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История России в начале XX века

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?AOA?AO

ii eo?no «Enoi?ey ?innee»

ii oaia: «?inney a ia/aea XX aaea»

1. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea ?innee a ia/aea XX a.

I?inoi? ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee aeaee ?aoi?iu Aeaenaiae?a I. Ainoaea?noai
a?aei ia naay eieoeeaoeao a ?acaeoee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia?aiiny
ii?iaiaaiiua a ae?oaeo no?ai, oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie ia
?inneeneoth ii/ao. Ana aieiaiea, n?aaenoaa e ?ano?nu eiioeaio?e?iaaeenue
aeey ?aoaiey yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/.

Ainoaea?noai, ia aunooiay i?yiui i?iaiaeieeii ao?aeoaciuo eioa?ania, oai
ia iaiaa «ioe?uaaei oethcu» aeey onei?aiiiai ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee. Ianiio?y ia na?ueaciua nioeeaeueiua ecaea?aeee (/anoua
ceioiio?aaeaiey, ia/anoiinoue, naiioi?aanoai oaa?eeaioia aucuaaee ?aceia
iaaeiaieuenoai ?aai/eo), aei?iaa eaieoaeecio auea ioe?uoa ?aoi?iaie 60-o
70-o aiaeia XIX a.

Naeaeae a yeiiiieea nii?iaiaeaeaeenue eciaiaieyie nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?a
iauanoaa: /eneaiii ?inee eeannu ao?aeoacee e iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, ioia/aoie
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee eiaeeeny ia ana iauanoaaiiua neie iauanoaa.

A ia/aea OO aaea ?ino ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ?innee aae e ia?aueaaieth
iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa e aeaaininoiyiey ianaeaiey. Ca 18941914 aiaeu
ainathaeaeao no?aiu au?ino a 5,5 ?aca, cieioie caian a 3,7 ?aca. I?e
yoii ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu ?inee aac iaeaeoaai oaaee/aiey iaeiaiaiai
a?aiaie. I?yiua iaeiae a ?innee auee a 4 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai ai O?aioeee e
Aa?iaiee, e a 8,5 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai a Aiaeee; einaaiiua iaeiae a
n?aaeiai aaeaia iaiueoa, /ai a Aano?ee, Aa?iaiee e Aiaeee. Cia/eoaeueiua
noiiu ec athaeaeaoa auaeaeyeenue ia ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u e i?inaauaiey.
Aeaaininoiyiea ianaeaiey io?aaeaeinue a i?e?inoa aai /eneaiiinoe,
eioi?ue ia eiae ?aaiuo a Aa?iia. Iiiaea ioa/anoaaiiua yeiiiienou e
iieeoeee ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi nio?aiaiea oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey,
nouanoaiaaaoeo a 19001914 aa., iaecaaaeii oaea /a?ac 2030 eao auaaaeao
?inneth ia ianoi ie?iaiai eeaea?a, aeano ae aiciiaeiinoue aeiieie?iaaoue
a Aa?iia, i?aauneoue oicyenoaaiiue iioaioeeae anao aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa,
aianoa acyouo. Iiaeiaiua ia?niaeoeau i?eaiaeeee a niyoaiea caiaaeiuo
iieeoeeia.

A ia/aea XX a. a ?innee i?ienoiaeeo iiuiue ?ino oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iiyaeeenue iiaua io?anee. *aoei iaicia/eeanue
oicyenoaaiii oa??eoi?eaeueiay niaoeeaeecaoeey ?acee/iuo iaeanoae.

I?aaeoaeuenoai no?aieeinue e oi?ne?iaaiiie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee no?aiu, ii
iaania/eoue aa oniaoiue oiae oieueei oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie iaoiaeaie auei
/?acau/aeii neiaeii. A ?yaea io?aneae yoe iaoiaeu aeaaaee iaieioie
?acoeueoao (aiaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue e aiaeiue
o?ainii?o e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea), ii ai iiiaeo noa?ao yeiiiieee ?acaeoea
ia iiaei auoue aeeiaie/iui aac eniieueciaaiey /anoiie eieoeeaoeau.
I?iii?oeey iaaeaeo oeaio?aeeciii a oi?aaeaiee yeiiiieeie e /anoiui
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii ?aciui i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ?oeiaiaeyuaai neiy
ainoaea?noaa aeaeaeanue ii-?aciiio. E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaa, A.E. Ieaaa e
ae?oaea, ooaa?aeaeay iuneue i aania?niaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeecia a ?innee,
n/eoaee, /oi ii «aieoaony» a nenoaio o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae
?onneiai ia?iaea.

A?oiie?iaea A.E. Ieaaa iiiiie?iaae N.TH. Aeooa, eioi?ue no?aieeny
oaycaoue i?eioeei o?aaeeoeeiiiinoe n i?eioeeiii ?aaeecia,
iiaea?iece?iaaoue iieeoe/aneoth e yeiiiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o ?innee, oai
naiui oe?aiea iiia?oe/aneee no?ie.

Caiya iino ieieno?a oeiainia, Aeooa i?iaeieaeee eo?n ia
eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth no?aiu, i?iaiaeeiue aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie
E.X. Aoioa e E.A. Auoiaa?aaeneei. Oaeoeea Aeooa i?aaeiieaaaea
eniieueciaaiea anao n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia aeey ?aoaiey no?aoaae/aneeo
caaea/ io aeanoeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee naa?oo aei iieiie naiaiaeu /anoiie
eieoeeaoeau, io i?ioaeoeeiiecia aei i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeia.

Noaaeeecaoeey aioo?aiiae ianoaiiaee iinea ?aaiethoeee auea naycaia n
eiaiai I.A. Noieuieia, noaaoaai a 1906 aiaeo aeaaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Aeaaiui aeaeii aeecie I.A. Noieuieia noaea caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia. Iia
aeeth/aea a naay neaaeothuea ia?u: 1. Oeac ia inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi
io aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae e ?ane?aiiuaiea io iaueiiie caaeneiinoe, ii
eioi?iio ana aeaeathuea iiaee aueoe ec iaueiu e iieo/eoue caieth ec
iaueiiiai oiiaea a nianoaaiiia aeaaeaiea (oi anoue aa?aioe?iaaeanue
naiaiaea auai?a oi?i e?anoueyineiai o?oaea e nianoaaiiinoe). 2. Caeii,
i?aaeinoaaeyaoee e?anoueyiai aiciiaeiinoue naeeoueny ia oooi?ao e
aeaaeaoue caieae ia i?aaao ianeaaenoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. 3. Nicaeaiea
caiaeueiiai oiiaea ec eacaiiuo e eiia?aoi?neeo caiaeue aeey iaania/aiey
caieae anao ioaeaeathueony a iae e?anoueyi 4. I?aaeinoaaeaiea
e?anoueyiai i?aaa iieoiaoue caieth iiiaueeia. 5. Auaeaeaiea e?anoueyiai
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aani?ioeaioiuo e?aaeeoia aeey iieoiee caiee. 6.
Aeoeaecaoeey ?aaiou e?anoueyineiai aaiea, caaea/ae eioi?iai, e?iia
noaneaee?iaaiey caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, yaeyeanue ?aaeaiaioaoeey
caieaiieueciaaiey, iaania/eaaaoay aa?uea?u iiiiiieecio e niaeoeyoeee
caieae. 7. I?aaiecaoeey ia?anaeai/aneiai aeaea: ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiuue
ia?anaeaioeai o?ainii?oii, e?aaeeoaie i iino?ieeo aeiiia, iieoieo iaoei,
neioa e aeiiaoiaai eiouanoaa, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia caieaono?ienoai o/anoeia
aeey ia?anaeaioeaa (nioie ouny/ e?anoueyi ia?aacaeaee ec oeaio?aeueiuo
?aeiiia a Neae?ue, Eacaonoai e N?aaeithth Aceth, aaea eiaeny a iaee/ee
ia?iiiue naiaiaeiue caiaeueiue oiiae 8. I?aaiecaoeey a naeueneeo
ianoiinoyo aei?iaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, eiiia?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
no?aoiaiai iaania/aiey, iaaeeoeeineie e aaoa?eia?iie iiiiue,
aa?iiiie/aneie eiinoeueoaoeee, no?ieoaeuenoaa oeie e naeueneeo o?aiia.

A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo ia? a ?innee nicaeaaaeinue onoie/eaia e
auniei?acaeoia caieaaeaeea. O?iaeaeiinoue ca 1906–1914 aa. aic?inea ia
14 %. Eceeoee naiaiaeiiai oeaaa anei?a iinea ia/aea ?aoi?i noaee
ninoaaeyoue nioie ieeeeiiia ioaeia, ?acei aic?inee aaethoiua
iinooieaiey, naycaiiua n auaicii ca?ia.

A ia/aea XX a. a ?innee caiaoii oaaee/eeanue oiaa?iinoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eoia/aneee eaieoae ?acei oaaee/ee
naie iai?iou. Auno?uie oaiiaie ?acaeaaeanue e?aaeeoiay nenoaia e
aaieianeia aeaei.

A oiaea ?aoi?i Aeooa inouanoaee aeaiaaeioth ?aoi?io, ooaa?aeea cieioia
ia?auaiea; onoaiiaee ainoaea?noaaiioth iiiiiieeth ia i?iaeaaeo aiaeee,
oneeea i?eoie n?aaenoa a eacio; cia/eoaeueii oaaee/ee ianooaau
e?aaeeoiaaiey ?anoouae i?iiuoeaiiinoe; oe?iei i?eaeae eiino?aiiua caeiu
e eiaanoeoeee a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo; inouanoaee i?ia?aiio oaiiaeaiiie
caueou ioa/anoaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iiiai aieiaiey Aeooa
oaeaeye aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiio no?ieoaeuenoao. Nicaeaiea ?acaeoie
o?ainii?oiie naoe naycuaaei no?aio a aaeeiue ?uiie, noeioee?iaaei
?acaeoea anao io?aneae i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaiaeue ee/iue aeeaae Aeooa aian a
nii?oaeaiea O?ainneae?neie iaaeno?aee.

2. Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee no?ie e iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea a ?innee a
ia/aea XX a.

A ia/aea XX aaea a ?innee oneeeeinue i?ioeainoiyiea iaaeaeo oea?neei
i?aaeoaeuenoaii e ?aaeeeaeueiie iiiiceoeeae. Eiioeeeo iaaeaeo aeanoueth
e ?aaiethoeeiiiui iiaeiieueai i?ioaeae ia oiia eiyeueiinoe e
i?aaeoaeuenoao ni noi?iiu eeaa?aeueiie eioaeeeaaioeee e oe?ieeo
ia?iaeiuo iann (eaca/anoai, iinaaeneea, e?anoueyinoai iniaaiii a
?aaeiiao, ia ciaaoeo e?aiinoie/anoaa).

?aaiethoeeiia?ai oaeaeinue iiaeiyoue ianniaia aeaeaeaiea a ioaeaeueiuo
ai?iaeao e ?aaeiiao. A 19021903 aa. i?iecioee e?anoueyineea aieiaiey a
Iieoaaneie e Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?ieyo, ninoiyeenue noa/ee e aeaiiino?aoeee
?aai/eo a Ceaoionoa, Iaeanna, Eeaaa e ae?. Iieiaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa
oooaeoeea iaoaea/a i?aaeoaeuenoaa a ?onnei-yiiineie aieia.

A?iaeaiea oneeeaaeinue, i?eieiay oi?iu i?aaieciaaiiie
aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie ai?ueau. Iauanoai ?aneaeuaaeinue. Noaee
aicieeaoue iieeoe/aneea ia?oee ?acee/iie iai?aaeaiiinoe. Iie e noaee
aeaeaaoaeai iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau a no?aia, ia?aaeei aunooiay n caueoie
ia noieueei iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania, neieueei oceiia?oeeiuo
ieaooi?i.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie ia?oeyie yaeyeenue yna?ianeay
(nioeeaeenou-?aaiethoeeiia?u), eaaeaoneay
(eiinoeoooeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay), ?inneeneay nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay
ia?oey (?NAe?I), ieoya?enou (Nithc 17 ieoya?y), Nithc ?onneiai ia?iaea.

A 1905-1907 aa a ?innee i?ioiaeeee ianniaua aioeao?aeoaciua noa/ee
?aai/eo. Caaanoiai/iia aeaeaeaiea n ?aciie aiieeooaeie aea?aeaeinue aei
eiioea 1905 aiaea. Ieeii aai noaea ieoya?ueneay noa/ea, a?iceaoay
i?eia?anoe ana?inneeneee oa?aeoa?. Aeoeaiuie auee e?anoueyineea
aunooieaiey i?ioea iiiaueeia, aieiaiey a iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?aeiiao. Oeiaeii
1905 aiaea auee aeaeaa?ueneea noieeiiaaiey iaaeaeo i?ioeaieeaie e
noi?iiieeaie aeanoe a Iineaa, ia?a?inoea a aa??eeaaeiua aie.

Niauoey 1905 aiaea canoaaeee oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai aianoe na?ueaciua
ei??aeoeau a naith iieeoeeo. Aieueoeinoai iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee (e?iia
aieueoaaeeia, aia?oenoia, yna?ia-iaeneiaeenoia) ioeaieaaei ?aaiethoeeth
eae ?acoeueoaoeaioth. Nioeeae-aeaiie?aou (e aieueoaaeee, e iaiueoaaeee)
niauoey 1905–1907 aiaeia eaaeeoeoee?iaaee eae
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth. Niaeanii aieueoaaenoneei
aicc?aieyi, iia aeieaeia auea ia?a?anoe a nioeeaeenoe/aneoth.
Iaiueoaaeee aea n/eoaee, /oi aei nioeeaeecia ?inney iaycaia «aei?anoe» a
i?ioeanna iiiaineiaeiuo ?aoi?i.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiethoeee I?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaeinoaaeei aiciiaeiinoe aeey
eaaaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia?oee, nicaaei Ainoaea?noaaiioth Aeoio
auai?iue caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai, i?iaicaeaneei aeaiie?aoe/aneea
naiaiaeu, ecaeaei caeiiu, aeaaaaoea ?aai/ei aa?aioee nioeeaeueiie
caueou, ia/aei iiaeaioiaeo aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

E 1907 aiaeo a ?innee auee nicaeaiu iiaua ainoaea?noaaiiua no?oeoo?u,
niinianoaiaaaoea ?acaeoeth ia?eaiaioa?ecia, oioy a ieo ii-i?aaeiaio
neeueia auea ?ieue eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. E eniieieoaeueiua (Niaao
ieieno?ia, eiia?aoi?neay eaioeaey?ey), e caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaiu
(Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia e Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao) iiae/eiyeenue
eiia?aoi?o, ieeoeaoai?yaoaio aa?oiaioth aeanoue. I?e yoii Niaaoo
Ieieno?ia aeiiieieoaeueii e eniieieoaeueiui i?eaeaaaeenue aua e
caeiiiniaauaoaeueiua ooieoeee. Eiia?aoi?o iiae/eiyeenue oaeaea
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao (aunoee i?aai noaea e iaaeci?a) e Nayoaeoee
Neiiae (aunoee i?aai oi?aaeaiea i?aaineaaiie oea?eiaueth).

A nicaeaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaia oeaio?aeecaoeey i?aaaee?iaaea. A
ioee/ea io Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, aaea ia?eaiaioneea o?aaeeoeee
neeaaeuaaeenue aaeaie, ?inneeneee ia?eaiaio a 1906 aiaeo ia/eiae
iaeaieeaaoue iiuo oaeoe/anee n ioeaaie ioiaoee. Ioaeai aue ii?aaeaeaiiue
n?ie aeey au?aaioee iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u eae aeaiooaoia, oae e
ecae?aoaeae. Aeoia ?aoaea iaiaei aaaeiuo aii?inia, i?eieiaea iiaua
caeiiu e ooaa?aeaeaea ainathaeaeao no?aiu, /anoi aunooiaea n
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeaie. Iaeiaei ianiaa?oainoai
caeiiiaeaoaeueii-i?ioeaaeo?iuo iaoaieciia, iano?ioa ninoaaa,
ineoieiae/aneee iano?ie aeaiooaoia ia iicaieyee Aeoia auoue eeaea?ii
i?ioeanna ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. Iia noaea a?aiie
iaaeia?oeeiie iieaieee, ia?aaeei i?eieiaaoae oi?io acaeiiiaaeiaiee e
acaeii?aciaea/aiee. Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia ia noiaea aic?iaeeoue
ainoaea?noaaiii-caineee no?ie, ainnoaiiaeoue enoi?e/aneoth o?aaeeoeeth
Caineeo niai?ia. Iia ia iiaea iineoaeeoue ne?aieaieth iauanoaaiiuo nee,
iaeaaeeoue ae?oaeioth ?aaioo e eaaua, e eeaa?aeu io?eoeaee iiiaea
eneiiii ?inneeneea i?aanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe, iaaaoeaenonee ioiineeenue e
?onneie enoi?ee. Iaoaie/anee eiie?oy caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea iauanoaaiiua
iiaeaee e ia?acoeu, aace?iaaaoeany ia eiii iaioaeeoaoa, eeaa?aeu ia
oo?oaeaeaee naay aeoaieei aiaeecii oiai, eae yoe iiaeaee eyaoo ia
?inneeneoth ii/ao.

Oea?neay aeanoue, i?iyaeaoay iinea ii?aaeaiey a yiiineie aieia
iaoaa?aiiinoue a naaa, noiaea a 19061907 aa. caa?aoue eieoeeaoeao a
?aoaiee aioo?eiieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai, a a iineaaeothuea aiaeu
ioiineoaeueii noaaeeece?iaaea iieeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth a no?aia.

3. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea ?innee a ia/aea XX a.

A 1894–1895 aa. ssiiiey ia/aea, a a 1897 a. Aa?iaiey i?iaeieaeeea
oa??eoi?eaeueiua caoaaou a Eeoaa, /oi iineoaeeei neaiaeii aeey aiaee/ai,
o?aioeocia, ii?ooaaeueoeaa, caiyaoeo ?yae ii?oia ia eeoaeneii aa?aao. Ia
inoaeanue a noi?iia e ?inney, ii iia a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aeaeaea oii?
ia ia aiaiiua, a ia iieeoe/aneea iaoiaeu. Ainiieueciaaaoenue
caeeth/aiiui a 1896 aiaeo n Eeoaai aeiaiai?ii i ae?oaeaa, aeaaoei ?innee
i?aai ia no?ieoaeuenoai Eeoaeneie ainoi/iie aeaeaciie aei?iae, iia
aeiaeeanue a?aiaeu Ii?o-A?oo?a e Aeaeueiaai. Yoi aucaaei ?aceoth
?aaeoeeth ni noi?iiu ssiiiee. A yiaa?a 1904 aiaea yiiioeu aac iauyaeaiey
aieiu aoaeiaaee ?onneoth yneaae?o iiae Ii?o-A?oo?ii.

Oeaeue ?yae iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ia (iaaeiioeaiea aiaiiie neeu
i?ioeaieea, aiacaiiinoue ia?aiai oaea?a ni noi?iiu ssiiiee,
?anoyiooinoue ?onneeo eiiioieeaoeee, iacaeii/aiiia ia?aaii?oaeaiea
a?iee, na?ueaciua iia?aoeaii-oaeoe/aneea i?iiaoe eiiaiaeiaaiey
?inneeneeo aiene e o. i.) i?eaae e ii?aaeaieth ?innee a aieia. A aaaonoa
1905 aiaea aue iiaeienai Ii?oniooneee ie?, ii eioi?iio ssiiiee ioioee io
?innee THaeiue Naoaeei, a?aiaea Eyiaeoineiai iieoino?iaa,
THaeii-Iai/aeo?neay aeaeaciay aei?iaa.

N iacia/aieai a 1906 aiaeo ia iino ieieno?a eiino?aiiuo aeae
A. I. Ecaieueneiai i?ei?eoaoiuie aeey aiaoiae iieeoeee ?innee noaiiayony
ioiioaiey n aa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie. Ecaieueneee i?iaicaeaoae eiioeaioeeth
«?aaiiaaney». I?iaiaeeoue eo?n «?aaiioaeaeaiiia io Eiiaeiia e Aa?eeia
noaiiaeeinue ana neiaeiaa.

Yeiiiie/aneay yeniainey Aa?iaiee ia Aeeaeiai e N?aaeiai Ainoiea
cao?aaeaaea eioa?anu, eae ?innee, oae e Aiaeee. A 1907 aiaeo ?inney e
Aiaeey iiaeienaee niaeaoaiea i ?aoaiee nii?iuo aii?inia a E?aia,
Aoaaienoaia e Oeaaoa.

A 1908 aiaeo n iaino?aieai aaeeaineiai aii?ina oneeeeinue iai?yaeaiea a
ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ?inneae e Aano?i-Aaia?eae. A
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa neaayineeo e i?aaineaaiuo
ia?iaeia i?ioea oo?aoeeiai e aano?eeneiai aeaaeu/anoaa ?inney aunooieea
eo aa anoanoaaiiui nithcieeii. Aa?anneaiua ono?aieaiey aano?eeoeaa
i?ioea Na?aee, Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu aace?iaaeenue ia eo oaa?aiiinoe a
iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu Aa?iaiee. Aiiaeney Aano?eae Ainiee e
Aa?oeaaiaeiu ?acei oooaeoeea ioiioaiey ?innee n aano?i-aa?iaineei
aeieii. Iieeoeea «?aaiiaaney», ionoaeaaaiay E.I. Ecaieueneei, iioa?iaea
e?ao eiaeeie niauoee ?inne ieacaeanue «i?eaycaiiie» e Aioaioa – Aiaeee
e O?aioeee.

A 1910 aiaeo ieieno?ii eiino?aiiuo aeae ?innee noae N.Ae. Naciiia. I?e
iai auea oneeaia iiaeaea?aeea inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey aaeeaineeo
ia?iaeia. ?inney niinianoaiaaea nicaeaieth e oe?aieaieth eo
iaoeeiiaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, naea?aeeaaieth iniaineie aa?annee.
I?e yoii aic?anoaea ?ieue ?innee eae a?aeo? a aaeeaineeo aeaeao. N oaeie
aa ?ieueth ia oioaee niaeaneoueny ie Aa?iaiey e Aano?i-Aaia?ey, ie
Aiaeey. Naiei aiaoaoaeuenoaii ai aioo?eaaeeaineea aeaea iie aei i?aaeaea
caioouaaee ana i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo no?aiaie ?aaeiia. Yoa caiooaiiinoue
aeaeea oa?ico aeiaaeueiiai aiaiiiai eiioeeeoa, eioi?ue noaiiaeeny
iaecaaaeiui ec-ca aaneiii?iienniie iiceoeee eeaea?ia i?ioeaiai?noaothueo
aeieia Aiaeee e Aa?iaiee.

Ie? iaoeeiiii neaouaaeny e aiaiiie eaoano?ioa. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi
naycuaaeinue n ia?anoathuae aa?anneaiinoueth Aa?iaiee e Aano?ee.

A eiioea ethey 1914 aiaea Aano?ey ia/aea aiaiiua aeaenoaey i?ioea
Na?aee. Naycaiiay n Na?aeae nithcie/aneei aeieaii e enoi?e/aneeie
iaycaoaeuenoaaie, ?inney ia iiaea inoaoueny a noi?iia Ieeieae II ecaeae
oeac i anaiauae iiaeeecaoeee.

1 aaaonoa 1914 a. Aa?iaiey iauyaeea aieio ?innee, anei?a i?aa?aoeaoothny
a ie?iaoth. A i?ioeaiai?noaa ainoaea?noa ?inney iauaaeeieeanue n Aiaeeae
e O?aioeeae (Aioaioa). Ei i?ioeainoiyee Aa?iaiey, Aano?i-Aaia?ey, Eoaeey
(O?ienoaaiiue nithc). Oio oaeo, /oi Aa?iaiey ia?aie iauyaeea aieio, a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iaoneiaee ?ino iao?eioe/aneeo iano?iaiee a ?innee
e nicaeaieai iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaoue ioii? i?ioeaieeo.

4 aaaonoa 1914 a., a nayce n oniaoiui ianooieaieai iaiaoeeeo a?iee a
Naaa?iie O?aioeee, i?aaeoaeuenoai iineaaeiae ia?aoeeinue e ?innee n
i?inueaie ia onei?aiee n?ieia ianooieaiey ?onneeo a?iee. ?onneia
eiiaiaeiaaiea, nianay nithcieeia, a?ineei a ianooieaiea a Ainoi/iie
I?onnee aeaa ei?iona iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aeia A.A. Nainiiiaa e
I.E. ?aiiaieaiioa.

Ia?aiia/aeueii ianooieaiea ?inneeneeo aiene ?acaeaaeinue oniaoii. Aeey
aai io?aaeaiey Aa?iaiey auioaeaeaia auea niyoue /anoue ei?ionia n
Caiaaeiiai o?iioa. Nin?aaeioi/ea cia/eoaeueiua neeu, i?ioeaiee niia
?acaeoue ei?ion Nainiiiaa a ?aeiia A?thiaaeueaea, ii yoi ii?aaeaiea
iicaieeei o?aioeocneie a?iee auea?aoue aeoao ia ?aea Ia?ia. Aieaa
oniaoii aiaaua aeaenoaey i?ioiaeeee ia ?onnei-aano?eeneii o?iioa.
Caeanue e eiioeo 1914 a. ?inneeneea a?iee acyee Eueaia, e?aiinoue
Ia?aiuoeue, auoee e i?aaeai?ueyi Ea?iao. I?ioeaiee iioa?ye ii/oe
iieiaeio naieo aiene. Aano?i-Aaia?ey a iineaaeothuai ia niiaea
ii?aaeoueny io ii?aaeaiey e oaea?aeeaaea o?iio aeaaiaea?y i?yiie
iiaeaea?aeea Aa?iaiee.

A ?innee oaea ia?aua ianyoeu aieiu auyaeee iaaeinoaoi/ioth iiaeaioiaeo
no?aiu e e?oiiiianooaaiie aieia. A a?iee ino?i iuouaeanue iaoaaoea
aiai?eiania, nia?yaeaiey e iniaaiii oyaeaeie a?oeeea?ee.

Neiaeeaoayny neooaoeey o?aaiaaea iniuneaiey e iienea aieaa iioeiaeueiiai
niiniaa aaaeaiey aieiu. Aa?iaiey iaoea auoiae a oa/aiea 1915 a. iaianoe
?inneeneie a?iee ?aoathuaa ii?aaeaiea e auaanoe no?aio ec aieiu. Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia ai?aey ia/aeinue ianooieaiea aano?i-aa?iaineeo aiene,
ouaoaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiia e nieaie?iaaiiia. Ianiio?y ia aa?ieci
?inneeneeo aieiia e iaiaeiie?aoiua iiiuoee ia?aoiaea a ianooieaiea,
ia/aeny oyaeaeue iooiae a?iee ia Ainoie. E inaie 1915 a. iioa?yiu
Iieueoa, Eeoaa, ii/oe any Aaeeoeey, /anoue Aieuie. Iioa?e oaeouie,
?aiaiuie, ieaiiuie ninoaaeee aieaa 2 iei. /aeiaae.

Eae au ia aaeeee auee aiaiiua oniaoe Aa?iaiee, aeiaeoueny aeaaiiai
eaieooeyoeee ?onneie a?iee iia ia niiaea. Iaeiaei aiaiiua iaoaea/e
eiaee naie iineaaenoaey aeey aioo?aiiaai ?acaeoey ?innee.

A iaa 1916 a. a?iee THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
A. A?oneeiaa ia?aoee a ianooieaiea e iaianee aano?eeneie a?iee
oyaeaeaeoaa ii?aaeaiea. Oniao ieacaeny iieiaeoae iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth aeey
nithcieeia, a oaeaea aeey i?ioeaieeia. Aano?i-Aaia?ey ieacaeanue ia
a?aie ii?aaeaiey e a iineaaeothuai oaea ia i?aaei?eieiaea
naiinoiyoaeueiuo aiaiiuo iia?aoeee. Aa?iaiey auioaeaeaia auea
i?einoaiiaeoue iia?aoeee o Aa?aeaia, /oiau nianoe iieiaeaiea ia Ainoiea.

Aeinoeaiooua oniaoe ia niiaee eciaieoue i?eioeeieaeueii iauae neooaoeee.
Aieia i?eieiaea caoyaeiie, iiceoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?, ana aieaa
i?aa?auaeanue a iyni?oaeo /aeiaa/aneeo noaeaa. E ia/aeo 1917 a. ?inney
iioa?yea oaeouie 2 iei. /aeiaae, ?aiaiuie ieiei 5 iei. /aeiaae,
ieaiiuie ieiei 2 iei. /aeiaae. A no?aia ia/eiatho ia?anoaoue
aioeaiaiiua iano?iaiey.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aeieaee A.I. Enoi?ey ?innee. O/aaiia iiniaea. I.: EIO?A-I, 2007.

2. Enoi?ey ?innee. Oai?ee eco/aiey. Eieaa ia?aay, aoi?ay / Iiae. ?aae.
A. A. Ee/iaia. Aeaoa?eiao?a: NA-96, 2006. – 304 n.

3. Eicei E.I. Enoi?ey Ioa/anoaa. O/aaiia iiniaea aeey aocia. I.:
AE?I-OOI; NIa.: Aeieo?ee Aoeaiei, 2007. – 200 n.

4. Ie?iiia A.A. Nioeeaeueiay enoi?ey ?innee. O.1. NIa, 2006.

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