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К. Маркс: человек и философ

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Ia?eneci

Ea?e Ia?en (1818 – 1883) – iaiaoeeee yeiiiieno, oeeinio, iniiaaoaeue
ia?enecia – yeiiiie/aneiai iai?aaeaiey, eioi?ia au?aaeaei eioa?anu
?aai/aai eeanna. Ia?eneci yaeyaony naiaia?aciui aa?eaioii ?acaeoey
eeanne/aneie yeiiiie/aneie oeieu.

E. Ia?en ?iaeeeny 5 iay 1818 aiaea a Oe?a (Aa?iaiey) a naiuea aaeaieaoa.
N 1835 aiaea iao/aeny a Aiiineii oieaa?neoaoa, a n 1836 ii 1841 aiae – a
Aa?eeineii oieaa?neoaoa.

N 1850 aiaea E. Ia?en aeeaao a Eiiaeiia, aaea ieoao naie o?oae
“Eaieoae”. Aeaaiaea?y cia/eoaeueiie oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeea naiaai
ae?oaa O. Yiaaeuena E. Ia?en ecaeae a 1867 aiaeo ia?aue oii “Eaieoaea”.
Caaa?oeoue iaienaiea aoi?iai e o?aoueaai oiiia E. Ia?eno ia oaeaeinue
ec-ca iniciaiey iaieii/aiiinoe ?aaiou. 14 ia?oa 1883 aiaea ii oia?.

Aei?aaioea e iiaeaioiaea e ia/aoe aoi?iai e o?aoueaai oiiia auea
inouanoaeaia O. Yiaaeuenii. *aoaa?oue oii auoae a naao iinea nia?oe O.
Yiaaeuena a 1905 aiaeo.

Iaoiaeieiaey E. Ia?ena aa?ao ia/aei ec neaaeothueo enoi/ieeia:
eeanne/aneay iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey A. Nieoa e Ae. ?eea?aei – o?oaeiaay
oai?ey noieiinoe, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea e o. ae.; iaiaoeeay
eeanne/aneay oeeinioey – aeeaeaeoeea e iaoa?eaeeci; ooiie/aneee
nioeeaeeci – nioeeieiae/aneea aniaeou, iiiyoea eeanniaie ai?ueau.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth iaoiaeieiaee E. Ia?ena yaeyaony eaeay
aacena e iaaeno?ieee: niaieoiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey ethaeae,
yeiiiie/aneay no?oeoo?a iauanoaa – aacen, iaae eioi?ui ?aniieiaeaia
iaaeno?ieea.

Noieiinoue oiaa?a enoiaeeo ec aaee/eiu iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiuo cao?ao
o?oaea, ?anoiaeoaiuo ia aai i?iecaiaenoai i?e n?aaeiai o?iaia
eioaineaiinoe, – caeii noieiinoe, noi?ioee?iaaiiue E. Ia?enii.

A naiai o/aiee E. Ia?en ?acee/ae iio?aaeoaeueioth e iaiiaoth noieiinoue.
Iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue – niiniaiinoue oiaa?a oaeiaeaoai?youe
iio?aaiinoe. Iaiiaay noieiinoue – niiniaiinoue aaue iaiaieaaoueny ia
ae?oaie oiaa?.

I?eaaai/iay noieiinoue, ii Ia?eno, anoue noieiinoue i?iaeoeoa
iaiiea/aiiiai o?oaea ?aai/eo. Aaaaeaiea yoiai iiiyoey iicaieeei
iieacaoue, eae aac ia?ooaiey caeiia noieiinoe ?aai/ee iieo/aao oieueei
/anoue iieaou naiaai o?oaea. ?aaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa, eae n/eoaao
o/aiue, ieeiaaea ia ?anoao i?iii?oeeiiaeueii oaaee/aieth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeu o?oaea, oi anoue i?iyaeythony i?eciaee
yenieoaoaoeee.

Ii?ia yenieoaoaoeee – ioiioaiea i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe e ?acia?o
ia?aiaiiiai eaieoaea, niioaaonoaothuaai iieaoa ?aai/ae neeu.

Aeaiueae – yoi oiaa?, noeoeeii auaeaeeaoeeny ec anao aeaeia oiaa?ia e
ea?athuee ?ieue anaiauaai yeaeaaeaioa, au?aceoaey noieiinoe anao
oiaa?ia.

Aeaiueae, ii E. Ia?eno, yaeythony anaiauei ieaoaaeiui e iieoiaoaeueiui
n?aaenoaii, ii iie ia iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue i?e ionoonoaee oiaa?iiai
iaiaia. E. Ia?en n/eoae aeaiueae ia?aie oi?iie nouanoaiaaiey eaieoaea.

Iiae eaieoaeii ei iiieiaeenue aeaiueae, i?eiinyuea i?eaaai/ioth
noieiinoue.

Eaieoae a e?oaiiai?ioa i?ioiaeeo o?e noaaeee:

– ec aeaiaaeiie oi?iu ia?aoiaeeo a i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth,
i?aaenoaaeythuoth niaie n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aai/oth neeo;

– ia aoi?ie noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eaieoae o/anoaoao a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aoiaey a oiaa?ioth oi?io;

– iooai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee oiaa?iay oi?ia eaieoaea
i?aia?aciauaaaony a aeaiaaeioth.

Niaia noaaeee inouanoaeyaony iineaaeiaaoaeueii.

A e?oaiiai?ioa eaieoae, eioi?ue iaeiia?aiaiii aunooiaao a o?ao oi?iao
(aeaiaaeiie, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie e oiaa?iie), E. Ia?en ii?aaeaeee eae
i?iiuoeaiiue eaieoae.

Acaeyaeu E. Ia?ena ia oai?eth ?aiou niaiaaeatho ni acaeyaeaie Ae.
?eeea?aei. Caneoaa E. Ia?ena ninoieo a i?eciaiee “aaniethoiie” ?aiou.
Iiae iineaaeiae iiieiaaony ?aioa n caiaeue ooaeoaai ea/anoaa
(ieiaei?iaeey) eee aieaa ioaeaeaiiuo io ?uieia nauoa.

Nooue oai?ee oeeeee/iinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia ninoieo a
oii, /oi aeinoeaeaiea iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino iaaiciiaeiu a ?acoeueoaoa
nouanoaiaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia. I?e/eiie e?ecena yaeyaony
ionoonoaea aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?inoa yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina, i?e ?anoe?aiee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ieceay ca?aaioiay ieaoa aaaeao e ionoonoaeth niiniaiinoe
?aai/eo iieoiaoue oiaa?ioth i?iaeoeoeeth, i?iecaaaeaiioth eie. Auoiae ec
e?ecena e iaania/aiea aini?iecaiaenoaa E. Ia?en aeaeae a
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeao ni noi?iiu eaieoaeenoia e caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa.

Ie iaeii oeeinioneia o/aiea ni a?aiai Aaeaia ia neoaeeei ii?aaaeaieai
aeey oaeiai eiee/anoaa oaeenoa, eae aai oai?ee. Aai e?aaei – ‘?aaainoai
e naiaiaea’ – i?aa?aoeeinue a iiaeiaea ?aeeaee, /uee oaiaoe/iua
i?eaa?aeaioeu i?aaeee iieiaeiie ie?a e ii?aaiuaee nioie ieeeeiiia
ethaeae.

Oaiaoaiea, iuoee, aieiae e aaiioeeae, inayuaiiua aai eiaiai,
i?aa?aoeeenue aeey aeanoieeo i?aaeoaeae ii anaio ie?o a iianaaeiaaioth
?ooeio.

Oai ia iaiaa, a/a?a ii eoiaai ii?ina ?aaeeineooaoaeae, i?iaaaeaiiiai
‘AAN Radio 4’, Ea?e Ia?en – iniiaaoaeue eiiioienoe/aneiai o/aiey e
i?a?iaeeoaeue nioeeaeecia, iaiaaenoiee eaieoaeecia e ‘ao?aeoaciuo’
eeannia – aue iauyaeai aaee/aeoei oeeinioii anao a?aiai e ia?iaeia. [1]

Eae iiaei neo/eoueny, /oi /aeiaaea, /ueei eiaiai aeaniiou ii?aaaeuaaee
/oaeiaeuiia aa?aa?noai, i?ineaaeytho a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec oeoaiia
oeeaeeeciaaiiiai ie?a?

Aiciiaeii, ana aeaei a enoieeiaaiee iiiyoee. Iiaeao auoue, ‘aaee/aeoei’
neaaeoao n/eoaoue oiai oeeinioa, /uee eaeae inoaaeee naiue aeoaieee
neaae a enoi?ee? A yoii neo/aa, ianiiiaiii, ianeaaeea Ia?ena ii naiaio
ianooaao iiaeao n?aaieoueny ?acaa /oi n aai aea eaoano?ioe/aneeie
iineaaenoaeyie.

Iaaea?ii ii aiai?ee: ‘Oeeiniou eeoue ?acee/iui ia?acii iauyniyee ie?,
aeaei aea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau eciaieoue aai’.

E yoi aio aeaenoaeoaeueii oaeaeinue. Eae ioia/aao O?yinen Aei (Francis
Wheen) a naiae aeanoyuae eieaa i Ia?ena, ‘/a?ac 100 eao iinea aai nia?oe
iieiaeia ianaeaiey ieaiaou iaoiaeeeanue iiae aeanoueth ?aaeeiia,
eniiaaaeiaaaoeo ia?eneci a ea/anoaa iniiaiiieaaathuaai o/aiey’.

Aac Ia?ena ia auei au Oieiaeiie aieiu. Aac Ia?ena ia auei au ie
‘aeaeaciiai caiaaana’, ie AOEAAa.

Oae /oi niaeaneiny: ii ianooaaai aicaeaenoaey ia ie?iaoth enoi?eth n iei
ia n?aaieony ie iaeei ec oeeinioia. Iaeiaei neiai ‘aaee/ea’, ianiiiaiii,
ianao a naaa iiceoeaiue niune. Ii iaoaeaee iu iiaeai iieiaeeoaeueii
ioeaieaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, /uee eaeae ii?iaeeee noieueei
/oaeiaeu?

Aac Ia?ena o Eaieia e Noaeeia ia auei au eaeaieiaee, iicaieeaoae ei
?acaycaoue oa??i? i?ioea nianoaaiiie no?aiu, aea?oaaie eioi?iai noaee 60
ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. Iai ieeiaaea ia noae au naiui no?aoiui ianniaui
oaeeoeae a enoi?ee – ia aai niaanoe oeaeuo 75 ieeeeiiia aeeciae.

A?eoaiey, aea e Caiaae a oeaeii, ianeaaeaeathony aiaaonoaii e naiaiaeie
eiaiii iioiio, /oi eo iauanoai iniiaaii ia ia ia?enenoneii o/aiee, a ia
aeaiie?aoe/aneii eaieoaeecia, e eioi?iio Ia?en ioiineeny n oaeei
i?ac?aieai.

Iaiy i?inoi ioaeiieyao, /oi ethaee, iaaeaeaiiua e oiii, e aoiaieciii – a
eiaiii yoe ea/anoaa, y oaa?ai, ioee/atho neooaoaeae ‘Radio 4’ – niiniaiu
aiciineoue ia iueaaeanoae /aeiaaea, eioi?ue i?eian iaoaio ie?o aieueoa
iaacaiae, /ai eoi-eeai ae?oaie.

‘Naeoiaei/eo, – iiaoo aic?aceoue iia aiieiaaou Ia?ena, – au oioneaaoa
aeaaiia e ana oi?iuaaoa’. Iaeuecy, ooaa?aeaeatho iie, aiceaaaoue ia
Ia?ena ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeaea oao, eoi eneacee aai o/aiea, eoi
ceioiio?aaeye aai oai?eyie a nianoaaiiuo oeaeyo. Aeeeoaoi?u-/oaeiaeua ii
nianoaaiiiio i?iecaieo i?aiaa?aaaee aaeeeeie eaeayie aai oeeinioee,
ioae?ay eeoue ioaeaeueiua iunee, a?iaea iaecaaaeiinoe iiaaaeu
i?ieaoa?eaoa, eioi?ua iiaee iaeoe ioeeee o iann. Ia?en, iiae/a?eeaatho
iie, i?eoae au a oaean io i?anooieaiee, niaa?oaiiuo aai eiaiai.

Aiciiaeii, yoi e oae, ii aeaao ee yoi Ia?eno eiaeoeueaaioeeth ca ana
oaeanu, /oi inayuaeenue aai eiaiai? Ii iiaio, iao.

*oiau iauynieoue, ii/aio y oae aeoiath, iaiaoiaeeii iiaieiaoaeueiaa
eco/eoue, ca /oi, nianoaaiii, aunooiae Ia?en. Iaiaoiaeeii iiiyoue aai
ee/iinoue, e auynieoue, iniciaaae ee ii iineaaenoaey naieo oeeinioneeo
oai?ee.

Oioy aai iineaaeiaaoaee eno?aaeyee ethaeae ieeeeiiaie, nai Ia?en ie ?aco
e iooe ia iaeaeae: a aeeoi?eaineii Eiiaeiia ii, ianiio?y ia aaaeiinoue,
aeee oeie/iie aeeciueth ao?aeoaciiai eioaeeeaaioa.

Ia?en, ?iaeaeaiiue a 1818 a. a iaiaoeeii ai?iaea O?e? a aeiaieueii
caaeeoi/iie naiuea aa?aaa, i?eiyaoeo o?enoeainoai, iinea ieii/aiey
oieaa?neoaoa noae aeo?iaeenoii-?aaeeeaeii, iiaeaa?aaaoei ‘aaniiuaaeiie
e?eoeea ana nouaa’.

A 1843 a. ii ioi?aaeeny a Ia?eae, ii aue ecaiai ec o?aioeocneie noieeoeu
eae iianiue ?aaiethoeeiia?. A 1848 a. a Aaeueaee Ia?en, a niaaoi?noaa ni
naiei aiaaoui iie?iaeoaeai O?eae?eoii Yiaaeuenii, iaienae
‘Eiiioienoe/aneee iaieoano’.

Iaeiiaoe, a 1852 a. ii iainiiaaeny a Eiiaeiia, aaea a 1867 a. e caaa?oee
?aaioo iaae naiei aeaaiui o?oaeii – ‘Eaieoaeii’.

A iauaeaiiie aeecie Ia?en ii?ie aue ouaneaaiui, ceiaiui, iai?eyoiui a
iauaiee noauaeoii, ii iaeiia?aiaiii, eae iieacae O?yinen Aei, iaaeii
ethaee naith aeaio, e?anaaeoeo-a?enoie?aoeo AEaiie oii Aanooaeai, e
oyaeaei ia?aaeeaae o?aae/aneoth nia?oue o?ao ec oanoe naieo aeaoae. A
caiouaiiii eiiaeiineii Nioi ii aeee eae oeie/iue i?aaenoaaeoaeue
n?aaeiaai eeanna, ii yoi nouanoaiaaiea caaenaei io uaae?inoe aai
iie?iaeoaeae. Eae ieoao Aei, Ia?en ‘iinoiyiii aiiaa?aee?iaae aiaaouo
aeyaethoae ienueiaie, aueeyi/eaay o ieo aeaiueae, e oieaeaeny ia?aae
aeaeueieie ?iaenoaaiieeaie, /oiau iie oiiiyioee aai a caaauaieyo’. [2]

Iinea nia?oe oeeinioa a 1883 a. aai iiaeea ia eeaaeaeua Oaeaaeo
i?aa?aoeeanue a nayoay nayouo aeey ia?enenoia anaai ie?a; oaeiaie iia
inoaaony e ii nae aeaiue. Ia?en aii?oaeee eo eaeaae i oii, /oi
eaieoaeeci e /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue – yoi cei, a nioeeaeeci e
ainoaea?noaaiiay yeiiiieea – aeaai. O?iiooue no?aaeaieyie
aaaeiyeia-?aai/eo, ii nicaeae aeiaiaoe/aneoth, anaiauaiethuoth,
oieaa?naeueioth oai?eth, i?ecaaiioth ecaaaeoue iauanoai io ia?aaainoaa.

Ia?en aue oaaaeaeai, /oi iiaaaeaiea e noaeueao /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeytho ia
aai oa?aeoa? e i?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa, a aicaeaenoaea yeiiiie/aneeo nee,
ia iicaieythuaa aaaeiyeai au?aaoueny ec ieuaou. Ii aai iiaieth, iiiyoey
i?aanoaaiiinoe e i?aanoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey auee anaai eeoue iaai?ii
i?aaee, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo i?aayuea eeannu aeanoaiaaee iaae
‘?aai/eie-i?ieaoa?eyie’, no?aiynue iaaa/ii cae?aieoue eo oieaeaiiia
iieiaeaiea.

Aieaa oiai, Ia?en ooaa?aeaeae, /oi enoi?ey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaiue
i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiuo oaaia e aiieiuaieth eaeaaea: naa?aeaieth
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai no?iy e nicaeaieth yaaeeoa?iiai eiiioienoe/aneiai
iauanoaa.

‘Aa [ao?aeoacee] aeaaeue e iiaaaea i?ieaoa?eaoa iaeeiaeiai iaecaaaeiu, –
ienae ii a ‘Iaieoanoa’. – Eiiioienou … ioe?uoi cayaeytho, /oi eo oeaee
iiaoo auoue aeinoeaioou eeoue iooai ianeeuenoaaiiiai ieni?iaa?aeaiey
anaai nouanoaothuaai iauanoaaiiiai no?iy … I?ieaoa?ee anao no?ai,
niaaeeiyeoanue!’

Eiaiii yoa oaa?aiiinoue a iaiaoiaeeiinoe, iaecaaaeiinoe e aeaaioai?iinoe
?aaiethoeee e eeanniaie ai?ueau, a oii, /oi oeaeue – aiieiuaiea a
aeeciue ia?enenoneie ooiiee – ii?aaaeuaaao ethaua n?aaenoaa, i?eaeaaaea
aai o/aieth oaeoth neeo e oaeie ?ac?ooeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Aaaeue iii
i?ae?anii iaua?uaaei oaaaeaeaiea ?aai/eo a oii, /oi n ieie iaoiaeyony
iani?aaaaeeeai, e iaeiia?aiaiii ii?aaaeuaaei ianeeea ?aaee
i?aia?aciaaiey iauanoaa.

Aiieiaaou Ia?ena iiaoo neieueei oaiaeii iiaoi?youe, /oi ii i?eoae au a
oaean io AOEAAa, noaeeineiai oa??i?a, caaoaeaoaai aai eiaiai ieeeeiiu
aeeciae, eee io iieiaeaiey niaaoneeo ?aai/eo, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee
o?oaeeoueny ca ieuaineoth ca?ieaoo iiae aai ii?o?aoaie, eioi?ua niio?aee
ia ieo n eaaeaeie noaiu. Ii eiaiii iiyoiio aai e iaeuecy n/eoaoue
aaeeeei oeeinioii. Ia?en ia iiieiae, /ai iaa?ioony aeey /aeiaa/anoaa aai
eaeae.

A aio iiiaea aeeeoaoi?u, iai?ioea, ioee/ii iiiyee, /aai iie iiaoo
aeiaeoueny, aii?oaeeaoenue eaeayie Ia?ena. Eaiei, n aai aeanoyueie
iieeoe/aneeie niiniaiinoyie, iiiaioaeueii iniciae aeanoieee ?aaeeci
ia?enecia, e iii?inoo aeiaaaee e iaio iieeoe/aneee iaoaieci aeey
aiieiuaiey eaeae ia i?aeoeea. Ii cayaee, /oi eiiioienoe/aneia iauanoai
aeieaeii nicaeaoue ia ianniaia aeaeaeaiea iaoiaeuo i?ieaoa?eaa –
eioaeeaeooaeu a?iaea Ia?ena e Eaieia ia naiii aeaea aeoaiei i?ace?aee
‘ooiuo’ ?aaioya – a iaaieueoie yeeoiue aaaiaa?ae
ia?enenoia-?aaiethoeeiia?ia, aeaenoaothueo io eiaie ?aai/aai eeanna.
Ae?oaeie neiaaie – eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey, ninoiyuay ec oaeeo ethaeae,
eae ii nai eee Noaeei.

Ia?eneci-eaieieci ia oieueei ia nicaeae niaa?oaiiia iauanoai: ii
i?aa?aoeeny a a?oaue eino?oiaio aeey caoaaoa e oaea?aeaiey aeanoe
ai?noeie /anoiethaoeaa.

A 1917 a. Eaiei caoaaoee aeanoue a ?innee. Iaia?oaeea, /oi ieeeeiiai
?aai/eo e e?anoueyi ia?enenoneea eaeae i?aoyo, ii ?aoee, /oi nio?aieoue
o aeanoe naith aieueoaaenoneoth ia?oeth iiaeii eeoue neeie, oa??i?ii e
oaiaoaieai. A eiioea eiioeia, oeaeue ii?aaaeuaaao n?aaenoaa. Nai Eaiei
aue iaea?aeeiui ia?enenoii, iiyoiio ii ee/ii ioaeaaae i?eeacu ia
oaeenoaa ouny/ ethaeae, a ieeeeiiu ae?oaeo ia?ae ia aieiaeioth nia?oue,
ii?aaaeuaay yoi ia?eniaie eaeaae i iaecaaaeiinoe iiaaaeu ?aaiethoeee.
‘Ionoue e?anoueyia iiaieiaeatho’, – aiaa?eaae ii. Eee aua: ‘Eae aea
iiaeii niaa?oeoue ?aaiethoeeth aac ?anno?aeia?’

Eiaaea y ia/ae niae?aoue iaoa?eaeu aeey naiae eieae ‘Noaeei: i?e aeai?a
e?aniiai oea?y’ (‘Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar’), ?aaioay a ee/iii
a?oeaa Noaeeia, y ana aua ia iia iiiyoue, ii/aio niaaoneee aeeeoaoi? e
aai i?eaeeaeaiiua oae ioioii oaeaaee ethaeae. Iiaeao auoue, iie auee
aacoiiu, eee noaee aea?oaie ‘i?iiuaaiey iicaia’, eee oaeenoaa auee aeey
ieo niiniaii naeaeaoue ea?uea?o?

Iaeiaei, eiaaea y i?i/ae eo ienueia, neooaoeey noaea i?iyniyoueny. ss
ociae, /oi eaaeaeue iinooiie iie iauyniyee naieie ia?enenoneeie
oaaaeaeaieyie – iie n aioiaiinoueth eno?aaeyee ieeeeiiu ethaeae, aeaaea
ioi?aaeyee ia eaciue aeeceeo ae?ocae, iioiio /oi ia naiii aeaea
oaiaoe/ii aa?eee, /oi any yoa ?aciy i?eaaaeao e nicaeaieth ia?eniaa
eaeaaeueiiai iauanoaa, aaneeanniaiai ooiie/aneiai ?ay.

Ianniaua oaeenoaa i?aa?aoeeenue aeey ia?enenoia a ?aciiaeaeiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noaoenoeee: a 1937 a., ?acaycaa ‘aieueoie oa??i?’,
Noaeei iii?inoo onoaiiaee aeey eaaeaeie iaeanoe ‘?acia?yaeeo’ ii
oaeenoaai – ie/ai ia ioee/aaoothny io ieaia ii auieaaea /oaoia.

‘Aeaaeue iaeiiai /aeiaaea – o?aaaaeey, aeaaeue ieeeeiiia – noaoenoeea’,
– aiaa?eaae Noaeei. Aiciiaeii, Ia?en e i?eoae au a oaean io oaeeo neia,
ii eiaiii ii iecaae /aeiaa/aneoth aeeciue aei o?iaiy i?inoiai caaia a
i?ioeanna ‘i?iecaiaenoaa’ Ooiiee.

Ia caaoaeai e aua ia iaeiii: Ia?en ianoaeaae, /oi aai o/aiea – ia i?inoi
oeeinioneay oai?ey, a iao/iay enoeia. Ec-ca yoie ‘iao/iinoe’ ieeeeiiu
aeo?aeia i?aa?aoeeenue a oaeeoe, iieaaay, /oi auiieiytho ‘aieth
enoi?ee’: iie ia iiieiaee, /oi ia?eniau ‘enoeiu’ – anaai eeoue iaai?
o?aneo/eo o?ac.

E iiiaioo nia?oe Noaeeia a 1953 a., 30 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae eaaeaee a
caiea, a ae?oaea 30 ieeeeiiia – i?ioee /a?ac niaaoneea eaaa?y. Aua 75
ieeeeiiia ethaeae, eae oeacuaatho aaoi?u iiaie ooiaeaiaioaeueiie
aeia?aoee Iai Oecyaeoia THi *ai (Jung Chang) e Eii Oyeeeaeye (Jon
Halliday), iiaeaee eee oia?ee io aieiaea a Eeoaa ca ia?eiae i?aaeaiey
‘aaeeeiai ei?i/aai’ (1949-1976 aa.).

Ii yoi aua ia ana: eiee/anoai aea?oa ia?enenoneiai o/aiey a ae?oaeo
no?aiao oaeaea en/eneyaony ieeeeiiaie. A 1975 a. Iie Iio e aai ‘e?aniua
eoia?u’ ?aoeee iieiinoueth ia?aaeaeaoue Eaiaiaeaeo ia ia?enenoneee eaae:
yoi iaioeinue no?aia a aeaa ieeeeiia aeeciae. A 1974 a. Iaiaenoo Oaeea
Ia?eai – aeaaa ia?enenoneiai ‘Aey?aa’ – naa?a yoeiineiai eiia?aoi?a
Oaeea Neeannea: ca aiaeu aai i?aaeaiey oaeaea iiaeaee ieeeeiiu.

Iiaeaeoe, naiuie aiiethueie i?eia?aie ceiaeayiee, niaa?oaiiuo oaea a
iaoe aeie, yaeythony aeaenoaey ao?eeaineeo aeeeoaoi?ia-ia?enenoia – io
?iaa?oa Ioaaaa a Ceiaaaaa aei iieeiaieea Eaaeaeaoe a Eeaee – ia aeathueo
eiioeiaioo aua?aoueny ec o?yneiu n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Ioaaaa, eioi?iai
any/anee i?aaiciineee eaaua eeaa?aeu, eiaaea ii noae ia?aui i?aceaeaioii
Ceiaaaaa ia ia?enenoneie ieaooi?ia, ana 18 eao, /oi ii iaoiaeeony o
aeanoe, nenoaiaoe/anee aoaeo nianoaaiioth no?aio, i?aa?aoea aa a
iieeoeaeneia ainoaea?noai n ieuei ianaeaieai. Aai eaiiaieyi oa??i?a
i?enoue ana oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou ia?enenoneie ‘eeanniaie ai?ueau’ –
aannouaeiiai i?aneaaeiaaiey oeaeuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii ie a /ai ia
iiaeiiuo ethaeae, i?eaiaeyuaai e o?aae/aneei ?acoeueoaoai – aieiaeo e
oaeenoaai. Oai ec aai auaoeo noi?iiieeia – caiaaeiuo eeaa?aeia – eoi
naaiaeiy aiai?eo, /oi Ioaaaa nioae n oia, y ioaa/o: ‘Iao, ii ia
aacoiaoe, ii i?inoi ia?eneno’.

Niaeanii iiei iiaen/aoai, a 20 aaea ii i?yiiio i?eeaco oaaaeaeaiiuo
ia?enenoia, aeaenoaiaaaoeo eiaiai naiaai eaeiea, auei oaeoi aieaa 150
ieeeeiiia /aeiaae.

Eaiei, Noaeei e Iie Iio – ana iie /anaie oooaee?iaaee e cao/eaaee
iaeconoue o?oaeu Ia?ena. Noaeei ianoieueei aa?ee a yoe eaeae, /oi, ii
neiaai oaoa aai oaeiie iieeoeee – naaeenoa Eaa?aioey Aa?ee’ – ‘aai
ia?enenoneea oaaaeaeaiey /ai-oi iaiiieiaee oaiaoe/ioth aa?o
ionoeueiaieia’.

Yoe /oaeiaeua aua e iaaeiyee ae?oa ae?oaa a iaaeinoaoi/iii ciaiee
‘nayuaiiiai ienaiey’: iinea i?eoiaea Iai e aeanoe Noaeei, eioi?iio auei
ecaanoii, /oi oio ii-ianoiyuaio ia ciaeii n o?oaeaie Ia?ena,
i?ac?eoaeueii iacuaae eeoaeneiai eeaea?a ‘ia?aa?eiiaui ia?enenoii’.

Aeey i?eaa?aeaioeaa Ia?ena eo eaeie i?aa?aoeeny a iaeia iiaeiaea aiaa:
eiaaea eoi-ieaoaeue ec ?onneeo eiiioienoia oie?ae, i iai aiai?eee, /oi
iieieiue ‘ioi?aaeeny e Ia?eno’.

Ianiiiaiii, ii naiaio iaaoaiiio aeeyieth Ia?en ia eiaao ?aaiuo a
nia?aiaiiie enoi?ee. A aaaeue y aua aeaaea ia oiiiyioe i /?acau/aeii
a?aaeiii aicaeaenoaee ia?enenoneie o?acaieiaee ia iaoa iauanoai –
iai?eia?, ia a?eoaineoth nenoaio ia?aciaaiey, aaea ni?aaiiaaoaeueiinoue
iaaeiioeaieaaaony, oaeaio ca/anooth iaeacoai, a neiai ‘yeeoa’
i?aa?aoeeinue a ?oaaoaeuenoai.

Oeaoai?iia aeeyiea Ia?ena iuouaaony a iaoai iauanoaa ia eaaeaeii oaao –
e yoi ianiio?y ia ana cei, eioi?ia aai eaeae i?e/eieee ae?oaei no?aiai.
A oeaio?enoneie ‘iaiiaeaiiie eaeai?enoneie ia?oee’ Oiie Aey?a i/aiue
iiiaea aei neo ii? n/eoatho ia?eneci aoiaienoe/aneei, aeinoieiui
o/aieai. *oi oai aiai?eoue – a aai eaaeiaoa iieiui-iieii auaoeo
ia?enenoia.

Aea, Ia?en ia ianao i?yiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca niaa?oaiiua oaeenoaa. Aeia
ca ieo eaaeeo ia oao, eoi ioaeaaae i?eeacu e iaaeeiae ia nioneiaie
e?th/ie. Ii yoi ia cia/eo, /oi iiaeii eaii?e?iaaoue ooiieci,
iaoa?ieiinoue, aii?aeueiue aaniethoeci e ‘iao/ioth’ aani?aeineiaiinoue
ia?eniauo eaeae, eioi?uie ii?aaaeuaaeenue naiua eioia?iua aeayiey 20
noieaoey.

Eae ioiaoee auaeathueeny oeeinio Aa?o?ai ?annae (Bertrand Russell),
iuoeaiea Ia?ena auei ‘noiao?ii e … aaeioiiaeyeinue ii/oe
eneeth/eoaeueii iaiaaenoueth’. Ieiaeu yoie iaiaaenoe iu e naaiaeiy
aeaeei a Ceiaaaaa, a oaeiuo iuoi/iuo canoaieao Naaa?iie Ei?ae, eee
iaieuaaoeo ca aiaeu eiiioienoe/aneiai i?aaeaiey no?aiao Ainoi/iie
Aa?iiu: aaaeue a aa?aciauo ?iuao aie?oa Iineau e naaiaeiy iaoiaeyo
a?aoneea iiaeeu aea?oa noaeeineiai oa??i?a – eo inoaiee iiaeii
aacioeai/ii ii?aaeaeeoue ii ioeaaiio ioaa?noeth a /a?aia.

A yoio e ninoieo enoeiiia ianeaaeea ‘aaee/aeoaai oeeinioa anao a?aiai e
ia?iaeia’.

Ea?e Ia?en i?eciai aaee/aeoei oeeinioii a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa

Ea?e Ia?en aue i?eciai aaee/aeoei oeeinioii a enoi?ee, niiauaao
Guardian. Niaeanii ii?ino iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, i?iaaaeaiiiio Iyeaeiii
A?aaaii (Melvyn Bragg) a ?aieao ?aaeeiia?aaea/e “A iaoa a?aiy” (In Our
Time) ia Radio 4, oaeiai iiaiey i?eaea?aeeaathony 27,93 i?ioeaioa
a?eoaioeaa.

Ca aaoi?ii “Eiiioienoe/aneiai iaieoanoa” e “Eaieoaea” a ?aeoeiaa
iiioey?iinoe oeeinioia neaaeotho Aeyaeae THi n 12,67 i?ioeaioa aieinia e
Aeoaaiooaei (6,8 i?ioeaioa). I?e yoii Ieaoii ieacaeny ia iyoii ianoa, a
Nie?ao – ia ainueiii.

Ioiaoei, /oi ?aaeeineooaoaeyi i?aaeeaaaeny nienie ec 20 oeeinioia
?aciiai a?aiaie, ec eioi?iai ioaeii auei aua?aoue iuneeoaey, nua?aaoaai
iaeaieueooth ?ieue a enoi?ee oeeinioee e – oe?a – a enoi?ee a oeaeii.
Anaai a aieiniaaiee i?eiyee o/anoea 30 ouny/ /aeiaae.

I?ioanni? Yiae?th *eooe (Andrew Chitty), eioi?ue /eoaao a oieaa?neoaoa
Nannaena aaeeinoaaiiue a Aaeeeia?eoaiee niaoeeo?n ii ia?enenoneie
oeeinioee, niiauee: “Yoe ?acoeueoaou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi
ia?eneci neaaeoao aini?eieiaoue ana?ueac eae oeeinioneoth nenoaio”.

“Aiciiaeii, ii iiaaaeee, iioiio /oi ia?enenou i?aaieciaaee ianniaia
aieiniaaiea, – iie iaiiiai aieaa aeenoeeieeie?iaaiiu, /ai aaaaeueyioeu”,
– ioiaoee ii, eiiiaioe?oy ?acoeueoaou ii?ina.

“Ii y aeoiath, /oi nei?aa ethaee i?inoi iiieiatho, /oi Ia?en aeaao iai
iaeeo/oaa iiieiaiea yoiai ie?a, eioi?ue noaiiaeony ana aieaa e aieaa
eaieoaeenoe/aneei. Ia?en aiai?eo i eaieoaea eae oeeinio – e a yoii aai
oieeaeueiinoue”.

Aoioa?ue e i?eioeanna

Ia?eno auei naiiaaeoeaoue, ii aua ia ?aoee, eai noaiao, ii iaeii ciae
oi/ii: aeaieoueny ii oi/ao oieueei ia AEaiie oii Aanooaeai.

A iaeaiueeii ai?iaea O?e?a ana auee ninaaeyie, e iioiiie ?aaaeiia Aai?eo
Ia?en aue aoiae a aeii i?onneeo a?enoie?aoia oii Aanooaeaiia. Oaeiiio
niaaoieeo Ethaeaeao oii Aanooaeaio i?aaeeny aeeaie e niia?aceoaeueiue
nui aaeaieaoa Ia?ena, e Ea?e /anoi ea?ae n iaeaiueeei Yaeaa?ii e aai
noa?oae nano?ie AEaiie.

Ainiiaeei oii Aanooaeai ioioii i?eaeaae thiiio Ea?eo ethaiaue e
aioe/iinoe, Oaenie?o e Nai-Neiiio, ii a?yae ee ia/oae caiieo/eoue a
cyouey iieiaeiai /aeiaaea n iaii?aaeaeaiiuie aeaeaie ia aoaeouaa. Ii eae
aoaeoi i?aae/oanoaiaae, /oi a?ae n Ia?enii i?eianao aai aei/a?e iiiai
ieuaou e no?aaeaiee. Iiiai/eneaiiua a?enoie?aoe/aneea ?iaenoaaiieee oaea
eneaee aeey AEaiie iiaeoiaeyuoth ia?oeth e i?eoee au a oaean io
iiaeiaiiai iacaeueyina.

Aai?eoo Ia?eno oiaea i/aiue i?aaeeanue aei/ue niaaoieea oii Aanooaeaia.
Ii ae auei ii/oe aeaaaeoeaoue aeaa, a aai nuio – anaai naiiaaeoeaoue, e
ioaoe iaaeayeny, /oi ii iinooieo a oieaa?neoao e noaiao na?ueaciui
o/aiui. E?iia oiai, Ia?en-ioaoe, a naia a?aiy i?eiyaoee i?ioanoaioeci,
/oiau naeaeaoue ea?uea?o aaeaieaoa, neeueii niiiaaaeny, /oi
?iaenoaaiieee iaaanou niaeanyony ia a?ae AEaiie n aai nuiii. Ea?e,
iieo/eaoee aiineaaenoaee i?icaeua “Iaa?”, ii/oe n ao?eeaineie
no?anoiinoueth oaaaeaeae ?iaeeoaeae, /oi iaia?aiey aai na?ueaciu e
?aoaiea aeaieoueny ia AEaiie ia?aniio?o ia iiaeeaaeeo. A aaeaieaoneii
aeiia ia A?theai-oo?anna e a iniaiyea oii Aanooaeaiia aeec Ii?oa Iea?a
?acua?uaaeenue ao?iua noeaiu. Ii i?ioanou ?iaenoaaiieeia cia/aiey oaea
ia eiaee: Ea?e e AEaiie ethaeee ae?oa ae?oaa e oioaee niaaeeieoueny ai
/oi au oi ie noaei.

Iie ia?o/eeenue oaeii, ia i?aaeiieaaay, /oi iaaeaeo iiiieaeie e
naaaeueaie i?ieaeao naiue aeieaeo eao. Ienueia eo iieiu iaaeiinoe, aiee
e iaaeaaeaeu. Iie ia ia?anoaaaee aeoiaoue ae?oa i ae?oaa, ii ia ciaee
oi/ii, oaeanony ee ei eiaaea-ieaoaeue iiaeaieoueny. Iao?oaeii naaa
i?aaenoaaeoue, eae ?iaeiy AEaiie ?aaae?iaaea ia aa oii?iia iaaeaeaiea
auoiaeeoue caioae ca iieiaeuo ioeoea?ia e aaiee?ia, eioi?ua oieieeenue a
aeiia Aanooaeaiia.

Naiue eao AEaiie, eioi?oth a iauanoaa iacuaaee “naiie e?aneaie aeaaooeie
a O?e?a”, “ei?ieaaie aaeia”, iineaaeiaaoaeueii ioeacuaaea
iioaioeeaeueiui aeaieoai. A oio, eiai aeaeaea yoa aaeieo?ay e oaea
noa?athuay, ii iiiyoeyi ?iaenoaaiieeia, iaaanoa, a yoi a?aiy ia?aacaeae
ec ai?iaea a ai?iae, ec oieaa?neoaoa a oieaa?neoao, ie ia ieiooo ia
caauaay i naiae “ca/a?iaaiiie i?eioeanna”. Ec Aiiineiai oieaa?neoaoa ii
i?eaac o?e oao?aaee niiaoia e ae?oaeo noeoia, iinayuaiiuo AEaiie.

A 1838 aiaeo oia? Aai?eo Ia?en, a nionoy /aou?a aiaea – Ethaeaea oii
Aanooaeai. AEaiie auei aeaaaeoeaoue aeaayoue, a Ea?eo – aeaaaeoeaoue
iyoue, eiaaea ii iaeiiaoe iieo/ee aeieaeiinoue ?aaeaeoi?a n aaeaaiaeiui
aeaeiaaiueai a 500 oaea?ia. 19 ethiy 1843 aiaea ninoiyeanue naaaeueaa.
“Iiy iaaanoa auaea?aeaea naiua oyaeaeua, aeaaea, iiaeii neacaoue,
iianiua aeey caei?iauey aie ?aaee iaiy. Io/anoe ni naieie aeinoi/oeiuie
a?enoie?aoe/aneeie ?iaenoaaiieeaie, aeey eioi?uo “Aia ia Iaaa” e
“Ainiiaeei a Aa?eeia” (ae?oaeie neiaaie, eiia?aoi?) i?eia?ii
?aaiicia/iua eaeieu. Io/anoe oaeaea n iiae nianoaaiiie naiueae”, – ienae
Ia?en. Ai?ueaa auea ia/aeii eo niaianoiie aeecie, ai?ueaie noaea e naia
aeeciue.

AEaieoueaa ia i?aa?aoeea iiiiceoeeiiiiai ?aaeaeoi?a Ia?ena a ii/oaiiiai
ao?aeoa. AEaiie oiaea ia auea oeie/iie aeaiie: niieienoaea e
aeaaiiieo/ea auee aeey iaa aeaeaaiuie, ii aiana ia iaycaoaeueiuie
ninoaaeythueie naiaeiie aeecie. Ia?en ia ioeany, ?ac e iaanaaaea aua?aa
AEaiie naaa a niooieoeu. Iia auea ia i?inoi aeaiie, iia auea aai
ni?aoieoeae, aaneiia/ii i?aaeaiiie eo iauaio aeaeo. Iia ia?aienuaaea aai
noaouee, ano?a/aeanue n aai ni?aoieeaie, niae?aea a?oea e oaeaioeeai
iaeaeaeeaaea aeaiueae, eiaaea naiuey iaoiaeeeanue ia a?aie aaie?ionoaa.
Iaeioi?ua nia?aiaiieee Ia?ena ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi aac AEaiie ii ieeiaaea
ia noae aue oai, eai noae. Iao ieeaeeo niiiaiee a oii, /oi o/aiea Ia?ena
– Yiaaeuena io/anoe auei e o/aieai AEaiie oii Aanooaeai.

Anei?a iinea naaaeueau aacaoo, eioi?oth ?aaeaeoe?iaae Ia?en, cae?uee ii
iieeoe/aneei niia?aaeaieyi. Naiuey ia i?inoi eeoeeanue iniiaiiai
aeioiaea – Ea?e e aai aa?aiaiiay aeaia auioaeaeaiu auee ioi?aaeoueny a
ecaiaiea. AEaiie, eioi?ay auea ia /aoaa?oii ianyoea, aeaaea ia
i?aaeiieaaaea, /oi aeey iaa ia/eiathony aaneiia/iua neeoaiey.

?anoouay naiuey Ia?enia a ia?aie yiea?aoeee /ooue ee ia aieiaeaea – n
Yiaaeuenii, aa?iui ae?oaii e niiini?ii, Ea?e oiaaea aua ia iiciaeiieeny.
N oao naiuo ii?, eae a 1844 aiaeo Ia?enu ia?aaoaee a Ia?eae, enoi?ey
Aa?iiu noaea aeey AEaiie /anoueth naiaeiie enoi?ee. A aa i/a?ea i aeecie
n ioaeai ia?aai?io Eoe Iaiieaiia, ?aaiethoeey 1848 aiaea e auoiae iiauo
o?oaeia Ea?ea oiiieiathony a iaeiii ?yaeo n ei?ueth, eioi?ie ia?aaieaee
aa aeaoe. Naiuey ei/aaaea ec ai?iaea a ai?iae, e aacaea eo i?aneaaeiaaei
iaeii e oi aea: aeieae e nnoaeu, eioi?ua iie ia iiaee aia?aiy aa?iooue,
aaneiia/iua ienueia n i?inueaaie i iiiiue, eioi?ua iie auioaeaeaiu auee
?annueaoue. Eiaaea Ea?e ieacaeny a A?thnnaeueneie oth?ueia e AEaiie
i?eoea iaaanoeoue aai, iieeoeaeneea ?aoeee i?eioaiooue aa e iaiaiii
caiaieee a eaia?o, aaea iia i?iaaea ii/ue a iaeiie eaia?a n ai?iaeaie e
i?inoeoooeaie.

“AEaiie aieueia. Iiy aei/ue AEaiie aieueia: O iaiy iao aeaiaa ie ia
a?a/a, ie ia eaea?noaa. A oa/aiea ainueie – aeanyoe aeiae naiuey
ieoaeanue oieueei oeaaii e ea?oioaeai – aeeaoa, ia neeoeii iiaeoiaeyuay
a oneiaeyo caeaoiaai eeeiaoa. Iu caaeieaeaee ca eaa?oe?o. N/aoa
aoei/ieea, caeaiueea, iiei/ieea, oi?aiaoea /aai, iynieea – ana ia
iiea/aiu” – yoi oa?aeoa?iia aeey Ia?ena ienueii auei iaienaii a Eiiaeiia
a ia/aea iyoeaeanyouo aiaeia.

Iiieii ianeieueeeo aei/a?ae, o Ia?ena e AEaiie ?iaeeeinue aeaa nuia, ii
ie iaeei ec ieo ia aeiaeee aeaaea aei thiinoe. Iniaaiii oyaeaei a naiuea
ia?aianee nia?oue aeaayoeeaoiaai Yaeaa?a, “Iooa”, aieaciaiiiai e
niuoeaiiai iaeue/eea. (Naiuey Ia?enia, i?aaeainoeuay eiinie?aoeaiua
o?aaeeoeee aoaeoueo ia?enenoia, anao ie?oaeathueo iaaeaeyea i?icaeuaie.
Iaaeai Ia?en auea “Iyiy”, Yiaaeuena caaee “Aaia?aeii”, yeiiiieo Aeaio
Aeaioo – “Iei”, ieaaeooth aei/ue Yeaiii?o – Oonne, Eai-Eai e Ea?eee
Aeueaa?eo, n?aaeithth aei/ue Eao?o – Aiooaiaio e Eaeaaeo. Ia?en, eae
ecaanoii, aeey aeaiu e aeaoae aue anaaaea oieueei “Iaa?ii”.)

Ia?aaeeaay nia?oue ethaeiiai nuia, Ia?en, iaeiaei, niaa?oaiii ia
eioa?aniaaeny noaeueaie ae?oaiai naiaai ?aaaiea, eioi?iai caaee O?aaeaee
Aeaioo.

“Ia?en a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai eoi-eeai ae?oaie a iiae aeecie, ia
eneeth/ay aeaaea Oo?aaiaaa, eiae i?aai aiai?eoue i naaa eae ia
iaeiiethaa” – ?onneee o/aiue Iaenei Eiaaeaaneee iaienae yoi a 1909
aiaeo. Ii ia iia ciaoue, /oi /a?ac iyoueaeanyo eao naao oaeaeyo
aeieoiaiou, oaeoe/anee aeieacaaoea, /oi O?aaeaee Aeaioo, onuiiaeaiiue
Yiaaeuenii, ia naiii aeaea aue nuiii Ea?ea Ia?ena.

Aeaia iiyaeeanue a naiuea Ia?enia iacaaeieai aei ia?aie yiea?aoeee. Aa
iieiaeui “iiaea?eea” ainiiaea oii Aanooaeai. Eaioai oaeoe/anee acyea ia
naay oi?aaeaiea anaie aeaeaie iinoiyiii ei/othuae naiuee. Iia noaea
aoi?ie iaoa?ueth aeey aeaoae, eo/oae iiae?oaie aeey AEaiie e iinoiyiiui
ia?oia?ii Ia?ena ca oaoiaoiie aeineie. E aeieoi?o Ia?eno Aeaia
ioiineeanue aac eiaeiiai ieaoaoa e /anoaiueei aai iaua?uaaea. Ia
eneeth/aii, /oi iaeia ec oaeeo ia?oee e noaea ia/aeii ioiioaiee, eioi?ua
i?eaaee e ?iaeaeaieth O?aaeaee. Oi/ii ecaanoii eeoue, /oi O?aaeaee
ainieouaaeny a i?ethoa ia aeaiueae Yiaaeuena, aunoaai ia?aciaaiey ia
iieo/ee, n iooeii ia iauaeny e oia? a 1929 aiaeo, i?iaeea aeieueoa, /ai
ana aeaoe Ea?ea e AEaiie.

“Aaniie 1851 aiaea neo/eeinue aua iaeii niauoea, eioi?iai y n
oaeiaieuenoaeai ia eanaeanue au, ii iii a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
niinianoaiaaei oaaee/aieth iaoeo aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo o?oaeiinoae” – oae
AEaiie a naiai aeiaaieea oiiiyioea i iiyaeaiee a aaaenoaothuae naiuea
aua iaeiiai /aeiaaea – nuia Aeaiu Aeaioo. AEaiie oiaaea naia auea
aa?aiaiia aei/a?ueth O?aioeeneie, eioi?ay ia i?iaeeea e aiaea. Ciaea ee
AEaiie i oii, /ae ?aaaiie ?iaeeeny o aa aeeaeaeoae iiae?oae? Nei?aa
anaai, aeiaaaeuaaeanue. Io?aceeinue ee yoi ia aa ioiioaieyo n ioaeai?
Nei?aa anaai, iao. Ieaaeoay aei/ue Ia?enia Yeaiii?a ooaa?aeaeaea, /oi aa
?iaeeoaee anth aeeciue auee aethaeaiu ae?oa a ae?oaa: “Ia?aaei iiie
eaaeeo ethaiaiia ienueii iooea. Ii no?anoiiio thiioaneiio iaith, n
eioi?ui iii iaienaii, iiaeii auei au aeoiaoue, /oi aaoi? aai
ainaiiaaeoeaoeeaoiee thiioa. Ii iii ioi?aaeaii auei Ia?enii ia ?aiaa eae
a 1856 aiaeo, eiaaea ethaeiay ei AEaiie ?iaeeea aio oaea oanoa?uo
aeaoae”.

Oae eee eia/a, o AEaiie oaaoeei auaea?aeee naeaeaoue aeae, /oi iia aa?eo
a iooeianoai Yiaaeuena. *oi i?ienoiaeeei o iaa ia aeooa, eaeea yiioeee
iiaeaaeea yoa ioaeanoaaiiay aeaiueia? Enoi?ey n ?iaeaeaieai iaeue/eea ia
aoeoe?iaaeanue, e oioy caiaaeiua ni?aai/ieee iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeytho
O?aaeaee Aeaiooa eae nuia Ia?ena, a niaaoneeo enoi/ieeao ii ia
oiiieiaaony. Aianoa n nianoaaiiui o/aieai a ?innee oo?aoee iiioey?iinoue
e nai Ia?en: a?yae ee eiio-oi, e?iia oceeo niaoeeaeenoia, i?eaeao a
aieiao eco/aoue nia?aiaiioth eeoa?aoo?o ii yoiio aii?ino. Iiyoiio
iaecaanoii, noaiao ee iai eiaaea-ieaoaeue ecaanoia iiaeeeiiay ?aaeoeey
AEaiie ia niauoey a aa naiuea.

Neaaeothuee iinea ?iaeaeaiey O?aaeaee Aeaiooa aiae aue, iiaeaeoe, naiui
o?oaeiui a aeecie naiuee. Ea?e, AEaiie e Aeaia auee ianoieueei icaai/aiu
i?iaeaiie auaeeaaiey, /oi aeey ae?yca a?aiaie ia inoaaaeinue. Naiuey
ia?aaoaea a Eiiaeii. Ia auei n?aaenoa, /oiau iioi?iieoue iaeaiueeoth
O?aioeeneo, /oiau aucaaoue a?a/a aeey AEaiie e noa?oae aei/a?e, /oiau
iieaoeoue n/aoa: Iaeueoi aeaau naiuee oaea auei i?iaeaii, iiaeioea
i/a?aaeue oaieeueiiai na?aa?a oii Aanooaeaiia. Ii, ioi?aaeaoenue
i?iaeaaaoue na?aa?i, Ea?e aue a?anoiaai ii iiaeic?aieth a e?aaea:
neeoeii oae ia iioiae ii aue ia aa?iaineiai a?enoie?aoa. AEaiie, iicaaua
i naaa e aei/a?yo, auioaeaeaia auea auoaneeaaoue ioaea ec oth?ueiu. E
iiaeiaiui iai?eyoiinoyi iia, i?aaaea, ioiineeanue eae e aeieaeiiio –
enoi?ey n na?aa?ii i?aa?aoeeanue aaeaa ee ia a naiaeiue aiaeaeio.

AEeciue a oaiaeo eiiiaoao, ea?oioaeueiay aeeaoa, iaunee e a?anou – ana
yoi ioithaeue ia oe?aieyei caei?iauea AEaiie e aeaoae. A 1854 aiaeo
naiuey ia?aaieaea oiea?ie. Ieacaeinue, /oi aiaeii?iaiae aue i?ieiaeai
/a?ac eeaaeaeua. A 1860 aiaeo AEaiie caaieaea iniie e auea aeecea e
nia?oe. Ea?ea ana a?aiy io/eee aiieiua ia?uau. A 1881 aiaeo AEaiie iinea
ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa no?aaeaiee oia?ea io ?aea ia/aie. Yiaaeuen
ii?aaeaeee ninoiyiea iaaeiaaaoaai Ea?ea oae: “Oia?ea iaoue”. Iaa?,
aneaae ca aeaiie iioi?iiea noa?ooth aei/ue, iaiaaeieai ia?aaeee Iyiy.

Ia A?eeiaoiineii eeaaeaeua a Eiiaeiia iie iioi?iiaiu a iaeiie iiaeea.
Aeaia Aeaioo iioi?iiaia aianoa n ieie.

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