561 ?? ?i A???o a??a n ??i
N?ae-A???, ?????? ???i ????i ?e N??i Aa?????, ?? ??? ???ue a I??o, ?a
??i ????? ????oue ?i, ?????y ???ue ?e ??a ???? ?????? ? ????n?e ??.
Ae??y ??? I?? — I??-?a — ?? ??e ?? ????? ?ycy E??? O????. E ?io E?i IV
???e ??? ??a I. O. I??? n ???e ?????e ????ue ????? ?ycth i ?i ???a n
???i ??i e ????ny ??i. N??????e ?? ???o ????, ?i e ??a y?? O???o, a ???a
? ??? ??, ???/? ??????ny ?????e ?????.

N? O??the A???? ?e ???i, ?e ????i, ?y?i a E???, ?a ?o ?????ue ? e ??
????ue e ?????e ?? ? ???????yo n ???e e?????? ?y?y?. A??oy n ????, ? ??
?th????a ???iey n A??? e ?e y?i ????oth ????oth ????. I??a ????a?i ????
O??th? a ?i ??????o e ??? ???o ???. N 1558 ? 1567 ?ae o ?? ??ue ?c ????
???a ??u e, ? ???e ??, ??? ?? ?o ?? ???a ???y e ????ay ???y ???, ???
???? y????u ?? ??y? ????a, ?????o ??????i ???i. E??a ??, ? ???a O??th? e
?y ??? a ??? ???a ????e ???? ? O??a, ???th ???? ???????e ??u, ??????e
??a ??iy?? ???e ???ey? ????a ??? I??u.

A 1562 ?? ?? ???? a E??? ??? ? a?? n ???? I????, a a 1565 ?? y??????e
??? ????y? ???u Ae??a ????e. I??i y? ? ????? ???? ???a, a ??? 1570 ?? o?
Ae??o-A?? ??e ? O??th?. A ?th ?e A??a (??e ??? E??e) Oa?the ?e ?????
??i, a ?a ?i ?? ??? a ??. Ae??o-A?? ? ??oth?e ?ae ????ye ???e ?y ?? ?? ?
???a ??e e 24 ?y 1571 ?? ?? I??o. ???e ???? ???? ??a ?? ??ae ? O??a, ?i
i???? ???a.

Ae????a ???y, a ??? ??? a ??a ethey 1572 a?a ???o ??e ?ae ??????i I???
E???? A?????i ?ae ???? ??i, ???e ????o ?????o ??????y ???ae, e ??? 1578
?? a I??o ???i ??a ?????? ????? n ??????? ?????, a ??a n ???? ??????
???? ? N?? e i???ue ??? ?y ??? ? ???? ???. Ai ??a y?? ????? a ?n?oth
???o ???e ?? ????i O??th?, ???e ?y? E???o E??a, a ??a ?i I??-?? E????
E?? e N???i O????a ? ?? O??????, y?y??ny ??????y? ???? ?ey???o a E???
?y??? ???e. A??a n E????i E???i ???e ?i ?i O???, ????? ?e ???? ?y A?? e
?????? ???e a ???e ???i ???????. A I??a E??? ???e ? ??y ???o n i????i ?i
?????a a E???, a ? O?? ?e ??? ???e ??yae ????a ?ae ??????i E?e I?????a,
??????? ???oue o ??y N??. A 1589 ??, ??a ??? E???? E??? e ???ey ??i ???i
?y?i ss??a E????, ????? E??? a I??a ?? ?a ?c ????? ??????.

I????ue a ????? o ???? ??y e ???? ???u (??e), i ?i ??????otho ???????a
????u 1600 ??, a a 1614—1615 ?? ???? ???u ?eny?? ? ???? ??th I???
O????o. E? e a ?y? ??? ???a, ???? ??????i ?????? ????? ????? ???
??a??oth?? ????y, ? ???? e ???? ???? ???e ??????e e ? ???? ? ??oy?. A
1634 ?? a O??, ?a ????y ??? ???? ????ey ??i ???e n ??????? ????? ?y?y
A???a E???i ? ?????? e I?? I????i E?? ? ???. I???, ??a a O??o ????e
????? i ??????e e ???e E???e E???, a ?????o ?????e e ????? ??u a ????
??e ec ???????? ???. N???ny, ?i ???u ?????? ??y??e ???? ??th ??? ? ???
?y?y? a 1645 ??.

C??o ?n??e A?????? ???a e ?????ey, ??i ???i, ? ???? i?????? ????? ??? ?
??e ??????? ??? a I??o ??? ? ???a, ? Ae???a e ??? ?? Ae????. A 1555 ?? ?
??o E?? A???i y??? ?????? ??u n ?????? ?? e n ??ue?e ??y? ? ???. ?????y,
???? ? ? ??. I?? ? ??? ?a??i ???? ?????? ????? a ???a ????? y?y?? ?????
???e ??????? ?????? ???? ??e ? Ae?a?? ??c A????. O??ue, ??u ???ey? e
???? ???, ?????ue ????? I??u, a ???? ?i ??a ??i ?? ??c ???a i????i.

A 1556 ?? ? A???? ??? ????, ?i ????e O??e, O??e e Oth???? ?y??? ????
??????? n ??e??ey? i ?? e ????, a ? ??oth?e ?ae ? ???a e oth???? ?ycy a
I??o ???i ????? n ???? i ????? e i ???. I??ue?? ?? ??y?, ? ????y ???a e
oth???? ?ycy n ???? a ?o ??? ? ????ue: ?? ?e ?c ??e ????o ??? ??o ???i?
– ?????? ?y?e, ????o n Ae????i. A 1560 ?? ???a E. N. *?a???a ? ??a ??y?
????a e ???a ??e ? A???? ? ??o e ???e ??? o ??? O?? ? ????? ????a, ?i
???e ?i?? ????ue a ??. Ia y?i ?ith ??eth ??? ?????i ???a *a????a ??
?????e, e, ???a ????i ????, ???a ??ea ????ue a A????.

A??a a ??e ? ??? ??? ?e ??, ?i ???? ??e ? ??i ??e n ???? ??e y?e, a 1567
?? ???a a I??o ??a n ???? ???? ?i ? ?????a a ??i ? ?????. ??o???i ?????a
??a ????a ? ?????, ??????? ?i?? ???e ????. E???ue ???? ???? E????? ???a.

A ??a XVI ?? ??????a? ???a ?????ny n ???? ? ??????? ?????o ??? e i ?????
?i e ??y? ? ???? ???? ??th. I??i ??? o???i ??? ???y a ?????o ???? ??
E????? ???a, ?i ?? ?y ???e ????? ?????i. Ae??a ?????? ?y?y ? ???y? ??o
??ey ??y?? ???a: a 1602 — 1603 ??o ???u ??a?, ??????? ?y? N??e O????e e
N??i-I??ae Y?????e ? ??? nth??? ???? a I??o ????? n ???? ??y? ? a ???a
?????. A y? ? ??y ??o ???? e ?????i ???? E?i-???? ????a ??a, ????ay a
??iy?th ??o, ??? o??e ??????ny a ???? ? I???oth ???th, ????e ? ?iye ?
????? ???yo. A? ???u i ????a ???y ???e n ??????ueth ???e ?????y a Ae????
??o ???? ????e.

A??ay y????y n y?e ??th ??????ue a 1604 —1605 ??o, ??a ???y ?????a ?ae
??????i E. I. A???? ?????e ?c ?y ???? Y???e e O??? ???, ???a ???e ??o ?
O???a e ???? ???a e ???o. A O??o ??o ? ???? n?????? ??o ?????, ???
?????ny ???i A???i ia ??: ???? a ??? ???a ??? ?? ???? ???????e n??e
???a, ??????? ?????? ??y?? ???a e ???n?e ?????o ?????? ?y?e. I????ue a
?????i ???i?, A???i ??e ? ????? n ???? ??e e ?? ?????ny i n?? ??? ? ????
???yo. I??i ?? ?iy?e ?????i, e ?e ??? ? ??? ?????ay ??ue ???? ??? ??
?????. O?? ?? ???u N????e e E????e ???e, e ?? O??? ???e ???ny ?y ???a
??ny???.

O? a 1610 ?? o????a ????e A?? e E??? N???u ????? e ???? ???a n ???? ??y?
? ? ??e ??y a ???a ?????. A??a n ?ie a ???? I??a ??y?? ?a ?? ??ny?o ? ?o
?y?e e ??. I?y??? ??e ??u ????? ?? ???a: A?? ??? ????ey ????i ??iyi e
???y?i, ?ath?i ???e n ?i ???th, ????e i??ae ??c ???a ???ey a E??? e
???i. Nay? n E???e ??e ?y A?ay ??? y?????? ????, e n ? ????? ? ???y ???
? ????? ??o ???a.

I?? A?ay O???e ??? a I??o a ??a 1614 ?? e ????? ????? ????? ??? ???a a
???a ?????. A??a n ????? A??i a a???e ??th ??y?? e ??? ?y?y ? ??? eth??.
A y? ? ??y ????i ????i ?????a ?e ???i e y?????e ??? N??i-I??ae, ?????ny
?????? ????ny e ????i ????i ??.

O?ay ??????ue ??? ?o ?????? ???: a 1615 ?? ???e ???? ???? ??? N??i-I???,
????a O????? A?ay, ?i ??? y?????? ????y ? ??ue ??? ???ue ??????e ???
????? e ???ue ?i a ??? ???o. I??ny ??i ???e e A??, ? ?????y ???? ??????y
? ???oth ???o.

N ????i ????i ?????a a ??????o? ?i ???ny ??????i e E??a. E????e ??e a
1616 ?? ?y??y ??i ???ue ???e e ?i???ue ??c ?? ??e ???o ???, ??iyy ? ?
?????? a ??. A??i ??e ??y?y ???? ?????ue ???? ??o ???? eth?e a ???u
????i ?????a, ?i ??? ?o ??y?? ???.

A ?i ? ??, ??aey? ??ae ???e ???? ?????e, E??? O????e, ??? A??, A??e
E??????, ??e Ea????, N??i-I??ae Y?????e e ??? ?y?y, ????? ? ??ae, ??th??
?? ?? n ??? e ????e N??i-I??? ??y? ???a ?????. A ???? ???? ???? ????
??th y?????e i???? ??? ?e ???? ???? ???a ????a ? ??e ??e, ??? ??u
??????e y?o ?a ?e ??i ?? ??e ???th??y. O? ?, ? ???, ?e ??? e ????e
?????? ????, ???i ?? E???, a ???a ??? ???e E???, ?i ??o ????????y n ?i i
??y?e a ???a ????? ???i ? ?????? ?y?e. A 1616 ?? ????i ??y ?? y?????e
?y? N??i-I??o, a ? ??oth?e ?ae e ??th I??? O????o n ????e ? ????e ?????
??e E???, ??? A?? e ???? ?i. ???ay ??ey??? ? E??? ??? ???????i ???i
???i.

N? N??i-I??? A??? y??y a eth? 1631 ?? a O??? ???e e ?i ?????y n ???? i
????? ???eyo ??? ????i ???? O??-A?ay, ? ???a ???? ????e ???? ??.
I??????y e ????? ??? ????a ???eyi ???o e ??? ????y e ???? ?i, ????? ?
y?? ??? a O??? ???e ?????a ???, i ?i aea 1631 ?? ????? ??e ???i-?i ????
a I??o ??a O??y n ?i??e ??y? E??a a ?? ????? e ????ue ?i ethaeyi ????
????ue a ???? ?????a. ??e ?????e ???? n ???? ???i-?i ???? ?????a ?????y
i ?th?, ????? ?o ???? ??i ??c ?i ?????a O??-A?ay. I????u ?????i ??a a
I??a ?????ue ????? ???i ??????? ???i-?? a ???? ??? ?????. A 1633 ?? a
???e A?? ??e ???? ?yo? ???? ??th, a a 1635 ?? a I??o ???i ? ?? ???
?????, ??????a ????? e ??????ny i ????o ?????o ??i?o. A??? e y??????
??????i ???e ???i e ??, ?i ???y ??ue ????? Ae???? ??a a ??? ????i
?????a.

E 1588 ?? a O??? ???a ?????? ????y I??ay ???a, ??? ???e ????? a ???i
?????. N????? ??????e ?????ytho ??? (???) n ??ueth ???e, ??? a ???o
????? a ?y? ???a ??a ???u e ???u, a XVI—XVII ??o ??????? ? ?e ????e
??ae, a ?e ?yae ???o ?????e. I??? ?y?y ???e e E?? A???o, e ?i ?? O??o
E????, ?e?i ????ue ??? O?-??a ? ??? eth?? ????? ?????e ? ?? ???ey?yo
???e ??????e. E?? ??, O?-??a ?????? y?y?y ?????i ??o ???? ??oy? e ???e,
?i ?? a??i ???i ???i ??i a ?????i ????: «I? ?iy ?y?y ?o?a ???…» I???
O?-??u ????e ???i ????? ?ycy — N??i-??o, ?iy??i ? ??a ???-??????i ?th?
E?a, ????????i Ae?uey??? ???. I ??i ???e ?? ???i O?-??a ??y?i ?ae
???????i ???? ??y N??i-??a ????e ????? ??? a A??e, ???? ? ?????e ??c
?ith ????eth.

A 1595 ?? O?-i?? ??a a ?????? n ????i ?y?i A??-??i, a ????e ???y ?????y
????? ?ae ????e. *?? ???? y??, ???a ????e ?? e ??th e a ??? ???a ??????
a O??? ???e ??o ???i ???? ?i ????a. N ?o i? ?e ??iy?i ????e a I??? ???a
????e ??????? ??? ???????i ? ?i ?e ?? ????, ???? a ???a ???u.

N??th?i ??a O?-??u ????? ??? ?? A??-??a, ??????y a 1605 ?? a I??o a ????
??????i ?ycy N???y ss????, a ??a a ??????e ??o eth?e. E? ?c a y? ??y ?
????? ??a ??ae?ny E????e I, ? ??i e ???? e ???e ???a ????e. A??-??a ?e
??i ??yo ?????i, ????i ???? ????e e ???i ??? ?ae ??e ????e. A?ath ??
????i ??? a I??a ?y ?ay e ??o eth?e 16 e????a ???? ????, ??? ????ny a
???o ?y???o. Aai eth? ??a ???? ????a ? ??? ???o ????o. A????ue ??e, a
O??? ???e, A??-??a ???? ?n ??? ? 1609 ??, ?? a?? ?a ? ??? e ? ??e n ???
e ?????e ??????e a ??, ?a ???? e y?????? N??i-I???. I???e ??a ?i ???i?i
???a A?ay ??i ?i ??? ??????i n N???? ss????i, ???? ???ue ??ue ???i ?ae
?? ????i ????? O???i ???a. *?? ?? ?o A?? ??a ??? ??y? ???? ??th e ?e
i?iyo a ?????, ??? ????y a O??? ???e ?e e ? ???y.

A 1614—1621 ??o ???a ???a ?????? ??? ii ????i ??i a I??a, ????eyy ?y?
??o ???? e ????e? ???ey?, a ??a ???y? a ?????yo O???i ???a ????a (???
????a) ????y ???? ??????a, ?i ? ??? ? ???a ???? a ?????ey n ????? ?
??eth — ???? ???? (????, ?????a ????a e ???a a 1616 a. ??? N??i-I???,
??????y a ???o ???yo, ?e ??ae a ????a ?? a 1618 a.).

E ??? XVII ?? ????a ???e ? E??? ??i ??? ?????, ?? ???????, a ????e,
??????i ??? a ??a O??a. *?? ?? ????a ????ay ??? a A?????, a ??a ??c
???eu a A??th, ?y?? ???????a, ????? e ?iy??a ??u ???? ?????ue ??iy?i e
???iy???? ???ey? a ???? ?????i ?? ???. A A???? e a I??a ?y??? ??iy??
?iy?e? ???e, ?i ??????? ??????? ??????a ??o ???? (a ??a e A???) e
C?????.

E??? e ?th? n ???e ???? ???? ?iy?? e ????? ????e, ????? ?e ? ?????e ?
???u ???a e E??, ?e e ? ?????o ?????oe. I??ay n ??? ???? XVII ?? a I??o
???i ????i ????? ????a, ??? ??? ? ?o (1618 a.) ????ey? ? ??? E??eth, ?
??a e E???th, A?eth e I???th. A ??o a A??th ?? ???u y???u ? I??u, a ???
???o ???a y?????ay e ?????ay ???? ???a, a ??a ???? ???o ?? ??a e ???
????a. ?????? ?????? e ?????a ?? ?, ?i a 1639 ?? ?????e ?? Oa??? ?????
?ith ??y? ???? ??th, a a 1651 ?? ?????? ?? A???? ??a ?? ???i ????i. A???
??th y?o ???? n ????? ???u ?? ????a ? ???e ???e ??? ??? I?a??e ???e e
E??, ??? I??a ? ??a ? ???? ?????? e ?????? ?? ?????? ????? e ???????e
???th.

N??? ????, ?i ???? ???o ???e ? N???i E??? ? ??? ???/??i ?e ?????a ?????o
???. O??e I???? ???e ?n??? ??? ???? ??y?ny ? ?????a ???e e ??a ???ui
?????? ???eyi, ????o ???? I??u ? E??? ?e ???c ? ????ey? ????i ??????a.
E?? ??, ?th?? e ??ae ???a ???? ?i ? ??y??e ??i XVI ?? e ??? ???? XVII ??
????y ???i e ??i ???i ??? ???o ? th?? ???o. I??i ???e ?????? ???? n ???i
???? a yoi ??y ?e e ? ?? ??????, ?i ? ?????, ???, ??? ??i??? ????? a ?
???o ??? y?? n ???i ??i. Ae?i a ?i, ?i n ??????i ?????i ???ey ?ae N???i
E???i ???? ?a ?? ????, ???? ?????y ????? e ?????o ??oe???: ???y ??????y
????a ???? ?? ??c ?ith ??e??th a E?i e O??o, ?i ????? ????ue ? ????e
????i ??? ????? ????. A???? ???? ?????e ???? ?????e ??, a ??i ???a ??c
???th ????eth ???? ?? ?a????? ???????e. Ii ??e ?????i ??????a, ??i??
???o ???e ???? e ???? ?????, e ??u, ??? ?n?y?e ???? ????a ??, ?c ???ey,
???a ???ue ???? ia ?????a ??? a ???yo ???e ??????e ?????.

A y?? ??i-???? ??, ? ???e ??, ??? ????a ??? ????ey a?? N???? E??? ??e ?
?? ????o ???. N???, ? ??ie ???? XVI ??, ?a????? ?? ? ???a O??e e E??, a
??? ? XVII ?? ????? ????ue ? E??i. O??????y ?y? N???? E??? n ???? ?????
???????i ???a ???oth, a ??i ???oth y???eth e ????a??e a ????? ??a ????
??????th ? E??c ????i ?n????.

I??? ????a ? N???i E??? ???i ?y I??u ??a ?????e ? ??ao n ???? ??i e ???i
?y? e ????ue A???? e ??a A??, ?i, a ?ith ???ue, ?? ???e ???? ???iy????e
??ae a ??e??e ???i e ??a — a E?i, N??thth A?th e C????a. A ???? ???o
???a ????e ? ??? O??? ??ae, N????e e E????e i??? e A????, ? e ??? ???
???? e ????y ???o e ?a???o ???a, ??? ?? a XVI ?? ?a ?e ?????? ??? ???o
?????a, ? a ??? ???? XVII ?? e O??? ??ae e A???? ?? ?a ????i ????
???oy?, ?i ????ue ? ??i ? ???y. I?????? ? N???e E??c ???o?y?? ???e
??????? ??i ????ey ????y e ????e ?o ???o ?y?e, ?i ??????y ????? ?????.

A??? ?y?y, ??y?a a ???a ?????, ?????? a ????? ????????a ??e ???? ? ??y
???, ?????oth?th ? ?????o ????th, e ???? ?????; ? ? ? ?o, ?i ???y ???y?
?i?e ?????, ??? ??e ?????? ? ????o ???o ???o ??y?a a ? ?????eyo n ???e
???? ????e. I? y?i ???y ??????y ??i ?????ue ? ????? ?? ??? e ? ????
??????? ????? ??e: a XVI e XVII ??o N???e E??c ?e ?a ???i ???i ?y y??
??i. Iiy?? ???a ?????a ??????? ???oy? e ? ?????y?, ??? e a ??o ???oyo
????a ?? ??? ??????.

N????, /? ???? ??? ?????? e ????o ?????o E???, ??? e ??ue ? ?a ?y?y
????? ?ay ????? ???? ??y. Ai ?y?i ???, a 1645 ?? a A??? E??? ? ???? ??th
A??ath I????? ??y??e ??u A??? e O???? E???, a ??a ?i e ??e N??eay E???.
A I?? ? E??? ??y? ?? ?y?y O???u (? O??????), I???u e A???u ? E?????o, a
??a A???a E???. A Ae???? ??th ??y??e ???? ??e, y?????e ?y? e ??ny?a io
?o ????e (a ??a ??? — ???a), a ??a ????o ????e, a???? ???i ?????i ?? e
??th, ??? N??e e ????a ???? ?y?y. A ?o ??e E??? ? ??y? ??th ????y, ?uy??
y? n?? ?????ueth ? ????i ??. O?? ?, a 1645 ??, e ??y? ??th ?ei ????i e
????a O???i ???, ??? ???e ???u ??o ???? e ???e ???i ? ??: ??y?? ?a
????i.

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