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Итальянский, швейцарский походы Суворова Внешняя политика царствования Павла 1 в 1800-начале 1801 г.

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Eaeoeey ii enoi?ee ?innee ? 2

io 9 ia?oa 2006 aiaea

Eoaeueyineee, oaaeoea?neee iioiaeu Noai?iaa.

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea oea?noaiaaiey Iaaea 1 a 1800-ia/aea 1801 a.

Iu ia/aee ?acaiai? i aiaoiae iieeoeea Iaaea 1, e caeii/eee ?acaiai? i
N?aaeecaiiiii?neie yeniaaeeoeee aaeie?aea Neiyaeia. Neiyaei noae
aaeie?aeii, o/?aaeee ia Eiie/aneeo ino?iaao Eiie/aneoth ?anioaeeeo eee
?anioaeeeo Naie ino?iaia.

Aeaenoaey ia nooiiooiii oaao?a. Oieueei aaniie 1799 aiaea i?iecioei
?acaa?ouaaiea nithciuo aiene ia naaa?a Eoaeee.

?anniio?ei Eoaeueyineee, oaaeoea?neee iioiaeu Noai?iaa. Aiaoithth
iieeoeeo oea?noaiaaiey Iaaea 1 a 1800-ia/aea 1801 aiaea.

Eoae, ia/aei 1799 aiaea. Eaeoo iieiui oiaeii aiaiiua aeaenoaey Aoi?ie
eiaeeoeee i?ioea O?aioeocneie ?anioaeeee. E ia/aeo 1799 aiaea ia ia?aia
ianoi auaeaeioeny naaa?i-eoaeueyineee oaao? aiaiiuo aeaenoaee. Ii
i?inueaa nithcieeia aiaeeeneiai aeai?a, eioi?ua … niioaaonoaothuee
aeaia?o aano?eeneiio aeai?o, aano?eeoeu i?inyo Iaaea 1 iacia/eoue
eiiaiaeothuei nithciie a?ieae iieeiaiaeoea Noai?iaa, eioi?ue n 1797
aiaea aue a iiaea, e iaoiaeeeny a naiai ?iaeiaii eiaiee a Iiaai?iaeneie
aoaa?iee, Eii/aineia.

Iaaei neacaoue, /oi Noai?ia ca naith neoaeao iieo/ee i?e Aeaoa?eia e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea eiaiey, Eia?eii – iinea ?acaeaea Iieueoe, e aeaaea
i?aoaiaeiaae ia Aaeiaaaeneoth Iouo.

Oaia?ue Noai?ia aue aucaai ec Eii/aineiai a Iaoa?ao?a e iieo/ee
iaeiia?aiaiii /ei oaeueaeia?oaea Aano?eeneie a?iee. Eiaiii ii aeieaeai
aue aicaeaaeoue a Eoaeee nithcioth ?onnei-aano?eeneoth a?ieth. Ia
aano?eeoeaa aiceaaaeenue iaycaiiinoe niaaaeaoue nithcioth a?ieth
oo?aaeii, i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, aanoe ooaaioth, ea?oia?aoe/aneoth neoaeao,
auiieiyoue ana oueiaua iaycaiiinoe.

A iia?aoeaiii ioiioaiee Noai?ia aue iiae/eiai aano?eeneiio aunoaio
i?eaeai?iiio niaaoo Aiono?eono?aoo (?) (aeai?-aieia-niaao). A na?aaeeia
ia?oa Noai?ia aue oaea a Aaia. Eiaaea o iaai ni?ineee eaeia o iaai ieai
aaaeaiey aiaiiuo aeaenoaee, ii neacae, /oi ia/iao, a aaea caeii/eo – Aia
ciaao.

4 ai?aey ii aue ia naaa?a Eoaeee, ioeoaea ia/eiaaony aai iioiae ii
naaa?iie Eoaeee. Naaa?iay Eoaeey auea neiaeiui oaao?ii aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee. N iaeiie noi?iiu Aeueiu, n ae?oaie noi?iiu Aiaiieiu. Iinea
?acaeaea Aaiaoeeaineie ?anioaeeee e aano?eeoeai ioioea Aaiaoeey. A
o?aioeocu e yoiio a?aiaie ieeoie?iaaee Iueaiiio, Oineaio, Oei?aioeeth.
O.a. ia naaa?i-caiaaea Eoaeee, ia thaa Eoaeee iaoiaeeeenue o?aioeocneea
aienea.

Aeaa nithcieea eoaeueyineeo oaea iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii iioa?yee naie
aeaaeaiey, a /anoiinoe yoi Iueaiiioneee ei?ieue. A Iaaiieeoaineee
ei?ieue iioa?ye ia iaoa?eea eiioeiaioaeueioth /anoue aeaaeaiee e
ia?ai?aaeeny ia ino?ia Neoeeeeth. Iaaiieeoaineia ei?ieaanoai eia/a
iacuaaaony Ei?ieaanoai aeaoo Neoeeeee. O.a. Eoaeey a iniiaiii iiae
eiio?ieai o?aioeocia e yoiio a?aiaie.

Oaia?ue Noai?iao iaaei eni?aaeyoue iieiaeaiea a naaa?iie Eoaeee. Yoi
?aaieia, oa/ao ?aea Ii, iiiai ae?oaeo ?ae, e?aiinoe. 3 aaia?aeueiuo
n?aaeaiey aeaao Noai?ia a naaa?iie Eoaeee. Yoi n?aaeaiea ia ?aea Aaeaea,
n?aaeaiea i?e O?aaae e n?aaeaiea i?e ?aea Iiae.

Eiaiii ia ?aea Aaeaea nithciua aienea aeaeao o?aioeocneee iieeiaiaeaoe
Oaaa?, eioi?ue iaeaioia n?aaeaiey aue caiaia aaia?aeii Ii?i. Iauay
/eneaiiinoue nithciuo aiene caeanue a Eoaeee i?eia?ii100 ouny/. Ec ieo
i?eia?ii 30 ouny/ – ?onneea aienea. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii e ia/aeo aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee o Noai?iaa caeanue iaoiaeeony 2 ei?iona: ei?ion ?icaiaa?aa,
i?eia?ii 20-23 ouny/e e ei?ion, eioi?ui nia/aea eiiaiaeiaae Aa?iai, a
iioii Aa?iaia ioicaaee ia naaa? Aa?iiu e noae eiiaiaeiaaoue ?aaeiaea?.
Yoi aoi?ie ei?ion ?aaeiaea?a i?eaoaeao oieueei a ethia, oaea iinea
ia?aiai e?oiiiai n?aaeaiey.

O o?aioeocia ai anae Eoaeee i?eia?ii 90 ouny/. *anoue iaoiaeeony a
naaa?iie a?iee, eioi?ie eiiaiaeoao Oa?a?, a iioii Ii?i. A thaeiay /anoue
– a Oineaia, o?aioeocneee aaia?ae Iaeaeiiaeueae. Iiuoiua iieeiaiaeoeu.

A na?aaeeia ai?aey ninoiyeinue n?aaeaiea ia ?aea Aaeaea. 15-17 ai?aey
(ii iiaiio noeeth 26-28 ai?aey). Oa?a? aeiionoee ioeaeo i?e iiaeaioiaea
e n?aaeaieth, eioi?oth Ii?i oaea ia oniae eni?aaeoue. Ii ?aneeioe aienea
ia iiiai aeanyoeia eeeiiao?ia ii ?aea Aaeaea. Noai?ia ia?aae yoei aeaeae
eiaeiua eieoeeaoeau ia ?aciuo o/anoeao ?aee, e auei iaiiiyoii, aaea ii
aoaeao iaiineoue aeaaiue oaea?. E eiaaea ia/aeinue n?aaeaiea, yoo
?anoyiooinoue o?aioeocneeo aiene Ii?i oaea eni?aaeoue ia iia.

?acoeueoaoii yoiai n?aaeaiey auei anooieaiea aiene Noai?iaa a noieeoeo
Eiiaa?aeee, a ai?iae Ieeai. O?aioeocu aie?oa O?aioeee nicaeaaaee naoue
aei/a?ieo caaeneiuo ?anioaeee, e Eiiaa?aeey iacuaaeanue oiaaea
Oeacaeueieeneay ?anioaeeea. Ieeai nae/an e?oiiaeoee iinea ?eia ai?iae
Eoaeee.

E yoiio a?aiaie Noai?ia ?ac?aaaouaaao ieai aaaeaiey aeaeueiaeoeo
aeaenoaee. *a?ac ianyoe i?eia?ii 15(26) iay Noai?ia iaeaaeae noieeoeae
Iueaiiioa (eia/a Na?aeeineia ei?ieaanoai) Oo?eiii. Yoi aua iaeei
e?oiiaeoee ai?iae Eoaeee.

A yoi a?aiy ianooiaao oeaio?aeueiue yoai Eoaeueyineie eaiiaiee –
ethiueneea iia?aoeee i?ioea Iaeaeiiaeueaea e Ii?i. E yoiio a?aiaie ca
iieoi?a ianyoea, a ai?aea-iaa, i?aaeaea anaai aeaaiaea?y aeaenoaeyi
?onneeo aiene e iiiiue aano?eeoeaa, eioi?ua inaaeaeatho e?aiinoe.
Noai?ia inaiaiaeee i?aeoe/anee anth naaa?ioth Eoaeeth. Ii?i anooiee a
Aaioth, aaea o?aioeocaie auea nicaeaia iaeia ec aei/a?ieo ?anioaeee
Eaao?eeneay ?anioaeeea.

Iniiaiua aienea (ieiei 50 ouny/) Noai?ia nin?aaeioi/ee a ?aeiia
Oo?eia-Aeannaiae?ee.

E yoiio a?aiaie i?iyaeyao eieoeeaoeao Iaeaeiiaeueae, eioi?ue ianooiaao
nia/aea n thaa, iioii n ainoiea ia aienea Noai?iaa. Noai?ia ?acaee
aano?eeoeaa (?) o Iiaeaiu e ioa?inee e ?aea O?aaae. Noai?ia iniiaiua
neeu a?inee i?ioea Iaeaeiiaeueaea. Iaeaioia n?aaeaiey ?onneea aienea
niaa?oaee aeanoyuea ia?oe, iaeiaaeaeu aeaaea 50 ei a aeaiue. ?onneea
aienea aeoeaii eniieuecotho ooueiaoth aoaeo, e oaeoeeo Noai?iaa: yoi
ni/aoaiea iaiy e ooueiaie aoaee.

7-8 ethiy ia ?aea O?aaae, aaea aua Aaiieaae a 218 aiaeo aei i.y. ?acaee
?eineea aienea, ninoiyeinue n?aaeaiea, a oiaea eioi?iai o?aioeocu auee
?acaeou. Ioee/eeny Aaa?aoeii ai a?aiy eiio?oaea?a. Inoaoee a?iee
Iaeaeiiaeueaea ie?oaeiui iooai niaaeeieeenue n Ii?i a Iaaiiea. Ai aeaaa
o?aioeocneeo aiene aue iinoaaeai iieiaeie aaia?ae AEoaa?.

Iineaaeiaa e?oiiia n?aaeaiea a naaa?iie Eoaeee naycaii n eiaiai AEoaa?a,
eioi?ue a ia/aea n?aaeaiey aue oaeo. Yoi n?aaeaiea i?e iiae 4 aaaonoa.
Noieeiiaaiey ia/aeenue aua 2 aaaonoa, eiaaea AEoaa? iaoeioeny ia io?yae
Aaa?aoeiia. Caoai ai a?aiy aaia?aeueiiai n?aaeaiey 4 aaaonoa Noai?ia
iaian ii?aaeaiea a?iee AEoaa?a i?e Iiae. AEoaa? aue oaeo a ia/aea
n?aaeaiey. Niiaa ai aeaaa ieacaeny Ii?i. O?aioeocu iioa?yee ieiei 16
ouny/ /aeiaae, o.a. i?eia?ii iieiaeio a?iee.

Inoaoee a?iee Ii?i ioaiaeeo a Aaioth, a Aaioycneoth ?eauea?o.

E yoiio a?aiaie aano?eeoeu acyee ii/oe ana e?aiinoe. Inoaeenue oieueei 2
e?aiinoe, iaeia ec ieo Oaaoiia (?), a inaaea eioi?ie i?eieiaao o/anoea e
Noai?ia.

E yoiio a?aiaie ieaiu nithcieeia eciaieeenue. Ia?auath aaoa aieiaiea,
ca/ai Noai?iao ioaeii auei eaeoe /a?ac Aeueiu? Aeaei a oii, /oi aua a
ethea Aiaeey i?aaeeaaaao iiaue ieai aaaeaiey aieiu. Aiaeey ?aoaao
ia?aianoeoue aiaiioth eieoeeaoeao ia naaa? Aa?iiu, a Aieeaiaeeth,
caoaa/aiioth oiaaea o?aioeocaie? Ii/aio? Aiaee/ai eioa?anoao caoaao
aieeaiaeneiai oeioa. E?iia oiai, ?yaeii n Aieeaiaeeae iaoiaeyony auaoea
aano?eeneea Ieaea?eaiaeu, eioi?ua e oiio a?aiaie nia/aea i?iaicaeaneee
naay iacaaeneiuie i?iaeioeeyie, iioii i?eniaaeeieeenue e O?aioeocneie
?anioaeeea. ss eiath a aeaeo enoi?e/aneea i?iaeioeee, eioi?ua
ninoaaeytho nae/an nia?aiaiioth Aaeueaeth, yoi Oeaiae?ey e A?aaaio,
auaoea eniaineea Ieaea?eaiaeu, iioii n 18 aaea aano?eeneea Ieaea?eaiaeu.

Yoio ieai ioaa/ae e aaiiieeoe/aneei eioa?anai Aano?ee. Aano?ey
caeioa?aniaaia a oii, /oiau aa?iooue naaa auaoea aano?eeneea
Ieaea?eaiaeu, eioi?ua auee o ieo aei eiioea 18 aaea. Aiaeey i?aaeeaaaao
aano?eeoeai, /oiau iie iniiaiua naie aienea ec Oaaeoea?ee ia?aa?ineee a
Aieeaiaeeth e Aaeueaeth. O.a. eioa?anu Aiaeee e Aano?ee nioeenue ia
naaa?a Aa?iiu.

A /oi aeaeaoue ?onneei aienea Noai?iaa a Eoaeee? Iie ia oieueei ia
ioaeiu, ii iie a?aaeiu aeey Aano?ee. Aaaeue Aano?ey nianai ia niae?aaony
ainnoaiaaeeaaoue caeanue auaoea oaiaeaeueiua iiia?oee, eae yoiai oioae
Iaaae 1. Aano?ey ia niae?aaony ainnoaiaaeeaaoue Iueaiiio. Iia oaea eiaao
Aaiaoeeth. A ?onneea aienea oieueei iaoatho. Iiyoiio a nayce n
ia?aiauaieai aano?eeneeo aiene ec Oaaeoea?ee ia naaa? Aa?iiu, auei
?aoaii caiaieoue eo ?onneeie aieneaie.

Eiaaea Iaaae 1 aeaaae niaeanea ia yoio aa?eaio aaaeaiey aieiu, ii
aeiaiai?eeny, /oi ?onneea anooiyo a Oaaeoea?eth oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea
o?aioeocu aoaeoo ioooaea ecaiaiu. Iaeiaei aano?eeneee i?eaeai?iue
aiaiiue niaao Aione?eono?ao aeaao eiiaiaeo Noai?iao, ia aeiaeeaeaynue
ecaiaiey o?aioeocia ai aeaaa n Iannaiii, eaeoe a Oaaeoea?eth. Aieaa
oiai, eiiaiaeothuee aano?eeneeie aieneaie y?oeaa?oeia Ea?e iieo/ee
i?eeac iai?aaeyoue naie aienea aiec ii ?aeio, a noi?iio Aieeaiaeee,
Oeaiae?ee e A?aaaioa. N aieueoei o?oaeii oaeaeinue Noai?iao i?ineoue,
/oiau oioy au /anoue aano?eeneeo aiene inoaeanue. Ii ec 80 ouny/,
eioi?ua caeanue auee, inoaeinue ouny/ 20 iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea
Aiooea eee Oiooea.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii o Oiooea caeanue auei ouny/ 8, a inoaeueiua auee
?aca?inaiu a Aeueiao ia ?aciuo ia?aaaeao e a aeieeiao. A o Iannaia auei
38 ouny/. A i?ioea Iannaia noiye caeanue aua ?onneee ei?ion, ia
niaaeeiaiea n eioi?ui aeieaeai aue eaeoe Noai?ia. Yoi aue ei?ion
aaia?aea ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa (ia eiiiiceoi?a). Aaia?ae ia i/aiue
oaeaioeeaue, ii i/aiue /anoiethaeaue, oi?yiue. Anee au ia ?yae
aeiiouaiiuo ei ioeaie, iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaiea ia auei au noieue
oaoaeueiui.

Eae oieueei Iannai iiiye, /oi aio i?ioeainoiyo aienea aieaa neaaua ii
/eneaiiinoe, ii aioiaeo oaea?. O ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa auei 27 ouny/, o
Oiooea ouny/ 8. ?aca?ii ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa neo/aeii ii a?aiaie niaiae n
oai aeiai, eiaaea Noai?ia i?aiaeieae ia?aaae Naio-Aioa?ae e *a?oia iino,
aeioae aei aea?aaie Aeuenaei?o. E eiaiii 15 naioya?y 1799 aiaea
?eineee-Ei?naeia aue ?aca?iieai Iannaiie, aaeaa ia iiiae a ieai. ?onneea
aienea ionooieee e eaeoe ia niaaeeiaiea ii iaia/aiiiio ia?o?ooo Noai?iao
auei oaea iaaiciiaeii, iineieueeo oai oaea ea?aoeeee o?aioeocneea
aienea.

Eaeie aue ieai Oaaeoea?neiai iioiaea Noai?iaa? I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi
Noai?ia aua?ae naiue e?ao/aeoee aa?eaio /a?ac ia?aaae Naio-Aioa?ae.
Iniiaiua naie iaicu e a?oeeea?eth ii ioi?aaee ie?oaeiui iooai ii aeieeia
?aeia, n niaie acye oieueei 25 ai?iuo iooae. Noai?ia iiaeiaeaeae, eiaaea
iaaeao iineaaeiyy e?oiiay aano?eeneay e?aiinoue Ii?oiia e iioii
aeaeioeny a iooue. A ianoa/ea Oaaa?ia ia oa??eoi?ee Oaaeoea?ee
(o?aioeocu iacuaaee aa Aaeueaaoe/aneay ?anioaeeea) aano?eeoeu aeieaeiu
auee iiaeaioiaeoue aeey Noai?iaa iiaicee, i?iaeaio, oo?aae. Ii eiaaea
Noai?ia i?eaue a Oaaa?ia, ieacaeinue, /oi aano?eeoeu ia oniaee
iiaeaioiaeoue ana iaiaoiaeeiia e iioiae caaea?aeaeny ia 4-5 aeiae. E yoe
aeie iiaeao auoue oaeaea nua?aee naith ?ieiaoth ?ieue. Oieueei 10 (21)
naioya?y Noai?ia aeinoea Naio-Aioa?aea.

Ieiei 8 ouny/ o?aioeocia auee iaiin?aaenoaaiii a Naio-Aioa?aea e aua
ieiei 2 ouny/ a aeieeia. O ieo auee e?aieea iiceoeee. E oieueei 13
naioya?y a ?acoeueoaoa o?aoueae inaaeu Noai?iao oaeaeinue caiyoue
Naio-Aioa?ae.

Eiaaea Noai?ia oae a Naio-Aioa?ae, ii auaeaeee eieiiio iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai ?icaiaa?aa, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue ni?aaa iaieoe o?aioeocia
e iaianoe oaea?. Ii eieiiia ?icaiaa?aa caiicaeaea, iiyoiio Noai?iao
i?eoeinue auaeaeeoue iaaieueoie io?yae Aaa?aoeiia, eioi?ue iaioae
o?aioeocia, e yoi canoaaeei eo inoaaeoue iiceoeee ieiei ia?aaaea
Naio-Aioa?ae.

A ?acoeueoaoa yoie o?aoueae aoaee Noai?iaa e iaoiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey
io?yaea Aaa?aoeiia Naio-Aioa?ae aue acyo.

14 (25) naioya?y – ciaiaieoia n?aaeaiea ca *a?oia iino /a?ac ?aeo.
?onneea auea?aee.

15 naioya?y Noai?ia aeinoea ianoa/ea Aeueoaei?o ia aa?aao Ethoea?ineiai
ica?a. Noai?ia ia aue oi?ioi ciaeii n yoie ianoiinoueth. Aano?eeoeu
i?aaieciauaatho ooaaioth neoaeao, iie aeieaeiu auee aeaaaoue
ea?oia?aoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu. I?e ia?aoiaea /a?ac Aeueiu Noai?ia
?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny ?ac?aaioeie aano?eeneiai aaia?aea oaaeoea?neiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey Aiooea. E yoiio a?aiaie Aiooea aue ?acaeo.

Aiooea iieacae, /oi ia ae?oaii aa?aao Ethoea?ineiai ica?a anoue o?iia,
ii eioi?ie iiaeii i?ieoe. Ii ia i?aeoeea ieacaeinue, /oi yoi ia o?iia, a
o?iieiea, oeia eicueae o?iieiee, ii eioi?ie 20 ouny/ aiene i?ieoe ia
iiaoo. Iaeii aeaei – ianeieueei aeueieienoia eee ianoooia, a ae?oaia
aeaei 20 ouny/ aiene.

O?aioeocu oaiaee ana iiae?o/iua ieaaathuea n?aaenoaa, eiaeee, ieiou.
O.a. ia?ai?aaeoueny /a?ac Ethoea?ineia ica?i auei iaeuecy. Oiaaea
Noai?ia i?eieiaao ?aoaiea e?oaeiui iooai i?iaeaaoueny a neaaeothuee
ioieo e Oaeooeo. Ii i?aiaeieae 2 ai?iuo o?aaoa. Ia?aue o?aaao aue
?inoie. A oa/aiea aeaoo aeiae ?onneea aienea i?aiaeieaee 18 ei o?oaeiiai
ai?iiai o?aaoa e nionoeeenue a Ioioaineoth aeieeio. Caeanue Noai?ia oaea
ociae i ?aca?iia aiene ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa e Oiooea. Oaeooe oaea aue
caiyo i?ioeaieeii. O?aioeocu ni noi?iiu Oaeooea ia?ae?uee aanue iooue
Noai?iao a Oaaeoea?eth. A ae?oaea o?aioeocneea aienea ia?ae?uee auoiae
/a?ac ae?oaie o?aaao ec Ioioaineie aeieeiu. O.a. ?onneea aienea
ieacaeenue a yoie Ioioaineie aeieeia ie?oaeaiiuie ni anao noi?ii ai?aie
e o?aioeocaie.

A yoeo oneiaeyo Noai?ia ii?o/aao ?icaiaa?ao auoue a a?uea?aa?aea
(iicaaee aiene ioaeaaoueny io o?aioeocia), a aia?aae i?iaeaaeny
aaaiaa?ae iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Aaa?aoeiia. ?onneea aienea oniaoii io?aceee
o?aioeocia e aeaaea caoaaoeee 1200 ieaiiuo. ?onneea aienea auoee ec
Ioioaineie aeieeiu, aaea, eacaeinue, iie iiiaee a eiaooeo.

E yoiio a?aiaie aano?eeoeu oaea ia iiaeaea?aeeaatho Noai?iaa. E Noai?ia
oaea oieueei n ?onneeie aieneaie ?aoee ioieoe ia Eiain, yoi a ?aeiia
aa?oiaueaa ?aeia. O.a. ii oaeoe/anee aue auioaeaeai aa?iooueny a oio
e?oaeiie iooue ii aeieeia ?aeia, io eioi?iai ii ioeacaeny nia/aea, /oiau
eaeoe iai?yiee.

I?eoeinue i?aiaeieaoue aua iaeei niaaeiue o?aaao ?aeieiio /a?ac ia?aaae
Iaieen. 26 naioya?y ?onneea aienea aeinoeaee Eiaina. Auoee ia ?aei.
Aeaeaa ii aeieeia ?aeia oaea auei eaa/a i?iaeaaoueny /a?ac Oaaeoea?eth a
aa?iaineea caiee. Iioiae Noai?iaa, eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaeny 17 aeiae, 27
naioya?y aeinoea ii ianoa/ea Eo? (?) , aeaeaa e Aoanao?ao.

Ec 20 ouny/ aienea, n eioi?uie Noai?ia aunooiee a iioiae, inoaeinue
i?eia?ii 15 ouny/. II iioa?ye ana iooee. 1400 ieaiiuo aaee n niaie.

Anoanoaaiii, ?onneea aienea iooiaeyo ia ceiiea eaa?oe?u a Aaaa?eth. A
Iaaae 1, ociaa i oii, /oi aano?eeoeu ia?ooeee niaeaoaiea e aeaee
eiiaiaeo Noai?iao eaeoe a Oaaeoea?eth, ia auaea ioooaea o?aioeocneea
aienea Iannaiu, aue iaaeiaieai, anoanoaaiii.

A yoi a?aiy a i?eaeai?iie aeecie i?ienoiaeeo aaaeiue iiiaio. Aei/ue
Iaaea 1 auoiaeeo caioae ca aano?eeneiai ianeaaeieea, aaiaa?neiai
iaeaoeia. A?aeini/aoaiea aaeeeie eiyaeiu Aeaenaiae?u Iaaeiaiu n
y?oeaa?oeiaii Eineoii 8 ieoya?y. Yoi noaei i?aaeeiaii aeey ia?aaiai?ia.
Aano?eeneea iineaioeu iiyaeeenue a NIa. «Iie aeai?aoe aoaeao oaia?ue
ca?aaeai iieeoeeie!» – aineeeeioe Iaaae 1.

Iioa?iaa iaoaea/e a ioiioaieyo n Aano?eae, Iaaae 1 aua nio?aiyao
iaaeaaeaeu ia yeniaaeeoeee a naaa?iie Aa?iia, ia aeaenoaey a Aieeaiaeee.

A ienueia Noai?ia 11 ieoya?y ii ieoao: AEaeath ciaoue i ainniaaeeiaiiuo
e ioaeaeaiiuo io i?aaeieo iaoeo nithcieeia, eioi?uo y inoaaee i?e yoii
nianoaaiiiio ae?aaeth. …Ia oioae ainnoaiiaeoue a Aa?iia ae?oaoth
O?aioeeth (eiaao a aeaeo Aano?eth), ia enei?aiyy ia?aoth. Ia iaia?ai aue
aea?oaiaaoue naieie aieneaie aeey ei?unoiethaeauo e aannouaeiuo aeaeia
aeai?a aaineiai. Oaia?ue aea aoaeo noa?aoueny naeeceoueny n ei?ieai
i?onneei e iieiaeeoueny ia i?aiiiu aeiia aano?eeneiai. Yeniaaeeoeey a
Aieeaiaeee iieaeao naiei /a?aaeii, e aeaea oai a oi?ioai ninoiyiee.

Eoae, Iaaae iiieiaao, /oi eioa?anu Aano?ee ia niaiaaeatho n aai
eioa?anaie e aeaeeo i?aaeaoaeueneia iiaaaeaiea aano?eeneiai
?oeiaiaenoaa. Ii anoue aua iaaeaaeaeu ia Aiaeeth, ia ?onneee ei?ion,
eioi?ue aianoa n aiaee/aiaie aeieaeai i?eiyoue o/anoea a aiaiiuo
aeaenoaeyo a Aieeaiaeee. Eiiaiaeiaaoue ei?ionii a 10 ouny/ /aeiaae aue
iacia/ai Aa?iai.

A naioya?a 1799 aiaea iiae iaaieueoei aieeaiaeneei ai?iaeii Aa?aaiii
ninoiyeinue 2 n?aaeaiey. 1 n?aaeaiea auei i/aiue iaoaea/ii aeey
nithcieeia. Iauaa eiiaiaeiaaiea auei iiae ia/aeii aiaeeeneiai aa?oeiaa
Ei?eneiai. A iauae neiaeiinoe 25 ouny/ /aeiaae. Iie aeieaeiu auee
aoaeiaaoue Aa?aai, caiyoue o?aioeocneeie ?anioaeeeaineeie aieneaie. Ii
iaaei?acoiaieth ?onneea aienea ia/aee ianooiaoue ia?auie, ai?aaeenue a
Aa?aai, a aa?oeia Ei?eneee ia iiniaoee iai?aaeoue aiaee/ai a
iiaeaea?aeeo. ?onneea iiianee aieueoea iioa?e. Aieaa 3 ouny/ /aeiaae
oaeouie, ?aiaiuie e ieaiiuie (ec 10 ouny/).

A oii aea naioya?a ninoiyeinue aoi?ia n?aaeaiea, eiaaea ?onneea e
aiaee/aia ana-oaee auaeee o?aioeocia ec Aa?aaia. Ii a oeaeii
yeniaaeeoeey eaeao iaoaea/ii. Aiaee/aia aeiaeeenue naiae iniiaiie oeaee
– iie caoaaoeee aieeaiaeneee oeio. Iinea yoiai iie ioeaaeaee e aiaiiui
aeaenoaeyi ia nooa.

?onneee ei?ion aue auaaaeai aiaee/aiaie n iiaa?aaeuey ia ino?ia
Aeaea?ne, a a?oiia Ii?iaiineeo ino?iaia o naaa?iiai iiaa?aaeuey
O?aioeee. Yoe ino?iaa iienaiu a ?iiaia Aeeoi?a Athai «O?oaeaieee ii?y».
Ia yoeo ino?iaao inoaoee ?onneiai ei?iona oa?iyo ioaeaeo, e Iaaae
aanueia iaaeiaieai oaia?ue oaea aeaenoaeyie Aiaeee.

E eiioeo 1799 aiaea neeu Aoi?ie eiaeeoeee a i?eioeeia ia auee en/a?iaiu.
Aano?eeneay a?iey ia aa?oiai ?aeia i?iaeieaeaea a?iceoue aoi?aeaieai ai
O?aioeeth. Oeio Aiaeee aeiee?iaae oo?aoeeoth a?ieth a Aaeioa, aaaeao
oaeaea inaaeo Iaeueou, eioi?oth caoaaoeee o?aioeocu.

Eoaeueyineay a?iey Iannaiu auea caaeaoa a Aaioth, a naaa?i-caiaaeiii
oaieea Eoaeee.

A yoi a?aiy a yiaa?a 1800 aiaea noai?ianeea aienea iieo/eee i?eeac
ioi?aaeoue iacaae a ?inneth. 3 oaa?aey Noai?ia naeae eiiaiaeiaaiea a
E?aeiaa e aieueiie iai?aaeeny a NIa. 6 iay aaia?aeenneion Noai?ia
neii/aeny, a iioi?iiai ii aue ii /eio oaeueaeia?oaea, iioiio /oi Iaaae
aue iaaeiaieai iaeioi?uie ?anii?yaeaieyie Noai?iaa. Ii ia?ooee iaeioi?ua
eino?oeoeee.

Oai a?aiaiai ioaaoiue oiae aeaeaao Iaiieaii. A iaa 1800 aiaea ia 3
aeaiue iinea naiae naaaeueau Iaiieaii iai?aaeyaony a iioiae oiaea /a?ac
Aeueiu, ii n naaa?a ia tha, eaeao /a?ac ia?aaae Nai-Aa?ia? (eioi?ue
iaiyoai naiei iiianou?ai e niaaeaie). Iaiieaii aoi?aaaony a naaa?ioth
Eoaeeth, ii ia iiiiuue Iannaio ia niaoeo. Ii aeiaeeaeaaony, eiaaea
Iannaia eaieooee?oao, a iioii iaiineo ii?aaeaiea aano?eeoeai a
ciaiaieoie aeoaa i?e Ia?aiai. Niiaa any neaaa iiaaaeeoaey o Iaiieaiia,
niiaa any naaa?iay Eoaeey iiae eiio?ieai O?aioeocia.

Ii aeiaiai?o n Aano?eae io 9 oaa?aey 1801 aiaea Aano?ey auioaeaeaia
i?eciaoue i?eniaaeeiaiea e O?aioeee eaaiai aa?aaa ?aeia, i?eniaaeeiaiea
auaoeo aano?eeneeo Ieaea?eaiaeia (Oeaiae?ee e A?aaaioa), Ethenaiao?aa,
aeaaainoai O?aioeee iaae Oaaeoea?eae (Aaeueaaoe/aneie ?anioaeeeie e
Aieeaiaeeae). Aano?ey i?eciaaaea aannaeueiua ii ioiioaieth e O?aioeee
?anioaeeee: Aaeueaaoe/aneoth (Oaaeoea?ey), Aaoaaneoth (Aieeaiaeey),
Eeao?eeneoth (?aeii Aaioe), Oeacaeueieeneoth (Eiiaa?aeey). Aaeeeia
aa?oeianoai Oineaineia i?aia?aciauaaeinue a ei?ieaanoai Yo?o?ey iiae
yaeaeie O?aioeee. A Eiiaa?aeee nicaeaaony Eoaeueyineia ei?ieaanoai, ai
aeaaa eioi?ie iiae oeooeii ei?iey noae Iaiieaii. O.a. O?aioeey oe?aieyao
naie iiceoeee a Eoaeee.

Eae ?acai?a/eaathony aeaenoaey a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao?

A naioya?a 1800 aiaea aiaee/aia iaeiiaoe acyee ino?ia Iaeueoo.

Ia N?aaeecaiiii ii?a aiaiiuie aeaenoaeyie ?oeiaiaeeo aaeie?ae Iaeuenii.
A?aiy io a?aiaie Iaeuenii ieoao aeaiaoe Iaaeo eae a?inniaenoa?o
Iaeueoeeneiai i?aeaia, oioy ?eineee iaia ia i?eciae ca Iaaeii yoiai
oeooea. Iaeuenii aeieeaaeuaaao eae eaeoo aeaea, i?ineo iaa?aaeaeaiey
naieo eiiaiaee?ia. Caiaeii i?ineo iaa?aaeo ii/aio-oi e aeey eaaee
Aaieeueoii (naiae ethaiaieoeu). Ii Iaaae ioeaaeae ia oieueei e
aano?eeoeai, ii e e aiaee/aiai.

Iineaaeiae eaieae oa?iaiey aeey Iaaea auei oi, /oi aiaee/aia iiaeieiatho
iaae Iaeueoie aiaeeeneee oeaa. Ia iaeueoeeneee, ia ?onneee, ia
niaianoiue, a aiaeeeneee. Aei 1964 aiaea Iaeueoa oaia?ue eieiiey Aiaeee.
E a naiii oeaio?a N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y ino?ia Iaeueoa n i?ae?aniie aoooie
Ey-Aaeaooa, yoi auei oeaiiui i?eia?aoaieai aeey Aiaeee.

E yoiio a?aiaie iaiythony iinoaiaiii ioiioaiea Iaaea 1 e O?aioeee e
Aiiaia?oo. Iaaae eiooeoeaii /oanoaoao, /oi oaia?ue, eiaaea Iaiieaii
i?iaicaeanee naay ia?aui eiinoeii, eiaaea ii ainnoaiiaee naith aiaiioth
aeeeoaoo?o, Iaiieaii aa?ao eo?n ia nai?a/eaaiea ?aaiethoeee. Eo?n
O?aioeee oaia?ue aoaeao aieaa eiina?aaoeaiui. Iinea ia?aai?ioa 18
a?thia?a (9 iiya?y) 1799 aiaea – aeeeoaoo?a Iaiieaiia. Oaia?ue
aiciiaeii, Iaaae iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa eiaoue aeaei ia n oaeeie
?aaiethoeeiia?ia e oco?iaoi?ia, a i?aoaiaeaioia iiia?oee.

A oi aea a?aiy Iaiieaii iiieiaao cia/aiea ?innee, e oaea a yiaa?a 1800
aiaea Iaiieaii ia/eiaao aeaeaoue aeaia?oe, iai?aaeaiiua ia i?iuoiuaaiea
ianoaiiaee ia naeeaeaiea n ?inneae. E a ethaii neo/aa, aaaeii aaeoue
eeei iaaeaeo a/a?aoieie nithcieeaie, Iaiieaii anaaaea oaeeie i?eaiaie
iieueciaaeny. Eiaiii oiaaea Iaiieaii i?iecian: O?aioeey iiaeao eiaoue
nithcieeii oieueei ?inneth. Ii ieoao naiaio ieieno?o Oaeae?aio: iu ia
o?aaoai io i?onneiai ei?iey nithca, iu i?inei aai ieacaoue eeoue iaeio
oneoao – i?eie?eoue ian n ?inneae. O.a. I?onney eae iin?aaeiee. Eiaiii a
Aa?eeia iaoiaeeony ?onneee iinie, /a?ac ?onneiai iinea a Aa?eeia eaeoo
ia?aaiai?u Iaaea e Iaiieaiia.

Ia aeiianaiea ?onneiai iinea i ano?a/a n Oaeae?aiii Iaaae iaienae: /oi
eanaaony naeeaeaiey n O?aioeeae, oi y au ie/aai eo/oaai ia aeaeae, eae
aeaeaoue aa i?eeaaathuae ei iia, a iniaaiiinoe eae i?ioeaiaano Aano?ee.

Eiaaea aano?eeneee iinie ociae ia yoii, ii neacae, /oi eiia?aoi? ia a
naiai oia.

Oai ia iaiaa, Iaaae ?annoaeaeae aiieia cae?aai. Iuneue i naeeaeaiee
?innee n O?aioeeae oaea iiaenea a aicaeooa, ii aua ia auei ioeoeeaeueii
e aeieoiaioaeueii ioi?ieaii.

Ii oaea i?aoaiaeaio ia o?aioeocneee i?anoie Ethaeiaee 18, eioi?ue
i?iaeeaae a Ieoaaa, (iuia a Eaoaee), noieeoea Eo?eyiaeee, iieo/ee
ianoiyoaeueiue niaao iieeiooue Ieoaao, e iioa?ya ?onneoth iaineth,
auioaeaeai aue ioi?aaeoueny a Aa?iaieth. Yoi aue oaa iaano?a/o
Iaiieaiio.

A oai a?aiaiai Iaiieaii aeaeaao iiaue aeaia?o. A naiai ienueia Oaeae?ai
niiauaao i oii, /oi Iaiieaii i?aaeeaaaao anao ?onneeo ieaiiuo, eioi?ua
ieacaeenue a ?oeao o?aioeocia, aacaiciacaeii e aac iaiaia aa?iooue a
?inneth. Aeey Iaaea yoi aue uaeioeeaue aii?in, iineieueeo aano?eeoeu
?onneeo ieaiiuo ia iaiyee. Aano?eeoeu iaiyee o?aioeocia ia aano?eeoeaa,
a ia ?onneeo ia iaiaieaaee. Ai O?aioeee iaeiieeinue io 5 aei 6 ouny/ a
iauae neiaeiinoe ?onneeo ieaiiuo. E aio oaia?ue Iaiieaii cayaeyao, /oi
ioioneaao eo a ?inneth aaeeinoaaiii ec oaaaeaiey e ioaeanoao ?onneiai
nieaeaoa. Ii iiieiaao, /oi oieueei aeaaiaea?y ?onneei, nithcieee iaycaiu
iiiaei oniaoai. Ii cayaeyao, /oi ca naie n/ao iaioiaee?iauaaao yoe
?onneea aienea. E aaaeoony ia?aaiai?u i ia?aaea/a ?onneeo ieaiiuo
?innee.

Yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea Aiiaia?oa i?iecaaei neeueiia aia/aoeaiea a NIa. Aeey
i?eaia ieaiiuo a Ia?eae aue ioi?aaeai aaia?ae Iooai. Iinea oiai eae a
aeaeaa?a 1800 aiaea aai i?eiye Iaiieaii, Iaiieaii ee/ii ieoao ienueii
Iaaeo n i?aaeeiaeaieai nithca i?ioea Aiaeee aeey onoaiiaeaiey ie?a e
niieienoaey ia iaoa?eea e ii?yo.

I?e aeai?a Iaaea a yoi a?aiy 2 ia?oee ioiineoaeueii aeaeueiaeoeo
ia?niaeoea aiaoiae iieeoeee ?innee.

Iaeia ia?oey ai aeaaa n I.I. Iaieiui – ca i?iaeieaeaiea o/anoey a nithca
n Aiaeeae, caieiaao i?iaiaeeeneea iiceoeee.

Ae?oaay ia?oey ai aeaaa n a?aoii O. ?inoii/eiui aunooiaao ca nithc n
O?aioeeae i?ioea ii?neiai iiaouanoaa Aiaeee. ?inoii/ei ?ac?aaaouaaao
ieai ?aoaiey ainoi/iiai aii?ina. A caienea oeacuaaaony, /oi Oo?oeey
oaeoe/anee yoi aaciaaeaaeii aieueiie, eioi?iio iaaaaeiii ia yoii, e /oi
aianoa n O?aioeeae iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ianeaaenoai yoiai aaciaaeaaeii
aieueiiai.

Caienea ?inoii/eia i?aaeoniao?eaaao niaianoiue ?acaeae oo?aoeeeo
aeaaeaiee iaaeaeo ?inneae e O?aioeeae. ?innee ioieaeao Aieaa?ey,
Iieaeaaey e ?iiaiey (/anoue Aaeaoee). Ae?oaay /anoue Aaeaoee iooiaeeo
Aano?ee (nia?aiaiiay ?oiuiey n Aooa?anoii), a oaeaea Na?aey e Ainiey.
O?aioeee i?aaeiacia/aaony Aaeiao. I?onnee – caiee a naaa?iie Aa?iaiee.

Au iiieiaaoa, eaeie ?aciiain iia aucaaoue a Aiaeee oaeie i?iaeo.

i?aeoe/aneei oaaii ia iooe nithca ?innee n O?aioeeae noae iaii?aiaeoi io
2 ieoya?y 1800 aiaea, iaeia?aiiue eiia?aoi?ii. Oaea 23 ieoya?y 1800 ana
eiino?aiiua ainoaea?noaa auee iiiaauaiu ia yiaa?ai (cai?aoa) ia ana
aiaeeeneea oiaa?u e aiaeeeneea noaea. Iauyniyeinue yoi oai, /oi Aiaeey
iaiaaeaao ia iaeo?aeueiua noaea, iiyoiio Iaaae i?aaeeaaaao caeeth/eoue n
naaa?iuie ainoaea?noaaie niaeaoaiea i oae iacuaaaiii aii?oaeaiiii
iaeo?aeeoaoa, iai?aaeaiiia i?ioea oicyeie/aiuey A?eoaiee ia ii?yo.
Niaeaoaiea auei caeeth/aii n Aeaieae, Oaaoeeae e I?onneae.

4 aeaeaa?y 1800 auee cae?aieaiu yoe iiaua i?aaeea iaeo?aeueiie oi?aiaee.

Yoio aeiaiai? a Aiaeee aini?eieiaaony eae iauyaeaiea aieiu.
Niioaaonoaaiii iaeeaaeuaaaony yiaa?ai ia ?onneea noaea e oiaa?u e
ia/eiaaony aii?oaeaiiia i?ioeainoiyiea ia Aaeoeea.

Iaeiia?aiaiii a?iee yoiai iiaiai Naaa?iiai nithca ioe?uee aiaiiua
aeaenoaey oaeoe/anee i?ioea Aiaeee. I?onneea aienea caiyee Aaiiiaa?, a
Aaiiiaa? aue ianeaaenoaaiiui aeaaeaieai aiaeeeneie ei?iiu a Aa?iaiee. A
aeaoneea aienea caiyee e?oiiua aaicaeneea ai?iaea Aaiao?a e Ethaae.
Iaeaioia aiaiiiai i?eniaaeeiaiey e eeaa auea Oaaoeey. Inoaaaeinue
ianoaeeoue aeaoaee niaianoiuo aiaiiuo iia?aoeee.

A ?innee a yoi a?aiy eaeao aeoeaiay ?ac?aaioea ainoi/iiai aii?ina,
eioi?ay n iaeiie noi?iiu naycaia n i?iaeoii niaianoiie
?onnei-o?aioeocneie yeniaaeeoeee a Eiaeeth, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu –
aeoeaiay iieeoeea a Caeaaeacuea, /anoueth auioaeaeaiiay.

Aaeeinoaaiiui aiaoiaiieeoe/aneei aii?inii, eioi?ue Iaaeo 1 oaeaeinue
aeiaanoe aei eiioea, yoi auei i?eniaaeeiaiea e ?innee ainoi/iie A?ocee.
Yoi Eaoaeeii (?) – Eaoaoeineia oea?noai. Noieeoea Eaoea – Oaeeene
(Oeoeen aei 1935 aiaea Oaeeene – oaieue, na?ienoua oaieua eeth/e).
Caeaaeacuea auei iiaeaeaii ia noa?u aeeyiey n Oo?oeeae. Aua a na?aaeeia
16 aaea a 1550 aiaeo aeiaiai?: caiaaeiay /anoue Caeaaeacuey yoi noa?a
aeeyiey Oo?oeee, a ainoi/iay /anoue A?ocee ii ?aea Aeacaie.

A 1783 aiaeo aue caeeth/ai Aai?aeaaneee o?aeoao a aiaiiie e?aiinoe a
Noaa?iiieueneii e?aa, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui ainoi/iay A?ocey noaea
i?ioaeoi?aoii ?innee. ?onneay ei?iia, Aeaoa?eia 2 a?aea iaycaoaeuenoaa
caueuaoue ainoi/ioth A?oceth, oea?y E?aeeey 2 io aiaoieo a?aaia. 2
?onneeo aaoaeueiia anooieee ia oa??eoi?eth ainoi/iie A?ocee. Iaeiaei
iioii ?onnei-oo?aoeeea aieiu, ?acaeaeu Iieueoe ioaeaeee aieiaiea
Aeaoa?eiu 2 io ainoi/iie A?ocee. A Ia?ney a yoi a?aiy oneeeeanue. Oai
oea aeieaia a?aiy iaaeaeioniaiay aieia iaaeaeo e?aiiycu/iui ieaiaiai e
oth?eneei ieaiaiai eaaeaea?ia, e a yoi a?aiy auaeaeaaaony neeueiue
eaaeaea?neee oai, eioi?ue iniiaae iiaoth aeeianoeth. Yoi aue
Aaa-Iioaiiaae-oai. Oeie/iue ainoi/iue i?aaeoaeue, aeanoieee, eioi?ue
ia/oae ainnoaiiaeoue aeanoue Ia?nee iaae ainoi/iie A?oceae, ecaanoiie
naieie na?aa?yiuie ?oaeieeaie, oaeeii, aeiia?aaeii.

A 1795 aiaeo, eiaaea a A?ocee iao ?onneeo aiene, E?aeeee i?ineo
i?eneaoue aienea, ii Aeaoa?eia n/eoaao, /oi aiciiaeii ii i?aoaaee/eaaao
iianiinoue, aea e ia aei yoiai ae, eaeao ?acaeae Iieueoe. A naioya?a
1795 aiaea a?iey Aaa-Iioaiiaae oaia inaaeeea Oeoeen. Iaiiiai/eneaiiua
caueoieee Oeoeena ia iiaee i?ioeainoiyoue yoie ia?iiiie a?iee. Oeoeen
iae. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aeaoo iaaeaeue a?iey oaia ?aci?yao Oeoeen. ?aea Eo?a
caa?iiiaeaeaia o?oiaie, aeeauo i?iaeatho a ?aanoai. Oie/oiaeathony
oea?eae, iiiaoiue aeai?, aeaeeioaee. Iinea oiai eae io Oeoeena inoaeenue
?acaaeeiu, Iioaiiaae-oai iooiaeeo a noaie.

?acoeueoaoii yoiai iaoanoaey aue ia?neaeneee iioiae Aeaoa?eiu 2 1796
aiaea. ?onneea aienea a 36 ouny/ /aeiaae iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai iaeiiai ec
4-o a?aoueaa Coaiauo (ii iacaaeieai aei yoiai iioa?ye iiao) ?onneea
aienea acyee Aea?aaio. Ii niauaao oai oaia, ia o?ii naaeaao aai
e?anaaeoeo nano?o, a aeaeueoa eaeao ia Aaeo, aa?ao Aaeo, eaeao e A?aeno.
A aeaeueoa – i?yiay aei?iaa ia Oaaa?ai.

Ii a yoio iiiaio Aeaoa?eia 2 oie?aao. A Iaaea aeieo?eia – auoue a ie?a
ni anaie ninaaeyie. Iaaae n?i/ii iocuaaao aienea Coaiaa, oai aieaa /oi
aicaeaaeyao aienea a?ao Ieaoiia Coaiaa. ?onneea aienea auaaaeaiu ec
Caeaaeacuey. Iieiaeaiea a A?ocee niiaa oooaeoeeinue. E Iaaae 1 iiiye,
/oi caii?iceoue a?oceineea aeaea aio ia oaeanony. Anee ii nia/aea ia
oioae nni?eoueny n Ia?neae e Oo?oeeae, oai aieaa /oi n Oo?oeeae
caeeth/ai aiaiiue nithc ai a?aiy aoi?ie eiaeeoeee, ii iieiaeaiea
eciaieeinue a 1798 aiaeo.

E?aeeee 2 oia? a yiaa?a 1798 aiaea. Ia i?anoie a Ainoi/iie A?ocee
i?eoiaeeo aai noa?oee nui Aai?aee 12. Yoi auei naeaeaii a aeooa
Aai?aeaaneiai o?aeoao, /oi i?anoie ia?aoiaeeo e noa?oaio nuio. Yoi
?aoaiea auei ooaa?aeaeaii a NIa. Ii eae anaaaea auaaao ai a?aiy niaiu,
iniaaiii a ainoi/iuo ainoaea?noaao, eaeao ai?ueaa aie?oa a?oceineiai
i?anoiea. O E?aeeey 2 auee e ae?oaea aeaiu, ia i?anoie i?aoaiaeotho
nuiiauey aai o?aoueae aeaiu. Iie iano?iaiu i?iia?neaenee. Iieiaeaiea
neiaeiia.

A ?acaa? yoiai aioo?eiieeoe/aneiai e?ecena a A?ocee iiaue ia?neaeneee
oao o?aaoao io Aai?aey 12, /oia ii i?eneae naiaai noa?oaai nuia a
aiaiaou, o.a. a caeiaeieee, eae yoi i?eiyoi ia ainoiea.

Aai?aee 12 ia?auaaony ca iiiiuueth e Iaaeo 1. Iaaae iiiye, /oi aeaei
i?eieiaao na?ueaciue iai?io, e ?aoee iai?aaeoue ia Eaaeac
yeniaaeeoeeiiiue ei?ion, oai aieaa /oi a 1799 aiaeo eaeao nii?oaeaiea
i?eniiniaeaiee iooae ec Aeaaeeeaaeaca a Oeoeen, /a?ac … ouaeuea, /a?ac …
ia?aaae, oi, /oi iioii aoaeao iacuaaoueny Aiaiii-A?oceineay aei?iaa.

A 1800 aiaeo ?onneea aienea oaea iiiiaee a?oceiai ?acaeoue 15-ouny/iia
oo?aoeeia aienei.

Aai?aee 12 niiaa ia?auaaony e eiia?aoi?o Iaaeo n i?inueaie i?eiyoue
Eaoea e Eaoaoee iiae ?onneia iiaeaeainoai. Aai?aee 12 i?aeoe/anee
ioeacuaaaony io anao i?aa, ii i?aaeinoaaeyao ?innee ana aeioiaeu,
na?aa?yiua ?oaeieee, ia?aaeaao Eaoee e Eaoaoee iiae i?yiia oi?aaeaiea ii
?inneeneei caeiiai. Aaeeinoaaiiia /oi ii i?ineo – nio?aieoue
ianeaaenoaaiiue oeooe a?oceineie aeeianoee n i?aaaie aoaa?iaoi?neie
aeanoe. Ii i?ineo oaeaea i?eneaoue 6 ouny/ aiene aeey caueou A?ocee.

Yoi auei ?anniio?aii a eieeaaee eiino?aiiuo aeae. A Eieeaaee eiino?aiiuo
aeae aue ia?aciaai niaoeeaeueiue Aceaoneee aeaia?oaiaio a 1798 aiaeo.
Aicaeaaeyao aai ?onneee aeeieiiao Eiaeea?aa.

Ia?aiia/aeueii Eieeaaey eiino?aiiuo aeae niaeaoaaony ia yoe oneiaey. Ii
eiaaea a?oceineay aeaeaaaoeey iieeioea NIa, Iaaae 1 ecaeaao iaieoano ii
eioi?iio iauyaeyaony i?eniaaeeiaiea A?ocee, ii i?aaa oea?neie a?oceineie
aeeianoee ia oiiieiathony. O.a. iaieoano ia i?eciaao ca a?oceineie
aeeianoeae ieeaeeo i?aa.

Aeaenaiae?o 1 iioii i?eoeinue ecaeaoue aua iaieoano. Ii iaieoanoo 12
naioya?y 1801 aiaea Aeaenaiae? 1 iiaeienuaaao aua iaeei iaieoano i
i?eniaaeeiaiee ainoi/iie A?ocee, e iiyoue aac onooiie a iieueco auaoae
oea?neie aeeianoee ainoi/iie A?ocee.

Aia?aua a naiae enoi?ee ?inney ia?aoaaioea /a?ac Eaaeacneee o?aaao.
Aiaeey aini?eieiaao yoi eae iiaia aeieacaoaeuenoai aa?anneaiie iieeoeee
?inneeneie eiia?ee, oa?ico naiei aeaaeaieyi a Acee, a oii /enea e
Eiaeee. Yoi ia/aei iiaie ?onioiaee a Aiaeee.

A?oceineia aeai?yinoai auei aanueia iaaeiaieueii oaeei ?aoaieai, iii
iaiaeiie?aoii cayaeyei i naiai no?aieaiee aeeoue aianoa n ?inneae, ii
oi, /oi aeeianoey auea eeoaia iiieiaeueiuo i?aa, auei aini?eiyoi eae
inei?aeaiea. E iiiaaeiaeeenue aiaeu, /oiau iaaeiaieuenoai niya/eoue.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?aoaieai a?oceineiai aii?ina, ?ac?aaaouaaaony ieai
niaianoiie ?onnei-o?aioeocneie yeniaaeeoeee a Eiaeeth. Ii/aio eiaiii a
Eiaeeth? Iioiio /oi Eiaeey – yoi aeai/oaeeia A?eoaineie eieiiee, eiaiii
caeanue iiaeii iaianoe Aiaeee iuooeiue oaea?. Iacaaeieai aei yoeo
niauoee i?ioiaeeee aiaei-ia?aeneea aieiu. Iaaeaaii eaieooee?iaae a
Iaeoo?a (?) noeoai, eioi?ue aue nithcieeii O?aioeee ai a?aiy Aoi?ie
eiaeeoeee. Eiaeeeneea ia?aeneea aieiu auee i?iaeieaeaieai aiei naiie
eiaeeoeee caeanue a Acee. A o?aioeocu ia?aciaaee yeiaeineee eeoa a
Iaeoo?a. O?aioeocu neoaeeee a io?yaeao, eioi?ua n?aaeaeenue i?ioea
aiaee/ai a Eiaeee. Iaiieaii iuoaaony aanoe ia?aieneo n noeoaiii.

Aiaeeeneee yeniaaeeoeeiiiue ei?ion a Aaeioa iuoaeny i?iaeoueny a Ne?eth,
ia oaeaeinue.

Oaia?ue o Iaiieaiia aicieeaao ieai niaianoii n ?inneae, /a?ac ?inneth,
/a?ac Ia?neth e Aoaaienoai iaianoe oaea? A?eoaineie ei?iia.

Nio?aieeinue ienueii-ieai niaianoiie ?onnei-o?aioeocneie yeniaaeeoeee,
?ac?aaioaiiie Aiiaia?oii. Nooue yoiai ieaia caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi
nicaeaaony niaianoiue ?onnei-o?aioeocneee ei?ion. A?iey i?eia?ii 70
ouny/ /aeiaae. 35 ouny/ o?aioeocu, 35 ouny/ ?onneea. Ec ?onneeo aei 10
ouny/ eacaeia. A niioaaonoaee n yoei ieaiii o?aioeocneea aienea aeieaeiu
auee ii Aeoiath nionoeoueny e *a?iiio ii?th ai aeaaa n Iannaiie (eioi?ue
?aca?iiee ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa). Iioii ii *a?iiio e Acianeiio ii?th ia
Oaaai?ia, aeaeaa aaa?o ii Aeiio aei ia?aoaeea iaaeaeo Aieaie e Aeiiii.
Iioii ia Aieao e e Ano?aoaie.

Caoai aianoa n ?onneeie aieneaie ia?ai?aaeythony ia thaeiue aa?aa
Eanieeneiai ii?y a Ano?aaaaea. A oai oaea ana aioiai. E yoiio a?aiaie
Iaaeii 1 auea i?aaieciaaia ?inneenei-Aceaoneay eaiiaiey ii oeio
Ino-Eiaeneie iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ainoaea?noaa, auee i?aaieciaaiu
oi?aiaua oaeoi?ee, neeaaeu. ?inney ii yoiio ieaio aeieaeia auea acyoue
ia naay niaaaeaiea a?iee i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia e oo?aaeiia.

E aio niaaeeieaoenue a Ano?aaaaea niaianoiay ?onnei-o?aioeocneay a?iey
aeieaeia auea aeaeaaoueny /a?ac Aoaaienoaia, /a?ac Aa?ao, Eaiaeaaa?, ia
?aeo Eiae. Iauee iooue i?aaeiieaaaeinue i?iaeaeaoue ca 120 aeiae.

Iaiieaii caiuoeyao yoo niaianoioth a?aiaeeicioth yeniaaeeoeeth eae
?anoe?aiiue aa?eaio aaeiaoneie yeniaaeeoeee, aaea o iaai auee e o/aiua,
e eiaeaia?u.

Yeniaaeeoeeth aeieaeiu auee nii?iaiaeaeaoue io?yae aicaeooiieaaaoaeae,
o.a. aicaeooiua oa?u, ianoa?a oaea?aa?eia. I?aaeoniao?eaaeenue ?aciiai
?iaea iiaea?ee aeey iiaeeoia ainoi/iuo aeanoeoaeae. Yoi i?oaeea, oa?oi?,
oeaie, /anu, aiaaeaiu. I?aaeiieaaaeinue i?iaanoe aieueooth
?acuynieoaeueioth ?aaioo, iineaoue yienna?ia ei anai ainoi/iui
i?aaeoaeyi, ii oa??eoi?ee eioi?uo aoaeoo i?ioiaeeoue aienea. Yoe
yienna?u aeieaeiu aoaeoo iauynieoue, /oi iioiae niaa?oaaony aaeeinoaaiii
?aaee inaiaiaeaeaiey eiaeonia io eaa aiaee/ai. *oi aoaeao niaethaeaoueny
no?iaeaeoee ii?yaeie, /oi i?iaeiaieuenoaea aoaeao oieueei iieoiaoueny,
/oi eiouanoai, iau/ae e aeaiueiu aoaeoo nio?aiyoueny.

A eaeie noaiaie yoio i?iaeo aue iainiiaai? A yoii aea i?iaeoa Iaiieaii
nnueaeny ia enoi?e/aneea i?aoeaaeaiou. Ii aniiieiae iioiae Iaaee?-oaoa,
Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai e ae?. ?ac yoi iiaee naeaeaoue ainoi/iua
a?iee, oi oai aieaa yoi niiaeao naeaeaoue a?iey aa?iiaeneay.

Aa?iyoii a nayce n yoei niaianoiui o?aioeocnei-?onneei i?iaeoii neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue ciaiaieoue ia/aeueiue eiaeeeneee iioiae a Eiaeeth,
eioi?ue iiaeaaony eae i?eoioue iaii?iaeueiiai Iaaea 1, eioi?ue iineae
aaaeiuo eacaeia a Eiaeeth.

Iaeia ec iaioa?enoia ieoao, /oi oeaeueth Eiaeeeneiai iioiaea auei
aeaeaiea Iaaea 1 iiaoaeoue eacaeia.

Ii aiiaua yeniaaeeoeey i?iaiaeeeanue a no?iaeaeoae oaeia. Iaei eoi /oi
ciae eiie?aoii. Ii/aio Iaaae, ia aeiaeeaeaynue o?aioeocia, ?aoee
niaa?oeoue oaeoth aiaiioth ?acaaaeeo? Aa?iyoii iioiio, /oi a yoi a?aiy
eaeao iauay aeoeaecaoeey ainoi/iie iieeoeee ?innee, ia?aciaai aceaoneee
aeaia?oaiaio. Eaeao aeoeaiue iaiai n Aooa?ie, Oeaie, Oaoeaioii.
?acaeaathony ioiioaiey n Eeoaai. Aiciiaeii, Iaaae oioae cae?aieoue
eaeea-oi i?aeiouanoaa ?innee a ?acoeueoaoa yoie yeniaaeeoeee, iioiio /oi
eia/a au ?inney a niaianoiii ?onnei-o?aioeocneii iioiaea ieacaeanue au
caaeneiie io o?aioeocia.

12 (24) yiaa?y 1801 aiaea aoaiai aienea Aeiineiai aaia?ae
A.I.I?eia-ia?aue iieo/aao oaeiia ienueii io Iaaea 1. A ienueia aiai?eony
i oii, /oia iaiaaeeaiii iiaeiyoue eaca/uea aienei e aeaeiooueny n iei ia
I?aiao?a, a aeaeueoa /a?ac Aooa?eth e Yoeii aunooieoue ia ?aeo Eiaeon,
/oiau ii?aceoue iai?eyoaey a aai na?aeoea. Iaaae ienae: aiaee/aia
i?eaioiaeythony aeaeaoue iaiaaeaieai oeioii e aieneii ia iaiy e
nithcieeia iieo oaaaeia e aeao/ai, ii ioaeii eo aoaeiaaoue, e oai, aaea
oaea? iiaeao auoue /oanoaeoaeueiae, aaea iaiueoa iaeeaeaao.

Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue Iaaae 1 ieoao iiaia ienueii I?eiao: Aaneeee
Iao?iae/, iinueath aai iiae?iaioth iiaoth ea?oo anae Eiaeee. Oai aeaei
anoue oieueei aei aiaee/ai. Ie? ni anaie, eoi ia aoaeao ei iiiiaaoue.
Ieiioiaeii ooaa?aeeoa Aooa?eth, /oia eeoaeoeai ia aeinoaeinue.

A neaaeothuai ienueia ii noaaeo aieaa ia?aie/aiioth caaea/o:
i?ai?iaiaeaeath ana ea?ou, eioi?ua y eiath. Au aeieaeaoa oieueei aei
Oeau e Aioaea?uee.

21 ouny/a eacaeia n eioaaeueie /aou?ueiy yoaeiiaie aeaeioeinue a iioiae.
Iaeiei ec yoaeiiia eiiaiaeiaae ?aaaeeeoe?iaaiiue ec Iao?iiaaeianeie
e?aiinoe aoaeouee aoaiai aienea Aeiineiai Ieaoia.

A eiioea oaa?aey eacaee aunooieee. A yoii aiaeo auea ?aiiyy aania,
?aniooeoea. Aeaeaeaiea oei aeiaieueii iaaeeaiii, 30-40 aa?no a nooee.
Eiaaea yoaeiiu iiaeioee e Aieaa, eaae oaea aue neaaue. Iaeiaei ieeaeie
eaoano?iou, iioa?e ethaeae, eae ienaee a iaioa?ao enoi?eee, a oii /enea
oaaaeaaiua, ia auei. Ia?aua 2 eieiiiu aeaaiiieo/ii ia?aoee Aieao ii
eueaeo. Eiaaea o?aouey eieiiia oea ianeieueei eioaaeae i?iaaeeeinue iiae
eaae. Caaeaaia?aiaiii e?anoueyia ie?anoiuo aea?aaaiue auee niaiaiu,
noiyee ii eueaeo, iiiiaaee ia?ai?aaa, anao eioaaeae auoaueee. Ie iaeia
eioaaeue ia ooiioea, ie iaeei /aeiaae ia iiaea.

Ia?aua yoaeiiu iioee ii eaaiio aa?aao Aieae, aeinoeaee Y?aeca, e a
I?aiao?aneeo noaiyo eacaeia canoae iiaue i?eeac i i?ae?auaiee yoiai
iioiaea.

Oae caeii/eeanue yoa yeniaaeeoeey: oi ee Eiaeeeneee iioiae, oi ee
N?aaeiaaceaoneay yeniaaeeoeey.

I?aaenoaaueoa naaa, eaeie yooaeo oaeay yeniaaeeoeey, aea aua ie?oaeaiiay
oaeiie, iiaea aucaaoue a Aiaeee. Nae?aoiue aaaio I?onnee a Aiaeee
aeiiinee i?onneiio i?aaeoaeuenoao i oii ia?aiieioa, eioi?ue aucaaee
ecaanoey ia eiaeeeneii iioiaea Iaaea 1.

I?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ?inneae e Aiaeeae aeinoeaee a eiioea oea?noaiaaiey
Iaaea naiaai ieea, oai aieaa /oi niooiua naaaeaiey i?eoiaeeee e i
ae?oaii. A Aiaeee ociaee i i?eeaca Iaaea o?ai ?onneei o?aaaoai aueoe n
Eai/aoee e ia?ae?uoue aiaeeeneoth oi?aiaeth n Eeoaai. E aeaenoaeoaeueii,
oaeea ?anii?yaeaiey auee.

A Aiaeee noaei ynii, /oi eiia?aoi?a a ?innee iaaei iaiyoue. E aiaeeeneee
neaae a caaiai?a 11 ia?oa 1801 aiaea i/aiue io/aoeea. Aeinoaoi/ii
aniiiieoue, /oi iinie, eioi?ue aue a Iaoa?ao?aa 12 eao, aue auneai
iacaaeieai aei ia?aai?ioa. Aicethaeaiiie yoiai iinea auea nano?a
a?aoueaa Coaiauo.

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