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История России

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Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea ?innee oei niaa?oaiii eiui iooai. ?inney ia
i?ioiaeeea noaaeee ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa, ia ciaea oeaoiaie i?aaiecaoeee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe — e a yoii caeeth/aaony naiia i?eioeeieaeueiia, naiia
aeoaieia ioee/ea aa io Caiaaea, ioee/ea, ec eioi?iai i?ienoaeee, eae
anoanoaaiiia iineaaenoaea, ana inoaeueiua. Ia ciay ai?iaeneiai
oicyenoaaiiiai no?iy, ?inney ia ciaea e oie naiaia?aciie i?iiuoeaiiie
eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay yaeeanue ioi?aaiie oi/eie aeaeueiaeoae oicyenoaaiiie
enoi?ee Caiaaea; aeaaiaea?y yoiio a ?innee ia iiaea iieo/eoue
cia/eoaeueiiai ?acaeoey e oa iauanoaaiiay a?oiia, eioi?ay ia Caiaaea
yaeeanue aeaaiui oaeoi?ii oicyenoaaiiiai i?ia?anna — ao?aeoacey.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea. Nia?aiaiiay ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?e/aneay iaoea n/eoaao,
/oi i?aaeee neaayi auaeaeeeenue ec ae?aaiaai /eiaeiaa?iiaeneiai
aaeeinoaa, ianaeyaoaai aieueooth /anoue Aa?acee, ia ?aiaa na?aaeeiu II
oun. aei iaoae y?u. Ia?aiia/aeueiue a?aae eo ?annaeaiey – io I?eaaeoeee
ia naaa?a aei Ea?iao ia thaa. Iaeioi?ua o/aiua /iai?. aeaaeaiee
A.?uaaeia/ n/eoatho, /oi oiiieiaaiua Aa?iaeioii /V a. aei i.y./
“neeou-iaoa?e”- yoi e anoue i?aneaayia . Ae?oaea i?eniaaeeiytho e iei e
aua iaeei ia?iae, oiiieiaaiue Aa?iaeioii – iaa?ia, i?iaeeaaaoeo a eanao
e naaa?o io neeoia.

Niaeanii ii?iaineie oai?ee, iniiaaiiie ia iai?aaeeueiii oieeiaaiee
?onneeo eaoiienae, Eeaaneay ?onue auea nicaeaia oaaaeneeie aeeeiaaie,
iiae/eiea ainoi/iineaayineea ieaiaia e ninoaaeaoeie ainiiaenoaothuee
eeann ae?aaia?onneiai iauanoaa, ai aeaaa n eiycueyie-?th?eeiae/aie. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee aeaoo aaeia ?onnei-neaiaeeiaaneea ioiioaiey IX-XI aa. auee
i?aaeiaoii ino?ie aeeneonnee iaaeaeo ii?iaienoaie e aioeii?iaienoaie.

Eeaaneay ?onue iaeii ec e?oiiaeoeo ainoaea?noa N?aaeiaaaeiauey IX-XII
aa. A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo no?ai, eae Ainoi/iuo oae e Caiaaeiuo, i?ioeann
oi?ie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiinoe eiae naie niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou –
i?ino?ainoaaiiua e aaiiieeoe/aneea. A oiaea naiaai noaiiaeaiey ?onue
i?eia?aea iniaaiiinoe eae Ainoi/iuo oae e Caiaaeiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
ia?aciaaiee, iineieueeo caieiaea n?aaeeiiia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo Aa?iiie e
Aceae e ia eiaea y?ei au?aaeaiiuo anoanoaaiiuo aaia?aoe/aneeo a?aieoe a
i?aaeaeao ia?iiiiai ?aaieiiiai i?ino?ainoaa (aeaoaeaaue i?ae,
ooaa?aeaeaiiue a ea/anoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aa?aa Eaaiii III e
neiaieece?othuee aa?aceeneia aaeeinoai ?one, aue aaaaeai ca /aou?a n
eeoiei noieaoey aei oiai ss?ineaaii Ioae?ui). Iio?aaiinoue a iinoiyiiie
caueoa io aiaoieo a?aaia cia/eoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee auioaeaeaea
niea/eaaoueny ia?iaeu n ?aciui oeiii ?acaeoey, aa?ieniiaaaeaiey,
eoeueoo?u, ycuea, nicaeaaaoue neeueioth ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue. A 988
a. Aeaaeeie? e?anoeeny nai, e?anoee naieo aeaoae, aiy? e iiae no?aoii
iaeacaiey canoaaee e?anoeoueny eeaaeyi e anao ?onneeo aiiaua. ?onneay
oea?eiaue ea?aea neiaeioth e iiiaia?aiioth ?ieue a enoi?ee ?one.
Ianiiiaiia aa iieueca eae i?aaiecaoeee, iiiiaaaoae iieiaeie ?onneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a yiioo ao?iiai ?acaeoey oaiaeaeecia. Ianiiiaiia e aa
?ieue a ?acaeoee ?onneie eoeueoo?u, a i?eiauaiee e eoeueoo?iui
aiaaonoaai Aecaioee, a ?ani?ino?aiaiee i?inaauaiey e nicaeaiee e?oiiuo
eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae.

Oaoa?i-iiiaieueneia iaoanoaea a 13 a. i?eaaei e aeaaee iiiaeo
eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae e e aeieaiio ia?a?uao a niceaeaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia ?yae noieaoee. Iiiaiei-oaoa?neia iaoanoaea e eai
Cieioie I?aeu, iineaaeiaaaoaa ca iaoanoaeai nua?aei ia?iiioth ?ieue a
enoi?ee iaoae no?aiu. Aaaeue aeaaeu/anoai ei/aaieeia i?iaeieaeaeinue
ii/oe aeaa n iieiaeiie noieaoey e ca yoi a?aiy eai noiaei iieiaeeoue
nouanoaaiiue ioia/aoie ia noaeueao ?onneiai ia?iaea. Yoio ia?eiae a
enoi?ee iaoae no?aiu yaeyaony i/aiue aaaeiui, iineieueeo ii
i?aaeii?aaeaeee aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea Ae?aaiae ?one. Aeey oiai, /oiau
iaeaieaa iieii io?aceoue oi, /oi i?iecioei a 12 aaea ia caiea ?onneie,
ioaeii ynii i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa n eaeeie neeaie iiaeioee
i?ioeaiai?noaothuea noi?iiu, eo yeiiiie/aneia e eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea,
ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai.

Eaai III aeiaeeny iauaaeeiaiey ?onneeo caiaeue a ?aieao aaeeiiai
ainoaea?noaa. Ii no?ie e iaeee yoiai ainoaea?noaa ieii/aoaeueii
ii?aaeaeeeenue eeoue i?e aai aioea Eaaia IV Aaneeueaae/a, iieo/eaoai
i?icaeua A?iciue.

A iaoae enoi?ee oea?noaiaaiea Eaaia A?iciiai ninoaaeyao iieiaeio XVI
aaea e yaeyaony iaeiie ec naiuo aaaeiuo e ia?aeiiiuo yiio iaoaai
ainoaea?noaa. Iii aaaeii eae ii ?anoe?aieth oa??eoi?ee, oae e ii e?oiiui
ciaiaiaoaeueiui niauoeyi e ii eciaiaieyi ai aioo?aiiae aeecie no?aiu.
Iiiai auei niaa?oaii a yoio iieoaaeiaie ia?eiae neaaiiai, naaoeiai e
aaeeeiai ii naiei iineaaenoaeyi, ii aua aieaa i?a/iiai, e?iaaaiai e
ioa?aoeoaeueiiai. Iiiyoii, /oi i?e oaeeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ea/anoaao
iiiaeo aaaeiuo yaeaiee oa?aeoa? e iinooiee aeaaiiai aeayoaey, oea?y
Eaaia Aaneeueaae/a, i?aaenoaaeyaony caaaaei/iui. Eiaiii oaeie caaaaeeie
Eiaii A?iciue aioae a enoi?eth.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia XVIII noieaoey a ?innee naycaia n eiai eiia?ao?eoeu,
/uea i?aaeaiea ninoaaeei yiioo a enoi?ee no?aiu. Oioy Aeaoa?eia II
acioea ia i?anoie a 1762 a., oaea n 1744 a, n iiiaioa naiaai iiyaeaiey a
?inneeneie noieeoea, iia ieacuaae aeeyiea ia oiae niauoee a ia?iiiie
eiia?ee. I?aaaea, a ia?aua aiaeu aeecie a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa thiay
iaiaoeeay i?eioeanna Niouey-O?aaea?eea Aaaonoa Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoneay
(?iaeeeanue 21 ai?aey (2 iay) 1729 a.), iaaai/aiiay n ianeaaeieeii
i?anoiea (aoaeouei eiia?aoi?ii Iao?ii III) iiae eiaiai Aeaoa?eiu,
eacaeanue ia aieaa /ai ea?ooeie a /oaeeo ?oeao. I?e yoii aoaeouay
eiia?ao?eoea aua e iiiai caieiaeanue naiiia?aciaaieai, /eoaea o?oaeu
o?aioeocneeo i?inaaoeoaeae e oii?ii inaaeaaea ?onneee ycue. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeai?oeiaui ia?aai?ioii 28 ethiy 1762 a. ia ?inneeneee i?anoie
auea aicaaaeaia ia neo/aeiay aeaiueia, eae auaaei ia ?ac a enoi?ee
?innee XVIII a., a /aeiaae, aeieai e oeaeaono?aieaiii aioiaeaoeeny e
i?eiyoie ia naay ?iee.

Ia ?annaaoa 24 ethiy 1812 aiaea aienea Iaiieaiia aac iauyaeaiey aieiu
ia?ai?aaeeenue /a?ac ?aeo Iaiai e aoi?aeenue a i?aaeaeu ?innee. A?iey
Iaiieaiia, eioi?oth nai ii iacuaae “Aaeeeie a?ieae”, ian/eouaaea nauoa
600 000 /aeiaae e 1420 i?oaeee. Iiieii o?aioeocia a iaa aoiaeeee
iaoeeiiaeueiua ei?iona aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, iiei?aiiuo Iaiieaiiii, a
oaeaea iieueneee ei?ion ia?oaea TH. Iiiyoianeiai. Aoi?aoaiony
iai?eyoaeth i?ioeainoiyee 220 – 240 ouny/ ?onneeo nieaeao i?e 942
i?oaeeyo – a 3 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai auei o i?ioeaieea. E oiio aea ?onneea
aienea auee ?acaeaeaiu: 1-y Caiaaeiay a?iey iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aiaiiiai
ieieno?a aaia?aea io eioaioa?ee I.A.Aa?eeay aea Oieee (110 – 127 ouny/
/aeiaae i?e 558 i?oaeeyo) ?anoyioeanue aieaa /ai ia 200 eeeiiao?ia io
Eeoau aei A?iaeii a Aaei?onnee; 2-y Caiaaeiay a?iey ai aeaaa n aaia?aeii
io eioaioa?ee I.E. Aaa?aoeiiii (45 – 48 ouny/ /aeiaae i?e 216 i?oaeeyo)
caieiaea eeieth aei 100 eeeiiao?ia e ainoieo io Aaeinoiea; 3-y Caiaaeiay
a?iey aaia?aea io eaaaea?ee A.I. Oi?ianiaa (46 000 /aeiaae i?e 168
i?oaeeyo) noiyea ia Aieuie o Eooeea. Ia i?aaii oeaiaa ?onneeo aiene (a
Oeieyiaeee) iaoiaeeeny ei?ion aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioa O.O. Ooaeiaaey, ia
eaaii oeaiaa – Aeoiaeneay a?iey aaeie?aea I.A. *e/aaiaa.

I?aaeiinueee aeaeaeaiey 1.Iauaeoeaiay iniiaa – iaino?aiea i?ioeai?a/ee
oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneiai no?iy, i/aaeaeiia ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo
iiuueth ?innee, aceaoii aa eoeueoo?u e aa?aa?neei e?aiinoie/anoaii.
Iniciaiea yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey niinianoaiaaei oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
?innee eaeaieiaee I?inaauaiey (Iiioaneuea, Aeeae?i, Aieueoa?a, ?onni).
Iniaaiii ecaeaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue Iiaeeiaa. Ni anae ino?ioie yoe
i?iaeaiu auee iinoaaeaiu aua a eieaa ?aaeeuaaa (1790). 2.?yae
enoi?e/aneeo niauoee, niinianoaiaaaoeo iniciaieth iaiaoiaeeiinoe
i?aia?aciaaiee. O?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey, Aieia 1812 a, Ioeac i?aayueo
e?oaia io ?aoi?i iiae?uaae ?aoi?ienoneea i?eaioaoeee /anoe o/anoieeia
aeaeaeaiey, oneeeaae no?aieaiea e e?aeiei iaoiaeai, O?aaeeoeey aiaiiiai,
aaa?aeaeneiai ia?aai?ioa e oea?aoaeenoa

Eeaa?aeeci eae oa/aiea iieeoe/aneie iunee neiaeeeny a ?innee a na?aaeeia
XIX a. Aai iiyaeaiea auei naycaii n aeayoaeueiinoueth “caiaaeieeia” 40-o
aiaeia. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi nianoaaiii ao?aeoacey, o.a.
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiua e?oae, a i?eioeeia aeieai inoaaaeanue /oaeaeie
eeaa?aeecio, iieeoe/anee eia?oiie. Yoi yaeyeinue neaaenoaeai aa
ecaanoiie iac?aeinoe, yeiiiie/aneie caaeneiinoe io naiiaea?aeaaey,
neeaaeuaaaoaeny a oiaea oi?ne?iaaiiie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee no?aiu. A
naiiaea?aeaaee ao?aeoacey aeaeaea naiaai caueoieea io iaae?aaoaai neeo
?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey. A yoeo oneiaeyo iineoaeai eeaa?aeueiie eaeaieiaee
noaei “iauanoai” – /anoue aeai?yinoaa, eioaeeeaaioeey. Eeaa?aeeci a
?innee ia eiae i?i/iie e ii?aaeaeaiiie nioeeaeueiie aacu e eae
eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneia oa/aiea noi?ie?iaaeny, a ecaanoiii ioiioaiee, iiae
aeeyieai caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo ia?acoeia -?aiueoa, /ai a iieiie ia?a
neiaeeeenue aioo?aiiea i?aaeiinueee aeey aai aicieeiiaaiey. Neaayiioeeu
oaeaeaeenue ineoieiae/aneeie aniaeoaie aiai?aiey e nioeeaeueiuie
oaeoi?aie. Iaeaieaa auaeathueieny n?aaee ycueiaaaeia-neaayiioeeia auee
Eiinoaioei Na?aaaae/ Aenaeia (1817–1860) e Aeaenaiae? O?aei?iae/
Aeeueoa?aeeia (1831–1872).

A 50-o aiaeao ia?aciaaeenue aeaa oeaio?a, aicaeaaeaoea
?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea a no?aia. Ai aeaaa ia?aiai
(yiea?aioneiai) noiye A.E.Aa?oeai, iniiaaaoee a Eiiaeiia “Aieueioth
?onneoth oeiia?aoeth” (1853). N 1855 a. ii ia/ae ecaeaaaoue
iaia?eiaee/aneee nai?iee “Iiey?iay caacaea”. Aoi?ie oeaio? aiciee a
Iaoa?ao?aa. Ai aeaaa aai noiyee aaaeouea nio?oaeieee aeo?iaea
“Nia?aiaiiee” I.A.*a?iuoaaneee e I.A.Aeia?iethaia, aie?oa eioi?uo
nieioeeenue aaeeiiiuoeniieee ec ?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai eaaa?y
(I.E.Ieoaeeia, I.A.Na?ii-Nieiaueaae/, I.A.Oaeaoiia e ae?.)
Iiaeoeaico?iua noaouee I.A.*a?iuoaaneiai auee ia noieue ioe?iaaiiu, eae
ioaeeeaoeee A.E.Aa?oeaia, ii ioee/aeenue naiae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth.
I.A.*a?iuoaaneee n/eoae, /oi i?e inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi caiey aeieaeia
ia?aaeaaaoueny ei aac aueoia, eeeaeaeaoeey naiiaea?aeaaey a ?innee
i?iecieaeao ?aaiethoeeiiiui iooai.

Ii?aaeaeaiioth yaiethoeeth i?iaeaeaei e ia?iaeie/anoai 70-o aa.
Iooaeeeaaynue io eaeae I. Aaeoieia, n/eoaaoaai e?anoueyieia
i?e?iaeaeaiiui aoioa?ai, ia o?aaothuei eaeeo-eeai cia/eoaeueiuo oneeee
ni noi?iiu eioaeeeaaioeee n oeaeueth aicaoaeaeaiey e?anoueyineiai aoioa,
?aaiethoeeiiiay oai?ey nia/aea auioaeaeaia auea i?eciaoue, a eeoea I.
Eaa?iaa, iaaeinoaoi/ioth aioiaiinoue e?anoueyinoaa e aunooieaieth, /oiau
caoai I. Oea/aa e aiana ioeacae aio a eaeie au oi ie auei
?aaiethoeeiiiinoe, ii?aaeaeea a ea/anoaa aeaaiie neeu ?aaiethoeee
eioaeeeaaioa. I?e/ai, ana yoe eaeae ia?iaeieee 70-o aa. i?iaa?eee ia
i?aeoeea. “Oiaeaeaiea a ia?iae” e i?iiaaaiaeenoneay aeayoaeueiinoue
iiaie “Caiee e aiee”

Aeaenaiae? II – eiia?aoi? ana?inneeneee, noa?oee nui eiia?aoi?a Ieeieay
Iaaeiae/a e eiia?ao?eoeu Aeaenaiae?u Oaaei?iaiu, ?iaeeeny a Iineaa 17
ai?aey 1818 a. Aieueooth ?ieue a aeecie Aeaenaiae?a II nua?aei iinauaiea
Aea?iooaaeoa, aaea ii iiciaeiieeny n i?eioeannie
Iaeneieeeaiie-Aeeueaaeueieiie-Aaaonoie-Nioeae-Ia?eae (?iaeeaoaeny 27
ethey 1824a.), i?eaiiie aei/a?ueth aa?oeiaa Aannaineiai Ethaeiaeea II,
noaaoae anei?a aeaiie oeana?aae/a, aaeeeie eiyaeiie Ia?eae
Aeaenaiae?iaiie. Ia i?anoie Aeaenaiae? II acioae 19 oaa?aey 1855 a. a
aic?anoa 36 eao. Aio i?aaenoiyei aieoe a enoi?eth iiae eiaiai
Inaiaiaeeoaey. Oaea a aeaiue ei?iiaoeee, 26 aaaonoa, iiaue iaieoano
ainoaea?y iciaiaiiaaeny oeaeui ?yaeii ieeinoae. Ia o?e aiaea
i?einoaiiaeaiu ?ae?ooneea iaai?u, i?iuaiu ana eacaiiua iaaeieiee, ia/aou
e o. ae.;

I?aaeoaeuenoai Aeaenaiae?a II a yiaa?a 1857 a. nicaeaei Nae?aoiue
eiieoao “aeey ianoaeaeaiey ia? ii ono?ienoao auoa iiiaue/ueeo
e?anoueyi”. Ianeieueei ?aiaa, eaoii 1856 a. a IAAe oiaa?euai
(caianoeoaeai) ieieno?a A.E.Eaaoeiui auea ?ac?aaioaia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay
i?ia?aiia e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu, eioi?ay oioy e aeaaaea e?aiinoiui
a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa, ii nio?aiyea anth caieth a nianoaaiiinoe iiiaueea e
i?aaeinoaaeyea iineaaeiaio aio/eiioth aeanoue a eiaiee.

IA?OEss – yoi iieeoe/aneay iauanoaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey eioi?ay ai?aony ca
aeanoue eee ca o/anoea a inouanoaeaiee aeanoe. Oaeei ia?acii, e 1905 a.
a aa?oieo yoaeiiao aeanoe iaiaoeeenue aeaa iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth i?iaeai
?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: 1) oe?aieaiea nouanoaothuae nenoaiu
aeanoe, i?aeiouanoaaiii neeiauie iaoiaeaie; 2)iinoaiaiiia e iaaeeaiiia
?aoi?ie?iaaiea o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoneie aeanoe aneaaenoaea yeiiiie/aneeo
i?aia?aciaaiee. O?aoee iooue, ioaa?aiooue Ieeieaai II, i?aaeeiaeeee
cainoaa: ?anoe?aiey i?aa ianoiuo i?aaiia naiioi?aaeaiey e oneeaiea eo
aeeyiey ia i?eiyoee ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aoaiee.

I?e/eiu a. Aa?a?iue aii?in: aa?a?iia ia?aianaeaiea, nio?aiaiea e?oiiuo
iiiaue/ueeo onaaeaa e iaoe?iuo ii?yaeeia. b. ?aai/ee aii?in: ieceee
o?iaaiue iieaou o?oaea e aeeeoaeueiue ?aai/ee aeaiue. c. A?oae/iinoue
iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa (naiiaea?aeaaea aeaaii ecaeeei a naay). d.
Ionoonoaea aa?aioee iniiaiuo i?aa e naiaiae. e. Oyaeaeaeoee
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen (a nayce n ?onnei-ssiiineie aieiie), ia?aoaaeoee a
aeai?anneth. f. Iaoaea/iay ?onnei-ssiiineay aieia.

A oa/aiea iaaeaee n iiiaioa iauyaeaiey 28 ethey 1914 a. Aano?i-Aaia?eae
aieiu Na?aee a ia? aoyioeenue ii/oe ana aaeeeea aea?aeaau Aa?iiu. N?aco
aea iinea ia/aea aieiu iiniaoeee cayaeoue i nai?i iaeo?aeeoaoa Aieaa?ey,
A?aoeey, Eniaiey, Ii?ooaaeey, Aieeaiaeey, Aeaiey, Oaaoeey, Ii?aaaey,
NOA, ?yae ainoaea?noa Eaoeineie Aia?eee e Acee, a oaeaea nithcieee
aano?i-aa?iaineiai aeiea – Eoaeey e ?oiuiey ?inney anooieea a aieio n
Aa?iaieae e Aano?i-Aaia?eae, aeiaeaaynue naiaiaeiiai auoiaea
/a?iiii?neiai oeioa /a?ac Ainoi? e Aea?aeaiaeeu a N?aaeecaiiia ii?a, a
oaeaea i?eniaaeeiaiey Aaeeoeee e iaaeiiai oa/aiey Iaiaia. E 1917 a
?innee neo/eeanue ?aaiethoeey e iaeia aieia ieaaii ia?aoaeea a ae?oaoth.

Ia/aei 1917 a. iciaiaiiaaeinue naiie iiuiie ca aanue ia?eiae ie?iaie
aieiu aieiie caaanoiaie. A yiaa?a a noa/eao o/anoaiaaei 270 oun.
/aeiaae, i?e/ai ii/oe iieiaeio anao aanoothueo ninoaaeyee ?aai/ea
Iao?ia?aaea e Iao?ia?aaeneie aoaa?iee. 14 oaa?aey, a aeaiue ioe?uoey
aeoineie nannee, i?ioea caaanoiaea ?aai/eo 60 caaiaeia noieeoeu e
aeaiiino?aoeey iiae ?aaiethoeeiiiuie eicoiaaie. A Iao?ia?aaea
neeaaeuaaeanue e?aeia iai?yaeaiiay neooaoeey. 18 oaa?aey aunooieee
?aai/ea Iooeeianeiai caaiaea. A iioii caianei aei?iae iioee neooe i
aieiaea e anyeia oaeia.

Aaeeeay Ieoya?ueneay nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey, ia?aay a enoi?ee
iiaaaeiiiniay nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey, niaa?oaiiay a 1917 ?aai/ei
eeannii ?innee a nithca n aaaeiaeoei e?anoueyinoaii iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee [i?aaeiaa iacaaiea — ?inneeneay
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?aai/ay ia?oey (aieueoaaeeia)] ai aeaaa n A. E.
Eaieiui. Iacaaiea «Ieoya?ueneay» — io aeaou 25 ieoya?y (ii iiaiio noeeth
— 7 iiya?y) — ieceiaeaiey A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?innee e ia?aoiaea
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a ?oee Niaaoia ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia.
A ?acoeueoaoa Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee auea naa?aiooa a ?innee aeanoue
ao?aeoacee e iiiaueeia e onoaiiaeaia aeeeoaoo?a i?ieaoa?eaoa, nicaeaii
Niaaoneia nioeeaeenoe/aneia ainoaea?noai. Aaeeeay Ieoya?ueneay
nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey yaeeanue oi?aeanoaii ia?enecia-eaieiecia,
ioe?uea iiaoth y?o a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa — y?o ia?aoiaea io eaieoaeecia
e nioeeaeecio e eiiioiecio.

A?aaeaeaineay aieia e aiaiiay eioa?aaioeey 1918—20 a ?innee, ai?ueaa
?aai/eo e o?oaeyueony e?anoueyi Niaaoneie ?innee iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee ca caaiaaaiey Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, naiaiaeo e iacaaeneiinoue Niaaoneie
?iaeeiu i?ioea nee aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae eiio??aaiethoeee. Aaeeeay
Ieoya?ueneay nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey 1917, iieiaeeaoay ia/aei
ie?iaie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, aucaaea ?aoeoaeueiia
nii?ioeaeaiea ia oieueei naa?aioouo yenieoaoaoi?neeo eeannia aioo?e
no?aiu, ii e anaai ie?iaiai eiia?eaeecia. Eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey e
Niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ai aeaaa n A. E. Eaieiui noiaee iiaeiyoue,
i?aaieciaaoue e iiaanoe ?aai/eo e o?oaeyueony e?anoueyi ia caueoo
Niaaoneie aeanoe.

«Aiaiiue eiiioieci», yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa a
ia?eiae A?aaeaeaineie aieiu e aiaiiie eioa?aaioeee 1918—20. Aiaiiay
eioa?aaioeey e A?aaeaeaineay aieia ia?ooeee ia/aaoothny niceaeaoaeueioth
?aaioo aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa. An? ia?iaeiia oicyenoai i?eoeinue
ia?ano?aeaaoue ia aiaiiue eaae. Niaaoneay no?aia iaoiaeeeanue a oyae?eii
iieiaeaiee: iia auea a eieueoea o?iioia, eeoaia aaaeiaeoeo enoi/ieeia
nu?uey e i?iaeiaieuenoaey, aeiiaoeeiai oaey, aaeeineie e a?iciaineie
iaooe, thaeiiai e o?aeueneiai iaoaeea, neae?neiai, eoaaineiai e
oe?aeineiai oeaaa, oo?eanoaineiai oeiiea. Oyae?eia oicyenoaaiiia
iieiaeaiea Niaaoneie no?aiu o?aaiaaei iai?yaeaiey anao nee ia?iaea.

E ieii/aieth A?aaeaeaineie aieiu no?aia ia?aaeeaaea e?aeithth
oicyenoaaiioth ?ac?ooo, iaino??iioth iao?iaeaai 1920 e aieiaeii. A nayce
n aeaiiaeeecaoeeae a?iee nicaeaeanue aac?aaioeoea. Aiiaue aicieeee
ianniaua eieaaaiey e?anoueyinoaa, eioi?ia auei iaaeiaieueii nenoaiie
«aiaiiiai eiiioiecia», oioaei ioiaiu i?iae?aca??noee e aiciiaeiinoe
naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny eceeoeaie naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa. O?oaeiinoe e
eeoaiey, eioi?ua ia?aiineeenue eae aeieaeiia ai a?aiy A?aaeaeaineie
aieiu, oaia?ue aucuaaee iaaeiaieuenoai ia oieueei n?aaee e?anoueyi, ii e
n?aaee ?aai/aai eeanna.

Iiaay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea, iyi, i?iaiaeeeanue EINN e Niaaoneei
ainoaea?noaii a ia?aoiaeiue io eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecio ia?eiae;
iacaaia iiaie, a ioee/ea io yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ia?eiaea
A?aaeaeaineie aieiu 1918—20. Ia/aea inouanoaeyoueny a 1921 ii ?aoaieth
Aeanyoiai nuacaea ?EI(a), caaa?oeeanue ai 2-e iieiaeia 30-o aa. iiaaaeie
nioeeaeecia a NNN?. Nouiinoueth iyia auei oe?aieaiea nithca ?aai/aai
eeanna n e?anoueyinoaii ia yeiiiie/aneie iniiaa, onoaiiaeaiea nayce
nioeeaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe n iaeeioiaa?iui e?anoueyineei
oicyenoaii ioo?i oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee,
aiaea/aiea e?anoueyi a nioeeaeenoe/aneia
no?ieoaeuenoai,«…iaeneiaeueiue iiaeuai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e
oeo/oaiea iieiaeaiey ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi…» (Eaiei A. E., Iieiia
nia?aiea ni/eiaiee, 5 ecae., o. 43, n. 398). Iyi aeiioneae iaeioi?ia
?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo yeaiaioia i?e nio?aiaiee eiiaiaeiuo aunio
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa;
iaania/eaae iiaeu?i i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ia aaca ?inoa
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo e auoaniaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo yeaiaioia,
i?aia?aciaaiea iiiaioeeaaeiie yeiiiieee a aaeeioth nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ia
iniiaa eiaeono?eaeecaoeee no?aiu e eiiia?e?iaaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Ia?aciaaiea NNN? A oiaea a?aaeaeaineie aieiu neiaeeeenue 2 oi?iu
iaoeeiiaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe: 1-y, oaaea?aoeey iniiaaiiay ia
aaoiiiiee, e 2-y, oaaea?aoeey iniiaaiiay ia eiioaaea?aoeee. Ae?oaay
oi?ia oaaea?aoeee ia/aea neeaaeuaaoueny ia iniiaa niei/aiey ae?oaeo
iaoeee. Iauaaeeiaiea ia/aei i?ienoiaeeoue nia?aa ia aiaiiie iniiaa. A
ca?iaeuoa yoi auea oi?ia eiioaaea?aoeee. Ii ia i?aeoeea aea, yoa
eiioaaea?aoeey auea iiae aeeeoaoii NNN?.

Nio?aiyeanue aaeeiay Eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey, inoaaaeanue /aoeay
oeaio?aeecaoeey, /a?ac eiiioienoe/aneoth ia?oeth i?ienoiaeeei iieiia
iiae/eiaiea. ?aoathuei iieeoe/aneei oneiaey iauaaeeiaiey auei aaeeinoai
eo iieeoe/aneiai no?iy – a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiethoeee

ai anao ?anioaeeeao auea onoaiiaeaia aeeeoaoo?a i?ieaoa?eaoa.

A ai?ueaa ca aeanoue Noaeei i?eiaiye i/aiue eciu?aiiua iaoiaeu. Ii
iono?aiee io iieeoe/aneie aeecie Eaieia. Aeeo?aoii oae?ae anao naieo
eiieo?aioia. Eoeueo ee/iinoe Noaeeia a NNN? aue aeieaia a?aiy Noaeei aue
aicaaaeai a ?aia aiaa e i?aiiaeiineeny ethaeyi eae naa?o /aeiaae.

Oi?ne?iaaiiay eiaeono?eaeecaoeey no?aiu, inouanoaeyaoayny ai iiiaii ca
n/ao ia?aiai?yaeaiey ieaoaaeiuo nee naeueneiai ianaeaiey, onoaoaeee
iieiaeaiea ?inneeneiai e?anoueyinoaa. Eaieoaeenoe/aneay E. — nicaeaiea
e?oiiiai iaoeiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a oneiaeyo ainiiaenoaa
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, oi?ie?iaaiea
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. I?aaeiinueee
eaieoaeenoe/aneie E. naycaiu n oae iacuaaaiui ia?aiia/aeueiui
iaeiieaieai eaieoaea, ianeeuenoaaiiie yeni?ii?eaoeeae iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, oneeaieai yenieoaoaoeee o?oaeyueony e ia?aciaaieai
?aca?aia naiaiaeiie ?aai/ae neeu.

Iaeia ec oi?i Eieeaeoeaecaoeey yoi Eieeaeoeaecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa
a NNN?, i?aia?aciaaiea iaeeeo, aaeeiiee/iuo e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa a
e?oiiua iauanoaaiiua nioeeaeenoe/aneea oicyenoaa ioo?i eiiia?e?iaaiey.

Oaoeci (eoae. fascismo, io fascio – io/ie, naycea, iauaaeeiaiea),
iieeoe/aneia oa/aiea, aicieeoaa a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a ia?eiae
iauaai e?ecena eaieoaeecia e au?aaeathuaa eioa?anu iaeaieaa ?aaeoeeiiiuo
e aa?anneaiuo nee eiia?eaeenoe/aneie ao?aeoacee. O. o aeanoe –
oa??i?enoe/aneay aeeeoaoo?a naiuo ?aaeoeeiiiuo nee iiiiiieenoe/aneiai
eaieoaea, inouanoaeyaiay n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai no?iy.
Aaaeiaeoea ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou O. – i?eiaiaiea e?aeieo oi?i ianeeey
aeey iiaeaaeaiey ?aai/aai eeanna e anao o?oaeyueony, aieinoaothuee
aioeeiiioieci, oiaeieci, ?aneci.

Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia 1939—1945, aieia, iiaeaioiaeaiiay neeaie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiia?eaeenoe/aneie ?aaeoeee e ?acaycaiiay aeaaiuie
aa?anneaiuie ainoaea?noaaie — oaoenoneie Aa?iaieae, oaoenoneie Eoaeeae e
ieeeoa?enoneie ssiiieae. A. i. a., eae e ia?aay, aicieeea a neeo
aeaenoaey caeiia ia?aaiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey eaie-oaeenoe/aneeo no?ai i?e
eiia?eaeecia e yaeeanue ?acoeueoaoii ?aceiai iaino?aiey
iaaeeiia?eaeenoe/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee, ai?ueau ca ?uiee nauoa, enoi/ieee
nu?uey, noa?u aeeyiey e i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaeia. Aieia ia/aeanue a
oneiaeyo, eiaaea eaieoaeeci oaea ia aue anaiauaiethuae nenoaiie, eiaaea
nouanoaiaaei e e?aiei ia?aia a ie?a nioeeaeenoe/aneia ainoaea?noai —
NNN?.

Aaeeeay Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia Niaaoneiai Nithca 1941—45, ni?aaaaeeeaay,
inaiaiaeeoaeueiay aieia niaaoneiai ia?iaea ca naiaiaeo e iacaaeneiinoue
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?iaeeiu i?ioea oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee e a? nithcieeia
(Eoaeee, Aaia?ee, ?oiuiee, Oeieyiaeee, a a 1945 e ssiiiee). Aieia i?ioea
NNN? auea ?acaycaia aa?iaineei oaoeciii — aeeeoaoo?ie iaeaieaa
?aaeoeeiiiuo e aa?anneaiuo nee eiia?eaeecia, no?aieaoaainy oie/oiaeeoue
ia?aia a ie?a nioeeaeenoe/aneia ainoaea?noai. ssaeeanue aaaeiaeoae e
?aoathuae ninoaaiie /anoueth aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu 1939—45.

A. I. a. caeii/eeanue iieiie iiaaaeie ia?iaeia NNN? iaae oaoeciii,
eioi?ay ii naiaio cia/aieth e iineaaenoaeyi yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei niauoeai
ie?iaie enoi?ee. A e?iaii?ieeoiie e ?ac?ooeoaeueiie aieia Niaaoneee
Nithc ionoiye nioeeaeenoe/aneea caaiaaaiey, naiue ia?aaeiaie
iauanoaaiiue no?ie, caueoee naith naiaiaeo e iacaaeneiinoue. «Iiaaaea
niaaoneiai ia?iaea a yoie aieia iiaeoaa?aeeea, /oi a ie?a iao nee,
eioi?ua iiaee au inoaiiaeoue iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
iauanoaa» (I?ia?aiia EINN, 1969, n. 17). Ia?iiiua aiciiaeiinoe,
caeiaeaiiua a nioeeaeenoe/aneii no?ia, iicaieeee Niaaoneiio Nithco
i?aiaeieaoue /?acau/aeiua o?oaeiinoe aiaiiiai a?aiaie e, ianiio?y ia
aieueoea iioa?e, aueoe ec aieiu e?aieei e iiao/ei. Iiaaaea NNN? ?ane?uea
ia?aae o?oaeyueieny anaai ie?a aaee/ea e ianie?ooeioth iiuue
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa

«Oieiaeiay aieia», oa?iei, iieo/eaoee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iinea 2-e
ie?iaie aieiu 1939—45, aeey iaicia/aiey iieeoeee ?aaeoeeiiiuo e
aa?anneaiuo e?oaia Caiaaea a ioiioaiee Niaaoneiai Nithca e ae?.
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, a oaeaea ia?iaeia, ai?thueony ca
iaoeeiiaeueioth iacaaeneiinoue, ie?, aeaiie?aoeth e nioeeaeeci. Iieeoeea
«O. a.», iai?aaeaiiay ia iaino?aiea e nio?aiaiea ninoiyiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iai?yae?iiinoe, ia nicaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea iianiinoe
aicieeiiaaiey «ai?y/ae aieiu» («aaeaine?iaaiea ia a?aie aieiu»), eiaao
oeaeueth ii?aaaeaoue aacoaea?aeioth aiieo aii?oaeaiee, oaaee/aiea
aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia, oneeaiea ?aaeoeee e i?aneaaeiaaiey i?ia?anneaiuo nee
a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. Iieeoeea «O. a.» auea ioe?uoi i?iaicaeaoaia
a i?ia?aiiiie ?a/e O. *a?/eeey 5 ia?oa 1946 (a a. Ooeoii, NOA), a
eioi?ie ii i?ecaae e nicaeaieth aiaei-aia?eeaineiai nithca aeey ai?ueau
n «ie?iaui eiiioieciii ai aeaaa n Niaaoneie ?inneae»

5 ia?oa 1953 aiaea Noaeei oia?. Eae ?ac ia?aae nia?oueth Noaeei ia/ae
aioiaeoue iiaoth /enoeo. Iioi?iieee Noaeeia n ii/aoii. Oaei aai
iieiaeeee ?yaeii n Eaieiui a iaacieaa ia E?aniie ieiuaaee. N?aco aea
iinea aai nia?oe ia/aeanue a E?aiea ai?ueaa ca aeanoue. A yoie ai?ueaa
auaeaeioeenue o?e eaiaeeaeaoa: ananeeueiue ia/aeueiee IAAe e EAA Aa?ey,
ethaeiaoe Noaeeia Iaeaieia e O?ouaa. Aa?ey ana /eaiu I?aceaeeoia
aiyeenue: n/eoaee, /oi ii iiaeao noaoue aoi?ui Noaeeiui, iieuecoynue
iiuiui aiia?aoii IAAe. Aai caiaieee a eiaooeo ia canaaeaiea I?aceaeeoia
a E?aiea e oai oaeee

OO nuacae EINN e aai enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea. Ia?u ii eeeaeaeaoeee
ia?ooaiee nioeeaeenoe/aneie caeiiiinoe e oe?aieaieth i?aaiii?yaeea.
?anoe?aiea noaa?aiiuo i?aa nithciuo ?anioaeee. Ainnoaiiaeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaoiiiiee ?yaea ia?iaeia.

A?aaeiaa Eaiieae Eeuee/ (?. 19.12.1906), aeayoaeue Eiiioienoe/aneie
ia?oee e Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa, iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiiioienoe/aneiai e
?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey, Aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?ue OeE EINN, /eai Iieeoath?i
OeE. ?iaeeeny a naiuea ?aai/aai-iaoaeeo?aa a n. Eaiaineia (iuia a.
Aeiai?iaeca?aeeine). Iinea ieii/aiey Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu ia?oey
iai?aaeyao E. E. A?aaeiaaa ia ?oeiaiaeyuoth ?aaioo ii ainnoaiiaeaieth
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. N aaaonoa 1946 ii — ia?aue nae?aoa?ue
Caii?iaeneiai, n iiya?y 1947 — ia?aue nae?aoa?ue Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai
iaeiiia ia?oee. A ethea 1950 E. E. A?aaeiaa ecae?aaony ia?aui nae?aoa??i
OeE EI Iieaeaaee Ia 20-i nuacaea EINN E. E. A?aaeiaa eca?ai /eaiii OeE
EINN, ia Ieaioia OeE EINN (oaa?aeue 1956) — eaiaeeaeaoii a /eaiu
I?aceaeeoia e nae?aoa??i OeE EINN, iaeiia?aiaiii n 1958 — cai.
i?aaenaaeaoaey Ath?i OeE EINN ii ?NON?. 3 iiya?y 1967 Ia iinoo
Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y OeE EINN E.E. A?aaeiaa i?iyaee naay eae
iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue eaieineiai oeia

I?ia?aiia ie?a, nenoaia ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ei?aiiia oeo/oaiea
nia?aiaiiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ianoaiiaee e i?eioeeieaeueioth ia?ano?ieeo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie, eceiaeaiiay E. E. A?aaeiaaui a
Io/?oiii aeieeaaea OeE ia?oee e i?eiyoay 24-i nuacaeii EINN (1971). I.
i. aace?oaony ia eaieineii i?eioeeia ie?iiai ninouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noa
n ?acee/iui iauanoaaiiui no?iai. A iae noaayony caaea/e: 1.
Eeeaeaee?iaaoue aiaiiua i/aae a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee e ia Aeeaeiai
Ainoiea e niaeaenoaiaaoue iieeoe/aneiio o?aaoee?iaaieth a yoeo ?aeiiao
ia iniiaa oaaaeaiey caeiiiuo i?aa ainoaea?noa e ia?iaeia 2.Caeeth/eoue
aeiaiai?u, noaayuea iiae cai?ao yaea?iia, oeie/aneia e
aaeoa?eieiae/aneia i?oaeea; aeiaeaaoueny i?ae?auaiey anthaeo e anaie
eniuoaiee yaea?iiai i?oaeey 3. Aeoeaece?iaaoue ai?ueao ca i?ae?auaiea
aiiee aii?oaeaiee anao aeaeia 4. Iieiinoueth i?aoai?eoue a aeeciue
?aoaiey III i eeeaeaeaoeee eieiieaeueiuo ?aaeeiia

Ia ia?eiae 60-90-o aiaeia XIX a. i?eoiaeyony oaeea aaaeiaeoea yaeaiey a
yeiiiieea no?aiu, eae caaa?oaiea i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?aai?ioa e auno?ia
?acaeoea ?yaea aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae, iinoaiaiiay ia?ano?ieea ia iiaue
eaieoaeenoe/aneee eaae aa?a?iiai naeoi?a, oi?ie?iaaiea i?ieaoa?eaoa e
?onneie i?iiuoeaiiie ao?aeoacee.

Ai?aa/?a Ieoaee Na?aaaae/ (?. 2.3.1931, n. I?eaieueiia
E?aniiaaa?aeaeneiai ?aeiia Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay), niaaoneee ia?oeeiue
aeayoaeue. *eai EINN n 1952. Ec e?anoueyi. Ieii/ee th?eaee/aneee
oaeoeueoao IAO (1955), Noaa?iiieueneee n.-o. einoeooo (1967, cai/ii). A
1946—50 iiiiuiee eiiaaeia?a ION. A 1956—62 1-e nae?aoa?ue
Noaa?iiieueneiai ai?eiia, 2-e, 1-e nae?aoa?ue e?aeeiia AEENI. A 1966—70
1-e nae?aoa?ue Noaa?iiieueneiai ai?eiia, 2-e e a 1970—78 1-e nae?aoa?ue
e?aeeiia EINN. N iiya?y 1978 nae?aoa?ue OeE EINN. *eai OeE EINN n 1971.
Aeaiooao Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? 8—9-ai nicuaia. Iaa?aaeaeai 2 i?aeaiaie
Eaieia, i?aeaiii Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee, 2 ae?oaeie i?aeaiaie, a
oaeaea iaaeaeyie.

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