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История России во второй половине XIX века

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?AOA?AO

ii eo?no «Enoi?ey ?innee»

ii oaia: «?inney ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea»

1. Aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a.

A 1857 a. ii oeaco Aeaenaiae?a II ia/ae ?aaioaoue nae?aoiue eiieoao ii
e?anoueyineiio aii?ino, aeaaiie caaea/ae eioi?iai auea ioiaia
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa n iaycaoaeueiui iaaeaeaieai e?anoueyi caieae. Caoai
oaeea eiieoaou auee nicaeaiu ii aoaa?ieyi. A ?acoeueoaoa eo ?aaiou (a
o/eouaaeenue iiaeaeaiey e iaeacu, eae iiiaueeia, oae e e?anoueyi) auea
?ac?aaioaia ?aoi?ia ii ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa aeey anao ?aeiiia no?aiu
n o/aoii ianoiie niaoeeoeee. Aeey ?acee/iuo ?aeiiia auee ii?aaeaeaiu
iaeneiaeueiay e ieieiaeueiay aaee/eiu ia?aaeaaaaiiai e?anoueyieio
iaaeaea.

Eiia?aoi? 19 oaa?aey 1861 aiaea iiaeienae oeaeue ?yae caeiiia. Caeanue
aue Iaieoano e Iieiaeaiea i aea?iaaiee naiaiaeu e?anoueyiai, aeieoiaiou
i anooieaiee a neeo Iieiaeaiey, ia oi?aaeaiee naeueneeie iaueiaie e ae?.
Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa ia auea aaeeiia?aiaiiui niauoeai. Nia/aea
inaiaiaeaeaeenue iiiaue/uee e?anoueyia, caoai oaeaeueiua e i?eienaiiua e
caaiaeai. E?anoueyia iieo/eee ee/ioth naiaiaeo, ii caiey inoaaaeanue
iiiaue/ueae nianoaaiiinoueth, e, iiea ioaiaeeeenue iaaeaeu, e?anoueyia
ia iieiaeaiee «a?aiaiii-iaycaiiuo» ianee a iieueco iiiaueeia iiaeiiinoe,
eioi?ua, ii nooe, ia ioee/aeenue io i?aaeieo, e?aiinoiuo. Iaaeaeu,
ia?aaeaaaaiua e?anoueyiai, auee a n?aaeiai ia 1/5 iaiueoa, /ai oa,
eioi?ua iie ia?aaaouaaee i?aaeaea. Ia yoe caiee caeeth/aeenue aeiaiai?u
i aueoia, iinea yoiai «a?aiaiii-iaycaiiia» ninoiyiea i?ae?auaeinue,
eacia ?aniea/eaaeanue ca caieth n iiiaueeaie, e?anoueyia n eaciie a
oa/aiea 49 eao ec ?an/aoa 6 % aiaeiauo (aueoiiua ieaoaaee).

Iieueciaaiea caieae, acaeiiioiioaiey n aeanoyie no?ieeenue /a?ac iaueio.
Iia nio?aiyeanue eae aa?aio e?anoueyineeo ieaoaaeae. E?anoueyia
i?ee?aieyeenue e iauanoao (ie?o).

A ?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?i auei oie/oiaeaii e?aiinoiia i?aai oi «i/aaeaeiia e
aeey anao iuooeoaeueiia cei», eioi?ia a Aa?iia i?yii iacuaaee «?onneei
?aanoaii». Iaeiaei caiaeueiay i?iaeaia ia auea ?aoaia, oae eae
e?anoueyia i?e ?acaeaea caiee auee auioaeaeaiu ioaeaoue iiiaueeai iyooth
/anoue naieo iaaeaeia.

I?e Aeaenaiae?a II e?iia caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu e ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa
aue oaeaea inouanoaeai ?yae ?aoi?i.

I?eioeei i?iaaaeaiiie a 1864 a. caineie ?aoi?iu ninoiye a auai?iinoe e
aannineiaiinoe. A aoaa?ieyo e oacaeao Oeaio?aeueiie ?innee e /anoe
Oe?aeiu o/?aaeaeaeenue cainoaa a ea/anoaa i?aaiia ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey. Auai?u a caineea nia?aiey i?iaiaeeeenue ia iniiaa
eiouanoaaiiiai, aic?anoiiai, ia?aciaaoaeueiiai e ?yaea ae?oaeo oeaicia.
I?iaaaeaiiay a 1870 a. ai?iaeneay ?aoi?ia ii oa?aeoa?o auea aeecea e
caineie. A e?oiiuo ai?iaeao o/?aaeaeaeenue ai?iaeneea aeoiu ia iniiaa
ananineiaiuo auai?ia.

Iiaua noaeaaiua onoaau auee ooaa?aeaeaiu 20 iiya?y 1864 a. Noaeaaiay
aeanoue auea ioaeaeaia io eniieieoaeueiie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie. Aaiaeeeny
aannineiaiue e aeaniue noae, ooaa?aeaeaeny i?eioeei ianiaiyaiinoe
noaeae. Auei aaaaeaii aeaa aeaea noaea iauee (ei?iiiue) e ie?iaie.
Aaaeiaeoei i?eioeeiii ?aoi?iu auei i?eciaiea ?aaainoaa anao iiaeaeaiiuo
eiia?ee ia?aae caeiiii.

Iinea iacia/aiey a 1861 a. Ae.A. Ieethoeia aiaiiui ieieno?ii ia/eiaaony
?ai?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey aii?oaeaiiuie neeaie. A 1864 a. auei
ia?aciaaii 15 aiaiiuo ie?oaia, iiae/eiaiiuo iaiin?aaenoaaiii aiaiiiio
ieieno?o. A 1867 a. aue i?eiyo aiaiii-noaeaaiue onoaa. A 1874 a. iinea
aeeeoaeueiiai ianoaeaeaiey oea?ue ooaa?aeee Onoaa i anaiauae aieineie
iiaeiiinoe. Aaiaeeeanue aeaeay nenoaia i?ecuaa. ?ae?ooneea iaai?u
ioiaiyeenue, i?ecuao ia neoaeao iiaeeaaeaei ana ioaeneia ianaeaiea,
aeinoeaoaa 21 aiaea.

A 1860 a. aue o/?aaeaeai Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie, i?iecioea ioiaia
ioeoiiie2  nenoaiu, eioi?oth niaieee aeoeecu (1863 a.). N 1862 a.
aaeeinoaaiiui ioaaonoaaiiui ?anii?yaeeoaeai aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia
athaeaeaoa noae ieieno? oeiainia; athaeaeao noae aeaniui. Auea naeaeaia
iiiuoea i?iaaaeaiey aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu (naiaiaeiue iaiai e?aaeeoiuo
aeeaoia ia cieioi e na?aa?i ii onoaiiaeaiiiio eo?no).

Iieiaeaiea i ia/aeueiuo ia?iaeiuo o/eeeuao» io 14 ethiy 1864 a.
eeeaeaee?iaaei ainoaea?noaaiii-oea?eiaioth iiiiiieeth ia i?inaauaiea.
Oaia?ue ioe?uaaoue e niaea?aeaoue ia/aeueiua oeieu ?ac?aoaeinue eae
iauanoaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieyi, oae e /anoiui eeoeai i?e eiio?iea ni noi?iiu
oacaeiuo e aoaa?ineeo o/eeeuiuo Niaaoia e einiaeoi?ia. Onoaa n?aaeiae
oeieu aaiaeee i?eioeei ?aaainoaa anao nineiaee e aa?ieniiaaaeaiee, ii
aaiaeee ieaoo ca iao/aiea. Aeiiacee ?acaeaeeee ia eeanne/aneea e
?aaeueiua. Oieaa?neoaoneee Onoaa (1863 a.) i?aaeinoaaee oieaa?neoaoai
oe?ieoth aaoiiiieth, aaiaeeeenue auai?u ?aeoi?ia e i?ioanni?ia. A iaa
1862 a. ia/aeanue ?aoi?ia oeaico?u, auee aaaaeaiu «a?aiaiiua i?aaeea»,
eioi?ua a 1865 a. caiaiee iiaue oeaico?iue onoaa.

Iiaeaioiaea e ?aaeecaoeey ?aoi?i yaeeenue aaaeiui oaeoi?ii
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu. Aaeieieno?aoeaii ?aoi?iu
auee aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiu, ii iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ia anaaaea
iiniaaaei ca eaeayie oea?y-?aoi?iaoi?a. Iiiaiia?acea e auno?ioa
i?aia?aciaaiee ii?iaeaeaee /oanoai iaoaa?aiiinoe e niooo a iuneyo.
Ethaee oa?yee i?eaioe?u, iiyaeeenue i?aaiecaoeee, eniiaaaeothuea
yeno?aienoneea, naeoaioneea i?eioeeiu. 1 ia?oa 1881 aiaea Aeaenaiae? II
aue oaeo. Iiaue eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? III. i?iaicaeanee eo?n, iacaaiiue a
enoi?eei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a «eiio??aoi?iaie», a a
eeaa?aeueii-enoi?e/aneie «ei??aeoe?iaeie ?aoi?i». Ii au?aceeny a
neaaeothuai.

A 1889 a. aeey oneeaiey iaaeci?a ca e?anoueyiaie auee aaaaeaiu
aeieaeiinoe caineeo ia/aeueieeia n oe?ieeie i?aaaie. Iie iacia/aeenue ec
ianoiuo aeai?yi-caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. Ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa eeoeeenue
i?eeac/eee e iaeeea oi?aiaoeu, ae?oaea iaeieiouea neie ai?iaea.
Eciaiaieth iiaeaa?aeanue noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia. A iiaii iieiaeaiee i
cainoaao 1890 a. auei oneeaii nineiaii-aeai?yineia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai.
A 18821884 aa. auee cae?uou iiiaea ecaeaiey, oi?acaeiaia aaoiiiiey
oieaa?neoaoia. Ia/aeueiua oeieu ia?aaeaaaeenue oea?eiaiiio aaaeiinoao
Neiiaeo.

A yoeo ia?ii?eyoeyo i?iyaeeanue eaeay «ioeoeeaeueiie ia?iaeiinoe» a?aiai
Ieeieay I eicoia «I?aaineaaea. Naiiaea?aeaaea. Aeoo nie?aiey» aue
nicao/ai eicoiaai ooaaeoae yiioe. Iiaua ioeoeeaeueiua eaeaieiae
E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaa (iaa?-i?ieo?i? Neiiaea), I.I. Eaoeia (?aaeaeoi?
«Iineianeeo aaaeiiinoae»), eiycue A. Iaua?neee (ecaeaoaeue aacaou
«A?aaeaeaiei») iionoeee a noa?ie oi?ioea «I?aaineaaea, naiiaea?aeaaea e
ia?iae» neiai «ia?iae» eae «iianiia»; iie i?iiiaaaeiaaee nie?aiea aai
aeooa ia?aae naiiaea?aeaaeai e oea?eiaueth. Ia i?aeoeea iiaay iieeoeea
aueeeanue a iiiuoeo oe?aieaiey ainoaea?noaa iooai iii?u ia o?aaeeoeeiiii
aa?iia i?anoieo aeai?yineia nineiaea. Aaeieieno?aoeaiua ia?u
iiaee?aieyeenue yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaea?aeeie iiiaue/ueeo oicyenoa.

2. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a.

Iinea ii?aaeaiey ?innee a E?uineie aieia neiaeeeinue iiaia niioiioaiea
nee, e iieeoe/aneia ia?aainoai a Aa?iia ia?aoei e O?aioeee. ?inney eae
Aaeeeay aea?aeaaa oo?aoeea aeeyiea ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeaea e
ieacaeanue a ecieyoeee. Eioa?anu yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, a oaeaea
niia?aaeaiey no?aoaae/aneie aaciianiinoe o?aaiaaee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
eeeaeaee?iaaoue ia?aie/aiey aiaiiiai noaeioiaenoaa ia *a?iii ii?a,
i?aaeoniio?aiiua Ia?eaeneei ie?iui aeiaiai?ii 1856 a. Aeeieiiaoe/aneea
oneeey ?innee auee iai?aaeaiu ia ?acuaaeeiaiea o/anoieeia Ia?eaeneiai
ie?a O?aioeee, Aiaeee, Aano?ee.

A eiioea 50-o ia/aea 60-o aa. i?iecioei naeeaeaiea n O?aioeeae, eioi?ay
iaia?aaaeanue caoaaoeoue oa??eoi?ee ia Aiaiieineii iieoino?iaa,
eniieuecoy eoaeueyineia inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea i?ioea Aano?ee. Ii
ioiioaiey n O?aioeeae iaino?eeenue aneaaenoaea aeanoieiai iiaeaaeaiey
?inneae iieueneiai ainnoaiey. A 60-a aa. ie?aiee ioiioaiey ?innee e NOA;
i?aneaaeoy naie eioa?anu, naiiaea?aeaaea iiaeaea?aeeaaei ?anioaeeeaineia
i?aaeoaeuenoai A. Eeieieueia a a?aaeaeaineie aieia. A yoi aea a?aiy auei
aeinoeaiooi niaeaoaiea n I?onneae i iiaeaea?aeea ath o?aaiaaiee ?innee
ia ioiaia Ia?eaeneiai aeiaiai?a, acaiai oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaauaei
ia iaoaoue nicaeaieth Naaa?iaa?iaineiai nithca ai aeaaa n I?onneae.

A 1870 a. O?aioeey iioa?iaea nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea ai
O?aiei-i?onneie aieia. A ieoya?a 1870 a. ?inney cayaeea i naiai ioeaca
auiieiyoue oieceoaeueiua noaouee Ia?eaeneiai aeiaiai?a. A 1871 a.
?onneay aeaeea?aoeey auea i?eiyoa e ocaeiiaia ia Eiiaeiineie
eiioa?aioeee. No?aoaae/aneay caaea/a aiaoiae iieeoeee auea ?aoaia ia
aieiie, a aeeieiiaoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie. A ?acoeueoaoa ?inney iieo/eea
aiciiaeiinoue aieaa aeoeaii aeeyoue ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeaea e i?aaeaea
anaai ia Aaeeaiao.

A «aeeaeiai ca?oaaaeuea» i?iaeieaeaeinue caaiaaaiea e i?eniaaeeiaiea
iiauo oa??eoi?ee. Oaia?ue, a XIX aaea, no?aieaiea e ?anoe?aieth a?aaea
ii?aaeaeyeinue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iioeaaie nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. ?inney aeoeaii o/anoaiaaea a aieueoie iieeoeea, no?aieeanue
iaeo?aeeciaaoue aeeyiea Aiaeee a N?aaeiae Acee, Oo?oeee ia Eaaeaca. A
60-a aa. a NOA i?ienoiaeeea a?aaeaeaineay aieia, eiii?o aia?eeaineiai
oeiiea aue cao?oaeiai. Anoanoaaiiue aai caiaieoaeue iaoiaeeeny «iiae
aieii», a N?aaeiae Acee. E, iaeiiaoe, e caoaaoo oa??eoi?ee oieeaee
noi?ie?iaaaoeany eiia?neea o?aaeeoeee.

A 1858 e 1860 aa. Eeoae aue auioaeaeai onooieoue caiee ii eaaiio aa?aao
Aio?a e Onno?eeneee e?ae. A 1859 a. iinea iieoaaeiaie aieiu ai?oeu
Eaaeaca, iaeiiaoe-oi, auee «caie?aiu», eo aiaiiue e aeooiaiue
i?aaeaiaeeoaeue eiai Oaieeue acyo a ieai a aunieiai?iii aoea Aoiea. A
1864 a. caaa?oeeinue iiei?aiea Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca.

?inneeneee eiia?aoi? no?aieeny e oiio, /oiau i?aaeoaee ainoaea?noa
N?aaeiae Acee i?eciaee aai aa?oiaioth aeanoue, e aeiaeeny yoiai: a 1868
a. Oeaeineia oainoai, a a 1873 a. Aooa?neee yie?ao i?eciaee aannaeueioth
caaeneiinoue io ?innee. Ionoeueiaia Eieaiaeneiai oainoaa iauyaeee ?innee
«nayuaiioth aieio», «aacaaao», ii iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea; a 1876 a.
Eieaiae aue i?eniaaeeiai e ?innee. A ia/aea 80-o aa. ?inneeneea aienea
?acaeee ei/aaua oo?eiaineea ieaiaia e aieioioth iiaeioee e a?aieoeai
Aoaaienoaia.

A 18751876 aa. ainnoaiey i?ioea Oo?oeee ioaaoeee aanue Aaeeaineee
iieoino?ia, neaayia aeaeaee iiiiue ?innee.

24 ai?aey 1877 a. oea?ue iiaeienae Iaieoano ia iauyaeaiee Oo?oeee aieiu.
Aue ?ac?aaioai ieai nei?ioa/iie eaiiaiee. 7 ethey aienea oi?ne?iaaee
Aeoiae, auoee e Aaeeaiai, caoaaoeee Oeieeineee ia?aaae, ii auee
caaea?aeaiu iiae Ieaaiie. Ieaaia iaea oieueei 28 iiya?y 1877 a.; a
oneiaeyo ceiu ?onneay a?iey ia?aoea /a?ac Aaeeaiu, 4 yiaa?y 1878 a. auea
acyoa Nioey, 8 yiaa?y Aae?eaiiiieue. Ii?oa cai?ineea ie?a, eioi?ue aue
caeeth/ai 19 oaa?aey 1878 a. a Nai-Noaoaii. Ii aeiaiai?o a Nai-Noaoaii
Oo?oeey oa?yea ii/oe ana naie aa?iiaeneea aeaaeaiey; ia ea?oa Aa?iiu
iiyaeeinue iiaia iacaaeneiia ainoaea?noai Aieaa?ey.

Caiaaeiua aea?aeaau ioeacaeenue i?eciaoue Nai-Noaoaineee aeiaiai?. A
ethia 1878 a. ioe?ueny Aa?eeineee eiia?ann, i?eiyaoee ?aoaiey,
cia/eoaeueii iaiaa auaiaeiua aeey ?innee e ia?iaeia Aaeeaineiai
iieoino?iaa. A ?innee yoi auei ano?a/aii eae inei?aeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeinoieinoaa, iiaeiyeanue ao?y iaaiaeiaaiey, a oii /enea e a ioiioaiee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ana aua iaoiaeeeinue a ieaio oi?ioeu
«ana e n?aco». Aieia, caaa?oeaoayny iiaaaeie, iaa?ioeanue
aeeieiiaoe/aneei ii?aaeaieai, oicyenoaaiiui ?anno?ienoaii, iaino?aieai
aioo?eiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee.

A ia?aua aiaeu iinea aieiu i?ienoiaeeea «ia?aaaeaine?iaea» eioa?ania
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa. Aa?iaiey neeiiyeanue e nithco n Aano?i-Aaia?eae,
eioi?ue aue caeeth/ai a 1879 a., a a 1882 a. aeiiieiai «o?ienoaaiiui
nithcii» n Eoaeeae. A yoeo oneiaeyo i?ienoiaeeei anoanoaaiiia naeeaeaiea
?innee e O?aioeee, caaa?oeaoaany a 1892 a. caeeth/aieai oaeiiai nithca,
aeiiieiaiiiai aiaiiie eiiaaioeeae. Aia?aua a ie?iaie enoi?ee ia/aeinue
yeiiiie/aneia e aiaiii-iieeoe/aneia i?ioeainoiyiea onoie/eauo
a?oiie?iaie aaeeeeo aea?aeaa.

Ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea a iaiai ia Eo?eeueneea ino?iaa o ssiiiee auea
i?eia?aoaia thaeiay /anoue ino?iaa Naoaeei. A 1867 a. Niaaeeiaiiui
Ooaoai ca 7 iei. aeieea?ia auea i?iaeaia Aeynea. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao
enoi?eea

N.A. Iooea?aaa, iiiaea aia?eeaioeu iieaaaee, /oi iia e oiai ia noieo.

Eiia?ey ?inneeneay, «aaeeiay e iaaeaeeiay», ?aneeioeanue «io oeineeo
oeaaeiuo neae aei ieaiaiiie Oaa?eaeu», io Aeneu aei Oeoiai ieaaia e
caiyea oanooth /anoue caiee.

3. Yeiiiie/aneia e nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX
a.

Aeey yeiiiieee ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee oa?aeoa?ii auno?ia ?acaeoea
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee. Ioia/aeny ?ino iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
naeueneiai oicyenoaa inoaaaeanue ieceie. O?iaeae e iio?aaeaiea
i?iaeoeoia (e?iia oeaaa) auee a 24 ?aca ieaea, /ai a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. A
oi aea a?aiy a 80-a aa. ii n?aaiaieth n 50-ie aa. n?aaeiaaiaeiaie nai?
ca?ia au?in ia 38 %, a yenii?o aai oaaee/eeny a 4,6 ?aca.

?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee i?eaaei e eiouanoaaiiie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee a aea?aaia, na?aaeiyoeeea oicyenoaa ?aci?yeenue, ?inei
/enei aaaeiyeia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiyaeeenue e?aieea eoeaoeeea
oicyenoaa, /anoue ec eioi?uo eniieueciaaee naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu.
Ana yoi aoiaeeei a ieaiu ?aoi?iaoi?ia. Ii niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiii aeey
ieo a no?aia oneeeeinue o?aaeeoeeiiii a?aaeaeaaiia ioiioaiea e oi?aiaea,
ei anai iiaui oi?iai aeayoaeueiinoe: e eoeaeo, eoioeo, neoiueeo e
oaea/eeaiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeth.

?aoi?iu caeiaeeee iniiao iiaie nenoaiu e?aaeeoa. Ca 18661875 aa. auei
nicaeaii 359 aeoeeiia?iuo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, iauanoa acaeiiiai
e?aaeeoa e ae?oaeo oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee. N 1866 a. a eo ?aaioa ia/aee
aeoeaii o/anoaiaaoue e?oiiaeoea aa?iiaeneea aaiee.

A ?innee e?oiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue nicaeaaaeanue e ?acaeaaeanue eae
ainoaea?noaaiiay. Aeaaiie caaioie i?aaeoaeuenoaa iinea iaoaea/ E?uineie
aieiu auee i?aaei?eyoey, auioneaaoea aiaaoth oaoieeo. Aiaiiue athaeaeao
?innee a iauai en/eneaiee onooiae aiaeeeneiio, o?aioeocneiio,
aa?iaineiio, ii a ?inneeneii athaeaeaoa ii eiae aieaa cia/eoaeueiue aan.
Iniaia aieiaiea ia?auaeinue ia ?acaeoea oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
o?ainii?oa. Eiaiii a yoe noa?u i?aaeoaeuenoai iai?aaeyei n?aaenoaa eae
?inneeneea, oae e eiino?aiiua.

A ?acoeueoaoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eiino?aiiua caeiu e
eiaanoeoeee oee a iniiaiii ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai.
AEaeaciua aei?iae iaania/eaaee ?anoe?aiea oicyenoaaiiiai ?uiea ia
a?iiaaeiuo i?inoi?ao ?innee; iie auee aaaeiu e aeey iia?aoeaiie
ia?aa?inee aieineeo /anoae.

?ino i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa eiio?iee?iaaeny ainoaea?noaii ia iniiaa
auaea/e niaoeeaeueiuo caeacia, iiyoiio e?oiiay ao?aeoacey auea oanii
naycaia n ainoaea?noaii. Auno?i aic?anoaei /enei i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aai/eo,
iaeiaei iiiaea ?aai/ea nio?aiyee yeiiiie/aneea e ineoieiae/aneea nayce n
aea?aaiae, iie ianee a naaa ca?yae iaaeiaieuenoaa aaaeiyeia, iioa?yaoeo
caieth e auioaeaeaiiuo eneaoue i?iieoaiea a ai?iaea.

Iinea iaaeaiey e?aiinoiiai i?aaa ?inney auno?i i?aa?auaeanue ec aa?a?iie
no?aiu a aa?a?ii-eiaeono?eaeueioth. ?acaeaaeanue e?oiiay iaoeiiay
eiaeono?ey, aicieeaee iiaua aeaeu i?iiuoeaiiinoe, neeaaeuaaeenue ?aeiiu
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iiuoeaiiiai e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
nicaeaaaeanue ?acaaoae?iiay naoue aeaeaciuo aei?ia, oi?ie?iaaeny aaeeiue
eaieoaeenoe/aneee ?uiie, i?ienoiaeeee aaaeiua nioeeaeueiua naeaeae a
no?aia. ?aceiaeaiea e?anoueyinoaa auei aaaeiui oaeoi?ii oi?ie?iaaiey
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?uiea e ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia a oeaeii. Iaeiouaa
e?anoueyinoai nicaeaaaei ?uiie ?aai/ae neeu, eae aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai naeueneiai oicyenoaa, oae e aeey e?oiiie
eaieoaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Caaeeoi/iay aea aa?oooea i?aaeuyaeyea
an? aieueoee ni?in ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu, oaeia?aiey e i?.
Iaeaieeaaaiua eaieoaeu aea?aaaineay aa?oooea aeeaaeuaaea a i?iiuoeaiiia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e anae naiae i?ia?anneaiinoe aa?a?iua i?aia?aciaaiey
au? aieaa iaino?eee nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ua e ia/aeo XX aaea
aueeeenue a ?aaiethoeeiiioth neooaoeeth.

4. Eaeaeiay ai?ueaa e iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea a ?innee ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XIX a.

1861 aiae oa?aeoa?eciaaeny ?aceei iaino?aieai ianoaiiaee a aea?aaia.
E?anoueyia, eioi?ui iauyaeee Iieiaeaiea 19 oaa?aey 1861 aiaea, ia
aa?eee, /oi yoi enoeiiue oea?neee caeii, o?aaoy caiee. A ioaeaeueiuo
neo/ayo (eae, iai?eia?, a n. Aacaeia) aeaei aeioiaeeei aei
aeanyoeouny/iuo nia?aiee, caeai/eaaaoeony i?eiaiaieai aiene e nioiyie
oaeouo. A.E. Aa?oeai, ecia/aeueii i?eaaonoaiaaaoee 19 oaa?aey oeooeii
«Inaiaiaeeoaey» aeey Aeaenaiae?a II, iinea yoeo ?anno?aeia eciaiee
iiaiea e cayaee i oii, /oi «noa?ia e?aiinoiia i?aai caiaiaii iiaui». A
iauanoaaiiie aeecie a oeaeii i?iecioei cia/eoaeueiia ?ane?aiiuaiea
niciaiey oe?ieeo e?oaia ianaeaiey.

A iauanoaaiiii niciaiee ia?aciaaeinue o?e oa/aiey: ?aaeeeaeueiia,
eeaa?aeueiia e eiina?aaoeaiia. Eiina?aaoi?u aunooiaee ca iacuaeaiinoue
naiiaea?aeaaey. ?aaeeeaeu – ca aai naa?aeaiea. Eeaa?aeu iuoaeenue
aeiaeoueny aieueoae a?aaeaeaineie naiaiaeu a iauanoaa, ii i?e yoii ia
no?aieeenue e ia?aiaia iieeoe/aneiai no?iy.

Eeaa?aeueiia aeaeaeaiea eiioea 50-o ia/aea 60-o aa. auei naiui oe?ieei
e eiaei iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo iooaieia. Ii, oae eee eia/a, eeaa?aeu
aunooiaee ca onoaiiaeaiea ie?iui iooai eiinoeoooeeiiiuo oi?i i?aaeaiey,
ca iieeoe/aneea e a?aaeaeaineea naiaiaeu e i?inaauaiea ia?iaea. Aoaeo/e
noi?iiieeaie eaaaeueiuo oi?i, eeaa?aeu aeaenoaiaaee /a?ac ia/aoue e
cainoai.

Aeaiie?aoecaoeey iauanoaa neacaeinue ia ninoaaa o/anoieeia iauanoaaiiiai
aeaeaeaiey. Anee a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea n?aaee iiiiceoeeiiiuo
aeayoaeae (io aeaeaa?enoia aei Aa?oeaia) i?aiaeaaeaee i?aaenoaaeoaee
aeai?yi, oi a 60-a aiaeu aeoeaiia o/anoea a iauanoaaiiie aeecie noaee
i?eieiaoue ethaee naiuo ?aciuo «/eiia» (oi anoue iauanoaaiiuo a?oii).
Yoi iicaieeei niaaoneei enneaaeiaaoaeyi, aneaae ca Eaieiui, aiai?eoue i
ia?aoiaea n 1861 aiaea io aeai?yineiai e ?acii/eineiio yoaio
inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey.

Ia aieia aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iiaeu?ia ii no?aia aicieeaao ?yae
iiaeiieueiuo e?oaeeia, a eiioea 1861 aiaea iauaaeeieaoeony a
i?aaiecaoeeth «Caiey e aiey». O ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaiecaoeeae noiyee
Aeaenaiae? e Ieeieae Na?ii-Nieiaueaae/e, Ieeieae Ia?o/aa, Aeaenaiae?
Neaioeia, aeoeaiia o/anoea a a? aeaeao i?eieiae *a?iuoaaneee, iiiiaaee
ec Eiiaeiia Iaa??a e Aa?oeai. I?aaiecaoeey iauaaeeiyea aei 400
o/anoieeia e?oaeeia oeaio?aeueiie ?innee e Iieueoe.

Iacaaiea i?aaiecaoeee io?aaeaei iniiaiua, ii iiaieth a? o/anoieeia,
o?aaiaaiey ia?iaea e auei naycaii n i?ia?aiiie: aica?ao io?aceia,
i?eioaeeoaeueiue aueoi iiiaue/ueae caiee ainoaea?noaii, nicaeaiea
auai?iiai ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey e oeaio?aeueiiai ia?iaeiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. I?ia?aiia, eae aeaeei, auea ii nia?aiaiiui ia?eai
aiieia oia?aiiie, iaeiaei ia a? inouanoaeaiea i?e oea?neii
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?ann/eouaaoue ia i?eoiaeeeinue. Iiyoiio o/anoieee «Caiee
e aiee» aioiaeeenue e aii?oae?iiiio caoaaoo aeanoe. Aai ia?niaeoeao iie
naycuaaee n aaniie 1863 aiaea, eiaaea, n 19 oaa?aey 1863 aiaea, ii anae
no?aia aeieaeii auei ia/aoueny caeeth/aiea aueoiiuo aeoia. Iaeiaei a
1862 aiaeo auee a?anoiaaiu Ieeieae Na?ii-Nieiaueaae/ e *a?iuoaaneee; i?e
yoii iineaaeiaai ii iaaeieacaiiiio iaaeiaieth nineaee a Neae?ue, oae /oi
ii nio?e n iieeoe/aneie a?aiu. E?iia oiai, aioo?e naiie i?aaiecaoeee
nouanoaiaaee ?aciiaeaney ii eaeaieiae/aneei aii?inai. A eoiaa e aania
1864 aiaea «Caiey e aiey» eeeaeaee?iaaeanue.

Iacia/eoaeueiia a ia/aea 1860-o aiaeia, ?aai/aa ianaeaiea ?innee
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeinue a oa/aiea neaaeothueo aeaoo aeanyoeeaoee.
Aaeaeo ia/aeiaa/aneeo oneiaee aeecie e o?oaea ?inei e ?aai/aa
aeaeaeaiea, noaaoaa ia enoiaea 70-o aiaeia aiieia iau/iui yaeaieai.
*enei caaanoiaie ecia?yeinue aeanyoeaie a aiae, a?aiaiaie neo/aeenue e
e?oiiua noa/ee, aeey ?acaiia eioi?uo i?eiaiyeenue aienea.

E 1875 aiaeo ioiineony nicaeaiea a Iaeanna THaeii-?inneeneiai nithca
?onneeo ?aai/eo. ?ane?uoue iieeoeeae oaea /a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa,
Nithc i?eia/aoaeai oai, /oi yoi auea ia?aay ?aai/ay i?aaiecaoeey a
?innee. *a?ac o?e aiaea, a 1878 aiaeo, a Iaoa?ao?aa iiyaeeny Naaa?iue
nithc ?onneeo ?aai/eo. Oeaeue aai auea aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeiie –
«ieni?iaa?aeaiea nouanoaothuaai iieeoe/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai no?iy eae
e?aeia iani?aaaaeeeaiai». Iaiin?aaenoaaiiua o?aaiaaiey aaaaeaiea
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo naiaiae, ?acaeoea o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e o.i.
Iniai noieo ioiaoeoue «o/?aaeaeaiea naiaiaeiie ia?iaeiie oaaea?aoeee
iauei ia ia/aeao ?onneiai iau/iiai i?aaa». Oaeei ia?acii,
?acai?a/eaathuaany ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea iniiauaaeinue ia ia?iaeie/aneie,
e?anoueyineie eaeaieiaee.

Iaeiaei, ia/aei 1880-o aiaeia yaeei e?ecen ia?iaeie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey,
no?aieaoaainy iia?aoueny ia e?anoueyi a ai?ueaa ca niaio no?iy. Ia niaio
ia?iaeie/anoao i?eo?e oaea iaae?aeii oe?aieaoeeny e oiio a?aiaie a
Aa?iia ia?eneci. ?aaiethoeeiiiua eaeae Ea?ea Ia?ena iniiauaaeenue ia aai
yeiiiie/aneeo acaeyaeao, i?iaicaeaoaaoeo eaieoaeeci ia?aaeiaie noaaeeae
?acaeoey iauanoaa, eioi?ie, iaeiaei, i?enoue na?ue?ciua aioo?aiiea
i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo eaieoaeenoaie e iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Niioaaonoaaiii, Ia?en i?aaeneacuaae, /oi eaieoaeeci
aeieaeai niaieoueny eiui iauanoaaiiui no?iai, iniiaaiiii ia aieaa
ni?aaaaeeeaii ?ani?aaeaeaiee, e i?iecieoe yoi aeieaeii eiaiii n iii?ie
ia i?ieaoa?eao. Anoanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi eiaiii n i?ieaoa?neei (?aai/ei)
aeaeaeaieai e naycaii ?acaeoea ia?enecia a ?innee.

I?iieeiiaaieth a ?inneth ia?enecia neeueii niinianoaiaaee ieacaaoeany ia
Caiaaea a ecaiaiee ia?iaeieee: Ieaoaiia, Canoee/, Aenaeue?iae e ae?oaea.
I?eciaa ioeai/iinoue naieo i?aaeieo acaeyaeia, iie i?eiyee eaeae Ia?ena.
Ia?aiaio yoo iaaeyaeii oa?aeoa?ecotho neiaa Ieaoaiiaa: «Enoi?e/aneay
?ieue ?onneiai i?ieaoa?eaoa ianoieueei aea ?aaiethoeeiiia, ianeieueei
eiina?aaoeaia ?ieue ioaeeea». Neiaeeaoayny ia iniiaa iacaaiiuo
?aaiethoeeiia?ia a?oiia «Inaiaiaeaeaiea o?oaea» noaea ia?aaiaeeoue e
ecaeaaaoue Ia?ena, /oi niinianoaiaaei ?ani?ino?aiaieth a ?innee
ia?enenoneeo e?oaeeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a ?innee anooieei a eiioea XIX
aaea a iiaue yoai.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aeieaee A.I. Enoi?ey ?innee. O/aaiia iiniaea. I.: EIO?A-I, 2007.

2. Enoi?ey ?innee. Oai?ee eco/aiey. Eieaa ia?aay, aoi?ay / Iiae. ?aae.
A. A. Ee/iaia. Aeaoa?eiao?a: NA-96, 2006. – 304 n.

3. Eicei E.I. Enoi?ey Ioa/anoaa. O/aaiia iiniaea aeey aocia. I.:
AE?I-OOI; NIa.: Aeieo?ee Aoeaiei, 2007. – 200 n.

4. Ie?iiia A.A. Nioeeaeueiay enoi?ey ?innee. O.1. NIa, 2006.

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