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История военных поселений (1810-1857)

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Enoi?ey aiaiiuo iinaeaiee (1810-1857)

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaena?iae? I (Aeaaineiaa?iiue), Aeaena?iae? Ia?aeiae/ (12 (23) aeaeaa?y
1777, N.-Iaoa?ao?a — 19 iiya?y (1 aeaeaa?y) 1825, Oaaai?ia) — eiia?aoi?
Ana?inneeneee n 11 (24) ia?oa 1801 ii 19 iiya?y (1 aeaeaa?y) 1825,
noa?oee nui eiia?aoi?a Iaaea I e Ia?ee O?aei?iaiu.

Ieeiea?e I (Ia?aeiae/) (25 ethiy (6 ethey) 1796, Oea?neia Naei — 18
oaa?aey (2 ia?oa) 1855, Iaoa?ao?a) — eiia?aoi? Ana?inneeneee n 14
aeaeaa?y (26 aeaeaa?y) 1825 ii 18 oaa?aey (2 ia?oa) 1855 aiaea.

Aeaena?iae? II Ieeiea?aae/ (17 (29) ai?aey 1818, Iineaa — 1 (13) ia?oa
1881, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a) — eiia?aoi? Ana?inneeneee, Oea?ue Iieueneee e
aaeeeee eiycue Oeieyiaeneee 1855—1881.

A?ae/aaa – i/aiue i?aaeai, o?aoee a ie?a iinea Aiaa e Aeaenaiae?a I.
Eniieiye iaoaie/anee ana i?eeacaiey, aue aa?ai oea?th, ieeiaaea ia a?ae
acyoie (5iiya?y 1796 aiaea, anooiay ia i?anoie Iaaae: niaaeeiea eo ?oee,
neacae: «Aoaeueoa ae?ocueyie e iiiiaaeoa iia», iinea nia?oe – au?
aieueoa cia/aiey noaee i?eaeaaaoue yoei neiaai).

Ia?aua aiaeu iinea aieiu 1812-1815 – ai?iaea, aea?aaie iionoioaiu,
?aci?aiu, e?anoueyia ia iieo/eee aeaeaiioth iaa?aaeo ca naie iao?eioeci
– inaiaiaeaeaiea io e?aiinoiiai aiaoa(30 aaaonoa 1814a. – e?anoueyia,
aa?iue iao ia?iae – aea iieo/ao icaeo naith io Aiaa), iiiaueee, /oiau
eiiiaine?iaaoue oauoee ia/aee au? aieueoa eniieueciaaoue e?anoueyi, a
iauai ii iaeioi?ui aeaiiui a aieia iiaeaei 2 iei. /aeiaae.

N 1815-1819 i?aaei?eieiathony iiiuoee, ?ac?aaaouaathony i?iaeou ii
ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, ?ac?aaioea eiinoeoooeee, ii ec-ca
iaaeiaieuenoaa iaeioi?uo aeai?yi e ?aaiethoeeiiiiai iano?iy a Aa?iia
Aeaenaiae? I ioeacuaaaony io iiaeiaiuo ?aoi?i.

Aeaenaiae? I ai?ieny n ?aaiethoeeae a Aa?iia, a A?ae/aaa a ?innee, a
1820 A?ae/aaaa nionoeee n oeaie, aei 1825 aiaea – 650 ainnoaiee, 2/3 ec
ieo a 1815-1825. A?ae/aaaueia a iniiaiii i?iyaeyeanue a iiaeaaeaiee
ainnoaiee.

1. I?aaeunoi?ey, ooieoeee iinaeaiee

Au? Iaaea 1 caaioeea iuneue i oii, eae ?acei oaaee/eaaoue /eneaiiinoue
a?iee a aiaiiia a?aiy e ?acei nie?auaoue a ie?iia, oi anoue au? i?e
Iaaea 1 ?anniao?eaaeny aii?in i aiaiiuo iinaeaieyo, ii i?eaeoiae eo, a
oi/iaa ia?aiye o iaeiaai o?aioeocneiai aaoi?a Na?aaia Aeaenaiae? I.
Aa?oeai iacuaaao aiaiiua iinaeaiey «aaee/aeoei i?anooieaieai» e
«ainoaea?noaii A?ae/aaaa», iaeiaei, aiaiiua iinaeaiey iaiai?io
aeaeaeenue ec niia?aaeaiey aoiaiiinoe, /oiau ia io?uaaoue /aeiaaea ia 25
eao io naiuee. A?ae/aaa aeaaea nia/aea i?ioeaeeny aaaaeaieth aiaiiuo
iinaeaiee, i?aaeeaaay Aeaenaiae?o ae?oaie auoiae – iooai nie?auaiey
n?iea neoaeau nieaeao n 25 aei 8 eao, e ec oaieueiyaiuo nicaeaaaoue
?aca?a, ii Aeaenaiae? ia iia auno?i iiaeeeciaaoue aienea ii i?onneie
nenoaia, a ?innee auee ia?iiiua oa??eoi?ee, ieioea aei?iae, ieceay
ieioiinoue ianaeaiey aieueoeinoaa ?aeiiia, oaeaeaiiinoue ianaeaiiuo
ioieoia ae?oa io ae?oaa. I?e Aeaenaiae?a ?anoiaeu ia a?ieth i?aauoaee
iieiaeio anao aeioiaeia no?aiu. Aeaenaiae?o 1 i?aaeeaaaee nie?aoeoue
/eneaiiinoue a?iee, niioaaonoaaiii nie?aoeeenue au e ecaea?aeee
ainoaea?noaa ia a?ieth, ii Aeaenaiae? n ?acae?aaeaieai aiai?ee, /oi ii
ia iiaeao niaea?aeaoue a?ieth iaiueoa, /ai Aano?ey e I?onney aianoa,
eiaaea aea aio aiai?eee, /oi iie ?anionoeee /anoue naieo aiene, ii
ioaa/ae, /oi aeoiaao yoi naeaeaoue. A aanaaea aea n i?eaeeaeaiiuie
ethaeueie ii aiai?ee i oii, /oi i nie?auaiee aiene ?innee ia iiaeao
auoue e ?a/e.

Caaeoiaiu iie auee aeey auiieiaiey 2 ooieoeee: oeneaeueiie e
ea?aoaeueiie, e?iia oiai, iinaeaiey iicaieeee au ?aoeoue i?iaeaio
/eneaiiinoe a?iee. Aiaiiua iinaeaiey noaee iiaie oi?iie eiiieaeoiaaiey e
niaea?aeaiey a?iee, i?aaeiieaaaeinue naeaeaoue e?anoueyi nieaeaoaie, ii
iiieii ianaiey aieineie neoaeau inoaaeoue ca ieie e caieaaeaeea.
E?anoueyia aeieaeiu auee iaania/eaaoue naay naie ?aaioie ia iiea. Ec
iinaeyi oioaee naeaeaoue cae?uooth eanoo, eioi?oth au eniieueciaaee a
ai?ueaa n e?anoueyineeie aoioaie – aei 1825 aiaea – 650 e?anoueyineeo
ainnoaiee, 2/3 ec ieo a 1815-1825. Iie aeieaeiu auee aeeoue ca
i?aaeaeaie aea?aaie, a aiaiiii iinaeaiee, eiiaaea iinaeaiey
ono?aeaaeenue i?yii a aea?aaiyo. Aeaoe aiaiiuo iinaeyi aeieaeiu auee
oaeaea iieo/aoue noaoon aiaiiiai iinaeaioea, n 7 eao iaeue/eee ia/eiaee
iao/aoueny aiaiiiio ?aianeo. A 18 eao iieiaeuo ethaeae ioi?aaeyee a
aieineea /anoe. Ana ioae/eiu io 18 aei 45 eao n/eoaeenue
aiaiiiiaycaiiuie.

Aiaiiua iinaeaiey ieaie?iaaeinue aaanoe au? a 1810 aiaeo. Ii aiaiiue
ieieno? Aa?eeae aea-Oieee any/anee nii?ioeaeyeny yoiio,
aini?aiyonoaiaaea e aieia n Iaiieaiiii, oae eae o?aaiaaea iiiai
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ethaeneeo ?aca?aia. Iiuo aaaaeaiey aiaiiuo
iinaeaiee a Iiaeeaaneie aoaa?iee a 1810a. ieacaeny iaoaea/iui. Iaeiaei n
1816 aiaea aiaiiuie iinaeaieyie caiyeenue aieioioth. Ia/aeueieeii
aiaiiuo iinaeaiee aue Aeaenae Aiae?aaae/ A?ae/aaa. I?aeoeea i?eiaiyeanue
oaeay aea eae e a 1810 aiaeo, oieueei n aieueoae ianoie/eainoueth:
e?anoueyineea ecau niineeenue e noaaeeenue iaeeiaeiaua aeiia,
?ann/eoaiiua ia 4 naiuee, e eaaeaeiio naiaenoao iiaenaeyeinue ii 2
nieaeaoa aeaenoaothuae ?aaoey?iie a?iee – ec iaoiou e ec eaaaea?ee,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee iiiiaaoue e?anoueyiai a caieaaeaeee. A iinaeaieyo
o/?aaeaeaeenue: oeieu, ainieoaee, ?aianeaiiua ianoa?neea. A 1817-1818
aiaeao iinaeaiey auee aaaaeaiu a Iiaai?iaeneie, Oa?niineie e Neiaiaenei
– Oe?aeineie aoaa?ieyo. Ia?aie aoaa?ieae noaea Iiaai?iaeneay, oae eae
oai iaoiaeeeinue iiianouea A?ae/aaaa, iiyoiio ca i?ioeannii auei
oaeiaiaa iaaethaeaoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue. Oeaio?aeueiia naei aieinoe
Aunieia nai?aei e A?ae/aaa ?aoee iono?ieoue oai aeiia oaea ii-iiaiio
ia?acoeo. I?iyaeyeenue any/aneea caaiou i ianoiii ianaeaiee: ethaeyi
aeaaaee neio, eioaaeae, i?aaeinoaaeyee eueaiou e nnoaeu, ii n ae?oaie
noi?iiu – ia?aaeeaue oicyei, ia iiae/eiyaoeeny i?eeacai e ?anii?yaeeo
iia auoue eeoai anao yoeo aeaa e auneai ec iinaeaiey. E 1825 aiaeo a
noaoon aiaiiiai iinaeaioea auea ia?aaaaeaia 1/3 eacaiiuo e?anoueyi,
ieiei 375 oun., iiaenaeaii ieiei 131 oun.nieaeao ?aaoey?iuo aiene. A
1825 aiaeo ei?ion aiaiiuo iinaeaiee ninoiye ec 90 aaoaeueiiia iaoiou
iiaai?iaeneeo e 36 aaoaeueiiia iaoiou e 249 yneaae?iiia eaaaea?ee
oe?aeineeo iinaeaiee. I?e Ieeieaa 1 aiaiiua iinaeaiey i?iaeieaeaee
?anoe?youeny (oaea a ?aoi?ie?iaaiiii aeaea iinea ainnoaiey a
Iiaai?iaeneie aoaa?iee 1831a.), iie caiyee Aeoaaneoth, Iiaeieueneoth,
Eeaaneoth aoaa?iee e oa??eoi?ee ia Eaaeaca. Ieaie?iaaeinue nicaeaoue a
ss?ineaaneie aoaa?iee. A 1857 aiaeo a nayce n iiaeaioiaeie e
e?anoueyineie ?aoi?ia aiaiiua iinaeaiey ia/aee oi?acaeiyoueny,
/eneaiiinoue eo aeinoeaaea e yoiio iiiaioo ieiei 800 oun. /aeiaae.

2. AEanoieinoue, iethnu e ieionu

Aanue auo aiaiiuo iinaeyi aue ?aaeaiaioe?iaai, ionooieaiey io ?anienaiey
no?iai ea?aeenue, iacia/aeenue iaeacaiey iaeeaie e oieoe?ooaiaie (aeaeee
eiciaue i?oo aeeeiith a 2 i.). Iniiaiui caiyoeai auee aiaiiua o/aiey.
Ana naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ?aaiou i?iecaiaeeeenue oieueei ii i?eeaco
eiiaiaee?a. Ioeoea?ia eioa?aniaaea i?aaeaea anaai aiaiiay iiaeaioiaea,
iie iaei ?acae?aeenue a caieaaeaeee, ec-ca yoiai naeueneia oicyenoai
ia?aaeei no?aaeaei. ?aianeaie e oi?aiaeae iiaeii auei caieiaoueny eeoue
n ?ac?aoaiey ia/aeuenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa a ?aeiia aiaiiuo iinaeaiee
i?ae?aoeeanue anyeay oi?aiaey iniaaiii aieueoea i?eoaniaiey eniuouaaee
caaeeoi/iua e?anoueyia, aea?aeaaoeany aieaa iacaaeneii. A?ae/aaa n/eoae,
/oi «iao ie/aai iianiaa aiaaoiai iinaeyieia». Aiaiiue eiio?ieue e
aeenoeeieeia auee ia oieueei iaae ioae/eiaie, ii e iaae aeaiueiaie e
iaae aeaoueie. Aeaaea aeaieoueny aiaiiue iinaeyiei iia oieueei n
?ac?aoaiey ia/aeuenoaa. Ia?ie e aeaaooee auno?aeaaeenue a aeaa oa?aiae,
e eiiaiaee? iacia/ae iaaanoo eaaeaeiio ia?ith. Iniaaiii oyaeaei auei
e?anoueyiai a ia/aea aiaae?aiey aiaiiuo iinaeaiee: i?eoiaeeeinue
no?ieoue aei?iae, aeiia, /oi ioieiaei oeio a?aiaie e caei?iauey. Aeey
i?inouo e?anoueyi yoe iinaeaiey ianiio?y ia iaoa?eaeueioth auaiaeo auee
ooaea iaaiee, iie iaaycuaaee iiaua ii?yaeee, ii/oe ia inoaaeyee i?aaa ia
naiaiaeo auai?a e ee/ioth aeeciue.

«AEeaiai ?oaeee, eae iyni», — ienae i oii a?aiaie N.I. Iaeueaoiia.
Iau/ii aeaaea naiua caei?iaua nieaeaou ia auaea?aeeaaee aieueoa 6 oun.
iaeie, a iacia/aee ei a iaeacaiea e 8, e 10, inoaeaeaiiiai nia/aea aaee
iaaeaeo aeaoiy nieaeaoneeie oa?aiaaie, i?eaycaa ca ?oee e i?eeeaaeai
?oaeae, caoai aieieee e, iaeiiaoe, aacee ia oaeaaeea. Iineaaeiea 2—4
oun. iaeie aeee oaea ii ia?oaiio oaeo.

1837-1841 aiaeu Eenaeaaui i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee oeo/oeoue iieiaeaiea
e?anoueyi, i?aaeioa?aoeoue eo ia?aaiae a noaoon aiaiiuo iinaeyi (?aoi?ia
Iaaea Aeieo?eaae/a Eenae?aa). Auei nicaeaii ieienoa?noai
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa, eioi?ia aicaeaaee Eenaeaa, iaeiaei, ana
iiiuoee ii oeo/oaieth aeiee e?anoueyi auee aanii?yaei/iu e ?iaee,
e?anoueyia oaea e ia iaeeaeaee aeia?a.

Ieeieae 1 – aeaeae iii?o a /eiiaie/anoaa e a?iee.

Iaeiaei e?iia oaeeo yaiuo ieionia auee o yoiai i?aaei?eyoey auee e
iethnu.

Aieiai-iinaeaioeai aue iaauai oeaeue ?yae eueaio e ananoi?iiiyy iiiiuue
a oicyenoaa.

«Iie inaiaiaeaeathony aaeeiiaeaeu iaanaaaea io anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iiai?ia e io anao caineeo iiaeiiinoae. Niaea?aeaiea eo aeaoae e
i?eaioiaeaiea iiuo ia neoaeao i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eieiaao ia naia
iiia/aiea, i?iecaiaey ei i?iaeiaieuenoaea e iaioiaee?iaaiea aac anyeiai
ia?aiaiaiey ?iaeeoaeae». Eiaaeeaeai, aaeiaai e ne?ioai aoaeao
auaeaaaoueny «eacaiiue i?iaeaio». «Acaiai aaooeo no?iaiee aicaaaeaiu
aoaeoo iiaua aeiia, oaeiaiaeoea e iiiauaieth. Caieaaeaeue/aneeie
i?oaeeyie, ?aai/ei e aeiiaoiei neioii iaaeaeaiu aoaeoo ana ec ieo, eiio
iiaeiaiia iiniaea ieaaeaony iaiaoiaeeiui».

Ia/aeuenoai iiaeaea?aeeaaei a iinaeaieyo /enoioo e ii?yaeie, ia
aeiioneaei ieeiai aei ninoiyiey ieuaou e ?aci?aiey, iiiiaaei a
ian/anoiuo neo/ayo.

Oaeei ia?acii, eae iu aeaeei ia ia?aue acaeyae a iinaeaieyo ana ?aaioaei
oae neaaeaii e auaeyaeaei eae aeaenoaeoaeueii oniaoiia i?aaei?eyoea:
i?ioeaaoaee naeueneia oicyenoai, ?aianea, e ii/oe an?, /oi ioaeii auei
aeey i?iaeiaieuenoaey e iaioiaee?iaaiey yoeo aiaiiuo /anoae, iie ia
iieoiaee, a i?iecaiaeeee naie. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio A?ae/aaao oaeaeinue
neiieoue caianiue eaieoae aei 50 iei. ?oa. (eaieoae aiaiiuo iinaeaiee),
e ii ethaee oaanoaoueny yoei. A?ae/aaa iieo/ee iiiai eanoiuo iocuaia io
a?. A. I. Ei/oaay iinea eo ee/iiai iniio?a, io ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eiio?iea?a aa?iia Eaiioaiaaocaia, Nia?aineiai, Ea?aiceia. Iaeiaei, any
auaiaea, ieoiaaiinoue e oniaoiinoue en/acaee i?e ?an/aoa noii,
iio?a/aiiuo ia ono?ienoai iinaeaiee, a ia?aua aiaeu aiaiiuo iinaeaiee
auei iio?a/aii 100 iei. ?oaeae.

3. I?ioeainoiyiea ianaeaiey aaaaeaieth aiaiiuo iinaeaiee

Ii ia ioaeii aeoiaoue, /oi ethaee aac?iiioii niaeaoaeenue ia iiaeiaiua
ia?a i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aiaiiua iinaeyia nii?ioeaeyeenue a?ae/aaaneiio
?aaeeio anaie niiniaaie, aieioue aei aii?oaeaiiuo ainnoaiee. E?oiiaeoaa
ec ieo — a a. *oaoaaa Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee eaoii 1819 a. — A?ae/aaa
aeanoiei iiaeaaee, aiaiiue noae i?eaiai?ee 275 iianoaioeaa e nia?oiie
eacie. Ii ianiio?y ie ia /oi Aeaenaiae? ia naeaaaeny: «Aiaiiua iinaeaiey
aoaeoo ai /oi au oi ie noaei, oioy au i?eoeinue oeiaeeoue o?oiaie
aei?iao io Iaoa?ao?aa aei *oaeiaa!» (aieueoa 100 ei ia?aie eeiee aiaiiuo
iinaeaiee). A?ae/aaa aea aua iiaeno?aeae aai, aiai?y, /oi anee iaaei
aoaeao, oi e anth ?inneth aiaiiui iinaeaieai naeaeaai.

Ai?i/ai, eaae?iaay a?iey niaea?aeaeanue iaiiiaei eo/oa aiaiiuo iinaeaiee
e oiaea i?ioanoiaaea. I/aiue iaiooaei e iceiaeei oea?eci «aiciouaiea» 16
ieoya?y 1820 a. a eaea-aaa?aeee Naiaiianeii iieeo

. Yoio iiee, noi?ie?iaaiiue aianoa n I?aia?aaeaineei iieeii a 1695 a.
Iao?ii Aaeeeei, aue noa?aeoae e naiie i?eaeeaae?iaaiiie aieineie
/anoueth a ?inney. Oaoii aai n iieiaeuo eao aue nai Aeaenaiae? I,
eioi?iai eiaiii naiaiiaoeu oaeoe/anee aicaaee ia i?anoie. Oea?ue i/aiue
ethaee iiee e nai iinee aai oi?io, ciae iieiaiii anao ioeoea?ia iieea e
aeaaea iiiaeo nieaeao. A iieeo ia i?eiaiyeenue oaeaniua iaeacaiey,
ioeoea?u ia?auaeenue e nieaeaoai ia «au». Oae auei aei aaniu 1820 a.,
eiaaea A?ae/aaa ?aoee «iieii/eoue n eeaa?aeeciii» o naiaiiaoeaa. 9
ai?aey 1820 a. ii ianoiyieth A?ae/aaaa eiiaiaee?ii Naiaiianeiai iieea
aue iacia/ai iieeiaiee O.A. Oaa?oe, eioi?ue e oiio a?aiaie oniae
i?ineaaeoueny «oaa?oeaaui» iiainoii a Aeaoa?eiineaaa, o. a. a?aoneie
iiaeeie aeey nieaeao, caio/aiiuo ei aei nia?oe. Iiaeao auoue, iiyoiio
A?ae/aaa io?aeiiaiaeiaae Oaa?oea oea?th eae «/aeiaaea n iniauie aiaiiuie
ea/anoaaie» e i?aaeienae Oaa?oeo «auaeoue aeo?ue» ec naiaaiaea Oaa?oe
n?aco ainnoaiiaee a iieeo eoeueo oieoe?ooaiia * nianoaaiii?o/ii aee
«aeiiaiuo» (iai?eia?, a oii, /oi «eaoey * eee «iaaanaei niio?ae»)
ia?/aoeaie ii aeacai, ieaaae ei * eeoei, ieiae iiaaie. Eiaaea aea 16
ieoya?y ii iiaieie a /ai i?iaeieaoaainy ?yaeiaiai aaeieue no?iy,
i?eeacaa nieaeaoai ieaaaoue ia eo oiaa?eua, naiaiiaoeu iioa?yee
oa?iaiea. A oio aea aa/a? 1 y «ainoaea?aaa» ?ioa naiiaieueii
iino?ieeanue ia ia?aeee/eo, aucaaea ?ioiia ia/aeuenoai e iiaeaea aio
aeaeia ia iieeiaiai eiiaiaee?a. Inoaeueiua ?iou iiaeaea?aeaee 1-oeA
Naiaiiaoeu oioaee auei oaeoue Oaa?oea, iaeiaei ii ecia?aoaoaeueii
ni?yoaeny, caeiiaaoenue a iaaic. Iiiuoee aunieeo /eiia (aeeth/ay a?aoa
oea?y aaeeeiai eiycy Ieoaeea Iaaeiae/a e iaoa?ao?aneiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a a?aoa I.A. Ieei?aaeiae/a) oaiai?eoue naiaiiaoeaa
i?eianoe iiaeiioth ie e /aio ia i?eaaee. Aiaiiua aeanoe iiiuoaeenue
i?eioaiooue «aoioiaueeia», cayaea, /oi i?ioea ieo aunoaaeee oanoue
iooae. «Aoioiaueee» ioaa/aee: «Iu iiae Ai?iaeeiii e ia oanoue aeaeaee!»

Iiaeaeeoue aiciouaiea naiaiiaoeaa oaeaeinue n?aaieoaeueii eaaei (aanue
iiee aue a?anoiaai e aac nii?ioeaeaiey i?ai?iaiaeaeai a Iao?iiaaeianeoth
e?aiinoue), ii oea?eci oniio?ae a iai no?aoioth aeey naay iianiinoue,
aia?aua iniciaa, /oi a?iey, aeaaea aaa?aeey ia?anoaao auoue aai
iaaeaaeiie iii?ie. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi oea?ue e aai iiaeaa?aee
naiaiiaoeaa ethoie ?ani?aaa: 802 nieaeaoa auee i?aaeaiu noaeo, aeaayoue
ec ieo iieo/eee ii 6 oun. iaeie e aea aeeauie auee nineaiu ia eaoi?ao,
inoaeueiua — a nnueeo; aanue iiee aue ?anoi?ie?iaai. Aieiaiey a a?iee e
iniaaiii aoio naiaiiaoeaa aeaee iiiyoue oea?ecio, /oi e?aiiea iiaeao
a?iceoue ioianthaeo. Iiyoiio ii eae ieeiaaea oneeee iieeoeaeneee iaaeci?
ca anaie neiyie iauanoaa. N 1810 a. a no?aia ooieoeeiie?iaaei
Ieienoa?noai iieeoeee. Naa?o oiai iniaay neoaeaa nunea iaoiaeeeanue a
aaaeaiee A?ae/aaaa. Iaeiiaoe, e Ieei?aaeiae/ eiae naith oieiineoth
aaaioo?o. Iaeiaei oea?eci ia oaeiaieuenoaiaaeny yoei o?aocaacaeeai
oaeiuo iieeoeee e a 1821 a., anei?a iinea aoioa naiaiiaoeaa, o/?aaeee
niaoeeaeueioth iieeoeeth a a?iee. Nune noae ianoieueei anaiauaiethuei,
/oi nai A?ae/aaa iiaeic?aaae ca niaie iaaeaniia iaaethaeaiea. Aeaeaa?eno
A.N. Aaoaiueeia aniiieiae i oii a?aiaie: «Ana iiaeaaaeaiu oaea auee iiae
iaeei o?iaaiue iaaiciooeiiai aanneeey e ana caaenaee io iiiai/eneaiiuo
oaeiuo iieeoeee».

Ieeieae 2 yooaeoii ia/ae naia i?aaeaiea n aenaeeoe, eae caiaoee Aa?oeai,
yoio /aeiaae aue au?auai a n?aaea ioa?auaiey e ai?ueau n ?aaiethoeeae,
yoi aue /aeiaae aiaiiie iooo?u, niaiea eiiaiaeiaaiea aaa?aeaeneie
a?eaaaeie ia ainoaea?noai. Yoi aue o?aoee nui nui Iaaea (anaai 10 aeaoae
– 1 Aeaenaiae? 1, 2 – Eiinoaioei, 4 – Ieoaee). Ieeieae 1 aiai?ee, /oi
aio ioaeiu ia oiieee a aa?iiiiaeaeaiiua (Aaieaiaei?o, Aaeea?aa?a,
Iannaeue?iaea), ii auee oiiua ethaee, ii oeaieeenue iie ai?acaei ieaea,
/ai iiaeaeaiiua – Eaie?ei, Eenaeaa, Ia?ianeee.

A?ae/aaaa oaea ia auei i?e Ieeieaa, ii aue oaieai, oae eae aue ia ca
Ieeieay, a ca Eiinoaioeia, ai a?aiy ainnoaiey aeaeaa?enoia, iaeiaei, ana
a?ae/aaaneea eaae?u auee nio?aiaiu e i?eiyou ia aii?oaeaiea Ieeieaai.

3 ethey 1826a.- 3 ioaeaeaiea nianoaaiiie aai eiia?aoi?neiai aaee/ey
eaioeaey?ee (1-iiaeai? eaae?ia, 2-ecaeaiea caeiiia,3-nune, anaai 6).

Oeaico?a, ?acaoe e i?iecaie /eiiaieeia e aiaiueiu.

1826-1850 – ii/oe 2000 e?anoueyineeo ainnoaiee. Aoioiaaee e?anoueyia,
?aai/ea, iianiay oaiaeaioeey n?aaee e?anoueyi – no?aieaiea ia e
iaeaa/aieth e?aiinoiiai aiaoa, a e niaa?oaiiii ecaaaeaieth io iaai.

Iaeaieueoee ?aciao ec ianniauo aunooieaiee a ieeieaaaneie ?innee
i?eia?aee «/oiiua» e «oiea?iua» aoiou 1830—1831 aa. Oae iie auee iacaaiu
ioeoeeaeueii, iineieueeo iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iiaiaeii e iei iineoaeeee
ea?aioeiiua ia?u i?ioea yieaeaiee /oiu e oiea?u.

Iianiui aeey naiiaea?aeaaey ieacaeny «oiea?iue» aoio aiaiiuo iinaeyi e
i?eniaaeeieaoeony e iei eaae?iauo nieaeao a Iiaai?iaeneie aoaa?iee n 11
ethey 1831 a. Caeanue ia oa??eoi?ee a 9 oun. ea. ei ?aniieaaaeenue 120
oun. nieaeao, iinaeyi e /eaiia eo naiae. Ii/oe ana iie ainnoaee e ia/aee
?ani?aaeyoueny aeanoyie. I?e yoii iniciaaaeanue e aioeoaiaeaeueioth
iai?aaeaiiinoue aoioa. Oea?ue e aai ie?oaeaiea a oa aeaa iaaeaee
ia?aaeeee no?ao, iaauaaeue iinea ainnoaiey aeaeaa?enoia, iiyoiio e
?ani?aaa auea nae?aiie: aieaa 4,5 oun. iinaeyi e nieaeao i?aaenoaee
ia?aae aiaiii-iieaaui noaeii, iacia/aeenue i?eaiai?u e nia?oe, ia
eaoi?ao, e nnueeo. Oieueei a Noa?ie ?onna auee caaeou iania?oue 129
/aeiaae.

*oaoiiue onoaa 10 ethiy 1826a. – oeaico?a aeioiaeeea aei aano?aea
(caaeooeoue a ca?iaeuoa aeo?ioth iuneue, caaeooeoue ia?aciaaiiia
aeai?yinoai, /oiau eaa/a i?aaeoue iaia?aciaaiiie /a?iueth).

Yoi aue a?aiaeeiciue yeiiiie/aneee e nioeeaeueiue yenia?eiaio, eioi?ue
caneoaeeaaao ouaoaeueiiai aieiaiey e eco/aiey enoi?eeia, e niaeaeaieth,
naaaeaiey nio?aieaoeany i i?i io?uai/iu, /oi ineiaeiyao aai eco/aiea.

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