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Иван Сергеевич Тургенев. Жизнь и творчество (Доклад)

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Eaai Na?aaaae/ Oo?aaiaa.

1.

Eaai Na?aaaae/ Oo?aaiaa i?ienoiaeee ec aeai?yineie n?aaeu. Oaeay
aeia?aoe/aneay eiinoaoaoeey aeey ian i?eau/ia: ec yoie n?aaeu auoei
aieueoeinoai e?oiiaeoeo ?onneeo ienaoaeae XIX noieaoey. E, iiaeao auoue,
i?eau/ea-oi eae ?ac e iaoaao iai aeaeaoue ia?aaeienaeueiinoue naiiai
yoiai oaeoa.

Naiuey, a eioi?ie ii ?iaeeeny e au?in, iiaea au neoaeeoue
au?aceoaeueiaeoei i?eia?ii oiai, eae e?aiinoie/anoai o?iaeoao oa?aeoa?u
naieo ainiiae. Aai iaoue. Aa?aa?a Iao?iaia, – aiai?eoue ioaeii nia/aea e
i?aeiouanoaaiii i iae, iioiio /oi iia auea oaeoe/anee aeaaie
aeiia,—i?ienoiaeeea ec aiaaoie i?iaeioeeaeueiie iiiaue/ueae naiuee
Eooiaeiiauo. Noaeueaa eae aoaeoi ia?i/ii iicaaioeeanue i oii, /oiau yoa
aeaiueia n aeaoneeo eao e aei naiiai caioaeanoaa eniuoaea Ii naaa ana
i?aa?aoiinoe e ana iaeaeu, eaeea oieueei iiaee auoue ecia?aoaiu a
ianoaiiaea iiiaue/ueaai anaaeanoey e aacioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Aeey iaoa?e, auoaaeoae caioae ca ae?oaiai, aa aei/ue io ia?aiai a?aea
ieacaeanue iiiaoie, a io/ei ecaeaaaeny iaae iaae/a?eoeae, ii-aeaeeiiio,
i?inoi iioiio, /oi ca iaa canooieoueny auei iaeiio. A eiioea eiioeia
aeaaooea aeieaeia auea aaaeaoue ec aeiio. E?ia iia iaoea o ?iaeiiai
aeyaee – Eaaia Eaaiiae/a Eooiaeiiaa. Ii e oai aa iaeeaeaei oi aea – e
iaae?oaaoaeuenoaa. Eii/eeinue oai, /oi noa?ee aeaniio i?iaiae
ieaiyiieoeo, e iia aeieaeia auea eneaoue i?enoaieua o /oaeeo ethaeae. Ii
anei?a aeyaey oia? a iaeii/anuea, e iia ieacaeanue ianeaaeieoeae anaai
aai aieueoiai ninoiyiey, aeeth/aaoaai a naay e oi naiia Nianneia,
eioi?ia ecaanoii oaia?ue a anai ie?a.

Iicaeiae inaiueth 1815 aiaea a Nianneia i?eacaeae iieiaeie, iaiau/aeii
e?aneaue ioioneiie eaaaea?aa?ae Na?aae Ieeieaaae/ Oo?aaiaa. Ia Aa?aa?o
Iao?iaio ii i?iecaae neeueiia aia/aoeaiea, e iia n?aco aea i?eiyea ia?u.
Eae aniiieiaao aeeceay e ni/oanoaothuay ae nia?aiaiieoea, iia /a?ac
naieo ciaeiiuo aaeaea ia?aaeaoue Na?aath Ieeieaaae/o, «/oia ii niaei
i?enooiee e oi?iaeueiiio i?aaeeiaeaieth, iioiio /oi ioeacaii iieo/eo».
Oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa i?aaia: n /aai au, eaaeaony» Na?aath Ieeieaaae/o
ca?iaaoue? I?eiaaeeaaeae ii e noa?eiiie aeai?yineie oaieeee, aaaeouae
naith ?iaeineiaioth ni a?aiai Aaneeey Oaiiiai; o/anoaiaae a
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia e ca o?aa?inoue, i?iyaeaiioth a Ai?iaeeineie aeoaa,
aue iaa?aaeaeai Aai?aeaaneei e?anoii, a oaia?ue neoaeee a iaeiii ec
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aaa?aeaeneeo iieeia. Ii Aa?aa?a Iao?iaia oi?ioi ciaea,
/oi aeaeaea: iia ia neuea e?anaaeoeae e auea ia iiiai eao noa?oa Na?aay
Ieeieaaae/a, ii caoi iia auea aiaaoie iaaanoie, a ii — «ieuee»: o aai
iooea—i?e aieueoie, naiuea – e?aiinoiuo aeoo auei anaai /oi-oi ieiei
140.

Ioiioaiey a yoie naiuea ii?aaeaeyeenue aeiaieueii no?iai. Eeethcee ia
auei, Na?aae Ieeieaaae/, aeieaeii auoue, aeaaea e ia iuoaeny iinyaaoue
ia i?a?iaaoeau Aa?aa?u Iao?iaiu eae iieiiaeanoiie e naiiaeanoiie oicyeee
anaai naiaeiiai ninoiyiey. A aeiia oea?eea aoiinoa?a io/oaeaeaiiinoe e
aea naea?aeeaaaiiai acaeiiiai ?acae?aaeaiey. Noi?oae noiaeeeenue,
iiaeaeoe, oieueei a iaeiii – a no?aieaiee aeaoue naiei aeaoyi iaeeo/oaa
ia?aciaaiea. Ia yoi ia aeaeaee ie aeaiaa, ie nianoaaiiuo oneeee. Iie
aieiaoaeueii neaaeeee ca eo i?eeaaeaieai, aoiaeeee aiana iiae?iaiinoe eo
aaeaaeiaaiuo caiyoee e o. i. Oaea a ?aiiai aeaonoaa aoaeouee ienaoaeue
oi?ioi aiai?ee e ienae ii-o?aioeocnee, ii-iaiaoeee e ii-aiaeeenee;
iniaia aieiaiea a naiuea Oo?aaiaauo ia?auaee ia iaeaaeaiea ?iaeiui
ycueii: noaey ii aai ienueiai, aeaaiaaeoeaoeeaoiee Eaai Oo?aaiaa
aeinoaoi/ii naiaiaeii ‘e iai?eioaeaeaiii aeey naieo eao oiae au?aceoue e
iaiiaeaeaeueioth na?aea/iinoue, e ia ii aiaeai ?acaeooth
iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue, e naie a?iaeaeaiiue thii?.

Ii eiaaea ?a/ue caoiaeeea i aai aeaonoaa, Oo?aaiaa /aua anaai aniiieiae
i oii, a /ai iniaaiii ?acei neacuaaeenue e?aiinoie/aneea ii?yaeee e
iau/ae eo naiuee. Aa?aa?a Iao?iaia n/eoaea oaeaniua iaeacaiey
oieaa?naeueiie ia?ie aiooaiey; naii niaie iiiyoii, /oi i?aaeiacia/aia
iia auea i?aaeaea anaai aeey e?aiinoiuo, ii i?eiaiyea iia aa e e aeaoyi.
Eo naeee ca ana: ca iaauo/aiiue o?ie, ca ia iiiyooth ac?ineuie oooeo eee
ca iaaeiioth, ionoy/ioth oaeinoue, naeee ii iiaeic?aieth e /ooue ee ia
ia anyeee neo/ae.

2.

A 1827 aiaeo Oo?aaiaau anae naiueae ia?aaoaee a Iineao – aeaaiui ia?acii
n oie oeaeueth, /oiau i?iaeieaeeoue ia?aciaaiea aeaoae. A oa aiaeu
ninoiyoaeueiua aeai?yia i?aaeii/eoaee iao/aoue naieo aeaoae ia a
eacaiiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo, a a /anoiuo. Oae iinooieee e Oo?aaiaau:
anei?a iinea i?eacaea a Iineao Eaai aue ii?aaeaeai nia/aea a iaineii
A?iyineiai einoeoooa, a /a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa a iaineii
Aaeaeaiaaiia?a. Iaeiaei ia i?ioei e aeaoo eao, eae aai acyee e ioooaea,
e a aeaeueiaeoai ieeaeeo iiiuoie iiianoeoue Oo?aaiaaa a eaeie-ieaoaeue
iaineii eee aeiiaceth oaea ia i?aaei?eieiaeinue. Iiaeaioiaeo e
iinooieaieth a oieaa?neoao ii i?iaeieaeae e caaa?oee iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
aeiiaoieo o/eoaeae.

Oo?aaiaa o/eeny a Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa anaai oieueei iaeei aiae; a
1834 aiaeo ii aianoa n iooeii e noa?oei a?aoii, iinooieaoei a
Iaoa?ao?aneia a?oeeea?eeneia o/eeeua, ia?aaoae a Iaoa?ao?a e noae
nooaeaioii oaiioiaai oieaa?neoaoa, eioi?ue /a?ac aeaa aiaea e ieii/ee.
Iaeiaei aiineaaenoaee ii aiai?ee i Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa aaeaa ee ia
/aua, /ai i Iaoa?ao?aneii, anaaaea ioaeaaay i?aaeii/oaiea ia?aiio,
ia?aae aoi?ui.

Iaoa?ao?aneee oieaa?neoao n naiiai naiaai iniiaaiey aue iinoiyiii iiae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iaonuiiui iaaeci?ii i?aaeoaeuenoaa, /oi, ?acoiaaony,
neacuaaeinue ia anao noa?ao oieaa?neoaoneie aeecie. A Iineianeii
oieaa?neoaoa oioy au ii iaeiie oieueei aeaeueiinoe ?annoiyiey o?oaeiaa
auei aiaeai?eoue noieue aiaeaeaeaiioth aeey ieeieaaaneie aaeieieno?aoeee
eacaiioth aeaaii?enoieiinoue. Ainieoaiieee Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa
iniaaiii aei?iaeeee o?aaeeoeeyie aieueiiethaeaie nooaeai/aneie
iauanoaaiiinoe.

O Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa auee e naie i?aeiouanoaa, a iniaaiiinoe
aeey oao, eoi o/eeny ia neiaaniii oaeoeueoaoa. Ii iaoiaeeeny a oeaio?a
oiaaeaoiaai eeoa?aoo?iiai aeaeaeaiey: Iooeei, E?ueia, AEoeianeee,
Aiaieue — ana iie aeeee a Iaoa?ao?aa. Yoi ia iiaei ia neacuaaoueny e ia
oieaa?neoaoneie aeecie. Aieueoei aeeyieai a oieaa?neoaoa e ia neiaaniii
oaeoeueoaoa iieueciaaeny ‘i?ioanni? I. A.Ieaoiaa, iiyo e e?eoee, iaeei
ec aeeaeaeoeo ae?ocae Iooeeia, oio naiue Ieaoiaa, eioi?iio aaeeeee iiyo
iinayoee naiaai «Aaaaiey 0iaaeia».

Ienae ii oiaaea iiiai e niio?ae ia naith eeoa?aoo?ioth ?aaioo,
ii-aeaeeiiio, aiieia na?ueacii. Oaaaeeoaeueiui iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai e oiai
e ae?oaiai yaeyaony aai ienueii i?ioanni?o A. A. Ieeeoaiei io 26 ia?oa
1837 aiaea: «ss eieaaaeny, aeieaeai ee y aue iineaoue ae?aio, ienaiioth
iiith 16 eao, iia ia?aia i?iecaaaeaiea, – y noieueei aeaeo a iae
iaaeinoaoeia, e aiiaua aanue ieai aa iia oaia?ue oae ia i?aaeony, /oi
anee a y ia iaaeayeny ia Aaoo nienoiaeeoaeueiinoue, a aeaaiia, anee a y
ia aeoiae, /oi ii ia?aiio oaao iiaeii ii e?aeiae ia?a i?aaeociaoue
aoaeouaa, y au ieeiaaea ia ?aoeeny au Aai aa iineaoue…

Oo?aaiaa ia ethaee aniiieiaoue i naieo nooaeai/aneeo eeoa?aoo?iuo
iiuoao; naiia ia/aei naiaai ienaoaeuenoaa ii ioiaeaeaae ii/oe ia
aeanyoue eao — oaea a ni?ieiaua aiaeu. I/aaeaeii, aeaaiui ia?acii
iiyoiio aieueoay /anoue iaienaiiiai ei a oieaa?neoaoneea aiaeu e ia
aeioea aei ian. N oi/ee c?aiey c?aeiai, acuneaoaeueiiai ooaeiaeieea,
Oo?aaiaa aue i?aa: nio?aieaoeany ia?acoeu aai ienaiee ia iiaeieiathony
iaae o?iaiai eeoa?aoo?iiai o/aie/anoaa. Ii aeey enoi?eea eeoa?aoo?u e
aeey anyeiai, eoi oi/ao iiiyoue, eae i?iaeaaeenue ia?aua ?inoee
oo?aaiaaneiai aea?iaaiey, iie eiatho iaioeaieiia cia/aiea.

3.

Ii ia/eiae naith ienaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a ia?aoiaeiia aeey
?onneie eeoa?aoo?u: a?aiy. Yoi auee aiaeu iinea-aeaeaa?ueneie ?aaeoeee.
Oa /anoue aeai?yinoaa, ec n?aaeu eioi?ie auoee aeaeaa?enou, auea
aeaii?aeeciaaia. «Ethaeueie iaeaaeaei aeoaieia io/ayiea e anaiauaa
oiuiea. Aunoaa iauanoai n iiaeeui e ieceei ?aaieai niaoeei io?a/ueny io
anao /aeiaa/aneeo /oanoa, io anao aoiaiiuo iuneae. Ia»auei ii/oe ie
iaeiie a?enoie?aoe/aneie naiuee, eioi?ay ia eiaea au aeeceeo
?iaenoaaiieeia a /enea nineaiiuo, e ii/oe ie iaeia ia iniaeeeanue
iaaeaoue o?ao? eee aueacaoue naith nei?aue».

Oaea/aiea iieiaeiai Oo?aaiaaa noeoaie Aaiaaeeeoiaa oaeaea auei
i?aaeii?aaeaeaii i?aaeaea anaai oneiaeyie a?aiaie. Ia oiia oie oiueinoe,
eioi?ay oea?eea a noeoao caiicaeaeuo iiae?aaeaoaeae AEoeianeiai, noeoe
Aaiaaeeeoiaa auaeaeyeenue aiae?inoueth oiia, ?aciaoenoie yia?aeae ?a/e.
Iaeiaei yoe naienoaa iiaee i?aaeii?aaeaeeoue eeoue ia?aia aia/aoeaiea.
I?e aeeaeaeoai ?anniio?aiee noeoe Aaiaaeeeoiaa iaia?oaeeaaee
caei?aiaeoth e, oae neacaoue, noeoeeioth eiina?aaoeaiinoue eo aaoi?a.
Aaiaaeeeoia aioia aue oe?aneoue noeoiauie oci?aie naiua ioa?aoeoaeueiua
yaeaiey ieeieaaaneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Eaca?iaiiua i?aau ii ainiaaae
eae aiieiuaiea ?uoea?noaa; n i?yiieeiaeiinoueth eaeay, aeiiouaiiiai a
ainoeioth, ii i?eoiaeee a ainoi?a io «a?iiaoiie noa?u aaeia» e o.i. Ii
i?inoiaeooii i?eciaaaeny, /oi aieueoa anaai aai aaeioiiaeyee «i/e
iaiaaua, aea eoae?e oaiiua, aea ia?ne iaeeaiua». ?acoiaaony, yoe
i?aaeiaou o?aaiaaee niioaaonoaothueo n?aaenoa au?aaeaiey. Aaiaaeeeoia
aeiaae iaeii ec naienoa ?iiaioe/aneiai noeey— neiaeioth iaoaoi?e/iinoue
— aei e?aeiae noaiaie iai?yaeaiiinoe e au/o?iinoe.

4.

O?ie, cai/ii iieo/aiiue io Aaeeineiai, aue iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iiiaioia
ai anae ienaoaeueneie noaeueaa Oo?aaiaaa. Aaaeue aeaei ninoiyei ia
oieueei a eni?aaeaiee ioeaie iaiiuoiiai aeona, oioy e yoi naii ii naaa
ia oae oae iaei. Niaeanea n Aaeeineei i?aaeiieaaaei eciaiaiea acaeyaeia
ia oieueei ia eneonnoai, ii e ia naio aeeciue e, noaei auoue, ia
ioiioaiea eneonnoaa e aeecie: io iieneia iaauaaeiai,, «aaeeeiai»
(iaaea?ii c?aeue Oo?aaiaa iaciaao oeieo ?iiaioeeia 30-o aiaeia
«eiaeii-aaee/aaie» oeieie) iaiaoiaeeii auei ia?aoiaeeoue e eco/aieth
?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – ai anao aa eiinoanyo; ianooiaea ii?a
iaaethaeaiee e aiaeeca. Oaia?ue ia?yaeo n eeoa?aoo?iuie caiyoeyie
Oo?aaiaa iiiai a?aiaie iinayuae eco/aieth oeeinioee. Eioa?an e oeeinioee
aue ianoieueei na?ueacai, /oi Oo?aaiaa iaia?aaaeny iinayoeoue naay
i?ioanni?neie aeayoaeueiinoe—eiaiii ii eaoaae?a oeeinioee. AEaeaiea
oniaa?oainoaiaaoueny aeaaiui ia?acii a yoie iaeanoe ciaiee e i?eaaei
Oo?aaiaaa a Aa?eeineee oieaa?neoao.

A yoii, oaea o?aoueai, oieaa?neoaoa Oo?aaiaa n aieueoeie ia?a?uaaie
i?iaae ieiei aeaoo eao. Ii ona?aeii eco/ae oai Aaaaey iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
aai i?oiaeienaeueiuo o/aieeia e aianoa n oai aieiaoaeueii neaaeee ca
aunooieaieyie eaauo aaaaeueyioeaa, ai iiiaii n ieie niaeaoaynue; ii,
ii-aeaeeiiio, naiui cia/eoaeueiui iiiaioii aai oiaaeaoieo oeeinioneeo
oooaeee auei ciaeiinoai n ni/eiaieyie E. Oaea?aaoa; iicaeiaa Oo?aaiaa
neaaeao, /oi ec anao oeeinioia Aa?iaiee «Oaea?aao—aaeeinoaaiiue /aeiaae,
aaeeinoaaiiue oa?aeoa? e aaeeinoaaiiue oaeaio»

Oo?aaiaa eco/ae oiaaea ia oieueei oeeinioeth, ii e
eeoa?aoo?o—iaiaoeeoth, o?aioeocneoth, aiaeeeneoth, eoaeueyineoth,— e
eneonnoai ii/oe ai anao aai noa?ao. E ana, /oi ii ciae, ii ciae
iniiaaoaeueii, ia ec o?aoueeo ?oe. I iai iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ii aue
y?oaeeoii a naiii oi/iii e aunieii niunea yoiai neiaa. Ii eieae ia auee
aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii ciaiee; nooaeaioii ii iiiai iooaoanoaiaae ii
Aa?iia; iocae, ianoa?neea ooaeiaeieeia, oaao?u — aeaeae ii iiiai, e
iiiai oaea?aeaea aai aani?eia?ii iaoe?iay iaiyoue. Iaeiaei ii ia aue
iioiae ia oo?enoa, icaai/aiiiai oieueei oai, /oiau ia i?iionoeoue
eaeie-ieaoaeue aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoe. A iai niieiaeo iaia?oaeeeanue
neeiiiinoue ethaiaii aniao?eaaoueny a ia?iaeioth aeeciue, aaea au
noaeueaa ie naaea aai n iae. Iooaoanoaoy a oa aiaeu ii no?aiai Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu, ii iaaethaeae, n?aaieaae e ?aoae…

A oaa?aea 1843 .aiaea ninoiyeinue ee/iia ciaeiinoai Oo?aaiaaa n
Aaeeineei. Aaeeineee aue noa?oa Oo?aaiaaa ia naiue eao, ii ie oio, ie
ae?oaie ia caia/aee yoie ?acieoeu. A naiai ioiioaiee e iieiaeui
eeoa?aoi?ai Aaeeineee iaiueoa anaai iaiiieiae nienoiaeeoaeueiiai iao?a,
ioae?aoea, ec?aeathuaai enoeiu, eeoue aio iaeiiio aaaeiiua. Ii
i?eiaaeeaaeae e /eneo oao enoeiii ioae?uo ethaeae, eioi?ua aioiau
o/eoueny, o anyeiai, eoi aeaaeaao iieaciuie naaaeaieyie. Iiaue ciaeiiaoe
a yoii niunea aue aeey iaai iniaaiii eioa?anai.

5.

Oo?aaiaa ia i?eiaaeeaaeae o. /eneo oao ienaoaeae, e eiio oe?ieia
.i?eciaiea i?eoiaeeo nei?i eee aeaaea n?aco, eae, iai?eia?, e
Aeinoiaaneiio, eioi?ue iinea iioaeeeiaaiey ia?aiai aea aai ?iiaia
«Aaaeiua ethaee» noae ciaiaieoinoueth; a yoii niunea e ae?oaea
naa?noieee Oo?aaiaaa—E. A. Aii/a?ia, A. Ae. A?eai?iae/—ia ia?auo ii?ao
auee ai?acaei n/anoeeaaa aai. A 1838—1842 aiaeao ii ienae iaei e oieueei
ee?eeo. Ii ie iaeii ec iaiiiaeo iioaeeeiaaiiuo ei noeoioai?aiee ia
i?eaeaeei aieiaiey ie /eoaoaeae, ie e?eoeee. Io/anoe, iiaeao auoue, ii
yoie i?e/eia ii ana aieueoae aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeye iiyia (n
i?aeiouanoaii yie/aneiai ia/aea a iae) e ae?aia. Ia yoii iooe aai e
iaeeaeae ia?aue oniao: a ai?aea 1843 aiaea auoea a naao aai iiyia
«Ia?aoa», a a ia/aea iay yoiai aiaea iiyaeeny i/a?aaeiie iiia?
«Ioa/anoaaiiuo caienie», a eioi?ii auea iaia/aoaia aieueoay
aaciaiai?i/ii oaaeaaiay ?aoeaicey ia ,iaa Aaeeineiai.

N?aaee i?iecaaaeaiee ca?iaeaeaaoaeny oiaaea «iaoo?aeueiie» oeieu
«Ia?aoa» ia auaeaeyeanue eaeie-oi iniaie i?eaeiaeueiinoueth;
iacao?yaeiui yaeaieai a eeoa?aoo?a iia noaea aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y
?aoeaicee Aaeeineiai, oioy ii aaae ?a/ue, ii nouanoao, ia noieueei i
naiie iiyia, neieueei i naienoaao oaeaioa Oo?aaiaaa a oeaeii. Ooo aua
?ac ai anae naiae neea iaia?oaeeeanue iaiiaoi?eiay niiniaiinoue
Aaeeineiai aeaeaoue a ia?auo, aua aeaeaeeo io niaa?oainoaa
i?iecaaaeaieyo oiai eee eiiai ienaoaey naiua ei?aiiua naienoaa aai
oaeaioa.

Aio eae a yoie ?aoeaicee ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua naienoaa oaeaioa
Oo?aaiaaa: «…aa?iay iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue, aeoaieay iuneue, auoaa/aiiay
ec oaeieee ?onneie aeecie, ecyuiay e oiieay e?iiey, iiae eioi?ith
ne?uaaaony noieueei /oanoaa, – ana yoi iieacuaaao a aaoi?a, e?iia aea?a
oai?/anoaa, nuia iaoaai a?aiaie, iinyuaai a a?oaee naiae ana nei?ae e
aii?inu aai» ^ Yoe no?iee iioiaee ia i?i?i/anoai caaeiei /eneii,
eaaeaony, /oi oaeea caeeth/aiey iia naeaeaoue oieueei /aeiaae, oi?ioi
eco/eaoee ana iineaaeothuaa oai?/anoai Oo?aaiaaa.

A «Eeoa?aoo?iuo e aeeoaeneeo ainiiieiaieyo» Oo?aaiaa i?eciaeny, /oi
eiaaea ii i?i/eoae yoo noaoueth, oi io ai?y/eo iioaae e?eoeea
«ii/oanoaiaae aieueoa niouaiey, /ai ?aaeinoe» ‘. Yoi i?eciaiea
ioaeaeaaony a iii?aaea ia a?aiy: aaoi? «Caienie ioioieea», «Aeai?yineiai
aiacaea», «Iooeia e aeaoae», iaaa?ii, oaea ia iia aeoiaoue i naiae
?aiiae iiyia aac nienoiaeeoaeueiie oeuaee. Iaeiaei niouaiea, i eioi?ii
ii aiai?eo, aiieia aa?iyoii: – Oo?aaiaa ea ia/aea 1840-o aiaeia ia
ia?anoaaae niiiaaaoueny a naiai ooaeiaeie/aneii i?ecaaiee, e noaouey
o/eoaey ia oieueei iaiae?yea iieiaeiai ienaoaey, iie iaycuaaea aai,
aeaaaea e?eoa?ee o?aaiaaiee e naiiio naaa e ia?o ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae
nianoaaiiui oaeaioii, ia?aae eeoa?aoo?ie, ia?aae iauanoaii.

10.

Oo?aaiaa iaienae iaaieueooth, ai?y/oth noaoueth ia nia?oue Aiaiey,
eioi?oth i?aaenaaeaoaeue iaoa?ao?aneiai oeaico?iiai eiieoaoa cai?aoee ia
oii iniiaaiee, /oi Aiaieue — «eaeaeneee ienaoaeue». Oiaaea Oo?aaiaa
ia?anaeae noaoueth a Iineao, e oai iia noa?aieyie aai ae?ocae — Aioeeia
e Oaieoenoiaa — auea iaia/aoaia. Iaiaaeeaiii auei iacia/aii
?anneaaeiaaiea; aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua i?e ia?ethno?aoeee oo?aaiaaneeo
ienai, e ?acoeueoaou iaaethaeaiee inaaaeiieoaeae auee n?i/ii ia?aaioaiu,
e Aeoaaeueo i?aaenoaaee ia/aeueieeo O?aoueaai ioaeaeaiey I?eiao i?iaeo
«anaiiaeaeaiiaeoaai» aeieeaaea, a eoiaiaie /anoe eioi?iai auei neacaii:
«…Iaoiaey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, /oi a iuiaoiaa a?aiy eeoa?aoi?u yaeythony
aeaenoaothueie eeoeaie ai anao aaaenoaaiiuo aeey ainoaea?noaa niooao e
ia ieo iaiaoiaeeii ia?auaoue no?iaia aieiaiea, an ae?oaie noi?iiu, – /oi
Oo?aaiaa aeieaeai auoue /aeiaae iueeee e i?aaei?eei/eaue, y iieaaae au
i?eaeaneoue Oo?aaiaaa a 3-a ioaeaeaiea nia. a. e. a. eaioeaey?ee, a
Aioeeia e Oaieoenoiaa e iineianeiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o, naeaeaoue ei
no?iaeaeoaa aiooaiea, i?aaeoi?aaeeoue eo, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aoeei ia
ieo iniaaiii aaeeoaeueiia aieiaiea, e o/?aaeeoue ca ieie iaaeci?
iieeoeee». A ieii/aoaeueiii oaenoa yoiai aeieoiaioa I?eia ii eaeei-oi
iaecaanoiui i?e/eiai ianeieueei niya/ee e oii iaaeiaiee e naio ia?o
i?ana/aiey: aianoi .aeaniiai iieeoeaeneiai iaaeci?a ii i?aaeeiaeee
nae?aoiia iaaethaeaiea, oi anoue oi, /oi oaea aueie aei yoiai. Oea?th ia
iii?aaeeanue yoa «nienoiaeeoaeueiinoue». A naiae ?aciethoeee (iia
i?eaiaeeony ni anaie e?anioaie noeey e aieueiinoyie i?oia?aoee) iaienae
neaaeothuaa: «Iieaaath yoiai iaei, a ca yaiia ineooaiea iinaaeeoue aai
ia ianyoe iiae a?ano e auneaoue ia aeeoaeuenoai ia ?iaeeio iiae
i?eniio?, a n ae?oaeie i?aaeinoaaeoue a. Cae?aaneiio ?anii?yaeeoueny ii
ia?a eo aeiu». Ai eniieiaiea oea?neie aiee 28 ai?aey 1852 aiaea
Oo?aaiaa aue aiaeai?ai ia nuacaeoth 2-e aaeie?aeoaeneie /anoe. Aeaaea ii
oai a?aiaiai ea?a ieacaeanue neeoeii aeanoieie; naii niaie
iai?aoeaaeinue i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi caiaoea i Aiaiea auea ia
aaeeinoaaiiie aeiie ienaoaey. Oae iiieiae yoie nai Oo?aaiaa. Aio /oi ii
ienae naiei ae?ocueyi ai O?aioeeth: «ss iaoiaeonue iiae a?anoii a
iieeoeaeneie /anoe ii auni/aeoaio iiaaeaieth, ca oi, /oi ia ia/aoae a
iaeiie iineianeie aacaoa noaoueth a ianeieueei no?ie i Aiaiea. Yoi
oieueei iineoaeeei i?aaeeiaii — noaouey naia ii naaa niaa?oaiii
iacia/eoaeueia. Ii ia iaiy oaea aeaaii niio?yo eini. Iioiio i?eaycaeenue
e ia?aiio i?aaenoaaeaoaiony neo/ath… Iie a?ano, aa?iyoii, naeaeaao
iaaiciiaeiui ia/aoaiea iiae eieae a Iineaa» (Ienueia, II, 395—396). E
n/anoueth, iineaaeiaa i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia ii?aaaeaeinue: «Caienee
ioioieea» iinea iaeioi?ie caaea?aeee auoee a naao a aaaonoa 1852 aiaea.

Iinea inaiaiaeaeaiey ec-iiae a?anoa Oo?aaiaa aeieaeai au aac
i?iiaaeeaiey e caaea?aeae ioi?aaeoueny e ianoo naia nnueee—a ?iaeiaia
naei Nianneia-Eooiaeiiai. Iieoi?a aiae i?iaeieaeaeinue yoi oaaeeiaiea. A
ia?aua ianyoeu aai ia oaeaeaea aeaaea ioioa; oai?/aneay ?aaioa ii/oe
inoaiiaeeanue. Oiaaeaoiea aai ienueia iaiieiaiu aeaeiaaie ia
iaeeii/anoai, ianoie/eauie i?inueaaie iinaoeoue aai e neiaa ie naiie
ene?aiiae e ai?y/ae aeaaiaea?iinoe oai, eoi oioue iaiaaeieai i?eacaeae e
iaio a Nianneia. Eae eeoa?a oi?, ii anaaaea eniuouaae ino?oth
iio?aaiinoue a iauaiee ni naieie nia?aoueyie ii ?aianeo, n ethaeueie,
ethayueie ciathueie eneonnoai. Oaia?ue ano?a/e e aanaaeu n ethaeueie
eeoa?aoo?iuie iiaieyie eioi?uo ii aei?iaeee, auee aeey iaai iniaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiu.

13-14

«Iooeu e aeaoe» aucuaaee, ii-aeaeeiiio, naioth iaeanoi/aiioth iieaieeo
ai anae enoi?ee ?onneie eeoa?aoo?u XIX noieaoey. Iieiinoueth i?eiye
Aaca?iaa e i?iaicaeanee aai iieiui aiieiuaieai ea/anoa ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
iieieaiey 60-o aiaeia iaeei Ae. E. Iena?aa. Aioiiiae/ iacaae Oo?aaiaaa
?aaeoeeiia?ii. Oo?aaiaa a iueo ?acae?aaeaiey ?acei iocuaaeny ia oieueei
ia Aioiiiae/a, ii e i Iae?aniaa e i *a?iuoaaneii.

Iieaieea aie?oa «Iooeia e aeaoae» iaioaaea aai. Nia/aea aio eacaeinue,
/oi ii oae aieueoa ieeiaaea ia aeiaueaony acaeiiiiieiaiey n oai
/eoaoaeai, iiaieai eioi?iai ii aei?iaeee aieueoa anaai,— acaeiiiiieiaiey
n iieiaeui /eoaoaeai naiaai a?aiaie. A nayce n yoei a Niciaiee Oo?aaiaaa
aicieeea oaia o?aae/aneie noaeueau ooaeiaeieea; ii niiaa ia?aaeee iieino
niiiaiee a nianoaaiiii ooaeiaeie/aneii i?ecaaiee. I?yiui au?aaeaieai
yoeo iano?iaiee auea iiaanoue «I?ec?aee», a eioi?ie Oo?aaiaa ?acaeaaao
iuneue i oii, /oi ooaeiaeie/aneay iuneue e ooaeiaeie/aneay oaioacey, a
nouiinoe, aanneeueiu ia?aae aeoaieeie oaeiaie aeecie e ia?aae oaeiaie
ia?iaeiiai niciaiey. A yoe aea aiaeu ii, iiaeiaii Iooeeio, a aai
ciaiaieoii noeoioai?aiee «Nayoaeue», oniiiyaony aeaaea a ieiaeioai?iinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea ia aeaai iauanoaa. Eiaiii ia yoii e eaeao ?a/ue
a aai iiaanoe «Aeiaieueii». Oai, /oi iaueiiaaiia iacuaatho oniaoii o
ioaeeee, ii, ii-aeaeeiiio, oaea ia aei?iaeee e ana ianoie/eaaa aeoiae i
i?ae?auaiee naiae eeoa?aoo?iie aeayoaeueiinoe… Ii eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i
Oo?aaiaaa, yoe neiaa — oniao o ioaeeee—o?aaotho iniaiai iiyniaiey.
«Ene?aiia i?eciathnue, /oi y ainieoaia no?aoa ii/oaiiaeoae ioaeeea e /oi
ia aeaeo ieeaeiai nouaea oaiaeaeaoue ae e neaaeiaaoue aeooo a?aiaie»’.
Yoe no?iee iaienae Iooeei. Ii ciae, /oi aeoo a?aiaie ia anaaaea e ia
iieii aiieiuaaony a iiaiee ioaeeee; ii ciae, eae iia iiiaieeea e
iaiinoiyiia, eae iiaeaa?aeaia aeeyieyi ^aiaeu. ^ Ii, nai eniuoaaoee
aaeeeoth aeaaineeiiiinoue ioaeeee, aeaeae, /oi iia ana oa aea
«ii/oaiiaeoay ioaeeea», ia?anoaao iieoiaao aacaea?iua
eaeaenee-oneoaeeeaua ?iiaiu Aoeaa?eia. Iaeiaei ae ii oi?ioi iiieiae e
ae?oaia: enoeiiue iiyo iiaeao ia?aoeoueny oieueei e oie ioaeeea, eioi?ay
aeaia aio noaeueaie; e ii iaycai aeieaii /aeiaa/iinoe i?iaoaeaeaoue a
iae «/oanoaa aeia?ua».

Oo?aaiaa e a yoii niunea aue iioiae ia Iooeeia. Ca naith aeieaoth e
ia i/aiue-oi eaaeoth aeeciue e eeoa?aoo?a ii aeaeae anyeia: auee aiaeu,
eiaaea ii aue ethaeioeai ioaeeee, eii iaoiaeee a naaa aeinoaoi/ii
ioaeanoaa e aeeoaeneiai oaeoa, /oiau ia aeaeaoue aeae, aoaeoi yoi
ni/oanoaea aai ieneieueei ia ?aaeoao. Iicaeiaa, ia i?ioyaeaiee oeaeiai
?yaea eao, ii aue i?aaeiaoii iaeanoi/aiiuo iaiaaeaiea e ni?aaa e neaaa;
ii na?aeeeny ia ioaeeeo ca aa oieiaeiinoue, ioaeaaeny, aiaaeae a oiuiea,
aeaeiaaeny, a?iceeny «iieiaeeoue ia?i»—e… ie ia ieiooo ia ia?anoaaae
oa?iaeeai neaaeeoue ca oai, /oi aieiiaaei ioaeeeo, ia /ai
nin?aaeioi/eeenue aa eioa?anu. Aai iaeciaiiia, aieiaiea e aeecie
iauanoaa, iaionooiiua aeoiu i noaeueaao ?iaeiie, no?aiu iiiiaee aio e ia
yoio ?ac. Ii i?eoae e iunee, /oi oa ino?ioa iauanoaaiiie ai?ueau a
no?aia, eioi?ay auea oae oa?aeoa?ia aeey 60-o aiaeia, ia au?aaeaao anae
aeoaeiu iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia. Aio eacaeinue oiaaea, /oi ?inney
ianeieueei aeanyoeia eao iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny niieieii aeaaiia
i?aiyonoaea ia iooe aa i?ia?anna— e?aiinoiia i?aai — auei ioiaiaii.
Iiyoiio anyeay ai?ueaa i?ioea ?aoi?iaoeeiiiie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
aio eacaeanue a?aaeiie. Eiaiii yoa iuneue e eaaeeo a iniiaa aai ?iiaia
«Aeui». . ”

Ieeiaaea aua neea oo?aaiaaneiai io?eoeaiey ia aunooiaea oae ioe?uoi e
i?yii. Oo?aaiaa aeaaiua naie oaea?u iai?aaee i?ioea e?aiinoie/aneie
?aaeoeee. Aaia?aeueneay eiiiaiey, niae?athuayny aie?oa ?aoie?iaa – yoi
ethaee /oaeaeua ia oieueei ia?iaeo, ii e ?innee. Ia neo/aeii Oo?aaiaa
canoaaeyao eo aeaenoaiaaoue ca a?aieoeae: oai iie /oanoaotho naay
iai?eioaeaeaiiaa, /ai aeiia; a ?innee iie neoaeao, iiae/eiythony eee
?anii?yaeathony, eio?eaotho e oieueei caeanue aeeaoo, ianeaaeaeathony
aeeciueth. Iie a?aaeaeaaiu, anaio iiaiio, anaio, /oi oioy au einaaiii
naycaii n eaeaae naiaiaeu. Caeanue Oo?aaiaa, eae e a aiaeu nicaeaiey
«Caienie ioioieea», aua ?ac aica?auaaony e naiae iunee i oii, /oi
aeai?yineay n?aaea, ioi?aaiiay io ia?iaea e i?ioeaiiinoaaeaoay naay
ia?iaeo, a?aaeaeaaia /aeiaa/iinoe, a?aaeaeaaia ene?aiiaio /aeiaa/aneiio
/oanoao, a?aaeaeaaia e?anioa.

A yoii naiai ?iiaia Oo?aaiaa no?aieeny iieacaoue, /oi ai?ueaa
?aaeeeaeueiuo e?oaia i?ioea ia?aie/aiiuo e ii nouanoao naiaio
a?aaeaeaaiuo ia?iaeo ?aoi?i a oa aiaeu auea a?aaeiie. A iieaieea n
*a?iuoaaneei e Aa?oeaiii Oo?aaiaa ia iaeei ?ac auneacuaae oaaaeaeaiea,
/oi ?onneee ia?iae aua ia aioia aeey aini?eyoey eaeae nioeeaeecia, /oi
?onneay naeueneay iaueia aaoi a?aiy ianao a naaa ia ca?iaeuoe
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee, a aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeaiey naeueneiai
«ao?aeoy», eoeaea. Aieueoeinoai aea ioaeeeia, ii aai neiaai, ia ciaao,
eae nea/aoue n naay a?aiy iaueiu.

A e?eoeea, e nia?aiaiiie Oo?aaiaao e iicaeiaeoae, iiiai nii?ia aucuaaao
aii?in i iieiaeeoaeueiie i?ia?aiia Oo?aaiaaa, eae iia au?aaeaia a yoii
?iiaia. Nia?aiaiieeai eacaeinue, /oi Iiooaei yaeyaony au?aceoaeai iiaiee
naiiai Oo?aaiaaa. Ia ia?aue acaeyae yoi eae aoaeoi au oae e anoue.
Iuneue i oii, /oi ?innee ioaeia oeeaeeecaoeey, /oi aa ioaeii ea/eoue
«aiiaiiaoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie», oi anoue oeo/oaoue iauanoaaiiue auo
iinoaiaiii, oa?iaeeai aiaae?yy yeaiaiou aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u, – yoi
aeaaiyy ecethaeaiiay iuneue Oo?aaiaaa.

14.

«Eeoa?aoo?iay aeayoaeueiinoue Oo?aaiaaa,— ienae Naeoueia-Uaae?ei a
iae?ieiae/aneie noaouea i Oo?aaiaaa, – eiaea aeey iaoaai iauanoaa
?oeiaiaeyuaa cia/aiea, ia?aaia n aeayoaeueiinoueth Iae?aniaa, Aaeeineiai
e Aeia?iethaiaa. E eae ie caia/aoaeai nai ii naaa ooaeiaeanoaaiiue
oaeaio aai, ii ia a iai caeeth/aaony oaeia oie aeoaieie neiiaoee e
na?aea/iuo i?eaycaiiinoae, eioi?ua ii noiae i?iaoaeeoue e naaa ai anao
iuneyueo ?onneeo ethaeyo, a a oii, /oi aini?iecaaaeaiiua ei aeeciaiiua
ia?acu auee iieiu aeoaieeo iio/aiee.

Oo?aaiaa aue /aeiaae auniei?acaeoue, oaaaeaeaiiue e ieeiaaea ia
iieeaeaaoee ii/au iaua/aeiaa/aneeo eaeaaeia. Eaeaaeu yoe ii i?iaiaeee a
?onneoth aeeciue n oai niciaoaeueiui iinoiyinoaii, eioi?ia e ninoaaeyao
aai aeaaioth e iaioeaiaiioth caneoao ia?aae ?onneei iauanoaii. A yoii
niunea ii yaeyaony i?yiui i?iaeieaeaoaeai Iooeeio e ae?oaeo niia?ieeia a
?onneie eeoa?aoo?a ia ciaao».

Caeeth/aiea.

***

I?eiyoi aiai?eoue, /oi eneonnoai i?iaa?yaony a?aiaiai. Yoi i?aaaea. Ii
aaaeue naii-oi a?aiy—aauue ia oieueei «iaiau/ii aeeeiiay», ii e
neiaeiay. Oaia?ue-oi iu ciaai, neieueei ioiineoaeueiinoe a yoii iiiyoee
e eae ii-?aciiio ia?aaeeaaaony iaie yoa ?aaeueiinoue — a?aiy.
Iiaeiuaiiua iaoeie aaeaaeiaaiuie aeaeaie—e?oiiuie e iaeeeie,—iu
iaueiiaaiii ia caia/aai aai, ii auaaao e oae — i?aaaea, aanueia ?aaeei,—
/oi iii aae?oa i?aaenoaiao ia?aae iaie ana oeaeeeii—/ooue ee ia io yiioe
no?ieoaeuenoaa ae?aaiaaaeiaoneeo i?ineoaeueiuo nenoai aei niauoee
naaiaeiyoiaai oo?a. E /aua anaai yoi i?ienoiaeeo Iiae aicaeaenoaeai
iiaeeeiiiai eneonnoaa.

?inney, eaeie iia auea noi n eeoiei eao oiio iacaae, eaeie ciae aa
Oo?aaiaa, eciaieeanue oae, eae iia ia eciaieeanue, iiaeao auoue,
caoeaeoth ouny/o eao aei iaai. A nouiinoe, ana, /oi iu ano?a/aai ia
ia?aii ieaia aai i?iecaaaeaiee, aacaica?aoii ooei a i?ioeia. A?aiy
aeaaii oaea ?ac?ooeei iineaaeiea inoaoee iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa oao
aa?neeo onaaeaa, eioi?ua oae /anoi ano?a/aeenue ia aei?iaao yoiai
ienaoaey; naia iaaeia?ay iaiyoue i iiiaueeao e i aeai?yinoaa a aai
oeaeii a iaoa a?aiy i/aiue caiaoii iioa?yea a naiae nioeeaeueiie
ino?ioa. E ?onneay aea?aaiy oaea ia oa.

Ii, ieacuaaaony, noaeueau aai aa?iaa, oaeeo aeaeaeeo io iaoae aeecie,
aicaoaeaeatho a ian naiue iaiin?aaenoaaiiue eioa?an; ieacuaaaony, ana,
/oi iaiaaeaeae Oo?aaiaa, a eiioea eiioeia iaiaaenoii e iai; /oi ii
n/eoae oi?ioei, /aua anaai yaeyaony oaeiaui e n iaoae oi/ee c?aiey.
Eiia/ii, ai iiiaii iu n iei ia iiaeai niaeaneoueny, ii oieueei o naiuo
naiiaeiaieueiuo (iie aea, ii oaaaeaeaieth Oo?aaiaaa, e naiua
ia?aie/aiiua) ethaeae iiaeao iiyaeoueny i?e yoii /oanoai i?aainoiaenoaa:
iu e nii?ei n iei, eae n iaoei nia?aiaiieeii—ioae?ui e aeia?ui.
Ooaeiaeiee iiaaaeee a?aiy.

I.A?aiei

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