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Италия в 1918-1939 годах

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Eoaeey a 1918 – 1939 aiaeao

Ieai:

1. Iineaaenoaey Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu aeey Eoaeee.

2. ?aai/aa e e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea.

3. Onoaiiaeaiea oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u.

4 Eoaeey a aiaeu oaoecia.

5. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea. Iaiaaeaiea ia Yoeiieth. Nithc n Aa?iaieae.

1. Iineaaenoaey Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu aeey Eoaeee.

Eoaeey auoea ec Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu ianoieueei ineaaeaiiie, /oi aa
oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?eoycaiey iaei i?eieiaeenue ai aieiaiea. Iano?iaiey
?aaaioa e ouaieaiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiethaey noaee aaaeiui oaeoi?ii
?acaeoey iieeoe/aneie aeecie a no?aia. Aioo?aiiaa iieiaeaiea Eoaeee
oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue na?ueaciuie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie iio?ynaieyie.
Aieia aei?iai iaioeanue no?aia. Eoaeueyineay a?iey iioa?yea a aieia 635
oun. oaeouie, ieiei 500 oun. eneaea/aiiuie e nauoa 1,5 iei. ieaiiuie.
65,5 ie?ae. ee? cieioii iiaeioeee ?anoiaeu. Eoaeey ieacaeanue e?oiiui
aeieaeieeii naieo nithcieeia ii aieia, aeaaiui ia?acii NOA e Aiaeee.
Oneeeaaeanue eioeyoeey, e eo?n aoiaaeiie ee?u iaaeae. Ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeiea aeinoea ia?iiiuo ?acia?ia. Aeaiiaeeeciaaiiua ec a?iee nieaeaou ia
iaoiaeeee ?aaiou. ?ino aac?aaioeoeu ineiaeiyeny oai, /oi yiea?aoeey ec
no?aiu, anaaaea ioaeaeaaoay /anoue ?aai/ae neeu e i?ae?aoeaoayny ai
a?aiy aieiu, ia n?aco aiciaiiaeeanue n ianooieaieai ie?a.

I?aayuei e?oaai Eoaeee ia oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny inouanoaeaiey naieo
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee. Ii Eiiaeiineiio niaeaoaieth iaaeaeo Eoaeeae
e Aioaioie, iiaeienaiiiio iacaaeieai aei anooieaiey Eoaeee a aieio, iia
?ann/eouaaea iieo/eoue O?aioeii e THaeiue Oe?ieue ia Naaa?a. O?eano.
Eno?eth e Aeaeiaoeeth ia Ainoiea. Eoaeey oaeaea ?ann/eouaaea iieo/eoue
iaeiaceaoneea aeaaeaiey ca n/ao Oo?oeee. Ii Aiaeey e O?aioeey ia auee
caeioa?aniaaiu a oneeaiee Eoaeee a N?aaeecaiiiii?uea, a a noaia
iiaaaeeoaeae Eoaeey ieacaeanue iaeiei ec naiuo neaauo ia?oia?ia. Ia
Ia?eaeneie ie?iie eiioa?aioeee auaoea nithcieee aeaea ana aiciiaeiia,
/oiau o?acaoue oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?eoycaiey Eoaeee. A ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiou
eiioa?aioeee Eoaeey iieo/eea eeoue caiaaeioth /anoue Eno?ee n O?eanoii,
Iieo, Ai?eoeeth, iia?aie/ioth oa??eoi?eth n Aano?eae. Iia ia iieo/eea ie
Aeaeiaoeeth, ie Oeoia, /oi auei iaeiie ec aeaaiuo oeaeae a aieia.
Eoaeey, ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio a oi a?aiy au?aaeaieth, /oanoaiaaea naay
iiaaaeaeaiiie a eaaa?a iiaaaeeoaeae”. Aianoa n oai ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee
ia aiaiiue eaae i?eaaea e cia/eoaeueiiio ?inoo oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Ca aiaeu aieiu Eoaeey ec no?aiu aa?a?iie i?aa?aoeeanue a no?aio
aa?a?ii-eiaeono?eaeueioth. Iniaaiii neeueiia ?acaeoea iieo/eee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneay, iaoeiino?ieoaeueiay e oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Iiyaeeenue e oe?aieee naie iiceoeee ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoia
oaeea aeaaiou, eae eiioea?iu “Ainaeueaei”, “Eeueaa” a oyaeaeie
eiaeono?ee, “Oeao” a aaoiiiaeeano?iaiee, “A?aaea” a i?iecaiaenoaa
aiaiiiai nia?yaeaiey, A oi aea a?aiy n?aaeiea e iniaaiii iaeeea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee ?aci?yeenue. N?aco aea iinea ieii/aiey aieiu,
noieeioaoenue n ionoonoaeai aeinoaoi/ii aieiai aioo?aiiaai ?uiea a
?acoeueoaoa ia?ooaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aiaoiaoi?aiauo naycae, eoaeueyineay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ieacaeanue a o?oaeiii iieiaeaiee, Ia/aeinue ?aceia
iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aoaaeoaa n 1920 a, a yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, A
naeueneii oicyenoaa iaaethaeaeny i?ioeann nie?auaiey iinaaiuo
ieiuaaeae, iniiaiay ianna e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa aaaeiaea e ?aci?yeanue,
Ca?ieaoa ?aai/eo a 1918 a, ia i?aauoaea 76% aeiaiaiiie. Eioeyoeey ?acei
oooaeoeea iieiaeaiea neoaeaueo e /eiiaieeia.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi Eoaeey auea a noaia iiaaaeeoaeae, o aaniethoiiai
aieueoeinoaa iauanoaa ia auei iniiaaiee auoue oaeiaeaoai?aiiui
iineaaiaiiie aeeciueth,

2. ?aai/aa e e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea.

A oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, ?aceiai iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa,
aaie?ionoaa iaeeeo e n?aaeieo i?aaei?eyoee a no?aia aeoeaece?iaaeinue
?aai/aa e e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea, eioi?ia auei iaoneiaeaii oaeaea
iaaeaieai aeiaa?ey e i?aaeoaeuenoao. A ?aai/ai aeaeaeaiee aeiieie?iaaee
?aaeeeaeueiua oa/aiey, auaeaeaaaoea eicoiae onoaiiaeaiey aeeeoaoo?u
i?ieaoa?eaoa a oi?ia niaaoneie aeanoe, caaanoiaee /anoi
nii?iaiaeaeaeenue caoaaoii caaiaeia e oaa?ee. Aeaaiuie oeaio?aie yoiai
aeaeaeaiey auee Ieeai, Oo?ei, Aaioy e ae?oaea i?iiuoeaiiua ai?iaea
Naaa?iie Eoaeee. ?aai/ea o?aaiaaee aaaaeaiey 8-/aniaiai ?aai/aai aeiy e
iiauoaiey ca?ieaou. A iauae neiaeiinoe aanoiaaei 1,7 iei. ?aai/eo.

Iano?ue eaeaeaeineii eaauo nee, eo ?acee/iua oi?iu e iaoiaeu ai?ueau ca
eioa?anu o?oaeyueony, ionoonoaea eiino?oeoeaiiai aaeeinoaa naeaeaee
aiciiaeiui i?eoiae e aeanoe oaoenoia.

3. Onoaiiaeaiea oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u.

E?oiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee, iiiai/eneaiiua iaeeea nianoaaiieee, e?anoueyia
auee e?aeia icaai/aiu ?acaeoeai eaaiai aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ia noaaeei naiae
oeaeueth, i?aaeaea anaai, ia?aniio?aoue ioiioaiea e nianoaaiiinoe.
I?aaeoaeuenoaa Eoaeee ia niiaee iaeoe yooaeoeaiua n?aaenoaa aeey caueou
eioa?ania /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Naie aci?u, iaaeaaeaeu iie ia?auaee ia
ca?iaeaeathuaany oaoenoneia aeaeaeaiea. Ia?aua aunooieaiey oaoenoia
ioiinyony e 1919 a. Eo i?aaiecaoeey iacuaaeanue “Nithc ai?ueau”. Iniiaie
aa eaeaieiaee aue y?inoiue iaoeeiiaeeci a ni/aoaiee n nioeeaeueiie
aeaiaaiaeae. Aia/aea i?aaiecaoeey ian/eouaaea ianeieueei aeanyoeia
/aeiaae, ii iinoaiaiii ?anoe?eea naie ?yaeu, aeaaiui ia?acii ca n/ao
auaoeo o?iioiaeeia.

Oaoenou ciaee /oanoaa e iano?iaiey o?iioiaeeia. Iiiaea ec ieo oaa?iaaee
a neeo eae oieaa?naeueiia n?aaenoai ?ac?aoaiey i?ioeai?a/ee, a oeaia
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie a oeaea i?aanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae ?acei oiaea. Yoa
ianna iaeanoi/aiiuo ia aanue ie? ethaeae auea ia?aiieiaia
iaaeiaieuenoaii, eioi?ia iiaei aniuoiooue io ia?aie aea ene?u. Oaoeci
noa?aeny aa?aiaaoue ia naith noi?iio i?aaeaea anaai aa?ioaoothny n
o?iioa iieiaeaaeue, n?aaee eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeei ?aceia iieeoe/aneia
?aciaaeaaaiea. Iaaieueoay aa /anoue iiiieieea eaai?aaeeeaeueiia
aeaeaeaiea. Inoaeueiua, aeaaiui ia?acii auoiaeoeu ec iaeeiao?aeoaciuo
naiae, aeinoeaoea ia aieia /eiia e ii/anoae, ia niae?aeenue caieiaoueny
ne?iiiui o?oaeii eiioi?ueeia, o/eoaeae, oaoieeia, iaeeeo aaeaieaoia, oai
aieaa /oi Eoaeey aeaaii no?aaeaea ia?aecauoeii ?aaioieeia yoeo
i?ioannee. O?aneo/ea o?acu, yooaeoiua aeanou, aaniethoiay iieeoe/aneay
aani?eioeeiiinoue oaoenoia — ana yoi i?eaeaeaei iieiaeaaeue, aioiaoth ia
/oi oaiaeii, eeoue au ia oyiooue eyieo i?icae/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey.
Oyaeaeue iaoa?eaeueiue e ii?aeueiue e?ecen ia?aaeeaaee n?aaeiea neie
ianaeaiey, iaeeea nianoaaiieee. N iaaeaieai eo?na ee?u i?aa?auaeenue a
i?ec?ae iaeiieaiiua naa?aaeaiey, i?eia?aoaiiia iieiaeaiea e aeioiaeu.
Aoaeouaa eacaeinue aani?inaaoiui. Iaoa?eaeueiay iaiaania/aiiinoue
iiiai/eneaiiie eioaeeeaaioeee iecaiaeeea aa a nioeeaeueiii ioiioaiee aei
o?iaiy ethiiai-i?ieaoa?eaoa.

Eicoiae caueou iaeeie nianoaaiiinoe, aeaiaaiaey, iai?aaeaiiay i?ioea
iaaeeaoeony ia aieia “aeoe eaieoaeecia”, nicaeaaaee oaoecio aeaeeiinoue
iauiinoe aai eioa?ania n eioa?anaie n?aaeieo neiaa e iaeeie ao?aeoacee.
Oaoeci onoaiiaee oaniua nayce e n e?oiiuie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie. E?oiiue
eaieoae, eioi?iio ii?yaeeii iaaeiaee ionoonoaea iieeoe/aneie
noaaeeueiinoe a no?aia e oa?ica ?anoe?aiey eaai?aaeeeaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey, aeaeae a oaoecia aiciiaeiinoue oe?aieaiey ainoaea?noaa e aai
i?ioaeoeeiienoneie iieeoeee ii ioiioaieth e iiiiiieeyi.

Ai aeaaa eoaeueyineiai oaoecia anoae Aaieoi Ionnieeie (1883—1945 aa.)
Aoaeouee aeo/a (aiaeaeue) ?iaeeeny 23 ethey 1883 a. a aea?aaia Aeiaea
(i?iaeioeey Yieeey-?iiaiuey). Iaoue, ?ica Iaeueoiie, auea naeueneie
o/eoaeueieoeae. Ioaoe, Aeannaiae?i, i?iiuoeye eocia/iui e neana?iui
?aianeaie. Naiuey aeeea ia aiaaoi, ii e ia aaaenoaiaaea. Ia?aciaaiea
Ionnieeie ia/ae iieo/aoue a oeiea iiiaoia a Oayioea. Aaieoi ?in
no?iioeaui, eai?eciui, aa?anneaiui e /anoi ia?ooae onoaiiaeaiiua
iiiaoaie aeanoeea i?aaeea. Oaea oiaaea aoaeouee aeo/a 4 iuoaeny
aa?oiaiaeeoue oiaa?euaie, ia?aaeei oaneae a I ea?iaia iiae e a ae?aeao
aeaaea ia?o ?ac ioneae aai a oiae. Ii ieii/aiee oeieu i?aiiaeaaae a
ieaaeoeo eeannao, ii iaaeieai — a 1902 a. ioi?aaeeny ia iienee n/anouey
a Oaaeoea?eth. A 18—19 eao ii oaea aunooiae ia?aae iaaieueoeie
aoaeeoi?eyie, a?iiy eoaeueyineia i?aaeoaeuenoai e iacuaay naay
nioeeaeenoii. Ii iiciaeiieeny n o?oaeaie E. Eaooneiai, I. E?iiioeeia, ?.
Ooe?ia?a, I. Aeaiee, A. Oiiaiaaoy?a, O. Ieoeoa. Ionnieeie aue oiiui, ii
aanueia iiaa?oiinoiui /aeiaaeii: n eaaeinoueth onaaeaae /oaeea eaeae,
eiae iaueiiaaiea nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy auaeaaaoue eo ca naie,
auoaaouaay ec oai?ee eeoue oi, /oi aio i?aaeeinue e auei iiiyoii.
Auaeaeioeny eae aeo?iaeeno e i?aoi?. A 1912—1914 aa. — ?aaeaeoi?
oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaia ENI aacaou “Aaaioe”. Ca aaeoaoeeth a iieueco
anooieaiey Eoaeee a aieio ia noi?iia Aioaiou a iiya?a 1914 a. aue
eneeth/ai ec nioeeaeenoe/aneie ia?oee. Oiaaea aea iniiaae aacaoo “Iiiiei
ae’Eoaeey” (aoaeouay aacaoa eoaeueyineeo oaoenoia). A ia?oa 1919 a. noae
iniiaaoaeai oaoenoneie i?aaiecaoeee “Oaoei aee eiiaaoeiaioi”.

A 1920 a. oaoenou, i?aaieciaaiiua a io?yaeu /a?ii?oaaoa/ieeia, ia/aee
iia?iiu ?aai/eo e aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, ecaeaiey e oaeenoaa
iieeoe/aneeo e i?ionithciuo aeayoaeae, a no?aia aioea?eeenue oa??i? e
ianeeea. Aeanoe ia ieacuaaee ie iaeaeoaai nii?ioeaeaiey. Aieaa oiai,
aiaiiua, iieeoeey, noae oaeoe/anee iiiu?yee oaoenoneia aeaeaeaiea.
I?oaeea /a?ii?oaaoa/ieee iieo/aee ni neeaaeia a?iee, i?ioanneiiaeueiua
ioeoea?u iao/aee aaiaeu e ?oeiaiaeeee eo iia?aoeeyie. Inaiueth 1922 a. a
Eoaeee oaeoe/anee onoaiiaeeinue aeaiaaeanoea: oaoenou a?aee iiae naie
eiio?ieue ana iiaua ai?iaea e i?iaeioeee, a oeaio?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai
niio?aei ia yoi neaicue iaeueoeu. Noaei ynii, /oi i?aayuea e?oae
ieii/aoaeueii acyee eo?n ia ia?aaea/o oaoecio aeanoe. Inoaeinue ?aoeoue
aii?in i oii, a eaeie oi?ia yoi naeaeaoue. Iaeiaei ianoaiiaea iaiyeanue
noieue no?aieoaeueii, /oi ieii/aoaeueiue auai? oaea ia caaenae io aiee
oao eee eiuo iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae.

Aca?oiue ea?ie, Ionnieeie naeaeae noaaeo ia aii?oaeaiiue caoaao aeanoe,
ii aai iaeieaaaee niiiaiey. Oaoenou ia eiaee iaiaoiaeeiuo oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa aeey inouanoaeaiey iyoaaea. Ia aunieee “aiaaie aeoo”
?ann/eouaaoue oaeaea ia i?eoiaeeeinue, eai iie i?eaueee iaea?aeeaaoue
iiaaaeu, eeoue aoaeo/e a aieueoeinoaa. Ii iauee oaeoe/aneee ?an/ao aeo/a
aue aa?ai: noaaea aeaeaeanue ia noieueei ia oaea?, neieueei ia
iaaeaeaiea i?ioeaieea nii?ioeaeyoueny. A eaeie-oi iiiaio ii iiiye, /oi
i?iaee aai /an.

Oi/ee iaae “e” auee iinoaaeaiu 24 ieoya?y 1922 a. a Iaaiiea, aaea a
oaao?a Nai-Ea?ei ioe?ueny i/a?aaeiie nuacae oaoenoneeo nithcia.
Ionnieeie aunooiee ia iai n aa?anneaiie ?a/ueth, oeueoeiaoeaii
iio?aaiaaa o i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aaeinoaaeoue oaoenoai iyoue ieienoa?neeo
ii?ooaeae e eiienna?eao aaeaoeee. Ii e?ani/ii aeeaiienae i naiae
i?aaeaiiinoe iiia?oee, eioi?ay yeiau ia iiaeao e ia aeieaeia
i?ioeaeoueny neeai, ianouei icaei?iaeaiea iaoeee. Ionnieeie, anth naith
iieeoe/aneoth ea?uea?o i?iaeaeaaoee iiae ?anioaeeeaineei oeaaii e aiae
iacaae aeaiiino?aoeaii iieeioaoee canaaeaiea ia?eaiaioa, aaea aunooiae
ei?ieue, yoio naiue Ionnieeie, iiieiay neeo iiia?oa, oaia?ue
?anoa?eeaaeny ia?aae iei. Aa/a?ii oiai aea aeiy a ioaea “Aacoaee”, aaea
inoaiiaeeny aeo/a, nia?aeenue aai aeeaeaeoea niiaeaeaeieee (E. Aaeueai,
4. I. Aea Aeeee, Y. Aea Aiii, I. Aueyiee) e aue iaia/ai oai caoaaoa
aeanoe: 27 ieoya?y — anaiauay iiaeeecaoeey oaoenoia, 28-ai — aoaea ia
aeaaiua oeaio?u no?aiu. O?e eieiiiu neaaae?enoia — /eaiia oaoenoneeo
aiaauo io?yaeia (neaaae?) — aeieaeiu auee aieoe a ?ei ni noi?iiu
Ia?oaeaee, i?aaeuyaeoue oeueoeiaooi i?aaeoaeuenoao E. Oaeoa e iaeaaeaoue
iniiaiuie ieienoa?noaaie.

N?aco i?ieeeanue e?iaue: a E?aiiia, Aieiiuea, Aeannaiae?ee neaaae?enou
noaee iaoi?aaeyaiuie. Eaaeiao ieieno?ia i?eiye ?aoaiea ia ionoaaea, ii
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ooaa?aeee e ?acineae ia ianoa aeae?ao ia inaaeiii
iieiaeaiee, a eioi?ii a?iey iieo/eea iaiaoiaeeiua iieiiii/ey aeey
iaaaaeaiey ii?yaeea. Iaeiaei ei?ieue Aeeoi?-Yiiaioee III ioeacaeny
iiaeienaoue yoio aeae?ao. Eiaaea oaoenou 28 ieoya?y oee eieiiiaie ia
?ei, aeo/a iaoiaeeeny a ?aaeaeoeee “Iiiiei ae’Eoaeey” a Ieeaia. I?aoaeo
ai?iaea aunoaaee aicea aeiia io?aio, e Ionnieeie auaeyaeae nei?aa
io?aiyaiie, iaaeaee i?aneaaeoaiie aeanoyie ia?niiie. Aeiai 29 ieoya?y
aeo/a iieo/ee aeieaiaeaeaiiia ecaanoea i iacia/aiee aai
i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii. Aa/a?ii oiai aea aeiy a niaoeeaeueiii iiacaea
Ionnieeie i?eaue a ?ei, yaeeny e ei?ieth e, aueaey n iei ia aaeeii,
i?eaaonoaiaae oieiu /a?ii?oaaoa/ieeia. Eoaeueyineea oaoenou i?eoee e
aeanoe.

4 Eoaeey a aiaeu oaoecia.

Noa?aeiai eaeaieiaee eoaeueyineiai oaoecia aue i?eiao iaoeee iaae
eioa?anaie anao inoaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e ioaeaeueii acyouo
eiaeeaeaeooiia. Eioaa?e?iaaiiua eioa?anu iaoeee aeieaeii auei au?aaeaoue
oaoenoneia ainoaea?noai, aia eioi?iai ia iiaee nouanoaiaaoue ie
iieeoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa, ie a?oiiu, ie aeaaea eiaeeaeaeooiu.
Iniiauaaynue ia i?eioeeiao ei?ii?aoeaecia, ainoaea?noai aeieaeii auei
i?eie?youe a naiai aaeeinoaa ?acee/iua iauanoaaiiua eioa?anu. A naith
i/a?aaeue, ei?ii?aoeaeci o?aeoiaaeny oaoenoaie eae “iiaue oei
iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa”, aue i?ioeaiiinoaaeai nioeeaeecio e
eeaa?aeecio iaeiia?aiaiii.

I?ia?aiia oaoenoia auea i?inoa e aeinooiia e iauaaoaeth, e ethiiaio, e
eioaeeeaaioo, e i?aaei?eieiaoaeth. Iia aeeth/aea a naay oi?acaeiaiea
naiaoa, iieeoeee, eano, i?eaeeaaee e oeooeia, anaiauaa ecae?aoaeueiia
i?aai, aa?aioee a?aaeaeaineeo naiaiae, nicua O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey,
ioiaio oaeiie aeeieiiaoee e anaiauaa ?aci?oaeaiea, cai?ao aaieianeeo
iia?aoeee e i?ia?anneaiue iaeia ia eaieoae, onoaiiaeaiea aeey anao
8-/aniaiai ?aai/aai aeiy e ieieioia ca?ieaou, o/anoea ?aai/eo a
oaoie/aneii oi?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeyie, iaoeeiiaeecaoeeth aiaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia?aaea/o caiee e?anoueyiai, cai?ao aeaoneiai o?oaea aei
16 eao, anaiauaa ia?aciaaiea e aanieaoiua aeaeeioaee. Oaeei ia?acii,
oaoenou ia?auaeenue ia eaeiio-oi eiie?aoiiio nioeeaeueiiio neith, a ei
anai eoaeueyioeai, aeaaeaeaaoeo iuooeiuo nioeeaeueiuo e iieeoe/aneeo
ia?aiai.

N?aco aea iinea ia?aai?ioa, ianiio?y ia nio?aiaiea ia?eaiaioneeo oi?i,
iiyaeeenue aeaa iiauo ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooa: a aeaeaa?a 1922 a. —
“Aieueoie oaoenoneee niaao” (AON) e a yiaa?a 1923 a. ei?ieaaneei
aeae?aoii auei cae?aieaii nicaeaiea oaoenoneie ieeeoeee, eioi?ay ioiuia
noaea iacuaaoueny “Aeia?iaieueiay ieeeoeey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe”
(AeIIA). AON eiio?iee?iaae caeiiii?iaeou ia?aae aianaieai eo a
ia?eaiaio, aeayoaeueiinoue naiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Nicaeaieai AeIIA
Ionnieeie no?aieeny aeiaeoueny i?aiaeaaeaiey eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe a
eeoea oaoenoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaae caeiiiaeaoaeueiie a eeoea ei?iey e
ia?eaiaioa. Ia?aaea/a AeIIA a iiae/eiaiea Ionnieeie oneeeaaea aai
ee/ioth aeanoue.

A oneeaiee oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u iniaia cia/aiea eiae caeii io 3 ai?aey
1926 a., ooaa?aeeaoee eiio?ieue i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaae i?ionithcaie. Iinea
iieooaiey a eiioea ieoya?y ia Ionnieeie, 5 iiya?y 1926 a. aue ecaeai
caeii i ?inionea anao “aioeiaoeeiiaeueiuo” ia?oee, /ai oi?iaeueii
caaa?oeeny ia?aoiae e iaeiiia?oeeiie nenoaia. A ai?aea 1927 a. auea
i?eiyoa oae iacuaaaiay “Oa?oey o?oaea”, niaeanii eioi?ie onoaiaaeeaaeny
ei?ii?aoeaiue i?eioeei no?oeoo?u ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaa Eoaeee. Aianoi
i?ionithcia nicaeaaaeenue ei?ii?aoeee, iauaaeeiyaoea ?aai/eo e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae eaaeaeie io?anee i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoe ei?ii?aoeee
iaoiaeeeenue iiae ainoaea?noaaiiui eiio?ieai e aeieaeiu auee noaoue
e?aaoaieueiui eaiiai oaoenoneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Eaiaeeaeaoia a
ia?eaiaio iiaee oaia?ue auaeaeaaoue oieueei ei?ii?aoeee.
Iaiiiai/eneaiiay iiiiceoeey ia eiaea ieeaeeo aiciiaeiinoae aeey
i?ioeaiai?noaa oaoecio ia ia?eaiaioneii iii?eua.

A iniiaa oaoenoneie aeieo?eiu eaaeaea eaeay “iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie” aeanoe,
noiyaoae yeiau ia no?aaea “iaueo eioa?ania, Enoiaey ec yoie eaeae,
oaoenou o?aaiaaee io ia?iaea iieiiai iiae/eiaiey. “Ana a ainoaea?noaa e
ie/aai aia ainoaea?noaa”, — yoe neiaa Ionnieeie — naiaai ?iaea oi?ioea
oaoenoneiai oioaeeoa?ecia. A yoio ia?eiae auee ecaeaiu caeiiu i /enoea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa io “iiaeic?eoaeueiuo yeaiaioia”, i cai?auaiee
?acee/iuo annioeeaoeee, ia eiio?iee?oaiuo oaoenoneie ia?oeae, i i?aaa
i?aoaeoa eiioeneiaaoue iiia?a aacao. Iniaia ianoi caieiae caeii io 24
aeaeaa?y 1925 a. i i?aaao i?aiuea?-ieieno?a. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
caeiiii aeaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa inaiaiaeaeaeny io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae
ia?eaiaioii e ia aue iaycai iiaeaaaoue a ionoaaeo a neo/aa auianaiey
aiooia iaaeiaa?ey.

Oaoenoneea aeayoaee, eniieuecoy naia iieiaeaiea, naie noaiiaeeenue
e?oiiuie i?iiuoeaiieeaie e oeiainenoaie. Ec 400 aeaiooaoia oaoenoneiai
ia?eaiaioa, eca?aiiuo a 1929 a., 175 caieiaee iiea/eaaaiua iinou a
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo niaaoao e?oiiuo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa. Ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea inouanoaeyeinue oaoenoneei ?aaeeiii a eioa?anao
yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaioiaee e aieia n oeaeueth ?aaeecaoeee aa?anneaiuo
ieaiia eoaeueyineiai ainoaea?noaa. Oaeei ia?acii, oa??i?enoe/aneea
ooieoeee oaoenoneiai ainoaea?noaa, ana aai i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e
yeiiiie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey naycuaaeenue n caoaaoie/aneeie
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeie ieaiaie.

5. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea. Iaiaaeaiea ia Yoeiieth. Nithc n Aa?iaieae.

Aa?anneaiay e caoaaoie/aneay aiaoiyy iieeoeea auea iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo
/a?o oaoenoneiai ?aaeeia. Yeiiiieea no?aiu a 20-a aa. ia?aaeeaaea
nouanoaaiiue iiaeuai, eioi?ue ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue iaania/eaaeny
iioieii aia?eeaineeo caeiia a no?aio. A ieaiu oaoenoia aoiaeeee
onoaiiaeaiea eiio?iey Eoaeee iaae anai N?aaeecaiiiii?ueai e yeniainey ia
Aeeaeiai Ainoiea.

A oaa?aea 1929 a oniaoii aue ?ac?aoai eiioeeeo iaaeaeo eaoiee/aneie
oea?eiaueth e oaoenoneei ainoaea?noaii. A ?eia auee iiaeienaiu
Eaoa?aineea niaeaoaiey a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie Eoaeey i?eciaaaea
Aaoeeai noaa?aiiui ainoaea?noaii e iaycuaaeanue auiea/eaaoue Aaeeeiio
i?anoieo e?oiiua aeaiaaeiua noiiu. Yoio aeo iaania/ee Ionnieeie
aaconeiaioth iiaeaea?aeeo eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Aunooiay 14 oaa?aey 1929
a. e aiai?y i iaaeaaii caeeth/aiiuo niaeaoaieyo, iaia Iee IX iacaae
Ionnieeie /aeiaaeii “ieniineaiiui Eoaeee i?iaeaeaieai”.

Aioiaynue e aa?anneaiui aiaiiui aeaenoaeyi, Eoaeey aua a aiaeu
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eea no?ieoaeuenoai
aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa. A 1934 a. Ionnieeie acye ia naay ?oeiaiaenoai
aiaiiuie ieienoa?noaaie, cayaea i?e yoii: “Ia/aeanue yiioa aii?oaeaiee”.

A eiioea oiai aea aiaea Ionnieeie ia/ae iiaeaioiaeo e caoaaoo Yoeiiee,
eiaaoae aiaiiia no?aoaae/aneia cia/aiea aeey ainiiaenoaa a Ao?eea.
Eniieuecoy i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e Aa?iaieae, Ionnieeie
aeiaeeny naeeaeaiey n O?aioeeae e iiaeienae a yiaa?a 1935 a, niaeaoaiea,
eioi?ia oaeoe/anee icia/aei niaeanea O?aioeee ia eoaeueyineoth aa?anneth
i?ioea Yoeiiee. 3 ieoya?y 1935 a. aac iauyaeaiey aieiu 600-ouny/iay
eoaeueyineay a?iey ia/aea aoi?aeaiea ia oa??eoi?eth Yoeiiee. Ianiio?y ia
ia?iiiia i?aainoiaenoai a neeao e iniaaiii a aii?oaeaiee, oaoenou aeieai
ia iiaee aeiaeoueny oniaoa. Eeoue e eiioeo ceiu 1935/36 aa., i?eiaiyy
aacu e naiieaou i?ioea aii?oaeaiiuo onoa?aaoeie ?oaeueyie yoeiiia,
oaoenoneie a?iee oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny ia?aeiia a oiaea aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee. E iath 1936 a. ii/oe any oa??eoi?ey Yoeiiee auea ieeoie?iaaia
eoaeueyineie a?ieae. Caoaao Yoeiiee oneeeaae iiceoeee Eoaeee ia iooyo
niiauaiee Aiaeee e O?aioeee ni N?aaeiei Ainoieii e ?aeiiii Eiaeeeneiai
ieaaia.

Oai ia iaiaa ie iaeia ec yoeo no?ai ia ieacaea i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
eoaeueyineie aa?annee. Iiaui yoaiii ia iooe aiaiiuo aaaioth?
eoaeueyineiai oaoecia yaeeanue eioa?aaioeey a Eniaiee. ?aaeei Ionnieeie
iaeiei ec ia?auo iiaeaea?aeae oaoenoneeo iyoaaeieeia a Eniaiee. Ia
aeiaieuenoaoynue iinueeie aii?oaeaiey, aeo/a noi?ie?iaae
yeniaaeeoeeiiiue ei?ion, eioi?ue anei?a ioieue a Eniaieth. Iaeiaei a
ia?oa 1937 a. iiae Aaaaeaeaoa?ie, iaaeaeaei io Iaae?eaea, eoaeueyineea
“eaaeiia?u” iioa?iaee aeanoieia ii?aaeaiea. Iinea iiiieiaiey a 1937 a.
eoaeueyineee ei?ion i?iaeieaeee o/anoea a aiaauo aeaenoaeyo.

Naeeaeaiea n Aa?iaieae a 30-a aa. noaei ii?aaeaeythuae caaea/ae ai
aiaoiae iieeoeea Eoaeee. A ieoya?a 1936 a. ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae
Eoaeee *eaii iiaeienae niaeaoaiea i iieeoe/aneii nio?oaeie/anoaa aeaoo
oaoenoneeo ?aaeeiia. A iaeiii ec aunooieaiee Ionnieeie iacaae yoi
niaeaoaiea inueth, aie?oa eioi?ie, ii aai iiaieth, aeieaeiu auee
iauaaeeieoueny aa?iiaeneea aea?aeaau. Oae aicieeea inue Aa?eei — ?ei,
ii?iaeaeaiiay iauiinoueth ono?aieaiee aeaoo oaoenoneeo aea?aeaa. Ii
oneiaeyi iiaeienaiiuo niaeaoaiee Eoaeey i?eciaaaea i?aai Aa?iaiee ia
onoaiiaeaiea aa?iaineiai ainiiaenoaa a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia. Yoi auei
ia/aeii iiae/eiaiey eoaeueyineie iieeoeee aeeeoaoo Aeoea?a. A iiya?a
1937 a. Eoaeey i?eieioea e Aioeeiieioa?iianeiio iaeoo, eioi?ue ca aiae
aei yoiai iiaeienaee Aa?iaiey e ssiiiey. Oaeei ia?acii, inue aa?anneaiuo
ainoaea?noa i?aa?aoeeanue a “o?aoaieueiee”. Nionoy ianyoe Eoaeey auoea
ec Eeae Iaoeee, e i?e yoii Ionnieeie cayaee, /oi aai no?aia ieeiaaea
ooaea ia aa?iaony.

A naioya?a 1938 a. Ionnieeie i?eiye aeoeaiia o/anoea a caeeth/aiee
ithioaineeo niaeaoaiee, ieacaa oai naiui Aeoea?o cia/eoaeueioth iiiiuue
a ?an/eaiaiee *aoineiaaeee. Ni naiae noi?iiu, Ionnieeie a ai?aea 1939 a.
i?aaeuyaee aeaaineiio ei?ieth Ciao oeueoeiaooi, iinea /aai eoaeueyineea
aienea ieeoie?iaaee Aeaaieth.

22 iay 1939 a. Eoaeey e Aa?iaiey iiaeienaee “Noaeueiie iaeo”,
iaycuaathuee iaa noi?iiu a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey aieiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
ae?oa ae?oaa “ia nooa, ia ii?a e a aicaeooa”. Oaeei ia?acii,
i?aaeuaeouea niaeaoaiey auee i?aia?aciaaiu a aiaiiue nithc, eioi?ue nai
Ionnieeie iacaae “i?oaeeai caaiaaaiey, a ia iai?iiu”.

Eoaeueyineee oaoeci naieie aeoeeyie ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia aeoeaii
i?eaeeaeae ia/aei ie?iaie aieiu.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aa?aee/aaneee ss.I., Eaaee/aiei O.A. Anaie?iay enoi?ey. 2-a ecaeaiea.
Eeaa 1997a.

2. “Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai” Iiae ?aae. I.A.
AEeaeeiaa e I.A. E?aoaieiieeiaie. Iineaa 1998a.

3. C.I. *a?ieeianeee “Anaiauay enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa”. Iineaa,
1996a.

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