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История России

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1. Oeeaeeecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae a eco/aiee enoi?ee.

Niune enoi?ee: Enoi?ey yoi aeaeaeaiea a?aiaie e iiciaiey yoiai
i?ioeanna. Enoi?e/aneay iaoea – oi/iay iaoea, a iae iao ie/aai
aano?aeoiiai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu caaea/e enoi?e/aneeo iaoe yaeyaony
iiieiaiea aaeaeaaoiinoe iaoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai.
Iniiaiie oeiieiae/aneie aaeeieoeae yaeyaony oeeaeeecaoeey. Oeeaeeecaoeey
eiaao neaaeothuea oeiu: 1. Iai?ia?anneaiay (ia?iaeu aeeaoo niaeanii n
i?e?iaeiui oeeeeii). 2. Ainoi/iay (no?aiu ainoiea; eo oeeee: i?ioeia,
ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa) 3. I?ia?anneaiay (Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneay
oeeaeeecaoeey). Aei naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy nouanoaoao neaaeothuea
ie?iaicc?aiey: 1. Ae?aaiyy (a ?aeiia Ianiiioaiee; auei ioia/aii, /oi
«enoi?ey ?acaeaaaony ii aiea aiaia). 2. E 6 – ia/aeo 5 aaeia aei i. y.
Aaoi? iiaie oai?ee ie?iaicc?aiey – Aaeaoae Iaeaoeeee. Aai o?oae
iacuaaaony caieaiienaiea. Aei ian aeioee eciai?iiua eiiee. Ii aue
aaoi?ii oai?ee oeeeee/aneiai ?acaeoey e i?aaeeaaae ana, /oi i?ienoiaeeo
caienuaaoue. 3. Aaaonoei Aeaaeaiiue (4-5 aae aei i.y.) Aai o?oae
iacuaaaony i A?aaea Aiaeueai. Aai oai?ey iacuaaaony eeiaeiay. Ii n/eoae,
/oi enoi?ey eaeao eeiaeii ii aiea Aiaa. Aa?iooueny e iiaoi?eoue /oi-oi
iaeuecy. Enoi?ey – yoi aeaeaeaiea. 4. 18 aae i.y. iiyaeeanue oai?ey
nie?aeueiay. Aaoi? – Aeei. Iiyaeeinue iacaaiea «iiaay iaoea». Ii
niaaeeiee oeeeee/aneoth e eeiaeioth oai?ee. N/eoae, /oi iaiaoiaeeii AN?
eco/aoue. Ii aiai?ee, /oi iiaeii auaanoe enoi?e/aneea caeiiu, ia
iniiaaiee eioi?uo iauanoai aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny. 5. Ea?e Ia?en (19 aae
1859aiae): oai?ey i nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeeyo (no?ie). Ii
n/eoae, /oi iniiaa ethaiai iauanoaa – aacen (i?aaeiaou o?oaea…) e
iaaeno?ieea. Iaaeno?ieea e aacen acaeiii aeeytho ae?oa ia ae?oaa. Ii
naeaeae auaiae i nouanoaiaaiee o?ao oeiia oeeaeeecaoeee: Aceaoneee,
Aioe/iue, Ao?aeoaciue (eaieoaeenoe/aneee). 6. A 1938 aiaeo E. O. Noaeei
iii?aaee, oae neacaoue, Ia?ena e iacaae naith oai?eth
«Iauanoaaiii-Yeiiiie/aneay Oi?iaoeey». Ii i?aaeeiaeee o?e aeaeia
oi?iaoeee: a. Aeieeanniaay (ia?aiauoiay). a. Eeanniaay
(?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneay, oaiaeaeueiay e eaieoaeenoe/aneay). a. Aac
eeanniaay (eiiioienoe/aneay). Ii iacaae yoo oai?eth «Ia?eneci-Eaieieci».
7. 19 – ia/aei 20 aaea. Oeeinio – enoi?ee Eeth/aaneee i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi
aeey iiieiaiey enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna iiaeii o/eouaaoue enoi?eth
?aeeaee, i?e?iaeu, no?aiu e nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai. 8. A?iieueae Oieiae
(aiaeeeneee iaoaiaoee), iaienae eieao «Enneaaeiaaiea enoi?ee». Ii auaae
iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeee. Ii?aaeaeaiea: Oeeaeeecaoeey – yoi niiauiinoue
ethaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo aeooiaiuie oeaiiinoyie e eiathueo iniaua /a?ou a
iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee, eoeueoo?a e yeiiiieea. Ii aeae ii?aaeaeaiea
Iaioaeeoaoa. Iaioaeeoao – yoi iaee/ea o ethaeae oiai eee eiiai iauanoaa
iauae ineoieiae/aneie iniiau aeey iniciaiey ie?a e naieo naay. Auaiae:
Enoi?ey – yoi ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiiai iiuoa, eioi?ue ia?aaeaaony ec
iieieaiey a iieieaiea, ii eaaeaeue ?ac yoio iiuo iniuneeaaaony caiiai.

2. Ainoi/iua neaayia a ae?aaiinoe. Ia?aciaaiea e ?acaeoea
Ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa (9-12 aae.)

Ainoi/iua neaayia caieiaee oa??eoi?eth io Ea?iaoneeo ai? ia caiaaea aei
N?aaeiae Iee e aa?oiaueaa Aeiia ia ainoiea, io Iaau e Eaaeiaeneiai ica?a
ia naaa?a aei N?aaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey ia thaa. Neaayia, inaaeaaaoea
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneoth ?aaieio, anooiaee a eiioaeo n iaiiiai/eneaiiuie
oeiii-oai?neeie e aaeoeeneeie ieaiaiaie. Iniiaiui caiyoeai ainoi/iuo
neaayi auei caieaaeaeea.

Ia?aciaaiea ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. Ieaiaiiua eiyaeaiey neaayi
eiaee i?eciaee ca?iaeaeathuaeny ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Ieaiaiiua eiyaeaiey
/anoi iauaaeeiyeenue a e?oiiua noia?nithcu, iaia?oaeeaaaoea /a?ou ?aiiae
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Ia?aciaaiea ainoaea?noaa ?onue (ae?aaia?onneiai
ainoaea?noaa eee, eae aai iacuaatho ii noieeoea, Eeaaneie ?one) –
caeiiiia?iia caaa?oaiea aeeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna ?aceiaeaiey
ia?aiauoii-iaueiiiai no?iy o iieooi?a aeanyoeia neaayineeo ieaiaiiuo
nithcia, aeeaoeo ia iooe «ec aa?ya a a?aee». Neiaeeaoaany ainoaea?noai
iaoiaeeeinue a naiii ia/aea naiaai iooe: ia?aiauoii-iaueiiua o?aaeeoeee
aua aeieai nio?aiyee ianoi ai anao noa?ao aeecie ainoi/ii-neaayineiai
iauanoaa.

?onue (9-12aaea.) Ae?aaia?onneia ainoaea?noai iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
eae ?aiiaoaiaeaeueioth iiia?oeth. Ai aeaaa ainoaea?noaa noiye aaeeeee
eiycue eeaaneee. Aai a?aouey e nuiiauey, ae?oaeeiieee inouanoaeyee
oi?aaeaiea no?aiie, noae, nai? aeaie e iioeei. Aeioiaeu eiycae e eo
i?eaeeaeaiiuo oiaaea aua ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyeenue aeaiueth n
iiae/eiaiiuo ieaiai, aiciiaeiinoueth aa auaica a ae?oaea no?aiu aeey
i?iaeaaee. Ia?aae iieiaeui ainoaea?noaii noiyee e?oiiua
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea caaea/e, naycaiiua n caueoie aai a?aieoe: io?aaeaiea
iaaaaia ei/aaieeia – ia/aiaaia (n 30-o aa. XI a. – iieiaoeaa), ai?ueaa n
yeniaineae Aecaioee, Oaca?neiai eaaaiaoa, Aieaeneie Aieaa?ee. Eiaiii n
yoeo iiceoeee neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth iieeoeeo
eeaaneeo aaeeeeo eiycae.

I?eiyoea o?enoeainoaa. A 988 a., i?e Aeaaeeie?a I, a ea/anoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee auei i?eiyoi o?enoeainoai. O?enoeainoai, eae
iiaanoaoao eaoiienaoe, auei ?ani?ino?aiaii ia ?one ecae?aaea. Aai
i?iiiaaaeiaae aua aiinoie Aiae?ae Ia?aicaaiiue – iaeei ec o/aieeia
O?enoa.

3. ?onneea eiyaeanoaa a ia?eiae oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe 12-14 a.

Iinoaiaiii a ae?aaia?onneii iauanoaa auc?aaaee yeiiiie/aneea,
nioeeaeueiua, iieeoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee, eioi?ua i?eaaee e
?acae?iaeaiiinoe ?one. A ia?aie iieiaeia 12 a. ?onue ?aneieieanue ia 15
naiinoiyoaeueiuo caiaeue, a ia/aea 13a eo ian/eouaaeinue oaea ieiei 30.
?acae?iaeaiiinoue iniaaiii oneeeeanue iinea nia?oe ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.
Oniaeoeu ?acaee?aee ?onue. Eeaa eae iaaieo i?eoyaeaae e naaa aci?u
eiycae. A oi a?aiy eae iieiaoeu ?aci?yee ?onneea caiee, ae?aaia?onneea
eiycuey i?iaeieaeaee ne?aueaaoue ia/e ca aeanoue. A 30-o aa. 12 a. oaea
iiaeii aiai?eoue ia ieii/aoaeueiii iainiaeaiee ?yaea ae?aaia?onneeo
caiaeue. E?iia oiai, Aeaaeeie?o Iiiiiaoo, i?aaeaoaio a Eeaaa,
oaeaaaeinue naea?aeeaaoue ieii/aoaeueiue iieeoe/aneee ?aniaae ?one e
iiae/eiyoue naiae aiea ae?oaeo ae?aaia?onneeo eiycae

I?e/eiu ?acae?iaeaiiinoe:

1.?ino e?oiiie /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, eioi?ue i?eaiaeee e
yeiiiie/aneiio e iieeoe/aneiio oneeaieth ianoiie ciaoe.

2.Iiyaeaiea aio/eiiiai caieaaeaaeaiey a eiioea 11 – ia/aea 12 a.
i?eaiaeeei e inaaeaieth eiycae e eo ae?oaeei a eiyaeanoaao,

3.Oi?ie?iaaiea n 11 a. oa??eoi?eaeueiuo naycae e neeaaeuaaiee ia yoie
iniiaa ai?iaeneeo aieinoae

4.Ineaaeaiea Eeaaa, iaoneiaeaiiia iinoiyiiuie iaaaaaie e a?aaaaeaie
noaiiuo i?ae

5.Ia?aiauaiea oi?aiauo iooae

Iieeoe/aneay ?acae?iaeaiiinoue nii?iaiaeaeaeanue aeaeueiaeoei
yeiiiie/aneei e eoeueoo?iui ?acaeoeai ioaeaeueiuo ?onneeo caiaeue.
Inaaeaaeenue iiaua caiee, ?inee ai?iaea, aicieeaee iiaua oeaio?u
eaoiienaiey, ianoiua oeieu aeeaiiene e a?oeoaeoo?u.

E?oiiaeoeie caieyie yiioe iieeoe/aneie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe yaeyeenue
Aeaaeeie?i-Nocaeaeueneay, Aaeeoeei-Aieuineay e Iiaai?iaeneay:

1.Aeaaeeie?i-Nocaeaeueneay caiey – aeaeaeay naaa?i-ainoi/iay ie?aeia
Ae?aaiae ?one, ?aniieiaeaiiay a aonouo o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiuo eanao. Caeanue
iainiiaaeanue aeeianoey Aeaaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa. Aeaaeeie?i-Nocaeaeueneay
caiey aeinoeaea naiaai ?anoeaaoa e iiaouanoaa i?e Aiae?aa Aiaiethaneii e
aai a?aoa Anaaieiaea Aieueoia Aiacaei.

2.Aaeeoeeay e Aieuineay aicieeee a THai-Caiaaeiie ?one e a?aie/eee n
Aaia?eae e Iieueoae, ia iaeiie?aoii iuoaaoeony iaeaaeaoue yoeie caieyie.
Yoi aue aiaaoue e?ae n ieiaei?iaeiuie caieyie. Ia?aua na?ueaciua iiiuoee
iinoaaeoue iiae naie eiio?ieue eiyaeaneoth aeanoue aaeeoeeea aiy?a
i?aaei?eieiatho i?e ss?ineaaa Iniunea. Eiycth ?iiaio Inoeneaae/o
oaeaeinue iauaaeeieoue iaa caiee a naieo ?oeao, ii iaiaaeieai.
3.Iiaai?iaeneay caiey caieiaea naaa?i-caiaaeiua i?inoi?u ?one. N?aaee
iniaaiiinoae aa ?acaeoey neaaeoao ioiaoeoue neaaeothuea. Ai-ia?auo,
no?iaue eeeiao, i?e?iaeiua oneiaey ia niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth
caieaaeaeey, naiaai oeaaa a Iiaai?iaea ia oaaoaei, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ninaaeiea caiee eiaee iieeoe/aneia aicaeaenoaey ia Iiaai?iae. Ai-aoi?uo,
Aaeeeee Iiaai?iae n naiiai ia/aea i?ioeainoiye Eeaao, aue ae?oaei
oeaio?ii noaiiaeaiey ae?aaia?onneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Aeanoue a
Iiaai?iaea nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue a ?oeao e?oiiaeoeo aiy?neeo oaieeee, ec
n?aaeu eioi?uo auae?aeenue ana aaaeiaeoea aeieaeiinoiua eeoea.
Neiaeeeanue aiy?neay oaiaeaeueiay ?anioaeeea.

7. ?inney a ia?eiae nioou (eiiaoe 16-ia/aei17 aa.)

Niauoey ?oaaaea XVI – XVII aa. iieo/eee n eaaeie ?oee nia?aiaiieeia,
iacaaiea «Niooiia a?aiy». A?aiy eeoieaouey cao?iioei ana noi?iiu ?onneie
aeecie – yeiiiieeo, aeanoue, aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth iieeoeeo,
eaeaieiaeth e i?aanoaaiiinoue. I?e/eiu nioou caeeth/aeenue a iaino?aiee
nioeeaeueiuo, nineiaiuo, aeeianoe/aneeo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee a
eiioea i?aaeaiey Eaaia IV e i?e aai i?eaiieeao. Oyaeaeaeoee
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen iieo/ee iacaaiea «ii?ooa 70 – 80-o aiaeia XVI a.»
Caionoaee iaeaieaa ?acaeoua a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee oeaio? (Iineaa) e
naaa?i-caiaae (Iiaai?iae e Ineia) no?aiu. Iaeia /anoue ianaeaiey
?acaaaeaeanue, ae?oaay – iiaeaea a aiaeu ii?e/ieiu e Eeaiineie aieiu.
Aieaa 50% iaoie (a ianoaie aei 90%) inoaaaeenue iaia?aaioaiiuie. ?acei
aic?in iaeiaiaue aiao, oeaiu au?inee a 4 ?aca. A 1570 – 1571 aa. ii
no?aia i?ieaoeeanue yieaeaiey /oiu. E?anoueyineia oicyenoai iioa?yei
onoie/eainoue, a no?aia ia/aeny aieiae.

Eoiaaie Niooiiai a?aiaie noaea iioa?y naaa?iuo caiaeue, ?ac?ooaiea
ai?iaeia, eno?aaeaiea ii/oe iieiaeiu ?inneeneiai ianaeaiey, caiouaiea
caiaeue. Ii ?inney auoea iiaie, iaiiaeaiiie iinea Niooiiai a?aiaie. A
?innee i?iecioea iiey?ecaoeey nee. Oa?ica eiino?aiiiai caaiaaaiey ?innee
nieioeea ana iao?eioe/aneea neeu a no?aia.

Iinea niooiiai a?aiaie aue naeaeai auai? a iieueco nio?aiaiey e?oiiaeoae
ia ainoiea Aa?iiu aea?aeaau. A eiie?aoiuo aaiiieeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo oiai
a?aiaie aue aua?ai iooue aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ?innee: naiiaea?aeaaea
eae oi?ia iieeoe/aneiai i?aaeaiey, e?aiinoiia i?aai eae iniiaa
yeiiiieee, i?aaineaaea eae eaeaieiaey, nineiaiue no?ie eae nioeeaeueiay
eoeueoo?a.

8. Iieeoe/aneay, oicyenoaaiiay, eoeueoo?iay aeeciue ?innee a 17 a.

A 1615a. Ieoaee ?anionoee auai?iuo ethaeae e caiaiee eo ae?oaeie. Ninoaa
Caineiai Niai?a iaiyeny aaeaaiaeii. Niai? niae?ae iaeiae e, ii nooe,
oi?aaeye ainoaea?noaii Oea?ue aue a noi?iia.

A oa/aiea 1614-15aa. oee ia?aaiai?u i caeeth/aiee ie?a n Iieueoae, ii a
yiaa?a 1616a. iie i?a?aaeenue. Ie? caeeth/ai a 1618a. (Aeaoeeineee ie?).
a 1619a. i?iecioae iaiai ieaiiuie.

A 1616a. caeeth/ai ie?iue aeiaiai? ni Oaaoeeae, ?innee i?eoeinue
caieaoeoue 20.000 cieiouo ?oa. ?aia?aoeee.

Any aeanoue a ?innee nin?aaeioa/eaaaony a ?oeao iaeiie naiuee.

A ?innee i?iecioei neeyiea anao iaeanoae e eiyaeanoa a aaeeiia
yeiiiie/anee oeaeia ainoaea?noai.

A yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo ia/eiaao neeaaeuaaoueny ana?inneeneee ?uiie,
iiyaeythony iaiooaeoo?u, ?acaeaaaony naeueneia oicyenoai.

A nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaieyo i?iecioei ieii/aoaeueiia cae?aiiuaiea
e?anoueyi, th?eaee/aneia ioi?ieaiea eioi?iai auei inouanoaeaii a 1649a.
Niai?iui oeiaeaieai.

A iieeoe/aneeo ioiioaieyo eaeao onei?aiiue i?ioeann i?aa?auaiey
nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueneie iiia?oee a nineiaioth.

A ia?aie iieiaeia 17 aaea iaaethaeaaony ineoaeaiea oeaio?a ?innee,
naeueneia e ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea nie?auaaony. A 70 aiaeu 17 aaea, ii
n?aaiaieth n 70-ie aiaeaie 16 aaea, ia?aaaouaaaony ieiei 60 % iinaaiuo
ieiuaaeae. Ii iinoaiaiii iiyaeythony i?eciaee ia/eiathuaainy i?ia?anna a
iaeanoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

I?ienoiaeeo oneeaiea i?ioeanna canaeaiey Aieae e Aeiia.

Ie?aeiiua ?aeiiu ?innee noaee iniiaiuie iinoaaueeaie i?iaeiaieuenoaey a
ai?iaea. Iiyaeythony ana?inneeneea y?ia?ee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
i?iecaiaenoao oiaa?iiai oeaaa. ?uiie o?aaoao ana iiauo e iiauo aeaeia
oiaa?a. Aiy?a noaee i?aa?auaoueny a i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Aiy?ei Ii?icia,
iai?eia?, aue caieaaeaaeaeueoeai, eoioeii, ?inoiaueeii, caaiae/eeii.

Aieueoay /anoue ?aianeaiieeia noaee ?aaioaoue ia ia caeac a ia ?uiie.
Iaia?oaeeaaaony niaoeeaeecaoeey ii ?innee. ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa
e iaiooaeoo? aaei e ao?iie oi?aiaea. Neeaaeuaathony y?ia?ee a Iineaa,
E?aeonea, A?oaiaaeuenea, Iaea?ueaanea. A ?aeiia Iaea?ueaaneiai iiianou?y
iiyaeythony iiiai/eneaiiua neeaaeu. Iineaa i?aa?auaaony a e?oiiue
oi?aiaue oeaio? (120 oi?aiauo ?yaeia). Iineianeea oi?aiaua ?yaeu
i?aaenoaaeytho iaoe?ioth oa??eoi?eth (oi?aiaaee iaeiia?aiaiii aei
500.000 /aeiaae).

?inney oi?aiaaea n Aiaeeae, Aeaieae, Aieeaiaeeae, Oaaoeeae, Iieueoae,
Aooa?ie e Naia?eaiaeii (Oo?eiaienoai). Ec ?innee auaiceeenue iaoa,
nieue, iieioii, ianei, oeaa, naei. Aaiceeenue oiieea oeaie, aeia,
i?yiinoe, aoiaaa, ia?othia?iua ecaeaeey, i?oaeea, oeaiiua ecaeaeey.

Aieiaiaeneay, Oaa?neay e ae?. aoaa?iee auee oeaio?aie ii i?iecaiaenoao
?onneiai ianea.

?acaeoea oi?aiaee i?eaaei e ecaeaieth ?yaea caeiiia iieeoeee
ia?eaioeeecia, o.a. ?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee, i?aiaeaaeaiea auaica
iaae aaicii. Oei iaeiieaiea i?eauee. A 1653a. auea onoaiiaeaia auaiciay
iioeeia, ioiaiyeny aioo?aiiee iaeia, oaaee/eaaeenue iioeeiu ia aaic. A
1667a. aue i?eiyo onoaa. Eiino?aiiui eoioeai ?ac?aoaeinue oi?aiaaoue
oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoao e oieueei iioii. Oi?aiaaoue iie iiaee
oieueei n ?onneeie eoioeaie.

I?ienoiaeeo iauaaeeiaiea no?aiu a aaeeiia ainoaea?noai n aaeeiuie
caeiiaie. Oae i?ioeann oe?aieaiey oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneeo ioiioaiee.
Ia/eiaao neeaaeuaaoueny ianeaaenoaaiiia aeai?yineia caieaaeaaeaiea.

E?anoueyia ?acaeaeyeenue ia 1) /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneeo, 2) /a?iinioiuo e
3) aeai?oeiauo. A 17 aaea eaeao i?ioeann oneeaiey yenieoaoaoeee
e?anoueyi. Iiyaeythony iiaua eaoaai?ee e?anoueyi: e?anoueyia-aiauee,
e?anoueyia-cao?aaaoieee, e?anoueyia-aieiaieee. Auaeaeythony aoeyuea
ethaee — aao?aee.

Iiiauee iaycai aue iaaeaeyoue e?anoueyieia caieae e eiaaioa?ai.

A na?aaeeia 17 aaea i?ienoiaeeo ?aneie oea?eae ia iiaoth e
noa?iia?yae/aneoth.

Oaeaea a na?aaeeia aaea ia/eiaaony aieia oe?aeineeo e?anoueyi e eacaeia
i?ioea Iieueoe. A 1654a. Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee ia?auaaony e oea?th
Aeaenath n i?aaeeiaeaieai i?eiyoue Oe?aeio a ninoaa ?innee. Aieia ?innee
n Iieueoae i?iaeeeoueny aei 1667a., eiaaea aue caeeth/ai n Iieueoae
“Aa/iue ie?” (Aiae?onianeee ie?).

10. ?inney a ia?eiae aeai?oeiauo ia?aai?ioia 18 aae.

Iinea nia?oe Iao?a I noae aii?in i i?anoieiianeaaeee. Ec i?aoaiaeaioia
ia o?ii ii ioaeneie eeiee aue eeoue iaeei aioe Iao?a I, nui oea?aae/a
Aeaenay – Iao? Aeaenaaae/ (aoaeouee Iao? II). Ii aeaineie eeiee
iaeaieueoea oainu eiaea iineaaeiyy noi?oaa Iao?a – Aeaoa?eia. Aeaoa?eio
iiaeaea?aeeaaee: Iaioeeia, ssaoaeeineee, Oienoie, Iaea?ia, I?ieiiiae/,
Aooo?eei. Aioea Iao?a iiaeaea?aeeaaee: Aieeoeeiu, Aeieai?oeea,
Oa?aiaoueaa, ?aiiei. I?e iiaeaea?aeea aaa?aeee ia i?anoieue acioea
Aeaoa?eia.

Iaia?aie/aiiia aeeyiea ia eiia?ao?eoeo ieacuaae Iaioeeia. Ii noae
oaeoe/aneei i?aaeoaeai ?innee. 1726 a. – nicaeaiea Aa?oiaiiai oaeiiai
niaaoa. Naiao e eieeaaee noaaeeenue iiae iaaeci? yoiai i?aaia.

A iaa 1727 a. oia?ea Aeaoa?eia I. Aa i?eaiieeii noae 12-eaoiee oea?aae/
Iao?. Ii no?aiie ii i?aaeiaio oaeoe/anee i?aaee Iaioeeia. Iaioeeia
?an/eouaae auaeaoue naith aei/ue Ia?eth caioae ca Iao?a II. Ii ai a?aiy
aieacie Iaioeeiaa eiycuey Aeieai?oeiau ainnoaiiaeee Iao?a II i?ioea
iaai.Ii aue nineai a neae?neee ai?iae Aa?acia,aaea e oia?.

Iinea nia?oe Iao?a II(1730)- auei ?aoaii i?eaeaneoue ieaiyiieoeo Iao?a
I- Aiio Eaaiiaio(1730-1740). A nouiinoe, eiia?ao?eoea i?aa?auaeanue a
ia?eiiaoeo aa?oiaieeia. Iaeiaei eo caoay i?iaaeeeanue. Aiia ainnoaiiaeea
naiiaea?aeaaea. Ia/aeanue ia/aeueii ecaanoiay «ae?iiiaueia». Aeai?yia
auee iaaeiaieueiu yoei ?aaeeiii.

1740 a.-Aiia oia?ea. Ianeaaeiee-Eaai IV Aioiiiae/, a ?aaaioii i?e iai
noae Ae?ii. Ae?ii i?aaee anaai 22 aeiy. Ii aue naa?aioo Ieieoii. A
iiya?a 1741 a. aaa?aeaeoeu-caaiai?ueee aicaaee ia i?anoie aei/ue Iao?a
I-Aeecaaaoo. Ana aeaea iia ia?aaeiaa?eea ieieno?ai e oaai?eoai-A.A.
?acoiianeiio e E.E. Ooaaeiao.

Ianeaaeieeii oea?eoeu noae aa ieaiyiiee Iao? III Oaaei?iae/. A ethia
1762 a. Iao? III aue naa?aioo, ia i?anoie aicaaaeaia aai aeaia-aoaeouay
Aeaoa?eia Aaeeeay(1762-1796).

12. ?inney a ia?eiae «i?inaauaiiiai» aaniethoecia a ?innee.
I?aia?aciaaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue Aeaoa?eiu II.

A 1762 a. Aeaoa?eia i?iaicaeaoaia eiia?ao?eoeae Aeaoa?eiie 2.

Aeaoa?eia II, iaeaaeaea iacao?yaeiuie niiniaiinoyie e ainoaea?noaaiiiio
oi?aaeaieth. Iia auno?i auo/eea ?onneee ycue, eaaei ?aniieaaaea e naaa
ethaeae, oiaea iiaeae?aoue naaa iiiiuieeia. Iia auea i/aiue
o?oaeiethaeaie e ia?aciaaiiie. A? iiaeii ioianoe e ?ac?yaeo auaeathueony
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae.

A ia?aua aiaeu i?aaeaiey Aeaoa?eia oioaea ia?aie/eoue naiiaea?aeaaioth
aeanoue. Iia iiieiaea, /oi an? caaeneo io aeai?ynoaa. Aue iiaeaioiaeai
aeieoiaio i nicaeaiee aa?oiaiiai niaaoa. Ii anei?a iia yoi
i?einoaiiaeea.

A1767a. Iia iioaeeeiaaea i?ia?aiio ?aoi?i «Iaeac». Ii a? iiaieth,
?onneee ia?iae -Aa?iiaeneee ia?iae, a aeaaiie caaea/ae iiia?oa yaeyaony
caaioa ia iau. Ii?yaeea e ?aca-ee ain-aa. Aeey cae?aieaiey iia niae?aao
niaoeeaeueioth eiienneth. Iia i?aaeeaaaao neaaeothuea ?aoi?iu:

1775 a. ?aoi?ia aoaa?ineiai oi?aaeaiey (?acaeaeaiea no?aiu ia aoaa?iee).
Aoaa?iee aeieaeiu ninoiyoue ec 300-400 oun. /aeiaae.

Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia. Neiaeiay nenoaia nineiaiuo noaeia. Noaeu ioaeaeythony
io aaeieieno?aoeee. Iiyaeyaony noae niaanoe.

Naeoey?ecaoeey caiaeue. Ia?aoiae a oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaii oea?eiaiuo
caiaeue.

Iaei?inney Ia?aoiaeeo iiae aeanoue ainoaea?noaa.

I?eaeaoaiea eiino?aioeaa aeey iieaca iiauo iaoiaeia ia?aaioee caiee.

AEaineia ia?aciaaiea. Aeey aeaai/ae nicaeai Niieaineee einoeooo.

1784a. nicaeaiea o/eeeu a ai?iaeao.

?ac?aoaiea aeayoaeueiinoe Iiniineeo eiae. Aeai?yia iiaoo auacaeaoue
caa?aieoeo.

A 1785a. Nicaeaiea aieueii – yeiiiie/aneiai iauanoaa eioi?ia caei?ony
enneaaeiaaieai yeiiiieee.

Neoaeaa aeai?yi a a?iee noaiiaeoueny naiaiaeiie.

Iiyaeyaony noae ?aaiuo.

Aeai?yi iaeuecy oaeanii iecaeeoue.

Ethaie aeai?yiei iia ienaoue aeaeiao ae.

Aeaoa?eia, a ?acoeueoaoa ?yaea aiei (aeaa n Oo?oeeae, aeaa n Iieueoae),
oaeaeinue caaa?oeoue aica?auaiea ?onneeo caiaeue, iaoiaeeaoeony iiae
aeanoueth iieueneiai ainoaea?noaa. E?iia oiai, a aieia ni Oaaoeeae
oaeaeinue ionoiyoue oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?eia?aoaiey I?o?a Ia?aiai.

?inney, i?e Ae. 2, oniaoii o/anoaiaaea a ?onnei-Oo?aoeeie aieia. Ii
ieii/aieth aieiu ?inney iieo/eea E?ui e A?aieoeu ia caiaaea
ioiaeaeioeenue aei ?aee Aeiano?. Auei iieii/aii n Caii?iaeneie Na/ueth.
Auee ?aoaiu aii?inu n Eacaeaie. Ei aeaaony aieueiinoue a oi?aaeaiee ca
io?aio a?aieoe.

A 1796 aiaeo Aeaoa?eia oie?aao, i?anoie ianeaaeoao a? iaethaeiue nui
Iaaae Iao?iae/.

13. ?inney a ia?aie /aoaa?oe 19 a. Aiaoiyy e aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea
Aeaenaiae?a I.

Iinea aeaaee Iaaea ia i?anoie acio?e aai noa?oee nui Aeaenaiae?. Ii
aiooee iaaeaaeaeu ia na?ue?ciua eciaiaiey ai aioo?aiiae iieeoeea
eeaa?aeecaoeeth no?aiu. Iaeaiua oeacu naiaai iooea Aeaenaiae? ioiaiee.
Ii aeaeueoa i?iaeoia e iaauaiee aeaei ia aeaeioeinue. Naiui aieueiui
aii?inii ?innee aue e?anoueyineee aii?in. Aiiethuei auei e?aiinoiia
iieiaeaiea, e?anoueyi a ia/aea XIX aaea iiaeii auei i?iaeaaaoue iioii e
a ?icieoeo. Iauyaeaiey i i?iaeaaea e?anoueyi ia/aoaeenue a aacaoao.
Aeaenaiae? ene?aiia aiciouaeny iiaeiaiui iieiaeaieai aauae, ii aeaeueoa
ecaeaiey oeaca i aieueiuo oeaaiiaooeao, ii eioi?iio iiiaueee iiaee
ioioneaoue ia aieth naieo e?aiinoiuo, aeaei ia iioei. Ii yoiio oeaco
ioiouaii ia naiaiaeo auei anaai ianeieueei aeanyoeia ouny/ e?anoueyi. Ni
a?aiaiai eiia?aoi? i?eaeeaeaao /eiiaieea I.I.Nia?aineiai, eioi?iio e
ii?o/aao i?iaeou i?aia?aciaaiee. Ii aue nuiii aaaeiiai nayuaiieea. Aai
?aaioa oniaoia e AEAO 1 i?eieiaao aai ia aicaeaaeaiea eiiennee ii
ninoaaeaieth caeiiia. 1809a. ieai Nie?aineiai ii /aoeei ain. ?aoi?iai:
1. Ieai ain. ia?aono?ienoaa: ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae ia caeiiiaeaoaeueioth
(ain. aeoia), eniieieoaeueioth (niaao ieieno?ia) e noaeaaioth (naiao). A
1 niaeaneeny n eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie. 2. Oeo/oaiea oeiaine?iaaiey
no?aiu. a) Iao auioneo ionouo anneaiaoeee. a) Nie?aoeoue ?anoiaeu ain.
eaciu. a) Ioe?uoi aeaeaoue aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ain. eaciu. a)
Io/aoiinoue aaaeaiey ain. oicyenoaa. ae) Aaiae ia iaeei aiae iaeiaa ia
e?anoueyi n aeai?yinoaa. Ia iaeei ec yoeo ioieoia ia auiieiai. 3. Aeaa
onoaaa aeooiaiie aeaaeaiee Oea?neinaeueneiai eeoeay.

Nia?aineee n/eoae, /oi ain-ai aeieaeii caueuaoue /anoioth
nianoaaiiinoue, /oi ioaeii inaiaiaeeoue e?anoueyi io e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.
Aeai?yinoai auei iaaeiaieueii Nia?aineei. Ii oaieai a 1812a.

Ia?aay iieiaeia oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae?a i?ioiaeeea a oneiaeyo ii/oe
iai?a?uaiuo aiei, naiuie iaeanoi/?iiuie ec eioi?uo auee aieiu n
O?aioeeae. Aieia n Iaiieaiiii ?ac?aceeanue a 1812 aiaeo e i?eiyea
niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiiue aeey o?aioeocia oa?aeoa?. Iaiieaiio noae
i?ioeainoiyoue Eooocia – no?aoaa, i?ae?anii ?acae?aaoeeny a oiieinoyo
aiaiiie iaoee. . Aaia?aeueiia n?aaeaiea i?iecioei 26 aaaonoa 1812 a.
ieiei aea?aaie Ai?iaeeii. Ii?aeueiay iiaaaea, aaconeiaii, inoaeanue ca
?onneeie aieneaie. ?yae n?aaeaiee aaniie e inaiueth 1813 aiaea i?ea?e e
oiio, /oi a ia?oa 1814 aiaea nithciua a?iee ieacaeenue a Ia?eaea.
Iaiieaii io??eny io i?anoiea. A ai?ueaa n eiino?aiiuie caoaao/eeaie
?inney ionoiyea naith iacaaeneiinoue e oa??eoi?eaeueioth oeaeinoiinoue.

Yiiiay 1812 aiaea aeoaiei iio?ynee an? ?onneia iauanoai. Iao?eioeci,
i?iyaeaiiue anaie neiyie aac, eneeth/aiey, ynii iieacae, /oi iao
ieeaeiai i?aaa o aeai?yi aea?aeaoue a e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe iannu
e?anoueyi, aeieacaaoeo naith i?aaeaiiinoue Ioa/anoao. E io ainoaea?y
aeaeaee, /oi ii i?aaei?eiao a yoii iai?aaeaiee eaeea-eeai oaae. Ii
iaeeaeaiey ieacaeenue iai?aniuie, iinea iiaaaeu an? ieacaeinue
ii-noa?iio. ?aci/a?iaaiiinoue iauanoaa i?eaaea e aicieeiiaaieth oaeiuo
iauanoa, ec eioi?uo anei?a au?inei aeaeaeaiea aeaeaa?enoia.

Aeaenaiae? aaa?ee aioo?aiithth iieeoeeo a ?oee naiaai i?eaeeae?iiiai
a?aoa A?ae/aaaa, /aeiaaea iaaeae?eiai, iaei/iiai, no?aoiiai oi?iaeenoa e
aeanoieiai. Ii ia oioae ieeaeeo ?aoi?i. A1825a. oie?aao A1. I?anoie
ia?aaea?ony Ieeieath.

Auaiae: A1 ia/ae naith aeayo-oue anaiauae iiaeaea?aeeie, a caeai/eaaao
anaiauei iaaeiaieuenoaii.

16. Iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19a.

Eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeeaoea a yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie noa?ao,
niinianoaiaaee aeoeaecaoeee iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie a no?aia,
oneeeaaee i?ioeainoiyiea iaaeaeo aeanoueth e iauanoaii. A no?aia
ia?anoaei ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea, ia/aei eioi?iio iieiaeeee
e?anoueyineea aunooieaiey a ioaao ia iaieoano ia ioiaia e?aiinoiiai
i?aaa. Oneiaey ioiaiu ia oaeiaeaoai?yee e?anoueyi. Ana iie aeanoiei
iiaeaaeyeenue n iiiiuueth aii?oaeaiiuo nee.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia aeoeaecaoeeth iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee a
iaoae no?aia ieacaei ainnoaiea a Iieueoa. Iaeiaei ?an/aou ainnoaaoeo ia
iiiiuue Caiaaea ia ii?aaaeaeenue. Oioy Aano?i-Aaia?ey e I?onney aioiau
auee iiii/ue ?inneeneiio naiiaea?aeaaeth a aai ai?ueaa n ainnoaaoeie,
?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ni?aaeeinue naii, aeanoiei iiaeaaea ainnoaiea,
e ieii/aoaeueii eeeaeaee?iaaei Oea?noai Iieueneia, nicaeaa ia aai
oa??eoi?ee aoaa?iee ii iaua?inneeneiio ia?acoeo. A 60—70-o aa. a ?innee
iiyaeyaony ianna ?aaiethoeeiiiuo e?oaeeia, aieueoay /anoue eioi?uo
?aaeeeaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie auee «Caiey e aiey» e
«Ia?iaeiay aiey». 1. ?aaiethoeeiiiay i?aaiecaoeey «Caiey e aiey»,
noaaeea oeaeueth ?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?aai?io aeey naa?aeaiey
naiiaea?aeaaey e nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ia?aono?ienoaa iauanoaa. «Caiey e
aiey» oaea a naiii iacaaiee aeiaeeei naie aeaaiua oeaee: caiey —
e?anoueyiai, aiey — ia?iaeo. Iie oioaee, /oiau aeanoue auea caaiaaaia
iooai ?aaiethoeee, a aa aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie aeieaeii noaoue
e?anoueyinoai. Auei i?aaieciaaii «oiaeaeaiea a ia?iae», eiaaea ouny/e
iieiaeuo ethaeae a 1874 a. iioee ii naeai 40 aoaa?iee iiaeieiaoue
e?anoueyi ia ?aaiethoeeth. 2. «Ia?iaeiay aiey» eiaea i?ia?aiio, ia/aoiua
ecaeaiey eioi?ie, ?ani?ino?aieeenue ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao ?innee.
Eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao aua a 1879 a. auian nia?oiue i?eaiai?
eiia?aoi?o, inouanoaea aai 1 ia?oa 1881 a. A ?acoeueoaoa
oa??i?enoe/aneiai aeoa eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? 2 aue nia?oaeueii ?aiai e
neii/aeny. Iaeiaei ?an/ao ia?iaeiaieueoeaa ia oi, /oi iinea yoiai a
no?aia ia/ioony ainnoaiey, ia ii?aaaeaeny. Ioaaoii i?aaeoaeuenoaa noaee
?ai?annee e oneeaiea ?aaeoeee. «Ia?iaeiay aiey» auea ?aca?iieaia,
ia?iaeie/aneia aeaeaeaiea iioei ia niaae.

Iaeiaei ?aaeiaaoueny i?aaeoaeuenoao ia i?eoiaeeeinue. A no?aia iaae?aei
neeo ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea. Iii a?aei ia aii?oaeaiea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea
eaeae nioeeae-aeaiie?aoee e ia?enecia. A 70-a aa. nicaeaaony oe?ieay
naoue ?aai/eo e?oaeeia, eioi?ia anei?a ia/eiatho iauaaeeiyoueny a
?aai/ea i?aaiecaoeee. Ia?auie ec ieo noaee «THaeii?inneeneee nithc
?aai/eo e «Naaa?iue nithc ?onneeo ?aai/eo». Noaee iiyaeyoueny noa/ee.
Ieaoaiia e aai a?oiia «Inaiaiaeaeaiea o?oaea», nua?aee Aieueooth ?ieue a
?ani?ino?aiaiee iiauo eaeae nioeeae-aeaiie?aoee. Noi?ie?iaaeanue
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?aai/ay ia?oey. A 1897 a. ninoiyeny a? ia?aue
nuacae, A 90-a aa. nicaeathony iaiia?iaeie/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, a eo
/enea Aa?a?iay nioeeaeenoe/aneay eeaa. Ia ?oaaaea aaeia a ?innee
oneeeaaaony i?ioeainoiyiea iauanoaa e i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

17. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19a.

A 1856 aiaeo ieieno?ii eiino?aiiuo aeae aue iacia/ai Ai?/aeia. Ii aae
inoi?iaeioth iieeoeeo, ecaaaay anooieaiey a aiaiiua eiaeeoeee e
eiioeeeou. A 1870 aiaeo O?aioeey iioa?iaea nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea a
O?aiei-i?onneie aieia. A a ieoya?a 1870 ?inney cayaeea i naiai ioeaca
auiieiyoue oieceoaeueiua noaouee Ia?eaeneiai aeiaiai?a, /oi i?aaeaea
anaai iicaieeei aea?aeaoue oeio ia *a?iii ii?a.

Aei na?aaeeiu 19 aaea ?inney ia eiaea oi/ii onoaiiaeaiiie a?aieoeu ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea. A 1859 aiaeo a a. Aeaoia aue iiaeienai aeiaiai?,
niaeanii eioi?iio e ?innee iooiaeeee caiee ii eaaiio aa?aao Aio?a, a e
Eeoath – ii i?aaiio. A 1860 a. a Iaeeia iaaeaeo ?inneae e Eeoaai aue
caeeth/ai iiaue aeiaiai? (Onno?eeneee e?ae aue cae?aieai ca ?inneae).

A 1859 a. iinea iieoaaeiaie aieiu ai?oeu Eaaeaca auee “caie?aiu”, eo
aiaiiue e aeooiaiue i?aaeaiaeeoaeue acyo a ieai. A 1864 a. caaa?oeeinue
iiei?aiea Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca.

Aiaiai ia Eo?eeueneea ino?iaa o ssiiiee auea i?eia?aoaia thaeiay /anoue
ino?iaa Naoaeei.

A 1867 a. Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai ca 7 iei. aeieea?ia auea i?iaeaia Aeynea.

24 ai?aey 1877 a. aue iiaeienai Iaieoano ia iauyaeaiee aieiu Oo?oeee
aieiu. Aue ?ac?aaioai ieai nei?ioa/iie eaiiaiee. 19 oaa?aey 1878 a. a
Nai – Noaoaii caeeth/ai ie? n Oo?oeeae. XIX

18. Iniaaiiinoe oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey ?innee a eiioea 19 ia/aea20
aa. ?aaiethoeey 1905 a. e ?aoi?iu a ?inne a ia/aea 20 a.

A ?acoeueoaoa eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee, onei?aiiie
iiiiiieecaoeee aa yeiiiieee a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo iiiaioeeaaeiinoe e
eneonnoaaiiiai naea?aeeaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth ?acaeoey
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a no?aia iaino?eeenue noa?ua i?iaeaiu e aicieeee
iiaua. Oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea ?aai/aai eeanna, ia?aoaiiinoue aa?a?iiai e
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aii?inia, iaiaeii?iaeiinoue e ioiineoaeueiay neaainoue
?inneeneie ao?aeoacee, aa caaeneiinoue io ainoaea?noaa, iaaeaeaiea e
iaaiciiaeiinoue aeanoe eciaieoue nouanoaothuea ii?yaeee, ?aoi?ie?iaaoue
no?aio — ana yoi ii?iaeeei iaaeaeaiiia iaino?aiea iauanoaaiiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee a ia/aea XX a. A no?aia ?inea /eneaiiinoue ?aai/eo (13 iei
/aeiaae); eiioeaio?aoeey eo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo niinianoaiaaea
eiinieeaeaoeee ?aai/aai eeanna, auaeaeaaaoaai ?yae o?aaiaaiee (8-/aniaie
?aai/ee aeaiue, aaaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?aoiaaiey e ae?.).
Iaoeeiiii ?inei /enei ieoeiaia, aeaiiino?aoeee, caaanoiaie (Iaooianeay
iai?iia, noa/ee a Aaeo, ?inoiaa-ia-Aeiio e ae?.). Iiiuoea aaaaeaiey
“coaaoianeiai. nioeeaeecia” (?ac?aoaiea nicaeaaaoue ?aai/ea
i?aaiecaoeee, nioeeaeueiay iiaeaea?aeea ?aai/eo) ia i?eianea
?acoeueoaoia. I?aaeoaeuenoai aa?ioeinue e neeiaui iaoiaeai. A no?aia
ia/aee aicieeaoue nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee (oa/aiey:
yeiiiienou, “eaaaeueiua ia?enenou”, ?aaeeeaeueii iano?iaiiua
nioeeae-aeaiie?aou ai aeaaa n A. E. Eaieiui). A 1903 a. ia II nuacaea
?NAe?I auea nicaeaia ia?oey aieueoaaeeia, i?eiyou aa i?ia?aiia e onoaa,
/oi oe?aieei ?aaeeeaeueiia e?uei nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.
Yeiiiie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea i?ioeai?a/ey i?eaaee e iauaio
e?eceno a no?aia (e?ecen “aa?oia”, ai?ueaa ?aoi?iaoi?neie e
io?aieoaeueiie eeiee a i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aeoeaecaoeey eaauo nee,
“iieaaaiea” /anoe eeaa?aeia, ?aciao noa/a/iiai aeaeaeaiey). Ii?aaeaiea
?innee a ?onnei-yiiineie aieia onei?eei ?aaiethoeeiiiia aunooieaiea.
Iniiaiua caaea/e ?aaiethoeee: naa?aeaiea naiiaea?aeaaey, onoaiiaeaiea
aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee, eeeaeaeaoeey nineiaiiai no?iy e
iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey. ?aaiethoeeiiiua neeu: ?aai/ea, e?anoueyia,
iaeeay ao?aeoacey ai?iaea e, aea?aaie. Ei i?ioeainoiyee e?oiiay
ao?aeoacey, naycaiiay n oea?eciii, aeai?yinoai, aunoaa /eiiaie/anoai.
*anoue n?aaeiae ao?aeoacee e ao?aeoaciay eioaeeeaaioeey ninoaaeyee
eeaa?aeueii-iiiiceoeeiiiue eaaa?ue, o?aaiaaaoee ?yae onooiie e aioiaue
iieoe ia eiii?iienn n oea?eciii. Iniiaiua niauoey ainoiaeyuae eeiee
?aaiethoeee: E?iaaaia aine?anaiuea — 9 yiaa?y 1905 a.; yiaa?ue—oaa?aeue
— aieia caaanoiaie, yna?ianeee oa??i?; iae — ia?aciaaiea ia?aiai
?aai/aai Niaaoa a Eaaiiai-Aicianainea; aania—eaoi — iiaeuai
e?anoueyineiai aeaeaeaiey, aunooieaiey a a?iee e ia oeioa (ethiue —
ainnoaiea ia a?iiaiinoea “Iioaieei”; inaiue — aunoay oi/ea ?aaiethoeee —
Ana?inneeneay Ieoya?ueneay noa/ea, ecaeaiea Iaieoanoa 17 ieoya?y);
Aeaeaa?ueneia aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea. Oiaaeie ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
aeaeaeaiey (1906 — 3 ethey 1907 a.) — ia?aoiae eieoeeaoeau .a ?oee
aeanoae. Auai?u a 1 e II Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio, eo ?inione. Ecaeaiea
iiaiai ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia. ?aaiethoeey, i?eaaea e eciaiaieyi a
iieeoe/aneie nenoaia: ia?aciaaiea ia?aiai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaia —
Aeoiu, eciaiaiea ninoaaa e ooieoeee Ainniaaoa, nicaeaiea Niaaoa
ieieno?ia; oi?ie?iaaiea eaaaeueiuo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, i?ionithcia;
iiyaeaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneie i?annu. Eciaieeanue ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneay
ianoaiiaea a no?aia, ia a?aio iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe auoee iiaua
neeu, auaeaeaaaoea ianeeea a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai n?aaenoaa ia?aono?ienoaa
iauanoaa. ?aaiethoeey a ?innee eiaea cia/eoaeueiue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
?aciiain.

21. Niaaoneay ?inney a aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie aieiu «aiaiiiai eiiioiecia»
1918-1920aa.

A?aaeaeaineay aieia (1918—1922) eae iaeaieaa ino?ay oi?ia nioeeaeueiiai
i?ioeaiai?noaa, aii?oaeaiiay ai?ueaa ca aeanoue iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie auea i?iaeieaeaieai ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. A
?innee iia onoaoaeyeanue aiaiiie eioa?aaioeeae. Iniiaiua yoaiu aieiu:
aania — inaiue 1918 a.— iyoaae aaei/aoia; ia?aua eiino?aiiua aeanaiou a
Io?iainea e ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea; iioiae a?iee I. I. E?aniiaa ia
Oea?eoeui; nicaeaiea yna?aie e iaiueoaaeeaie Eiieoaoa O/?aaeeoaeueiiai
nia?aiey a Iiaieaeuea; ainnoaiey yna?ia a Iineaa, ss?ineaaea, ?uaeinea;
oneeaiea “e?aniiai” e “aaeiai” oa??i?a; nicaeaiea Niaaoa
?aai/a-e?anoueyineie iai?iiu a iiya?a 1918 a. (A. E. Eaiei) e
?aaaiainiaaoa (E. Ae. O?ioeeee); i?iaicaeaoaiea ?anioaeeee aaeeiui
aiaiiui eaaa?ai; inaiue 1918 a. — aania 1919 a. — oneeaiea eiino?aiiie
eioa?aaioeee a nayce n ieii/aieai ie?iaie aieiu; aiioee?iaaiea oneiaee
A?anoneiai ie?a a nayce n ?aaiethoeeae a Aa?iaiee; aania 1919 a. — aania
1920 a. — aunooieaiea a?iee aaeuo aaia?aeia: iioiaeu A. A. Eie/aea
(aania—eaoi 1919 a.), A. E. Aeaieeeia (eaoi 1919 — aania 1920 a.), aeaa
iioiaea I. I. THaeaie/a ia Iao?ia?aae; ai?aeue — iiya?ue 1920 a. —
niaaonei-iieueneay aieia e ai?ueaa n I. I. A?aiaaeai. N inaiaiaeaeaieai
E?uia e eiioeo 1920 a. caeii/eeenue iniiaiua aiaiiua aeaenoaey. A 1922
a. aue inaiaiaeaeai Aeaeueiee Ainoie. No?aia noaea ia?aoiaeeoue e ie?iie
aeecie. Oae, aieueoaaeee ionoaeaaee nioeeaeeci, /anoue iaiueoaaeeia e
yna?ia auee ca Niaaou aac aieueoaaeeia. N?aaee aaeuo auee iiia?oenou e
?anioaeeeaioeu (eeaa?aeu); aia?oenou (I. E. Iaoii) aunooiaee oi ia
iaeiie, oi ia ae?oaie noi?iia. N naiiai ia/aea A?aaeaeaineie aieiu
aiaiiua eiioeeeou cao?iioee ii/oe ana iaoeeiiaeueiua ie?aeiu, a no?aia
oneeeeenue oeaio?iaaaeiua oaiaeaioeee. Iiaaaea aieueoaaeeia a
A?aaeaeaineie aieia auea iaoneiaeaia: eiioeaio?aoeeae anao nee (/aio
niinianoaiaaea iieeoeea “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia”); i?aa?auaieai E?aniie
A?iee a ?aaeueioth aiaiioth neeo ai aeaaa n ?yaeii oaeaioeeauo
aiaia/aeueieeia (ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aiaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia ec /enea auaoeo oea?neeo ioeoea?ia); oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui
eniieueciaaieai anao yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia inoaaoaeny a eo ?oeao
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Aa?iiaeneie ?innee. Aaeua a?iee iioa?iaee
ii?aaeaiea, ia noiaa iauaaeeieoue ana aioeaieueoaaenoneea neeu,
aeaenoaiaaoue niaeaniaaiii, a oaeaea i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio
eieaaethueony e?anoueyi (/anoi a eo oueo oea ia?oecaineay aieia), a
oaeaea i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia?onneiai ianaeaiey. I?iecaie, ea?aoaeueiua
yeniaaeeoeee, iia?iiu, iaauiieiaiiua iaauaiey oaeaea ia niinianoaiaaee
caaiaaaieth iiaeaea?aeee oe?ieeo iann ai?iaea e aea?aaie, o eioi?uo ia
aucuaaei yiooceacia iaauaiea ?anoaa?aoeee noa?uo ii?yaeeia. I?iaeaiu
A?aaeaeaineie aieiu aei neo ii? aucuaatho i?enoaeueiue eioa?an o
enoi?eeia e ii?iaeaeatho iiiai/eneaiiua aeeneonnee. Ii o?ie yoie
no?aieoeu enoi?ee ynai: A?aaeaeaineay aieia — aaee/aeoay o?aaaaeey anaai
ia?iaea, iiaeeyaoay ia noaeueau ia oieueei ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, ii e
oeaeuo iieieaiee. Aa aeanoieinoue e aea?oau inoaaeee oyaeeee neaae a
enoi?ee ?innee, iaaeyaeii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaa iaaoaiinoue i?ioeainoiyiey
e ianeeey.

I?iaaaeaiea iieeoeee “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia” auei aucaaii eae eaeaieiaeae
aieueoaaecia (io?eoeaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, ?uii/iiai oiaa?iiaiaia e
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, caiaia eo oeaio?aeeciaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii e
?ani?aaeaeaieai, aee?aeoeaiuie iaoiaeaie oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie), oae e
oneiaeyie aiaiiiai a?aiaie (e?ecen yeiiiieee, aieiae, aucaaaoee iooie
?aai/ae neeu ec ai?iaeia, ia?ooaiea yeiiiie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo
i?iiuoeaiiui Oeaio?ii e ae?oaeie ?aeiiaie no?aiu e o. ae.). Nenoaia
/?acau/aeiuo ia? “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia” aeeth/aea a naay: onei?aiea
oaiiia iaoeeiiaeecaoeee, eeeaeaeaoeeth /anoiuo aaieia, /anoiie oi?aiaee,
aeiiiaeaaeaiee e ae?oaie nianoaaiiinoe; aaaaeaiea ea?oi/ae e oaeiiia ia
i?iaeoeou ieoaiey e i?iioiaa?u; anaiauoth o?oaeiaoth iiaeiiinoue,
o?oaeiaua iiaeeecaoeee (aeaeaa?ue 1918 a.); o?aaieoaeueioth iieaoo
o?oaea; aaaaeaiea i?iae?acaa?noee (yiaa?ue 1919 a.); aiaae?aiea
“iio?aaeoaeueneeo eiiioi” a naeueneii oicyenoaa; oaeanoi/aiea
aee?aeoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey; “eiiioiecaoeeth auoa”. A ia?eiae “aiaiiiai
eiiioiecia” aue inouanoaeai ia?aoiae e iaeiiia?oeeiie nenoaia
(iiaeaaeaiea eaaiyna?ianeiai aioeaieueoaaenoneiai aunooieaiey 6 ethey
1918 a.), ?acaycai a ioaao ia iieooaiey ia aeeciue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
ia?oee, a oii /enea Eaieia, “e?aniue oa??i?” (aeaenoaey A*E).
Onoaiiaeaiea aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa aeaeei ca niaie ainiiaenoai
ianeeuenoaaiiuo iaoiaeia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey anyeiai ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
i?aia?aciaaiey, ii a oneiaeyo ?innee iineaoeo iniaaiii aeanoeee
oa?aeoa?.

22. IYI: eaeaieiaey, iieeoeea, i?aeoeea (20-a aiaeu).

Aioo?aiiaa iieiaeaiea a no?aia a ?acoeueoaoa A?aaeaeaineie aieiu e
i?iaaaeaiey iieeoeee “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia” auei e?aeia oyaeaeui:
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen (nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, iaaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea e o. ae., nieaeaiea o?iaiy aeecie ia?iaea); iieeoe/aneee e?ecen
(iaaeiaieuenoai ianaeaiey, iniaaiii e?anoueyinoaa, iieeoeeie
i?aaeoaeuenoaa — i?iae?acaa?noeie, o?aaieeiaeie, anaaeanoeai
eiienna?ia); ?anneiaiea aioo?e i?aayuaa ia?oee ia ?oeiaiaenoai e
ia?oeeioth ianno; iiyaeaiea ?acee/iuo iiiiceoeeiiiuo a?oii (a?oiia
“aeaiie?aoe/aneiai nioeeaeecia”, “?aai/ay iiiiceoeey”); ii?aaeaeaiiia
?aci/a?iaaiea iaoaea/aie auno?iai, “aiaiii-eiiioienoe/aneiai” niiniaa
iino?iaiey iiaiai iauanoaa e o. ae. Iieacaoaeai ianooiaaoaai aeoaieiai
e?ecena neoaeeee aii?oaeaiiua aunooieaiey n o/anoeai eacaeia e
-e?anoueyi (Oe?aeia, Iiaieaeuea, Neae?ue, Naaa?iue Eaaeac). Iaeaieaa
e?oiiia ainnoaiea i?iecioei a Oaiaianeie aoaa?iee eaoii 1920 a. Aicieeea
oa?ica iiaie a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. A 1920 a. oee iienee iooae
i?aiaeieaiey e?ecena. VIII Ana?inneeneee nuacae Niaaoia, ooaa?aeea eo?n
ia i?iaeieaeaiea “aiaiii-eiiioienoe/aneie” iieeoeee, i?aia?aciaaiea
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia iniiaa ieaia AIYE?I, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?ecaae
iie?aoueny ia “noa?aoaeueiiai e?anoueyieia”, aicaea?aeeaaoueny io
ianniaiai nicaeaiey eiiioi e niaoicia a aea?aaia, ai?ioueny n eceeoiae
oeaio?aeecaoeeae e ath?ie?aoeciii. X nuacae ia?oee (ia?o 1921 a.)
ooaa?aeee aaaeiaeoea iai?aaeaiey iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee: caiaia
i?iae?acaa?noee i?iaeiaeiaii, iicaieeaoei inoaaeyoue a oicyenoaa
i?iaeoeou aeey i?iaeaaee ia ?uiea; ?ac?aoaiea aanoe /anoioth oi?aiaeth;
nicaeaiea iaeeeo /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aeiiouaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eaieoaeecia (eiioeannee, a?aiaea iaaieueoeo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e
caiee); caiaia iaoo?aeueiie iieaou o?oaea aeaiaaeiie, caaenaaoae io
eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa o?oaea; aaaaeaiea oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo; ioiaia anaiauae o?oaeiaie iiaeiiinoe, i?aaiecaoeey ae?ae
o?oaea. Iyi icia/ae ia?aoiae e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi, ii a oneiaeyo
ainiiaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe e oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo
iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey iiaeiaiay iieeoeea ia iiaea auoue ?aaeeciaaia a
iieiie ia?a. Iyi i?eian iuooeiua ?acoeueoaou — iaeeaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
e oi?aiaee, ainnoaiiaeaiea ?ac?ooaiiiai oicyenoaa (aue ii/oe aeinoeaioo
aeiaiaiiue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey yeiiiieee). Ii aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey
iiaie iieeoeee, iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a aa i?iaaaeaiee
i?aaeii?aaeaeeee aa naa?ouaaiea. A ia?oeeiii ?oeiaiaenoaa oee aeeneonnee
i noaeueaao iyia (iiceoeee A. E. Eaieia, I. E. Aooa?eia, E. Ae.
O?ioeeiai e ae?.). Oa?aeoa? e cia/aiea iyia ianoaeaeaaony o/aiuie e
iieeoeeaie e a iaoa a?aiy. Ia?aoiae e iyio icia/ae e niaio
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiai eo?na. A ia/aea 1920-o aa. auee i?aaei?eiyou oneeey
ii i?i?uao yeiiiie/aneie e aeeieiiaoe/aneie aeieaaeu Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa: iiaeienaiea a 1921— 1922 aa. oi?aiauo niaeaoaiee n ?yaeii
aaaeoueo no?ai; o/anoea ?innee a Aaioycneie e Aaaaneie eiioa?aioeeyo
(1922). Iai?aaeaiiinoue aiaoiae iieeoeee iaiyeanue a nayce n ioeacii io
eo?na ia iaiaaeeaiioth ie?iaoth ?aaiethoeeth e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
ia?aoiaea e ie?iiio ninouanoaiaaieth e yeiiiie/aneiio nio?oaeie/anoao n
ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaie.

25. Iieeoe/aneia ?acaeoea NNN? a 30-a aiaeu.

Iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei, neiaeeaoeeny no?aia a aiaeu IYIa, iinee
aaoi?eoa?iue oa?aeoa?. A ?aaeueiie ?inneeneie iieeoeea aaoi?eoa?eci
au?aaeaeny a oeaio?aeecaoeee aeanoe, eiiaiaeiii iaoiaea ?oeiaiaenoaa,
aaconeiaiii eniieiaiee aiee i?aayuae eiiia?oee. Eeaea?ii, iieuecothueiny
aaconeiaiui aaoi?eoaoii a ia?oee aue A. E. Eaiei. Iaeiaei, a ia?eiae aai
aieacie (1922-1923) e iniaaiii iinea nia?oe (21 yiaa?y 1924) neooaoeey a
aa?oieo yoaeiiao aeanoe cia/eoaeueii oneiaeieeanue. Eaiei ia inoaaee
iinea naay i?aaiieea. N iaeiie noi?iiu noi?ie?iaaaoeeny aaoi?eoa?iue
?aaeei inoaeny aac aa?oooee aeanoiie ie?aieaeu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
iieeoe/aneay o?aaeeoeey aieueoaaecia ioeoeeaeueii io?eoeaea aiaeaeeci,
o?aaeeoeeiiii ioiaeaeanoaeyy yoi yaeaiea n ia?iaeie/anoaii. O ia?oeeiuo
eeaea?ia (O?ioeeiai, Eaiaiaaa, Ceiiaueaaa, Noaeeia, Aooa?eia) inoaaaeny
aaeeinoaaiiue auoiae, /oiau ?ac?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio, – aeoaa ca
aaeeiiee/ioth aeanoue. Yoo aeoao auea?ae /eai iieeoath?i, auaoee ia?eii
ii aeaeai iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, aainae OeE ?EI(a) E. A. Noaeei. N?aco aea
iinea nia?oe Eaieia, no?aiynue oi?i/eoue naia iieiaeaiea, Noaeei
aunooiee eieoeeaoi?ii oae iacuaaaiiai «eaieineiai i?ecuaa» a ia?oeth. N
oaa?aey ii aaaono 1924 aiaea a ia?oeth auei i?eiyoi 203 oun /ae, /oi
oaaee/eei aa ninoaa a 1,5 ?aca. Eioaeeaeooaeueiue o?iaaiue ia?oee ?acei
oiae. Eniiaeaieue, iie?aynue ia ioaeaeueiua auneacuaaiey Eaieia, Noaeei
ia/eiaao iiaeiaiyoue oeaio?aeueioth eaeath aieueoaaecia – eaeath ie?iaie
?aa-oeee – ia ia iaiaa yooaeoeaioth oai?eth aiciiaeiinoe no?ieo-aa
nioe-ia a iaeiie, ioaeaeueii acyoie no?aia. Aieaa oiai, aeaa ia?oee yoo
iiaoth onoaiiaeo, iicaieythuoth auiooaoueny ec uaeioeeaie neooaoeee,
eiaaea i?ieaoa?eao aa?iiaeneeo no?ai ia i/aiue niaoee niaa?oaoue
ie?iaoth ?aa-oeeth, Noaeei oeacae ia aeiiaieea nicaeaiey yoie iai?eyoiie
aeey aieueoaaeeia neooaoeee – E. Ae. O?ioeeiai n aai oai?eae
«ia?iaiaioiie ?aa-oeee» e i?aaeeiaeaieyie ia ioiineoaeueiie
aeaiie?aoecaoeee i?aayuae ia?oee. I?enaiea naaa o-oeee aeaaiiai
aethnoeoaey eaieiecia, ianaaeaeay eoeueo Eaieia, Noaeei oai naiui, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, oe?aieye aiaeaeenoneea iano?iaiey a ia?oee e iauanoaa, n
ae?oaie – eae au aaoiiaoe/anee ia?aiinee ia naay e eaieineee aaoi?eoao e
oa aai ea/-aa, eioi?uie ii nai ia iaeaaeae

26. NNN? a aiaeu Aaeeeie ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu 1941-1945 aa.

A 1941 a. Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia anooieea a iiaoth oaco. E yoii a?aiaie
oaoenoneay Aa?iaiey e aa nithcieee caoaaoeee oaeoe/anee anth Aa?iio. A
nayce n oie/oiaeaieai iieueneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe onoaiiaeeanue
niaianoiay niaaonei-aa?iaineay a?aieoea. A 1940 a. oaoenoneia
?oeiaiaenoai ?ac?aaioaei ieai «Aa?aa?inna», oeaeue eioi?iai ninoiyea a
iieieaiiniii ?aca?iia niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo nee e ieeoiaoeee
aa?iiaeneie /anoe Niaaoneiai Nithca. Aeaeueiaeoea ieaiu i?aaeoniao?eaaee
iieiia oie/oiaeaiea NNN?. Aeey yoiai ia ainoi/iii iai?aaeaiee auee
nin?aaeioi/aiu 153 iaiaoeeea aeeaecee e 37 aeeaecee aa nithcieeia
(Oeieyiaeee, ?oiuiee e Aaia?ee). Iie aeieaeiu auee iaianoe oaea? a o?ao
iai?aaeaieyo: oeaio?aeueiii (Ieine — Niieaine -Iineaa), naaa?i-caiaaeiii
(I?eaaeoeea — Eaieia?aae) e thaeiii (Oe?aeia n auoiaeii ia *a?iiii?neia
iiaa?aaeuea). Ieaie?iaaeanue iieieaiiniay eaiiaiey a ?an/aoa caoaaoa
aa?iiaeneie /anoe NNN? aei inaie 1941 a.

NIAAONEI-AA?IAINEEE O?IIO

Ia/aei aieiu. Inouanoaeaiea ieaia «Aa?aa?inna» ia/aeinue ia ?annaaoa 22
ethiy 1941 a. oe?ieeie aiiaa?aee?iaeaie n aicaeooa e?oiiaeoeo
i?iiuoeaiiuo e no?aoaae/aneeo oeaio?ia, a oaeaea ianooieaieai nooiiooiuo
aiene Aa?iaiee e aa nithcieeia ii anae aa?iiaeneie a?aieoea NNN? (ia
i?ioyaeaiee 4,5 oun. ei). Ca ianeieueei ia?auo aeiae iaiaoeeea aienea
i?iaeaeioeenue ia aeanyoee e nioie eeeiiao?ia. Ia oeaio?aeueiii
iai?aaeaiee a ia/aea ethey 1941 a. au caoaa/aia any Aaei?onney, e
iaiaoeeea aienea auoee ia iiaenooi e Niieaineo. Ia naaa?i-caiaaeiii —
caiyoa I?eaaeoeea, 9 naioya?y aeiee?iaai Eaieia?aae. Ia thaa
aeoea?ianeea aienea ieeoie?iaae Iieaeaaeth e I?aaiaa?aaeioth Oe?aeio.
Oaeei ia?acii, e inaie 1941 a. aue inouanoaeai aeoea?ianeee ieai caoaaoa
ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee aa?iiaeneie /anoe NNN?.

Ia?iaeiay ai?ueaa ia ieeoie?iaaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo oneiaee, iaania/eaoeo iiaaaeo a Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieia, yaeeinue nii?ioeaeaiea caoaao/eeai ia ieeoie?iaaiiuo oa??eoi?eyo.
Iii auei aucaaii, ai-ia?auo, aeoaieei iao?eioeciii e /oanoaii
iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey niaaoneeo ethaeae. Ai-aoi?uo, ?oeiaiaenoai
no?aiu i?iaaei oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua aeaenoaey ia iiaeaea?aeeo e
i?aaiecaoeeth yoiai aeaeaeaiey. A-o?aoueeo, anoanoaaiiue i?ioano
aucuaaeny oaoenoneie eaeaae i iaiieiioeaiiinoe neaayineiai e ae?oaeo
ia?iaeia NNN?, yeiiiie/aneei ia?aaeaieai e auea/eaaieai ethaeneeo
?ano?nia.

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea NNN? a aiaeu aieiu.

A ia?aua ianyoeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu ia/aea aeoeaii
neeaaeuaaoueny aioeaeoea?ianeay eiaeeoeey a ninoaaa NNN?, Aaeeeia?eoaiee
e iicaeiaa NOA. Yoi auee aa aeaaiua o/anoieee, e eioi?ui
i?eniaaeeiyeenue e ae?oaea no?aiu. Eiaeeoeey auea iniiaaia ia iauae
eaeaa ai?ueau i?ioea oaoecia, nio?aiaiee noaa?aieoaoa e iacaaeneiinoe
naieo ainoaea?noa. Caiaaeiua aeaiie?aoee, ianiio?y ia iaiaaenoue e
niaaoneiio no?ith, iiieiaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue nio?oaeie/anoaa n NNN?.
Oaeei ia?acii, niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua iauanoaaiii-iiee/aneea nenoaiu iioee
ia naeeaeaiea ia?aae eeoeii iauae iianiinoe.

A ia/aea ieoya?y 1946 a. aue iaeaoai i?eaiai?. Oaeoe/anee a iiaenoaeeiua
auee i?eciaiu aeiiaiuie a inouanoaeaiee caaiai?a aeey iiaeaioiaee e
aaaeaiey aa?anneaiuo aiei, a i?anooiiie aa?annee i?ioea Aano?ee,
*aoineiaaeee, Iieueoe, Aeaiee, Ii?aaaee, Aaeueaee, THaineaaee, A?aoeee,
NNN? e ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai. Aeaaiua aeiiaiee auee i?eaiai?aiu e nia?oiie
eacie, inoaeueiua — e iiaeeciaiii caeeth/aieth. O?eaoiae i?eciae
i?anooiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie NN, aanoaii, NAe e ?oeiaiaeyuee ninoaa
iaoeenoneie ia?oee.

Ith?iaa?aneee i?ioeann — ia?aue a ie?iaie enoi?ee noae, i?eciaaoee
aa?anneth oya/aeoei oaieiaiui i?anooieaieai, iaeacaaoee eae oaieiaiuo
i?anooiieeia ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae, aeiiaiuo a iiaeaioiaea,
?acaycuaaiee e aaaeaiee aa?anneaiuo aiei. I?eioeeiu, cae?aieaiiua
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui o?eaoiaeii e au?aaeaiiua a i?eaiai?a, au
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu ?aciethoeeae Aaia?aeueiie Annaiaeae III a 1946 a.

27. NNN? a ia?aua iineaaiaiiua aiaeu 1945-53 aa.

N ieii/aieai Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu niaaoneee ia?iae iieo/ee
aiciiaeiinoue i?enooieoue e ie?iiio niceaeaoaeueiiio o?oaeo. I?aaenoiyei
aic?iaeeoue nioie ?ac?ooaiiuo ai?iaeia e iinaeeia, ainnoaiiaeoue
aeaeaciua aei?iae e i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, iiaeiyoue iaoa?eaeueiue
o?iaaiue aeecie ethaeae. Iniiaiua i?ei?eoaou e iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey
no?aiu ii?aaeaeyeenue, eae e a i?aaeaiaiiua aiaeu,
Ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuie iyoeeaoieie ieaiaie. No?aoaae/aneoth caaea/o
?acaeoey iauanoaa ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiia ?oeiaiaenoai no?aiu aeaeaei
a iino?iaiee nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa.

Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay aeeciue no?aiu

Niaaoneia iauanoai iinea aieiu. Caaa?oaiea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu
ieacaei cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia ?acaeoea
iauanoaa. A oa/aiea o?ao n iieiaeiie eao ec a?iee auee aeaiiaeeeciaaiu e
aica?auaiu e ie?iie aeecie ieiei 8,5 iei. auaoeo aieiia. Ia ?iaeeio
aa?ioeenue nauoa 4 iei. ?aiao?eaioia — aiaiiiieaiiua, oaiaiiua a iaaieth
aeeoaee ieeoie?iaaiiuo ?aeiiia, /anoue yiea?aioia.

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea.

Eciaiaiey ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia. Aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 40-o aiaeia niaa?oaeanue a
ianoaiiaea aeoaieeo ia?aiai ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia. Iiaaaea a
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia iiauneea aaoi?eoao NNN?. A 1945 a. ii eiae
aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n 52 ainoaea?noaaie (i?ioea 26 a i?aaeaiaiiua
aiaeu). Niaaoneee Nithc i?eieiae aeoeaiia o/anoea a ?aoaiee aaaeiaeoeo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aii?inia, e i?aaeaea anaai a o?aaoee?iaaiee
iineaaiaiiiai iieiaeaiey a Aa?iia.

O?oaeiinoe a yeiiiie/aneie noa?a, eaeaieiaecaoeey iauanoaaiii
iieeoe/aneie aeecie, oneeaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iai?yaeaiiinoe — oaeiau
auee ?acoeueoaou ?acaeoey iauanoaa a ia?aua iineaaiaiiua aiaeu. A yoio
ia?eiae aua aieaa ie?ai ?aaeei ee/iie aeanoe E.A. Noaeeia,
oaeanoi/eeanue eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiay nenoaia. A yoe aea aiaeu a
iauanoaaiiii niciaiee ana aieaa /aoei oi?ie?iaaea iuneue i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aiai a iauanoaa. Nia?oue E. A. Noaeeia (ia?o 1953 a.)
iaeaa/eea iienee auoiaea ec i?ioeai?a/ee, iiooaaoeo ana noa?u
iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

30. NNN? a ia?eiae e?ecena nioeeaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu. ?aniaae NNN?.
Ia?aciaaiea NIA.

NNN? a ia?eiae e?ecena.

E na?aaeeia 1980-o aa. a NNN? ianooiee yeiiiie/aneee, nioeeaeueiue e
iieeoe/aneee e?ecen. Ii au?aaeaeny a iaaeaiee oaiiia ?inoa i?iiuoeaiiiai
e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, nieaeaiee o?iaiy aeecie
ianaeaiey, oneeaiee ei??oioeee, ?acaeoee oaiaaie yeiiiieee, ia?anoaiee
nioeeaeueiie aiaoee. A iauanoaaiiii niciaiee c?aei iiieiaiea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeoaieeo ia?aiai. Eo aeaeaee ana neie iauanoaa — io
?yaeiauo a?aaeaeai aei ii?aaeaeaiiie a?oiiu ia?oeeiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo
/eiiaieeia. No?aia noiyea ia ii?iaa ia?aiai. Ia/aei ia?ano?ieee naycaii
n eiaiai I. N. Ai?aa/aaa, eioi?ue a ia?oa 1985 a. noae Aaia?aeueiui
nae?aoa?ai OeE EINN. A ai?aea 1985 a. aue i?iaicaeaoai eo?n ia onei?aiea
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu. I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue
oniaa?oainoaiaaoue no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii, ca n/ao
“Ne?uouo ?aca?aia” a ei?ioeee n?ie aeiaeoueny iiaeuaia yeiiiieee,
i?aiaeieaoue canoieiua yaeaiey, cia/eoaeueii Oeo/oeoue iaoa?eaeueiia
iieiaeaiea niaaoneeo ethaeae. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea niauoee ia
ii?aaaeaei iioeienoe/aneeo i?iaiicia. Ni?aaeoueny n e?ecenii ia
oaeaeinue. Ii ia?a oaeoaeaiey ia?ano?ia/iuo i?ioeannia auyaeeanue
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iieeoe/aneie ?aoi?iu. Aac iaiiaeaiey iieeoe/aneeo
no?oeoo? iauanoaa iiaua yeiiiie/aneea iaoiaeu oicyenoaiaaiey ia iiaee
aeaoue iuooeiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Iniciaaay yoi, Ai?aa/aa e aai
aaeeiiiuoeaiieee iioee ia aeaiie?aoecaoeeth iieeoe/aneeo no?oeoo?.
Aeaaiui aa eino?oiaioii noaea aeaniinoue — iauaeoeaiia inaauaiea anao
noi?ii aeecie iauanoaa. Ia Ia?aii Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia
(iae—ethiue 1988 a.) Ai?aa/aa aue eca?ai aeaaie ainoaea?noaa —
I?aaenaaeaoaeai Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN?, a a ia?oa 1990 a. — I?aceaeaioii
NNN? n i?aaii ecaeaaaoue oeacu e iinoaiiaeaiey, eioi?ua eiaee neeo
caeiia. A i?ioeanna aeaeueiaeoae aeaiie?aoecaoeee iauanoaaiiie aeecie a
no?aia ec Eiinoeoooeee NNN? auea eneeth/aia 6-y noaouey (i ?oeiaiaeyuae
?iee EINN), eeeaeaee?iaaia iaeiiia?oeeiay nenoaia ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiie,
noaee aicieeaoue ?acee/iua ia?oee e iauanoaaiiua aeaeaeaiey.

?aniaae NNN?. Ia?aciaaiea NIA.

Oai a?aiaiai a no?aia ia?anoaee nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu: ia?eiaee/anee
aicieeaee e?ecenu niaaaeaiey – /aeiue, naoa?iue, oaaa/iue e o.ae. Noaee
ii?iie ieoeiae e aeaiiino?aoeee. Eaoii 1989 aiaea ii no?aia i?ioea
iiuiay aieia caaanoiai/iiai aeaeaeaiey, iniaaiii cia/eoaeueiuie auee
aunooieaiey oaoo??ia a Eocaanna, Aeiiaanna, Ea?aaaiaea. An? /aua ia?yaeo
n yeiiiie/aneeie auaeaeaaeenue e iieeoe/aneea. Iaino?eeny e
iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in. A ?yaea ?anioaeee aicieeee ia?iaeiua o?iiou,
aeiaeaaaoeany auoiaea ec ninoaaa NNN?, ia/aeenue aii?oae?iiua eiioeeeou
a Iaai?iii Ea?aaaoa, N?aaeiae Acee, A?ocee e Aaoacee. Yoe i?iaeaiu oaea
iaaei auei ?aoaoue ia iauanithciii o?iaia.

Eicoiae ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaa?aieoaoa, auaeaeiooua a iaeioi?uo
?anioaeeeao, ia?a?anoaee a o?aaiaaiea iieiie iacaaeneiinoe. Aacaea
ianoiua aeanoe i?eae?aee e ?oeai iniiaiua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. 17
ia?oa 1991 aiaea a 9 ?anioaeeeao i?io?e ?aoa?aiaeoi i noaeueaa NNN?, o?e
/aoaa?oe aieiniaaaoeo auneacaeenue ca aai nio?aiaiea. 23 ai?aey 1991
aiaea i?aaenoaaeoaee 9 ?anioaeee e Ai?aa/?a, eae I?aceaeaio NNN?,
iiaeienaee niaeaoaiea i caeeth/aiee iiaiai nithciiai aeiaiai?a. 12 ethiy
1991 aiaea a ?NON? i?ioee auai?u i?aceaeaioa, eioi?ui noae A.I.Aeueoeei.

19 aaaonoa 1991 aiaea, /oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue iiaeienaiea nithciiai
aeiaiai?a, eioi?ia aeieaeii auei ninoiyoueny 20 aaaonoa, aai i?ioeaieee
i?aaiecotho ioo/. OANN niiauee i nicaeaiee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Eiieoaoa ii
*?acau/aeiiio Iieiaeaieth (AE*I), eioi?ue nianoee Ai?aa/?aa, aa?e a
no?aia /?acau/aeiia iieiaeaiea. A Iineao auee aaaaeaiu aienea. Ii
aeaenoaey caaiai?ueeia ano?aoeee nii?ioeaeaiea ia?iaeiuo iann, oeaio?
eioi?iai iaoiaeeeny a caeaiee Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?NON?. ?aoeoaeueiui
i?ioeaieeii ia?aai?ioa aunooiee Aeueoeei, eioi?iai ai?y/i
iiaeaea?aeeaaee iiiaea ouny/e ethaeae, nia?aaoeany o Aaeiai Aeiia.
Aa/a?ii 21 aaaonoa Ai?aa/?a aa?ioeny a Iineao, i?aaiecaoi?u ioo/a auee
a?anoiaaiu.

Iiiuoea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa ?acei onei?eea i?ioeann ?aniaaea
NNN?. N?aco iinea ioo/a 8 ?anioaeee cayaeee i naiae iieiie
iacaaeneiinoe. Aeayoaeueiinoue EINN auea i?einoaiiaeaia, a iioii e
cai?auaia. Ai?aa/?a inoaaee iino Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y OeE EINN e
?anionoee OeE. 8 naioya?y 1991 aiaea a Aaeiaaaeneie ioua ?oeiaiaeeoaee
Aaei?onnee, ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e Oe?aeiu iiaeienaee aeiaiai? i
nicaeaiee Niae?oaeanoaa Iacaaeneiuo Ainoaea?noa (NIA) e iauyaeee i
i?ae?auaiee nouanoaiaaiey NNN? eae noauaeoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa. 21
aeaeaa?y 1991 aiaea ia niaauaiee a Aeia-Aoa e NIA i?eniaaeeieeenue au? 8
?anioaeee.

4. Oioa?i-iiiaieueneia caaiaaaiea ?one. Iioiaeu e?anoiiinoeaa ia ?one.

1237-1241 aa. ?onneea caiee iiaeaa?aeenue oaea?o ni noi?iiu Iiiaieueneie
eiia?ee, caaiaaaaooth ia?iiioth oa??eoi?eth io Oeoiai ieaaia aei
Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu.Iinea iioiaeia ia Naaa?i-Ainoi/ioth e THaeioth
?onue iauaaeeiaiiiai iiiaieueneiai aienea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aioea
iniiaaoaey eiia?ee – *eiaenoaia – Aaouy onoaiiaeeinue oae iacuaaaiia
iiiaiei-oaoa?neia eai. ?onneea eiyaeanoaa ia aioee iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
oa??eoi?eth Cieioie I?aeu. Eo caaeneiinoue au?aaeaeanue a oieaoa
iiaeaoae. Eeaaneay caiey iinea iaoanoaey ieii/aoaeueii oo?aoeea naia
aueia cia/aiea. Eeaa aue acyo oaoa?aie a 1240 a. a ?acaa? ai?ueau ca
iaai iaaeaeo niia?ie/athueie eiycueyie. A *a?ieaianeie caiea ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XIII noieaoey ?acei oneeeaaaony iieeoe/aneay ?acae?iaeaiiinoue.
XIV a. aieueoay /anoue *a?ieaiaueiu auea iiae/eiaia eeoianeei eiycai. A
THai-Caiaaeiie ?one a ?acoeueoaoa iauaaeeiaiey Aieuie e Aaee/eiu
noi?ie?iaaeinue neeueiia ainoaea?noai e oniaoii i?ioeainoiyei oaoa?neiio
iaoeneo. Ii a eiioea 50-o aiaeia Aaeeoeeiio eiycth ana aea i?eoeinue
i?eciaoue caaeneiinoue io oaoa?neiai oaia. A Niieaineie caiea oaeaeueiua
eiyaeanoaa ia cae?aieeenue ca ii?aaeaeaiiuie eiyaeaneeie eeieyie, eae
yoi auei a *a?ieaianeie caiea. ?ycaineay caiey a aoi?ie iieiaeia XIII-XV
a. nio?aiyea ioiineoaeueioth iacaaeneiinoue. Iaeiaei iia auea caaeaoa
iaaeaeo Cieioie I?aeie, n eioi?ie iaiin?aaenoaaiii a?aie/eea, e
Naaa?i-Ainoi/iie ?onueth. Io?iineia eiyaeanoai oaea a na?aaeeia XIV a.
noaei caaenaoue io Iineianeiai, a a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia aioei a aa
ninoaa. Oa??eoi?ey Ia?ayneaaneiai eiyaeanoaa iinea Aaouaaa iaoanoaey
ia?aoea iiae iaiin?aaenoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea I?aeu. Iinea
iiiaiei-oaoa?neiai iaoanoaey noaeueau ?acee/iuo caiaeue ?acioeenue. Ec
/aou?ao neeueiaeoeo a ia?aie iieiaeia XIII a. eiyaeanoa o?e
(*a?ieaianeia, Aaeeoeei-Aieuineia e Niieaineia) oa?ytho naie noaa?aieoao
e aoiaeyo a ninoaa ainoaea?noa – Eeoau e Iieueoe. Ia oa??eoi?ee
/aoaa?oiai – Aeaaeeie?i-Nocaeaeueneiai – ia/eiaaony oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai
aaeeiiai ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. Oaeei ia?acii ia?anoaea nouanoaiaaoue
noa?ay iieeoe/aneay no?oeoo?a, aeey eioi?ie auee oa?aeoa?iu
naiinoiyoaeueiua eiyaeanoaa – caiee. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
yeiiiieeo au?aceeinue, ai-ia?auo, a ?aci?aiee oa??eoi?ee ai a?aiy
i?aeuineeo iioiaeia e iaaaaia, iniaaiii /anouo ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIII
a. Ai-aoi?uo caaiaaaiea i?eaaei e nenoaiaoe/aneiio auea/eaaieth
cia/eoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa a aeaea i?aeuineiai “auoiaea” e
ae?oaeo iiai?ia, /oi iaane?iaeeaaei no?aio. Iinea iaoanoaey XIII a.
oneeeeanue ?aciauaiiinoue ?onneeo caiaeue. I?ae?aoeeanue ai?ueaa ?aciuo
eiyaeaneeo aaoaae ca Eeaa, Iiaai?iae e Aaee/.

5.Ia?aciaaiea ?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. ?inney i?e Eaaia
III.

?inneeneia oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ainoaea?noai neiaeeeinue ia
naaa?i-ainoi/iuo e naaa?i-caiaaeiuo caieyo Eeaaneie ?one, aa thaeiua e
thai-caiaaeiua caiee auee aeeth/aiu a ninoaa Iieueoe, Eeoau, Aaia?ee.
Aai ia?aciaaiea auei onei?aii iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ai?ueau n aiaoiae
iianiinoueth, iniaaiii n Cieioie I?aeie, a a iineaaenoaee n Eacaineei,
E?uineei, Neae?neei, Ano?aoaineei, Eacaoneei oainoaaie, Eeoaie e
Iieueoae. Iiiaiei-oaoa?neia iaoanoaea e cieioii?aeuineia eai caoi?iiceee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea ?onneeo caiaeue. A ioee/ea io
ia?aaeiauo no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu ia?aciaaiea aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaa a
?innee i?ienoiaeeei i?e iieiii ainiiaenoaa o?aaeeoeeiiiiai niiniaa
oicyenoaa ?innee – ia oaiaeaeueiie iniiaa. Yoi iicaieyao iiiyoue, ii/aio
a Aa?iia ia/aei oi?ie?iaaoueny ao?aeoaciia, aeaiie?aoe/aneia,
a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai, a a ?innee aua aeieai aoaeoo ainiiaenoaiaaoue
e?aiinoiia i?aai, nineiaiinoue, ia?aaiii?aaea a?aaeaeai ia?aae caeiiaie.
Caaa?oaiea i?ioeanna iauaaeeiaiey ?onneeo caiaeue aie?oa Iineau a
oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ainoaea?noai i?eoiaeeony ia aiaeu i?aaeaiey Eaaia III
(1462-1505) e Aaneeey III (1505-1533)

Eaai 3 – iaeia ec eeth/aauo oeao? a enoi?ee. Ii ia?aui i?eiye oeooe
«Ainoaea?ue anay ?one. Aeinoeaeaiey: aeaoaeaaue i??e – aa?a iaoaai
ainoaea?noaa, aicaaae?i Iineianeee E?aieue, naa?aiooi cieioii?aeuineia
eai e o. ae. Eaai 3, iie?aynue ia iiiiuue Iineau i?aeoe/anee aane?iaii
caaa?oee iauaaeeiaiea naaa?i-ainoi/iie ?one. A 1468 aiaeo auei
ieii/aoaeueii i?eniaaeeiaii ss?ineaaneia eiyaeanoai. A 1472 a. Ia/aeinue
i?eniaaeeiaiea Ia?ie Aaeeeie. A 1489 a. A ninoaa ainoaea?noaa aioee
Ayoneay Caiey, aaaeiay a i?iiuneiaii ioiioaiee. A 1503 a. Iiiaea eiycuey
caiaaeiuo ?onneeo iaeanoae ia?aoee io Eeoau e iineianeiio eiycth.

Iacaaeneiie io iineianeiai oea?y inoaaaeanue Iiaai?iaeneay aiy?neay
?anioaeeea, iaeaaeaaoay au? cia/eoaeueiie neeie. Iianaynue iioa?e naieo
i?eaeeaaee a neo/aa iiae/eiaiey Iineaa, /anoue iiaai?iaeneiai aiy?noaa
ai aeaaa n iinaaeieoeae Ia?oie Ai?aoeeie caeeth/eea niaeaoaiea i
aannaeueiie caaeneiinoe Iiaai?iaea io Eeoau. 1471 a. – iioiae ia
Iiaai?iae. ?aoathuaa n?aaeaiea i?iecioei ia ?aea Oaeiie, aaea
Iiaai?iaeoeu iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea. 1478 a. – i?eniaaeeiaiea Iiaai?iaea.
Ii Eaai inoaaee ca Iiaai?iaeii ?yae i?eaeeaaee: i?aai aanoe niioaiey ni
Oaaoeeae, iaauae ia i?eaeaeaoue iiaai?iaeoeaa e ianaieth neoaeau ia
thaeiuo a?aieoeao.

6. Oe?aieaiea Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa. Aiaoiyy e aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea
Eaaia IV.

An? /aua aaeeeee iineianeee eiycue eiaioaony oea??i, ni a?aiaiai
?ac?aaaouaaaony ia?yae aai/aiey ia oea?noai. A 1547 aiaeo ia oea?noai
aai/aaony Eaai 4, aoaeouee A?iciue. Aai oea?noaiaaiea ioia/aii oeaeui
?yaeii iiaiaaaaeaiee:1.aiaiiay ?aoi?ia, iinea eioi?ie iiyaeeanue
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeoe e aeoeaiie aiaoiae iieeoeea. Nooueth ?aoi?iu auei
nicaeaiea no?aeaoeeiai aienea, oii?yaei/aiea neoaeau aeai?yi a
iiie/aiee, auaeaeaiea a?oeeea?ee a naiinoiyoaeueiue ?iae aiene,
eniieueciaaiea eaca/ueeo io?yaeia ia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa. Cieioay
I?aea, ?aniaaeaaony ia ?yae iacaaeneiuo oainoa: Eacaineia, Ano?aoaineia,
E?uineia, Neae?neia e Iiaaeneoth i?aeo. ?onneea eiycuey e oea?e ea?aee
ia i?ioeai?a/eyo iaaeaeo oainoaaie e iiei?eee aieueoeinoai ec ieo.
Ia?aui iaei Eacaineia oainoai, noieeoea eioi?iai auea Eacaiue. Caoai
iaea Ano?aoaiue e ia/aeinue iiei?aiea Neae?neiai oainoaa. Oieueei
E?uineia oainoai nio?aieei ioiineoaeueioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, Eaai 4 ?aoee iaeio ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai – iaania/aiea
aaciianiinoe ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa ia ainoiea. Iaeiaei ia thaa inoaeinue
E?uineia oainoai, oa?iaeaaoaa iaaaaaie.

Aeaaiuie i?ioeaieeaie n caiaaea aunooiaee Eeaiineee i?aeai e
iieuenei-eeoianeia ainoaea?noai, i?iaeieaeaaoaa nio?aiyoue aeanoue iaae
cia/eoaeueiuie caieyie auaoae Eeaaneie ?one. Eaai A?iciue aoi?aaaony a
caiee Eeaiineiai i?aeaia, eioi?ue aue i?ioeaieeii n caiaaea, e
iaea?aeeaaao ?yae iiaaae. Ii anei?a a aieio aiaoeaathony Aeaiey e
Iieueoa. Aienea Eaaia 4 oa?iyo ii?aaeaiea. Neooaoeey ineiaeiyaony
eciaiie ?yaea aeeaeieo aiy?. Aneaaenoaea yoiai Eaai A?iciue aa?e
eciaiaiey a nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

No?aia auea ?acaeaeaia ia aeaa /anoe: caiueio e ii?e/ieio. A ii?e/ieio
aioee aaaeiua a yeiiiie/aneii e no?aoaae/aneii ioiioaiee ?aeiiu. Ia yoeo
caieyo iinaeeeenue aeai?yia, aoiaeeaoea a ii?e/iia aienei.

Eaai A?iciue oi/ao oie/oiaeeoue inoaoee oaiaeaeueiiai ae?iaeaiey no?aiu.
Ii ia inoaiaaeeaaeny ie ia?aae eaeeie aeanoieinoyie. Ia/aeny ii?e/iue
oa??i?, eacie, nnueee. Ethoie nia?oueth iiaeaee ouny/e aeeoaeae Iineau,
Oaa?e, Eeeia, Oi?aeea, Iiaai?iaea e ae?oaeo ai?iaeia.

Aeaei auei a oii, /oi Oea?ue no?aieeny ai?ioueny n aiy?neie
iacaaeneiinoueth e naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay i?ienoaeaea ec aiieia
iauaeoeaiuo i?e/ei: aiy?neiai caieaaeaaeaiey, eioi?ia ia auei ia?aie/aii
ieeaeeie oneiaeyie. Aeai?yia eiaee iiianouey ia oneiaee iaycaoaeueiie
aiaiiie neoaeau e auee iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n oea?neie aeanoueth,
eioi?ay ei yoo caieth e aeaea. Aiy?a aea, iniaaiii iioiiee eiycae – ia
n/eoaee oea?neoth aeanoue aaniethoii iai?a?aeaaiui aaoi?eoaoii. Ia ianoi
eaci?iiuo A?iciui iaiiei?iuo aiy? ooo aea anoaaaee iiaua. Ii oea?ue
ai?ieny ni neaaenoaeai, a ia n i?e/eiie. Eoia ii?e/ieiu aue ia/aeai:
iiiaea oeaio?aeueiua iaeanoe caionoaee, ianaeaiea iieeaeaei yoe ianoa.
Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa a?aiaeeiciuo aeayiee A?iciiai aue ?aca?ii Iiaai?iaea.
Ii ii?e/iia aienei, i?ecaaiiia ia oieueei enei?aiyoue aioo?aiieo a?aaia,
ii e neoaeeoue iii?ie oea?y ai aiaoieo aieiao, ieacaeinue niaa?oaiii
ianiiniaiui e eniieiaieth oaeie ?iee. A 1572 aiaeo ii?e/ieia auea
eeeaeaee?iaaia iinea iieiiai i?iaaea a ai?ueaa n iaoanoaeai e?uineiai
oaia.

Eaai A?iciue ia/ae Eeaiineoth aieio. Ii oioae aeiaeoueny auoiaea e
Aaeoeeneiio ii?th, /oiau iaania/eoue naiaiaeiua eiioaeou ni no?aiaie
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Aieia auea caaa?oaia a 1583 aiaeo ec-ca acaeiiiai
enoiuaiey noi?ii. Iinea nia?oe Eaaia A?iciiai a 1584 aiaeo aeanoue a
ainoaea?noaa oianeaaeiaae aai nui O?aei?, A Oaee/a ni naiae iaoa?ueth –
iineaaeiae aeaiie Eaaia a?iciiai, Ia?eae Iaaie – aeee ae?oaie aai nui –
iaeieaoiee oea?aae/ Aeieo?ee. A 1591 aiaeo i?e caaaaei/iuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao ii iiaeaaao. Yoi nua?aei aeaaioth ?ieue a
iineaaeiaaaoeo anei?a niauoeyo.

9. Aiaoiyy, aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea, eoeueoo?a ?innee a Iao?ianeee ia?eiae.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua ?aoi?iu Iao?a I

Iao? I anooiee ia i?anoie a 1682 a., ia/ae i?aaeoue naiinoiyoaeueii n
1694 a.

I?aia?aciaaieyie auee ioaa/aiu ana iaeanoe oicyenoaaiiie aeecie –
yeiiiieea, nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey, nenoaia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey, aiaiiay
noa?a, oea?eiaue, eoeueoo?a e auo. Aei na?aaeeiu 1710 aa. iie
i?iaiaeeeenue aac yniiai ieaia, iiae aeaaeaieai ianoiyoaeuenoa, aeaaiui
ia?acii aiaiiuo. Caoai ?aoi?iu i?eia?aee aieaa oeaeinoiue oa?aeoa?.

?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey i?iecioee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ainoaea?noai
any/anee niinianoaiaaei ?inoo iaiooaeoo? a iaoaeeo?aee, ei?aaeano?iaiee,
a oaenoeeueiii, eiaeaaaiiii, eaiaoiii, oaenoeeueiii
i?iecaiaenoaa.Aia?aua a enoi?ee no?aiu ainoaea?noai acyei ia naay ?ieue
aeoeaiiai e aeayoaeueiiai o/anoieea yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia. Ia
n?aaenoaa eaciu iniiauaaeenue e niaea?aeaeenue e?oiiua iaiooaeoo?iua
i?aaei?eyoey. Iiiaea ec ieo ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo ia?aaeaaaeenue a ?oee
/anoiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa. I?iaeaio iaania/aiey i?aaei?eyoee ?aai/ae neeie,
e?aeia ino?oth a oneiaeyo ainiiaenoaa a oneiaeyo ainiiaenoaa e?aiinoiiai
i?aaa e ionoonoaey ?uiea aieueiiia?iiiai o?oaea, iao?ianeia ainoaea?noai
?aoeei oae. Iii i?eienuaaei e iaiooaeoo?ai e cae?aieyei ca ieie
e?anoueyi eee eaoi?aeieeia, a?iaeya, ieueo. I?e/oaeeeaia ni/aoaiea
iiaiai ni noa?ui – oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue iao?ianeeo ?aoi?i a oeaeii.
Ae?oaei eino?oiaioii aeeyiey ainoaea?noaa ia yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea auee
ia?ii?eyoey, niioaaonoaothuea i?eioeeiai ia?eaioaeecia: onoaiiaeaiea
aunieeo oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei ia oiaa?u, i?iecaiaeeaoeany a ?innee,
iiiu?aiea yenii?oa, i?aaeinoaaeaiea eueaio aeaaeaeueoeai iaiooaeoo?.

Iao? I iieiinoueth eciaiee nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ianoi
Aiy?neie aeoiu, ia ea?aaoae nouanoaaiiie ?iee oaea n 1700 a., a 1711 a.
Caiye I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee naiao, iaeaaeaaoae caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
aaeieieno?aoeaiie e noaeaaiie aeanoueth. Ia?aiia/aeueii a naiao aoiaeeee
9 /aeiaae, iicaea auea o/?aaeaeaiaia aeieaeiinoue aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a. A
1717-1718 aa. auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu i?eeacu e nicaeaiu eieeaaee. Eo
aeayoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeye Aaia?aeueiue ?aaeaiaio. A ioee/ea io i?eeacia
eieeaaee no?ieeenue ia i?eioeeiao eieeaaeaeueiinoe, ?aca?aie/aiey
iieiiii/ee, ae?noeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe. A nenoaio
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey aiaae?yeenue ath?ie?aoe/aneea iaoaieciu,
a?aaoea aa?o iaae noa?eiiuie ia/aeaie ianoie/enoaa e ?iaeiaeoinoe. N
i?eiyoeai Oaaaee i ?aiaao, ?acaeaeeaoae anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo
– aiaiiuo, ooaoneeo e i?eaeai?iuo – ia 14 eeannia e ioe?uaoae ia?aae
auoiaeoeaie ec nioeeaeueiuo iecia aeanoyuea ia?niaeoeau i?iaeaeaeaiey e
aeai?yinoao, ath?ie?aoe/aneay iaoeia neiaeeeanue ieii/aoaeueii.
I?eiauaieth aeai?yi e ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa aeieaeai aue
niinianoaiaaoue «Oeac i aaeeiiianeaaeee» (1714), ii eioi?iio ana caiee
ia?aaeaaaeenue ii ianeaaenoao eeoue iaeiiio ec nuiiaae. ?aoi?iu
oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe ni/aoaeenue n aiaae?aieai iiaiai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
aeaeaiey no?aiu ia 8 aoaa?iee ai aeaaa n aoaa?iaoi?aie. A 1721 a. Iao?
aeey oi?aaeaiey oea?eiaiuie aeaeaie nicaeae Nayoaeoee Neiiae ai aeaaa ni
naaoneei iaa?-i?ieo?i?ii.

Aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii i?aia?aciaaiee auei aaaaeaiea ?ae?ooneie nenoaiu
eiiieaeoiaaiey a?iee. ?ae?oo iai?aaeyeny ia iiaeeciaiioth aiaiioth
neoaeao io ii?aaeae?iiiai /enea e?anoueyi e ae?oaeo iiaeaoiuo nineiaee.
?aaoey?iay a?iey iiae/eiyeanue aaeeiui aiaiiui onoaaai e ianoaaeaieyi

Niaea?aeaiea a?iee, no?ieoaeuenoai iaiooaeoo?, aeoeaiay aiaoiyy iieeoeea
o?aaiaaee ia?iiiuo aeaiaa. Aei 1724 a. Aaiaeeeenue an? iiaua iaeiae: ia
ai?iaeo, aeui, aaith, aa?aiaoth aoiaao e o. ae.

Oea?ue Iao? no?aieeny i?aa?aoeoue ?inneth a aaeeeoth aea?aeaao,
aa?iiace?iaaoue a?.

1696 iaeaaeaiea Aciaii. Ii i?iea?ae aieio n Oo?oeeae.

1700-1721 – aieia ni Oaaoeeae. Nithc n Naeniieae e Aeaieae, ia?aie?ea n
Oo?oeeae iicaieeee nin?aaeioi/eoue ana neeu a ai?ueaa ca I?eaaeoeeo.
Ianiio?y ia ii?aaeaiea iiae Ia?aie, ?inney iaea?aeeaaao ?aae iiaaae.
?inney auea?uaaao. 1703 a. – Iaoa?ao?a.

1706 a. – Iieueoa auoiaeeo ec nithca n ?inneae.

27 ethiy – Iieoaaneia n?aaeaiea. Oaaaeu i?iea?aee.

1721 a. – Oaaoeey ioeacaeanue io Ynoeyiaeee, Eeoeyiaeee, /anoe Ea?aeee,
Eaei?neie caiee.

1721 a. – ?inney i?iaicaeaoaia Eiia?eae.

Iaaaoeau: ?aoi?iu i?iaiaeeeenue ianeeuenoaaiii, n iii?ie ia
ea?aoaeueioth iiuue ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, ca n/?o aeanoi/aeoae
yenieoaoaoeee ianaeaiey. Ooaa?aeeeny aaniethoeci, e aai aeaaiie iii?ie
noae ?ac?inoeeny ath?ie?aoe/aneee aiia?ao. Ianaiaiaea anao nineiaee
oneeeeanue – aeai?yinoaa, iiae/ei?iiiai ae?noeie iiaea ainoaea?noaa, a
oii /enea.

Ioiioaiea e Iao?o e aai ?aoi?iai – naiaia?aciue i?iaiue eaiaiue,
ii?aaeaeythuee acaeyaeu enoi?eeia, ioaeeoeenoia, iieeoeeia, aeayoaeae
eoeueoo?u e iaoee. Iaeie niaoeeaeenou aiai?yo, /oi iao?ianeea ?aoi?iu
i?eaaee e eiina?aaoeee oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie nenoaiu, ia?ooaieth
i?aa naiaiaeu ee/iinoe, aucaaaoeo aeaeueiaeoea iio?ynaiey a aeecie
no?aiu. Ae?oaea ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi yoi e?oiiue oaa aia??ae ii iooe
i?ia?anna, ionoue e a ?aieao oaiaeaeueiie nenoaiu. Iauaeoeaiua oneiaey
?acaeoey no?aiu ii?iaeeee aaeaeaaoiua ia?u ii a? ?aoi?ie?iaaieth

11. Yeiiiieea, iieeoeea, eoeueoo?a ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 18 aaea.

Aaaeouae io?aneueth yeiiiieee ?innee ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaaeinue naeueneia
oicyenoai.

Iaaethaeaeny ?ino e?aiinoie/aneeo ioiioaiee aoe?ue e aaeoaue. Iie
ioaaouaaee iiaua oa??eoi?ee e iiaua eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey (aoe?ue). ?inei
aani?aaea, e yenieoaoaoeey e?anoueyi (aaeoaue). Ia ieiaei?iaeiuo, ii
iaeiianae?iiuo caieyo Iiai?innee iiiauee iia iinaeeoue naieo e?anoueyi,
iieo/ay io ainoaea?noaa io 1,5 aei 12 oun. aeanyoei caiee.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. Ieii/aoaeueii ii?aaeaeeeenue ?aaeiiu, aaea
ainiiaenoaiaaee aa?ueia e ia?ie. Ii anae no?aia ?anoe?eeanue naycue
iiiaue/ueeo e e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa n ?uieii. No?aiynue aeiaeoueny
oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ca?ia ia i?iaeaaeo, iiiaueee a aa?ueiiuo
oicyenoaao noaee ia?aaiaeeoue e?anoueyi ia iany/eio. Au?in ia?ie.
Ca?aaioaoue iiaeii auei eeai caieiaynue i?iiuneii, eeai ooiaey ia
ca?aaioee. E?anoueyiei an? aieueoa oa?ye naycue caie?e.

I?e Aeaoa?eia II auee i?eiyou caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou, iicaieeaoea
neacaoue, /oi e?aiinoiia i?aai aeinoeaei naiaai ieea. E?aiinoiie oaea
iaei ioee/aeny io ?aaa. I?ioeaaoaea oi?aiaey e?anoueyiaie.

A 1785 a. Auei ecaeaii niaoeeaeueiia «?aianeaiiia iieiaeaiea»,
yaeyaoaany /anoueth «AEaeiaaiiie a?aiiou ai?iaeai». Ia iaiaa iyoe
?aianeaiieeia ii?aaeae?iiie niaoeeaeueiinoe aeieaeiu auee ninoaaeoue
oeao, ecae?aaoee naiaai noa?oeio. I?aaeoaeuenoai i?aneaaeiaaei oeaeue
i?aa?aoeoue ai?iaeneeo ?aianeaiieeia a iaeio ec nineiaiuo a?oii
oiaaeaoiaai oaiaeaeecia. Ia?yaeo n ai?iaeneei iieo/eei oe?ieia ?acaeoea
?aianei a i?iiuneiauo n?eao. Ec /enea aiaaouo e?anoueyi, iiiaea ec
eioi?uo auee e?aiinoiuie, auaeaeyeenue «eaieoaeenoua» e?anoueyia,
eioi?ua ioe?uaaee naie i?aaei?eyoey, ia eioi?ua iaieiaee naieo aea
iaeiinaeue/ai.

I?ienoiaeee ?ino iaiooaeoo?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa a no?aia. Ii-i?aaeiaio
auei aaeeei /enei iaiooaeoo?, iniiaaiiuo ia e?aiinoie/aneie
yenieoaoaoeee ?aaioieeia. A ?yaea io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe eniieueciaaeny
aieueiiia?iiue o?oae. Yoi iniaaiii ioiineeinue e io?aneyi oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aaea o?oaeeeenue e?anoueyia iooiaeieee.

1775 a. – ?ac?aoaia e?anoueyineay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

Noaea au? caiaoiaa niaoeeaeecaoeey a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Oeaa – Oe?aeia, nieue, ?uaa – naaa?. *a?ac ii?ou
I?eaaeoeee e I?e/a?iiii?uey ?inney aaea aeoeaioth aiaoithth oi?aiaeth.
Iia auaiceea iaoaee, ean, eiaee, iaiueeo. Aaiceee naoa?, noeii, ecaeaeey
ec iaoaeea, o?ee e o. ae.

1769 a. – aoiaaeiua aeaiueae. Caeiu a Aieeaiaeee, caoai a Eoaeee.

Oe?aieaiea nineiaiiai no?iy. Eaaeaeay eaoaai?ey ianaeaiey i?eia?aoaea
nineiaioth caieiooinoue, eioi?oth ii?aaeaeyee niioaaonoaothuea i?aaa e
i?eaeeaaee caoeene?iaaiiua a caeiiao e oeacao.

XVIII a. onei?eeenue oaiiu eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey, /oi naycaii n
?acaeoeai yeiiiieee no?aiu. Aaaeouei noaei naaoneia iai?aaeaiea a
eneonnoaa. Oioy oea?eiaue a XVIII a. e auea iiae/eiaia ainoaea?noao, aa
?ieue a aeecie no?aiu inoaaaeanue aua cia/eoaeueiie.

Eoeueoo?a XVIII a. ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony i?inaaoeoaeueneie oeeinioeae
n aa eaeaae aeaaainoaa ciaiey e ?acoia a aeecie ethaeae, aieiaiea e
/aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe. Eaeay ?aaainoaa anao ethaeae auea i?eiyoa a
?innee eae iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue aeeciue eaaeaeiai
iauanoaaiiiai neiy.

A ?onneii eneonnoaa ia?aie iieiaeiu – na?aaeeiu XVIII a.ainiiaenoaiaae
noeeue aa?ieei, ai aoi?ie iieiaeia noieaoey – eeanneoeeci. A eiioea
XVIII a. eoeueo ?acoia (eeanneoeeci) niaieeny eoeueoii /oanoa

14. ?inney ai aoi?ie /aoaa?oe 19 a. Aiaoiyy e aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea
Ieeieay I.

A eiioea 1826 aiaea ec aeaeiaeoeo naiiaieeia eiia?ee, aue nicaeai
Nae?aoiue eiieoao. Aai oeaeueth auei eco/aiea iaeaeaiiuo a eaaeiaoa
iieieiiai Aeaenaiae?a 1 iiiai/eneaiiuo i?iaeoia, eanaaoeony eciaiaiee a
?acee/iuo /anoyo ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e au?aaioee ia eo iniiaa
i?iaeoia ?aoi?i. I?e o/anoee Nia?aineiai auee ?ac?aaioaiu i?iaeou
i?aia?aciaaiey oeaio?aeueiuo e ianoiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue inouanoaeaiea ao?aeoaciiai i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae. A 1833 aiaeo auei iiaeaioiaeaii 15 oiiia Naiaea caeiiia. 17
yiaa?y 1833 aiaea ninoiyeinue iauaa nia?aiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa,
eioi?ia i?eciaei Naiae caeiiia aaeeinoaaiiui iniiaaieai aeey ?aoaiey
anao aeae e onoaiiaeei, /oi ii aaiaeeony a aeaenoaea n 1 yiaa?y 1839
aiaea. 1830-31aa. i?eianee Ieeieath iiiai aieiaiee. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
yoi auei naycaii n iiaeuaiii ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey a Caiaaeiie
Aa?iia. Iniaaiii o?aaiaeii auei a Iieueoa. Aniuoioaoaa a 1830 a.
ainnoaiea i?eaaei e aaanoao Eiinoaioeia Iaaeiae/a e auaiaeo anao ?onneeo
aiene. Ii ?onneie a?iee oaeaeinue acyoue ooo?iii Aa?oaao e iiaeaaeoue
ainnoaiea. Ioiineoaeueiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue Iieueoe auea
eeeaeaee?iaaia. Ia i?ioyaeaiee 30 eao oea?noaiaaiey a oeaio?a aieiaiey
Ieeieay 1 aue e?anoueyineee aii?in. Ia?aui oaaii a yoii iai?aaeaiee
aeieaeia auea noaoue ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aea?aaiae. A
1837 aiaeo auei nicaeaii Ieienoa?noai ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa. A
?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey ?yaea ia?, oaeaeinue oii?yaei/eoue oi?aaeaiea
e?anoueyiaie, aceiaiey n ieo iiaeaoae e iaai? ?ae?ooia. A aea?aaia noaee
ioe?uaaoueny oeieu, aieueieoeu. Iaeicaiaeueiua naeueneea iauanoaa
ia?anaeyeenue a ae?oaea aoaa?iee ia naiaiaeiua caiee. Iiiaueee aea auee
iaaeiaieueiu ?aoi?iie, iie n/eoaee, /oi iiiuoee oeo/oeoue auo e?anoueyi
oneeyo oyaioaiea e?aiinoiuo e ia?aoiaeo a eacaiiia aaaeiinoai. I?e
Ieeieaa 1 auea i?iaaaeaia aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia. Aa i?iaiaeee oiaaeaoiee
Ieieno? Oeiainia A. O. Eaie?ai. Ii no?aieeny ia?aie/eoue
ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu, inoi?iaeii iieueciaaeny e?aaeeoii e iaeaaae
aunieeie iioeeiaie aaiaeeiua a ?inneth oiaa?u. Aeaaiie caaea/ae Eaie?ai
n/eoae iaaaaeaiea ii?yaeea a aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee. A 1939 aiaeo aai
iniiaie noae na?aa?yiue ?oaeue. Aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia Eaie?aia ieacaea
iaeii?eyoiia aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiieeo ?innee. Oii?yaei/eeinue
aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, au?inea aioo?aiiyy e aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. E?aiinoiia
oicyenoai ?innee auei iaeiaeioiaeiui. N?aaenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
eaeeo-eeai e?oiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee iaeaieeaaeenue
iaaeeaiii. Ii Ieeieae 1 n oa/aieai a?aiaie ana iaiueoa n yoei n/eoaeny.
Iaea?aeaa iiaaaeo iaae Iieueneeie iianoaioeaie, ii aiciiiee naay aeaaiie
neeie a ai?ueaa n aa?iiaeneie ?aaiethoeeae. Iaeiia?aiaiii ii i?iaiaeee
aeoeaioth iieeoeeo ia Ainoiea e ia Eaaeaca, eioi?ay o?aaiaaea ana
aieueoa aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Aiaiiue eiioeeeo ia Eaaeaca eiae aeaaithth
enoi?eth. Iinoaiaiii oea?neei aeanoyi oaeaeinue ia?aoyiooue ia naith
noi?iio iaeioi?uo ai?neeo eiycae, a iaiiei?iuo auoanieoue ec eo
aeaaeaiee, caiaiea naieie noaaeaiieeaie. A eiioea eiioeia a 1859 aiaeo
Eaaeacneay aieia, i?iaeieaeaaoayny 40 eao caaa?oeeanue.

15. Ao?aeoaciua ?aoi?iu 60-70-o aiaeia 19a. Eiio??aoi?iu 80-90-o aa. 19
a.

Iinea nia?oe Ieeieay 1 ?onneee i?anoie ianeaaeiaae aai nui Aeaenaiae? 2,
eioi?iio e i?eoeinue i?iaiaeeoue ?aoi?iu. I?e/eia ao?aeoaciuo ?aoi?i –
oaoie/aneay ionoaeinoue ?innee, i?iiuoeaiiinoue eioi?ie n 18 aaea
?acaeaaeanue ia iniiaa i?eiaiaiey o?oaea e?anoueyi. Aeaenaiae?o 2
o?aaiaaeinue, iaiaeia ioaeanoai, /oiau ?aoeoueny naeaeaoue oaeie oaa eae
?aoi?iu.

19 oaa?aey 1861 aiaea auei ioiaiaii e?aiinoiia i?aai-aeaaiay ?aoi?ia.

I?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?iu nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aieiaieyie e aoioaie. E?anoueyi
inaiaiaeaeaee aac caiee, ca eioi?oth iie aeieaeiu auee caieaoeoue aueoi.
Aeaiaa o ieo ia auei, e ainoaea?noai aianei ca ieo aueoi iiiaueeai.
Aea?aaiy noaea aeeoue ooaea, ca eneeth/aieai iaiiiaeo oicyenoa, oae
iacuaaaiuo «eoeaeia». Ai a?aiy ?aoi?iu caoeene?iaaiu ianniaua
aieiaeiaee, ioaaouaaaoea iiiaea ?aeiiu. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei iiaeiaiiai
eciaiaiey auei eae ?ac «inaiaiaeaeaiea» e?anoueyi io iiiaueeia. I?e
e?aiinoiii i?aaa iiiaue/uea oicyenoai iiiiaaei e?anoueyiai ecaaaeaoue
aieiaea. Ii e?anoueyiai naiaiaea, «aiey» auee aei?iaea anaai..
I?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?iu, i?aaeaea anaai, oaea?yei ii aeai?yineiio nineiaeth.
N i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu iiaeii ion/eouaaoue a?aiy ieii/aoaeueiiai oiaaeea
aeai?yineeo oicyenoa. Auei iaiaei nii?ioeaeyaoeony ?aoi?ia. I?iaaaeaiea
e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia. ?acaeoea
yeiiiieee a ?innee auei oanii naycaii n ainoaea?noaaiiuie iiae?yaeaie,
e?oiiaeoeie ec eioi?uo auee caeacu ia no?ieoaeuenoai aeaeaciuo aei?ia.
Aneaae ca e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iie auee i?iaaaeaiu e ae?oaea: noaeaaiay,
caineay, ai?iaeneay, ?aoi?iu a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey e aiaiiay.

Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia 1864 a. aaiaeeea ninoycaoaeueiinoue noaeaaiiai
i?ioeanna, aaea aeaaiuie oeao?aie aunooiaee i?ieo?i? e aaeaieao. Aue
aaaae?i noae i?enyaeiuo, ii?aaeaeyaoeo aeiiaiinoue eee iaaeiiaiinoue
ioaao/eea, noaeuey ec aeaaiie oeao?u noaiiaeeny iin?aaeieeii, neaaeeaoei
ca i?aaeeueiinoueth oiaea i?ioeanna.

Caineay ?aoi?ia 1864 a. aaiaeeea yeaiaiou naiioi?aaeaiey ia ianoao. A
cainoaa aoiaeeee i?aaenoaaeoaee anao nineiaee. Ia?iiiie caneoaie cainoa
auea i?aaiecaoeey iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue ianaeaieth. Caineea oeieu e
o/eeeua iuoaeenue eeeaeaee?iaaoue aaca?aiioiinoue. Iiyoiio aeaaiui
iieiaeaieai aiaiiay ?aoi?ia 1874 a, i?iaaae?iiay aiaiiui ieieno?ii
Aeieo?eai Ieethoeiui, auei aaaaeaiea anaiauae aieineie iiaeiiinoe, ii
eioi?ie i?ecuao iiaeeaaeaee ana aiaeiua ii ninoiyieth caei?iauey aeeoaee
ioaeneiai iiea, aeinoeaoea 21 aiaea. Ia?aie/aiu auee n?iee neoaeau. Aue
i?aaei?eiyo ?yae ia? ii eciaiaieth nenoaiu aiaiiiai ia?aciaaiey.

Oea?noaiaaiea Aeaenaiae?a 2 oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiaeu?iii ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
aeaeaeaiey, aeaaioth ?ieue a eioi?ii ea?aee i?aaiecaoeee ia?iaeieeia.
Aaaeiaeoei iai?aaeaieai eo aeayoaeueiinoe aue oa??i?eci. Iie noaaeee
caaea/o ioo?i oa??i?a i?ioea i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeanoe iiaeiyoue ia?iaeiua
iannu ia ?aaiethoeeth. Iniiaiie oeaeueth iaeioi?uo a?oii
ia?iaeiaieueoeaa auei oaeenoai naiiai oea?y. A 70-a aa. ca iei auea
?aca??iooa ianoiyuay ioioa, eioi?ay e caaa?oeeanue oaeenoaii oea?y 1
ia?oa 1881 aiaea.

19. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea ?inney a ia/aea 20 aaea.

Ia ?oaaaea XIX –XX aa. oaeoaeeny ?aneie Aa?iiu. Oneeeeanue ai?ueaa
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ca ia?aaeae ie?a, noa?u aeeyiey e eieiiee. Iiaeiaiay
iieeoeea iieo/eea iacaaiea eiia?eaeenoe/aneie. Aa?iaineay eiia?ey,
nicaeaiiay a 1871 a. e i?iionoeaoay yoai ia?aiia/aeueiiai ?acaeaea ie?a
iaaeaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeie ainoaea?noaaie, no?aieeanue iaaa?noaoue
oiouaiiia. A nayce n yoei ?acei iaino?eeanue aa i?ioeai?a/ey n
Aaeeeia?eoaieae e O?aioeeae. E?iia oiai, ia ie?iaie a?aia ia/aee aieaa
aeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue NOA e ssiiiey, aeaeaaoea ?anoe?eoue noa?u naiaai
yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai aeeyiey.

?inneeneay eiia?ey i?aa?aoeeanue e eiioeo XIX a. a iiuioth aa?aceeneoth
aea?aeaao, iaeaaeaaooth aaniiui iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aaoi?eoaoii. Aa aiaoiyy
iieeoeea ii?aaeaeyeanue aaia?aoe/aneei iieiaeaieai, aaiiieeoe/aneeie,
no?aoaae/aneeie e yeiiiie/aneeie eioa?anaie. Iaeiaei a auai?a nithcieeia
e ii?aaeaeaiee i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee aiaoiae iieeoeee auei iiiai
i?ioeai?a/ee.

20. ?inney a 1917 a.

A 1917 aiaeo ninoiyeinue 2 e?oiiuo niauoey a ?innee:

Yoi oaa?aeueneay ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey, aeaaiue eoia
eioi?ie, naa?aeaiea a ?innee iiia?oee e onoaiiaeaiea ?anioaeeee.

Yoi ieoya?ueneee aieueoaaenoneee ia?aai?io. 1917 aiaea .Aeaaiue eoia –
yoi onoaiiaeaiea niaaoneie aeanoe.

Oaa?aeueneay ?aaiethoeey 1917a. Iaaeaiea iiia?oee.

I?e/eiu ?aaiethoeee: ia?aoaiiinoue neiaeiuo i?iaeai, noiyaoeo ia?aae
no?aiie a ia/aea aaea; oooaeoaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey ianaeaiey
ai?iaea e aea?aaie a ?acoeueoaoa ie?iaie aieiu e aucaaiiie ath
yeiiiie/aneie ?ac?ooe; ?ino iaaeiaieuenoaa a a?iee ii?aaeaieyie a aieia,
aacaea?iui aiaiiui ?oeiaiaenoaii, ieioei iaania/aieai aii?oaeaieai e
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai; auno?ia ?aaiethoeeiiece?iaaiea a?iee. E?ecen “aa?oia”
aue iaeeoei (iaaiciiaeiinoue ni?aaeoueny n neooaoeeae, ?ino ei??oioeee e
i?iecaiea /eiiaieeia, caaiai? e oaeenoai A?eai?ey ?aniooeia e o. ae.
Niauoey ia?anoaee no?aieoaeueii. A yiaa?a oneeeeinue caaanoiai/iia
aeaeaeaiea. Ia/aaoayny 18 oaa?aey caaanoiaea ?aai/eo Iooeeianeiai
caaiaea 25 oaa?aey ia?a?inea ai anaiauoth. Ia?yaeo n yeiiiie/aneeie
noaee auaeaeaaoueny iieeoe/aneea eicoiae. 25—26 oaa?aey i?iecioee
e?iaaaua noieeiiaaiey n aieneaie, ia/aeinue aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea.
Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia auea ?aniouaia (oeac io 26 oaa?aey). 27 oaa?aey
noieeoea ieacaeanue ai aeanoe ainnoaaoeo, aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia aeanoe
ieacaeanue ia?aeeciaaia. Aue nicaeai A?aiaiiue Eniieeii Iao?ia?aaeneiai
Niaaoa ?aai/eo aeaiooaoia (I. N. *oaeaeca, I. E. Neiaaeaa, A. O.
Ea?aineee) e iaeiia?aiaiii noi?ie?iaai A?aiaiiue eiieoao /eaiia
Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu, a caoai e A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ai aeaaa n A.
A. Eueaiaui. A no?aia neiaeeeinue aeaiaaeanoea. Auee iaia?iaeiaaiu
i?ia?aiiu iaieo i?aaiia aeanoe, i?iaicaeaoaaoea ?yae aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
i?aa e naiaiae. I?eeac ? 1 ii Iao?ia?aaeneiio aa?ieciio niaea?aeae
iieiaeaiey i aeaiie?aoecaoeee a?iee. Ieeieae II io?aeny io i?anoiea.
Iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeeoue oa?aeoa? oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee iaeuecy. A
iae iaeiia?aiaiii aeaenoaiaae ?yae iioieia: i?ieaoa?neee, e?anoueyineee,
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiue, aioeaiaiiue (a a?iee). A oiaea
?aaiethoeee ?aoaeenue aioeoaiaeaeueiua, aioeeaieoaeenoe/aneea,
iauaaeaiie?aoe/aneea e oceieeanniaua caaea/e. Aaaeiaeoee eoia niauoee
oaa?aey 1917 a. — naa?aeaiea iiae aeaaeaieai eaauo nee naiiaea?aeaaiie
aeanoe, iiyaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu.

Ieoya?ueneea niauoey 1917a. Ia?aciaaiea iiaiai ain-aa a ?innee.

Iaeaioia ainnoaiey.10 ieoya?y ninoiyeinue canaaeaiea OeE ?NAe?I eioi?ia
i?eiyei ?aciethoeeth i aii?oaeaiiii ainnoaiee.. Nicaeaia aiaiiay
i?aaiecaoeey ?NAe?I (Iiaeaieueneee, Iaaneee, Aioiiia-Ianeiei). Eaiei
o?aaoao ioiineoueny e ainnoaieth eae e eneonnoao. A ?aieao
aiaiii-oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee e ainnoaieth aieueoaaeee nicaeatho
ia?aaan nee. Ia eo noi?iia iao?inu aaeooeioa, nieaeaou iao?ia?aaeneiai
aa?ieciia e e?aniay aaa?aeey. THiea?a, ieeeoeey, oaea?iua aaoaeueiiu,
aeaineee aaoaeueii nia?oe – i?ioeainoiyo ainnoaaoei. Eaiaiaa e Ceiiaueaa
a aacaoa “Iiaay aeeciue” iauyaeytho i naiai ianiaeanee a aii?ina i
aii?oaeaiiii ainnoaiee. A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ioaeaao i?eeac ia
a?anoa Eaieia e iuoaaony ia?aeoe a ianooieaiea. Oneeeaaaony io?aia
iinoia, oeaio?aeueiuo oeeoe, ceiiaai aeai?oea e caoaaouaathony
aieueoaaenoneea oeiia?aoee. Iiaaaea aii?oaeaiiiai ainnoaiey a
Iao?ia?aaea. 24 ieoya?y aieueoaaeee i?eieiatho ?aoaiea ia?aeoe a
ianooieaiea. Ea?aineee aunooiaao a ia?eaiaioa, ii iiaeaea?aeee ia
iaoiaeeo. Niieueiue noae ooaaii ?aaiethoeee. A ii/ue ia 25.10
?aaiethoeeiiiua io?yaeu caieiatho aiecaeu, oaeaoii, oaeaa?ao, iinou,
Ainaaie e yeaeo?inoaioeeth. Aa?i?a aoiaeeo a Iaao. E oo?o 25.10 a ?oeao
a?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa Ceiiee, Ia?ueeineee aeai?aoe e aeaaiue ooaa.
Ea?aineee auaoae a noaaeo Naaa?iiai o?iioa. A 10 /ania A?E aunooiee n
ia?auaieai e a?aaeaeaiai ?innee: a?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ieceiaeaii,
ain. aeanoue ia?aoea a ?oee i?aaia Iao?iniaaoa A?E. Acyou Ia?eeineee
aeai?aoe e aeaaiue ooaa. A Niieueiii ia canaaeaiee Iao?iniaaoa Eaiei
cayaee, /oi ?aaiethoeey niaa?oeeanue. Caoai oeueoeiaooi Ceiiaio, auno?ae
Aa?i?u e Ceiiee acyo. A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai a?anoiaaii. Aoi?ie nuacae
niaaoia. Aieueoeinoai aeaeaaaoia – aieueoaaeee. Iinea aea?eie aeeneonnee
iaiueoaaeee, yna?u e /anoue aoiaeiaoeaa iieeioee nuacae. Iinea ia?a?uaa
auei niiauaii ia a?anoa a?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Eoia/a?neee iaeanee
aiccaaiea e ?aai/ei, nieaeaoai e e?anoueyiai. Anei?a aunooiee Eaiei n
aeieeaaeii i caiea e ie?a. Eoeueieiaoeey iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai e?ecena
(naioya?ue-ieoya?ue). 1-25.09 a ?innee oi?aaeyea aee?aeoi?ey.( i?aai
ain. oi?aaeaiey, ninoiyuee ec 5 aee?aeoi?ia ai aeaaa n Ea?aineei).
Oeaeue nicaeaiey- iaania/eoue i?aaiii?yaeie e iieeoe/aneoth
noaaeeueiinoue . 25.09 3-a eiaeeoeeiiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ai aeaaa n
Ea?aineei. 1.09 ?inney ioeoeeaeueii i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeeie. 14.09
nicuaaaony aeaiie?aoe/aneia niaauaiea ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia?oee,
ai?iaeneeo aeoi, niaaoia e i?ionithcia, eioi?ia nicaeaao i?aaeia?eaiaio
eee A?aiaiiue niaao ?anioaeeee. Iieeoe/aneea neeu e eeannu ?acei
iiey?ecothony, iiyoiio noaeueaa aeaiie?aoee ieacaeanue i?aae?aoaiiie.
I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay oi/ea c?aiey: iieiaeaiea eneeth/eoaeueii oyaeaeia,
?anooo aanii?yaeee, aia?oey e aan/einoai. I?aaay oi/ea c?aiey:
ia/eiaaony iineaaeiee aeo ana?inneeneie o?aaaaeee; ynii, /oi neea
ia?aoea a ?oee e?aeia eaaiai yeaiaioa ?aaiethoeee – aieueoaaeeia. Eaaay
oi/ea c?aiey: e?ecen iac?ae, ana aoaeouaa ?onneie ?aaiethoeee iinoaaeaii
ia ea?oo. A oa/aiee iaiiiaeo ianyoeaa ia aieueoae /anoe oa??eoi?ee
?innee i?iecioea niaia aeanoe, io A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iia ia?aoea
e niaaoai, i?iecioea niaia oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, caaiaeu, oaa?eee, ae?oaea
i?aaei?eyoea ia?aoee a ?oee oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneeo eiieoaoia, a caoai – a
ainoaea?noaaiioth nianoaaiiinoue. Auea eeeaeaee?iaaia /anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth, caiey auea iaoeeiiaeece?iaaia, ooaa?aeae?i
o?aaieoaeueiue i?eioeei iieueciaaiey ath. A niauoeyo i?eieiaee o/anoea
ia?iiiua iannu ethaeae. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeeoei ana i?eciaee ?aaiethoeee,
a ia ia?aai?ioa. Iauaeoeaiia iieiaeaiea aeae: aeaa?aaeaoeey yeiiiieee,
?ac?ooa, nie?auaiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ia 36% , aac?aaioeoea,
oeiainiaue e?ecen, oe?eony caaanoiai/iia aeaeaeaiea, aa?a?iua
aanii?yaeee, aieiaiey ia o?iioa, iaeeoei e?ecen aeaiie?aoee, eiino?aiiua
caeiu ia a neeao eciaieoue neooaoeeth. I?aaeoaeuenoai aeaiiino?e?oao
iieiia aanneeea. Auaiae no?aia oa?yao oi?aaeyaiinoue, iia?oaeaaony a
io/eio aacaeanoey e oaina. ?inney ia a?aie iaoeeiiaeueiie eaoano?iou.

23. Oi?ne?iaaiiia iino?iaiea nioeeaeecia a NNN? (eiaeono?eaeecaoeey,
eieeaeoeaecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa, eoeueoo?iay ?aaiethoeey ai 2-ie
iie. 20, ia?aay iie. 30-o aa.)

Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 20-o aiaeia aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey noaei i?aa?auaiea no?aiu ec aa?a?iie a eiaeono?eaeueioth,
iaania/aiea aa yeiiiie/aneie iacaaeneiinoe e oe?aieaiey
iai?iiiniiniaiinoe. Iaioeiaeiie iio?aaiinoueth auea iiaea?iecaoeey
yeiiiieee, aeaaiui oneiaeai eioi?ie yaeyeinue oaoie/aneia
niaa?oainoaiaaiea (ia?aaii?oaeaiea) anaai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Inouanoaeaiea iieeoeee eiaeono?eaeecaoeee iio?aaiaaei eciaiaiee a
nenoaia oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth. Iaiaoeeny ia?aoiae e io?aneaaie
nenoaia oi?aaeaiey, oe?aieyeinue aaeeiiia/aeea e oeaio?aeecaoeey a
?ani?aaeaeaiee nu?uey, ?aai/ae neeu e i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, aaca
ANIO NNN? auee ia?aciaaiu ia?eiiaou oyaeaeie, eaaeie e eaniie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. „Neiaeeaoeany a 20—30-o aiaeao oi?iu e iaoiaeu
oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth noaee /anoueth iaoaiecia oicyenoaiaaiey,
nio?aiyaoaainy a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie.

Aa?a?iay iieeoeea. Eiaeono?eaeueiue ?uaie oyaeaei io?aceeny ia
iieiaeaiee e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa. *?acia?iia iaeiaiaia iaeiaeaiea
aicaoaeaeaei iaaeiaieuenoai naeueneiai ianaeaiey. Iaiiia?ii
oaaee/eaaeenue oeaiu ia i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u. Iaeiia?aiaiii eneonnoaaiii
caieaeaeenue ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoii/iua oeaiu ia oeaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
?acei nie?aoeeenue iinoaaee ca?ia ainoaea?noao.

Eiinoeoooeey NNN? 1936 a. I?aia?aciaaiea yeiiiieee e oneeaiea
oeaio?aeecaoeee a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey i?eaaee e oi?ie?iaaieth thiie
iiaeaee iauanoaa, e ii/oe iieiiio «iainoaea?noaeaieth» ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa. I?iecioaaeoea eciaiaiey a yeiiiie/aneii,
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneii e iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiii ?acaeoee
Niaaoneiai Nithca n na?aaeeiu 20-o aiaeia iio?aaiaaee eciaiaiey
Iniiaiiai Caeiia. A ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa iiaie Eiinoeoooeee i?eieiaee
o/anoea aeaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua e ia?oeeiua ?aaioieee, a eo /enea — I.
E. Eaeeiei, I.E.Aooa?ei, A.N.Aoaiia, E. I?aeaeiieeeaeca, a oaeaea
aieueoay a?oiia niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe i?aaa.

5 aeaeaa?y 1936 a. VIII *?acau/aeiue nuacae Niaaoia ooaa?aeee iiaoth
Eiinoeoooeeth CCCP.

Iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu 30-o aiaeia. Iieeoe/aneee eo?n E. A. Noaeeia,
eiioeaio?aoeey a aai ?oeao iaia?aie/aiiie aeanoe aucuaaee iiiiceoeeiiiua
iano?iaiey o iiiaeo ?oeiaiaeyueo ia?oeeiuo ?aaioieeia e ?yaeiauo /eaiia
AEI(a). «Ceui aaieai ?onneie ?aaiethoeee» iacuaaee E. A. Noaeeia
i?ioeaieee ?ai?annee, no?aieaoeany i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaoue ei. A?oiia
iineianeeo ia?o?aaioieeia («Nithc caueou eaieiecia») ai aeaaa n I. I.
?thoeiui ia?aoeeanue n iaieoanoii «Ei anai /eaiai AEI(a)». A iai
i?aaeeaaaeinue iono?aieoue E. A. Noaeeia io aeieaeiinoe Aaia?aeueiiai
nae?aoa?y OeE e aianoe ei??aeoeau a nenoaio oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui
oicyenoaii. A 1932 a. o/anoieee a?oiiu auee a?anoiaaiu, iaaeiaiu a
iiiuoea ?anoaa?aoeee eaieoaeecia e ?anno?aeyiu. Ianaaeaeaiea iaoiaeia
i?iecaiea e aaccaeiiey nicaeaaaei a no?aia ianoaiiaeo no?aoa,
iiaeic?eoaeueiinoe, acaeiiiai iaaeiaa?ee ae?oa e ae?oao.

NNN? a 1938 a.—ia/aea 1941 a.

Aioo?eiieeoe/aneia e yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea NNN? inoaaaeenue neiaeiui e
i?ioeai?a/eaui. Yoi iauyniyeinue oneeaieai eoeueoa ee/iinoe E. A.
Noaeeia, anaaeanoeai ia?oeeiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa, aeaeueiaeoei oe?aieaieai
ath?ie?aoecaoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee oi?aaeaiey. Iaeiia?aiaiii ?inee aa?a
aieueoae /anoe ia?iaea a nioeeaeenoe/aneea eaeaaeu, o?oaeiaie yiooceaci
e aunieay a?aaeaeainoaaiiinoue.

Eoeueo ee/iinoe E. A. Noaeeia aue aucaai ?aciuie oaeoi?a ionoonoaeai a
no?aia aeaiie?aoe/aneeo o?aaeeoeee; ai iiiaii nio?aieaoaeny
iiia?oenoneie ineoieiaeae iann, ii?iaeaeathuae eeethceth ioae?inoe e
iaiia?aoeiinoe aiaeaey, aoiinoa?ie no?aoa a oneiaeyo ?ai?annee e
iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia.

I?iaeieaeaee aeoeaii eoeueoeae?iaaoueny ii?aeueiua i?eioeeiu, iniiaaiiua
ia eiiioienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee.

O ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu iiyaeeinue iiaia iiieiaiea cia/aiey naiaeiuo
ioiioaiee. I?aaei?eieiaeenue ia?u, niinianoaiaaaoea oaaee/aieth
?iaeaeaaiinoe, oe?aieaieth einoeoooa a?aea.

Ia?ii?eyoey a iaeanoe yeiiiieee, aiaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa e eaeaieiaee
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee, /oi a no?aia aaeanue ananoi?iiiyy ?aaioa ii
iiaeaioiaea e aoaeouae aieia. Iaeiaei eoeueo ee/iinoe E. A. Noaeeia,
neiaeeaoayny ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiay ath?ie?aoe/aneay nenoaia,
ii?iaeeaoea aiethioa?eci e aaoi?eoa?eci ?oeiaiaenoaa, i?eaaee ei iiiaei
ioeaeai, eioi?ua iaaeyaeii i?iyaeeenue a ia/aeueiii ia?eiaea Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu.

24. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea NNN? a 20-30-a aiaeu.

Ieii/aiea Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu (iiaeienaiea Aa?naeuenei ie?iiai
aeiaiai?a a 1919 a.), a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e eiino?aiiie eioa?aaioeee ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee nicaeaee iiaua oneiaey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo.
Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii noaei nouanoaiaaiea Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa eae
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Neiaeeeinue
i?ioeainoiyiea iaaeaeo Niaaoneei ainoaea?noaii e aaaeoueie no?aiaie
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?a.

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea A 20-a aiaeu

A ia/aea 20-o aiaeia Caiaae niya/ee naith iai?eie?eioth iiceoeeth ii
ioiioaieth e Niaaoneie ?innee. Yoiio niinianoaiaaee i?iaae i?yiie
aiaiiie eioa?aaioeee, oneeeaoeeny e?ecen ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa e ?ino
?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. Aaaaeaiea iyia auei
?anoeaiaii aa?iiaeneeie i?aaeoaeuenoaaie eae ineaaeaiea aieueoaaenoneie
iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu e oaeoi?, ioe?uaathuee aiciiaeiinoue aeey
yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa. Ni naiae noi?iiu, Niaaoneay ?inney
ioaeaeaeanue a iiiiue ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey ?ac?ooaiiiai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

A 1921 —1922 aa. auee caeeth/aiu oi?aiaua niaeaoaiey ?innee n Aiaeeae,
Aano?eae, Ii?aaaeae e ae?.

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea A 30-a aiaeu.

A eiioea 20-o — ia/aea 30-o aiaeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiay ianoaiiaea
nouanoaaiii eciaieeanue. Aeoaieee ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen,
Ia/aaoeeny a 1929 a., aucaae na?ueaciua aioo?eiieeoe/aneea eciaiaiey ai
anao eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. A iaeieo (Aiaeey, O?aioeey e ae?.) ii
i?eaae e aeanoe neeu, no?aieaoeany i?iaanoe oe?ieea aioo?aiiea
i?aia?aciaaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. A ae?oaeo (Aa?iaiey, Eoaeey)
e?ecen niinianoaiaae oi?ie?iaaieth aioeaeaiie?aoe/aneeo (oaoenoneeo)
?aaeeiia, eniieueciaaaoeo ai aioo?aiiae iieeoeea nioeeaeueioth
aeaiaaiaeth iaeiia?aiaiii n ?acaycuaaieai iieeoe/aneiai oa??i?a,
iaaiaoaieai oiaeiecia e ieeeoa?ecia. Eiaiii yoe ?aaeeiu noaee
ca/eiueeaie iiauo aiaiiuo eiioeeeoia (iniaaiii iinea i?eoiaea A. Aeoea?a
e aeanoe a Aa?iaiee a 1933 a).

Aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea niaeaoaiey 1939 a. ii/oe ia aeaa aiaea iiiiaee
ion?i/eoue iaiaaeaiea Aa?iaiee ia Niaaoneee Nithc. Niaaoneia
?oeiaiaenoai iioei ia niaeaoaiea n oaoenoneie Aa?iaieae, eaeaieiaeth e
iieeoeeo eioi?ie iii ?aiaa inoaeaeaei.

Anee Iaeo i iaiaiaaeaiee, iiaeienaiiue a aaaonoa 1939 a., aue e
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie auioaeaeaiiui aeey NNN? oaaii, oi nae?aoiue
i?ioieie, aeiaiai? «I ae?oaeaa e a?aieoea», ae?oaea aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo
aeoeee noaeeineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, inouanoaeaiiua iaeaioia aieiu,
ia?ooaee noaa?aieoao ?yaea ainoaea?noa Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu.

28. NNN? a ia?aia iineanoaeeineia aeanyoeeaoea.

I?eoiae e aeanoe O?ouaaa. «Iooaiaeue».

5.03.1953 a. oi Noaeei. Ai?ueaa ca ae-oue. ?acaeae ?oeia iinoia. Nie?au
I?aceaeeoia aei 10 /aeiaae. Iaeaieia – 1 ianoi: i?aaen Niaieia e 1-ue
nae? OeE EINN; Aa?ey – IAAe; Iieioia – IEAe; Ai?ioeeia – oi?iaeuei.
aeaaa ain-aa – i?aaen. I?aceaeeoia AN. O?ou?a ia eiae ieeaeeo ain.
aeieaeiinoae, ii caieiae 2 ianoi a OeE EINN. Aiienoey aeey anao
caeeth/?iiuo, /ae n?ie ia i?aauoae 5 eao. Auei auiou iiiai oaieiaieeia –
e?eieiiaaiiay neo 10 ethey Aa?ey a?anoiaai, ?anno?aeyi a aeaeaa?a 1953
a. Ai aeaaa IAAe – E?oaeia. O IAAe ioia?aee oi? eaaa?yie e ia?aaeaee a
ieienoa?noai thnoeoeee. A ia?oa 1954 a. i-eay ieeeoeey i?aia? a EAA. 2
iooe. Iaeaieia: ?acaeo. eaaeie i?ii-oe, ?aca i?-aa e nieaeaiea oeai ia
o-?u oe?iio?aaa. Naaeaine? ?aca. O?ou?a: nithc n/o e oyaeaeie i?ii-oe,
iiiiuue naeo, cia/eo iiauo caeoi oeai ia ca?ii, auno?ia ?anoe? iinaai
ieiu, ina-a oeaeei caiaeue aeey iaiaae iieo/ aieueo eie-aa ca?ia, iaiao
oaae ia?e n/o iaoei e o?aeoi?ia (oyae?eay i?ii-oue). 3 oeaee: iiauo o?
iio?-y, aun oaiiu ye. ?inoa e iai? e?oii. eaieo-e a oyae?eoth i?ii-oue.
Iiauo caeoi oeai ia i?-oeeth eieo, ina oeae, iii noeioee? nioe. aeo
o?oaeyu, ia?aniio? o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, aaaaeaiea ianii?oia
aeey anao naeueneeo aeeoaeae, oi?acaeiaiea ION, oe?oii eieoicia, ia?aie/
/anoi naeoi?a, ?aoi?ia ia?aciaaiey, aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai, 20 nuacae
ia?oee 1956 a. – ?aciaea/aiea “eoeueoa ee/iinoe Noaeeia”, “iooaiaeue” a
e-?iie iae e aiaoiae i-ea, ?aaaeeeoaoeey 20 iei. /ae-e. II yoai aeay-oe
O?ou?aa: 1958-64 a. 22 iay 1957 a. ia nia?aiee i?aaenoaaeo eieo. eicoia
“Aeiaiaoue e ia?aaiaoue Aia?eeo” a aeaoo iaeanoyo: i?-ai iyna e iiei/iie
i?-oeee ). 57-59 aa. ioia/aiu na?eae aaeieieno?aoeai ?ao e “eaiiaiee”
(“eoeo? eeo”, “iyni eiiiaiey a ?ycaie”, “iiei/iua ?aei?aeu” e o. ae. ),
iia oe?oi. eieoicia, iiaiiy ca ?aei?aeaie. 58-64 aa. ?ace. ?ino oyae.
i?ii-oe, a ye-ea ia?aaeueiia ieaie?., 1961 a. – iieao a einiin, cia/eo.
Oaaee/. eaieoaeiaeiae. a i?ii-oue e auno?. ?ino e?aae. Eoiae: Nouanoa
oeo/o iaoa?. iieiae ai?iaene o?oaeyu, i?iae oeiaine?. Aa?a?. naeoi?a
inoaaaeanue ia?aoaiiie; nie?au ia?ea n/o iaoei ec-ca eeeaeaeaoeee ION;
enoiu oeaeei caiaeue; iiaeaii ?ac-oia iiae ieai; ?aceee e iaeiio?iee?
?ino i?ii-oe, i?-ai n?-a i?-aa; ian i?eoie ieceieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aa
neeu ec naeueneie ianoi; iuooeiia nieae oaiiia ye. ?inoa; oaaee/.
aeaoeoeeoa, naycaiiia ni nieaeaieai eioai-neaiinoe ?acaeoey i?ii-oe n?-a
iio?aaeaiey; i?aauoaiea aiciiaeiinoe ain. athaeaeaoa.

29. NNN? a 60-a ia/aea 80-o aiaeia.

Aaaeiie i?e/eiie ionoaaee O?ou?aa noaei aaaaeaiea ei a iiaue onoaa
ia?oee ioieoa i nenoaiaoe/aneii iaiiaeaiee ia?oeeiuo eaae?ia. Yoiai
ia?oeeiay iiiaieeaoo?a aeiioneaoue ia niae?aeanue, e 13 ieoya?y 1964
aiaea a ?acoeueoaoa aa?oooa/iiai ia?oeeiiai caaiai?a O?ouaa aue niau?i
ni anao naieo iinoia. Ia?aui nae?aoa??i OeE EINN noae E.E.A?aaeiaa, a
i?aaeoaeuenoai aicaeaaee A.I.Einuaei.

A yoio ia?eiae ?acei aic?inea aeoeaiinoue NNN? ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
a?aia. Ii ieacuaaao aeoeaioth iiiiuue Aueaoiaio a aai ai?ueaa i?ioea
aia?eeaineie aa?annee. Ioiioaiey ni no?aiaie nioeeaeenoe/aneiai eaaa?y
neeaaeuaaeenue ii-?aciiio. Iaeaieaa neiaeiuie iie auee n Eeoaai; aeaei
aeioei aeaaea aei aii?oae?iiiai eiioeeeoa ia ino?iaa Aeaiaineii a 1969
aiaeo. A 1968 aiaeo ia/eiaaony oae iacuaaaiay “I?aaeneay aania”, eiaaea
?oeiaiaenoai EI* anooiaao ia iooue eeaa?aeecaoeee. Yoi aucaaei
iaaeiaieuenoai ?oeiaiaenoaa ae?oaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. Neooaoeey a
*aoineiaaeee noaea auoiaeeoue ec-iiae eiio?iey. Niaaoneia ?oeiaiaenoai
i?eieiaao ?aoaiea i aaiaea a *aoineiaaeeth aiene iyoe no?ai-o/anoieoe
Aa?oaaneiai aeiaiai?a.

Nouanoaaiiua naeaeae auee aeinoeaioou a ioiioaieyo n NOA. A ?acoeueoaoa
ee/iuo ano?a/ A?aaeiaaa e i?aceaeaioa NOA Ieeniia aue iiaeienai ?yae
aeieoiaioia, ia?aie/eaathueo aiieo aii?oaeaiee. Niaaoneee Nithc
auaeaeaaao i?ia?aiio ie?a. A oeaeii yoio ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae
?ac?yaeea. Iaeiaei ii caaa?oeeny iinea aaiaea niaaoneeo aiene a
Aoaaienoai a aeaeaa?a 1979 aiaea.

A yeiiiieea no?aiu a yoio ia?eiae aiaae?yeenue aeaa ?aciuo i?eioeeia:
ainnoaiaaeeaaeanue nenoaia ieienoa?noa, oneeeaaeanue oeaio?aeecaoeey
oi?aaeaiey, ii, a oi aea a?aiy, i?aaei?eyoey iieo/aee iaeioi?oth
aaoiiiieth, aaiaeeeenue yeaiaiou oic?an/?oa. Yoi o?aaiaaei nie?auaiey
oeaio?aeueiiai aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey, ineaaeaiey eiio?iey ainoaea?noaa.
Iaee/ea ae?noeiai ieaia neiauaaei eieoeeaoeao i?aaei?eyoee, e oiio aea,
i/aiue iaei aeaeaeinue aeey aiaae?aiey aeinoeaeaiee IO? a yeiiiieeo
no?aiu. I?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?i ineiaeiyeinue i?ioeai?a/eyie aioo?e
?oeiaiaenoaa, aaea aieaa i?ia?anneaiia e?uei i?aaenoaaeye Einuaei, a
aieaa eiina?aaoeaiia – A?aaeiaa. Iiaaaeeea oi/ea c?aiey iineaaeiaai, e
?aoi?iu auee na??ioou. Iinoaiaiii aneaaenoaea yenoaineaiuo iaoiaeia
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa e aieueoeo aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia noaee ia?anoaoue
e?eceniua yaeaiey a yeiiiieea, eioi?ua ia eaeia-oi a?aiy oaeaaaeinue
niya/eoue, iieo/ay i?eaueue io i?iaeaaee nu?uey, a iniiaiii, iaooe, ca
a?aieoeo. Iniaaiii /oanoaeoaeueiui aeey ianaeaiey aue o?iie/aneee e?ecen
a aa?a?iie noa?a. Ii aeaei auei aeaaea ia a iaeii eiee/anoaa
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, a a oeaio?aeeciaaiiie nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey
, aaea aeaaioth ?ieue ea?ae /eiiaiee. E ia/aeo 80-o aiaeia ana i?eciaee
e?ecena auee iaeeoei.

A iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu iiaeii ioiaoeoue oaeia yaeaiea, eae
aeenneaeaionoai. Iniaie ?iee iii ia nua?aei, oae eae auei ?ani?ino?aiaii
a iniiaiii a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao e a aeinoaoi/ii oceeo e?oaao. A no?aia
i?ioei ianeieueei noaeaaiuo i?ioeannia iaae e?oiiaeoeie eeaea?aie
i?aaicaueoiiai aeaeaeaiey, ?ani?ino?aiyaony iieeoe/aneay eeoa?aoo?a,
eieae cai?au?iiuo aaoi?ia. Auei ynii, /oi nenoaia ioaeaeaaony a ei?aiiii
?aoi?ie?iaaiee.

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