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История Киева

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E??ey E??

I??a ????y.

E?a. I??a ????y ? ????? ?????? E?? ???? ? 15 ? 20 ?ny/ ?o ?? i??. N???i
???a, a ??a V-??? VI a. ??e y? ??uey E?, U? e O?ea e ? ??? E??ue ?eth???
??i ? ???o Ae??a e ???? ? e??i ??? ??? ??ae e ???e ?i, a ??ue ???? ??a,
E??i. I?? ?y ??? ?? ???i ??? – ???a ?e?u Ae??a ???e ???e ???e ? ?a??
???o ???. E???a ?y?y, ?y ???e ??????, ??iae?e ?? ??? e ??? ? ???e
N?????? ??. E?? ? e ?????? ?? ??a Ae??a, ?a ????y ???? I??. A ??a IX a.
i. y., ??a ???? ?y?yi ???ue, ???oe, ????? ?ae ??e a??ueth ?????? e
?????? ???a, E?a ????ny ?????? e ?????i ???i ????o ??yi, ???? E??e? ??e
– ??????? ????????i ??????. A ?? ??? ?????ey ? ???? ?oyo “? ??ya a ??e”,
E?a ??ia ??y ?????e ???a ?????? e y?????? ?y? ? ???? Oe????? e C???e
A??u.

A??a ????

E?a ???? ???? ??i ?????y ? ???a ????y A????a A???i (980 – 1015), ???e a
988 a. ???e ??ue. I? A???? A??? a E?? ?e ???? ??? ???? ?? – Ae?y??ay
???ue. A XI a., ?ae ????? ss???a I???, E?a ????ny ??i ? ????? ??? ?????e
a ?????? ??. A?e ????u N????e ??? e ??ay ? ??e ?????. E?? ??, a ? ???a
??ae ?n???e ??i 400 ???e, 8 ??? e ??a 50 000 ???e. (Aeey ????y: a y? ?
??y a I????, ??? ? ???? ??? ??e, ?? 30 000 ???e; a E???, A???a e A???a –
? 20 000). E?a ?e a ??a ???? ?????? ?????o e o???o ???a A??u.I?a? ??a
??? ?ycy A???? I???a (1125) ????ny ???n ????y ???i E???? ?????a. E ????
XII a. E???y ??ue ?????y ? ????i ???iy???o ?y??a. N???? ? ????e ???????y
???a ??e. I??th 1240 a. ??e???a ???a A?uy, ??a *????a, ??c??ue ?ae ????e
???e. I???-???i o??? ?y? ??ae ??a ?oy?? e ??i????e ??u. I?? ?????? 10
??? e 4 ?y. A ??a ???, ???-???u i?? ??? ??i a ???a ????? – Ey??a ??? (?e
?? ?????u a ??? ?????e ???e I??????). Ii, ?? ?????ue a ??ae, ???? ? ??o
???ue ????ue E?a – ??ae ?? ? ?? ??? ?????. N?????? ???e ?? ????i ???i,
?i ?i ?e ???? ?? ??i ???i ??ae??. Ii 4 ???y 1240 ?? E?a ?e.

A??? ???-i?????i ?a e y???? E??

??uy??? ????? ???i ???-???u ???? ??a ???? ???i ????y, ??e ?a ?????? ??
??? a ???i. I???u ???? i????atho ???????a ????, a ????oa ???o ???ath?y
?e ????a ??y?, ?e e ???? ???? ??? ????ath?a ? ?? ?ny? ????. Ec
iy??nyo??y??i ????y, i?? A??? ???a a ??? ???? ? ??a 2 ?ny/ ???e. Ia ???e
??a ??n e ?i ??ae. A?e ????? O????, N????e ???, O???y ????ay ???ue (???
???e ?? a E??), ????a ???ue N?? ? A????, E????y oea??ue, ?????e ?a ????
???. E?a ?????e ???? ??????. A e?? XIII – ??? XIV ?. ????? i E?? ??,
???? ?? ?, ?i ??ae ????? ?????y. A ? ??y ??ue ? A??a? ??? ?????ny a
?????a ??iu – I?? e I???. A ??? XV a. ????ny ?????a E?? ? ????a?, ?a ???
??iy??ny e ?????o ?ae ?ey?? I??e. I??a ??? ???? ??o ???? ??? ???????a
??u, ? ??th?y ???a ?????, ????ny ?? ae?? ? ??????i ???/??? ????y. Ia
??y??e XV a. ???ey ??o ??y?i ???i e ?y??? ??ey? ?a ??a ???y?ny. A? ???
eth?e ??? ??i ? ???? a ???y Ae??a, ????y? ??? ??e. A ??? ???e ??a eth?
????? a ??? ??n, e ??e ????ny ????. A ???? XV a. ???a ????o ???? e??? ??
a ??a ???, ?y?? ?e ??yo ?? ??? – ??? ? ????e ????? ??????e ???? ? ???.
Aei ?o ?? y?o ??i ???a?y E????.

I???i ??? ???o ????y ??? ?e ????? “??? ??i” ???ath?e ????i ???? ?? ?? n
?????? ???u, ??y?e ?ae ????i ??? ???a a E?? (a ? ??y ??ae ?????e ? ?????
????, ae?? ??? e ?? ??e ?ycy ?e ??ay??). Ca ????a ???ny ???? ??o. N?ne
??? ?e ?????i ??o: ? ??? ??????i I??a ???? n ?????? ???u. A ????? ??????
????a ?? ?e ???i. E???? e ?eue?? ???u ??atho ?a ??? ???? ???. I?? ? ??o
???o ???????a a E?? ?e A??i. A 1506a. I????a ??? ???? A????o ? ??o ?????
???i ??y?i ??i, ??u ???? ?? ??e ? ?ny????a ?????. Yo? ?e ????y ??o
n?????e ???e I??e e A??? A?. A XV a. E?? ?? ???? ??????a ??i, ???????
???i ???th ??????ue ??? a ???? ??????e ???? e ?????i ???y?? ??a ????o
???? – ?a?????a, ??? e ??i. A 1569 a., ??a ????ey Eth???? o?e, I??a e
E?? ?????? a ?? ?????i, ????a a ???e ?e ??ue I????, e ????? ????e ??
????? ?ae O???e. AE????ue e ???? ????a, ?ey?a, ???? e ??? ???e e ???????
????yi ?????i ???.

A XVI-XVII ?. ????a ??? ?????? ??????y. Ii ???? 1571a. a E?? ?n????ny ?a
40?n. ??a. O?????ny e ????ey ???, ? E?a ?a ?a ????y ?????i ? ?e ??????
/??: A??? ??ae, I?? e I???. I???a ???i ??ey?? a y? ??y ???i y?y?ny I???,
a ?????e ???ath?a e I????o ????th ???e. O?????ny ???? ???, ??? ?????
?????no?, ???o ??????y ?a ??i ?a. A ??? ???? XVII a. ????ny ???ay ????a
A???i ???. A??????th?y ??? ??? e ????e, ???a?? ?a ?e ???-?????i ????e.
A?ath?thny ?? a ????? ???a E?? a ia?? ???? XVII a. ??? ???? ????? I??
I??a. E??i ? ?e ?????i ??????ey N????? e O????i ???a, ??? N?? ? A???? –
????? ?iy??? E??. E??i ? a?i ???? ??? a ??? ??? ??i? ??aea?a – ??? y?
E??-I??y??y ???ey, ??????y ? I??a. A 1648 a. ??? O??? ??? ?????oth ??? n
?????-?????ey?. Ai ??a ?n??ey ?? ??? ????? ???a A??i O?????. A??a ???y
??ue O??? e E?a ?? ?????u. A?? i?? ??????ueth ??e ??? ? ????eo ???o – n
????e e ????? ???y? ? ???, ???? ??i e ???? ???? ? th?, O????? ?????
a???e i ?i, ?i ?????o e ????io ???? ??? aa?????, ????? e ????a e ????y e
? ???e ???th e ???? ??th. I??ue ?????o e ?????? ???a ? ????a ?ay ??ue,
?ey?, ??? e ??e ?? ?? e ???. Ae??? i ????i?? ???o ??? ?e ??th?i a 1654
a. a I?ay??a (I?ay???ay ??).

A?iy ????.

I?? ??????y ?y E?? ????o ??y ????. A?? ???. I????y ????a a N???
E?uey??e. I??????y E?????y ??a (??? ?. O??a). A ??a XVII- ??? XVIII ?.
i???ony ??e ???e ??????a ???e. N???? ?e a ???? ? ??? ???o ???a. A??????
??ue y?o ???? ?e e ?? ????ny – “???? ???i”. ?????ny e ?????a ??????i,
??y?y ???a ???ey ???a I?a?. I?? ??? ???a ?????? ??, ?i ???? ? ???o ??? e
??????? ???? ??? e ?????, ???ey I??u a E?? ???u I??i I??i. I???? I?? ??
??e ?y E??. A y? ??y ??th??ny ??? y?????? ?aeu?, ????? ???e ?? ?????a.
I?? ??? E?a ????i n??????i ???i, ?y?? a 1707 ?? ?e ?i ???????? ???e ??
???? I???ay ????. O? a 1709 ?? ?i ?o???ue ? 5 ?ny/ ???. A ?i ? ?aeo ????
?en?, ??iy?? a ???? ? ???a, ???tho ??? ????ny e ???a ? ???, ? ????a
??aeyo ??ae. A XVIII ?? ????? ?????? ?????a ?? ??? E??: I???a e ????e
??e ???. I??atho ?????ue E??. N ??a XVIII ?? e ? ?e ?? y?o ??i ????y
y???. A 1797 ?? ?y?y?ny ??? ??? ? E????. N ???? XIX ?? – y? ?????y ??a
??? A XIX a. ?????ny ???????e e y?????? ?? ???. N?iyony ??a ??,
?????th?y ??u. I???i ??i ??eyth?y ????? ???ath?a e E????. E? y??? ??i
??/???i ???yth?y E??. I?eth??ny ?????? ?? ??????. I?? ? ?ae E?? ??th?y
??? ???. I???i ??i ?e ???atho ? I??a, I???a. Y? ??? y?yth?y ??? ???e ?y
?iy – a ???? y? ??ay?? ???, ?a ?? ? ??eyth?y ?? ? ??a, a ?iyo ??a e ??a.
I???? ? ????? ???a a E?? ???ny a 1811 ??. I?? ??e ?e ?y, ??? ?i ?e ??i ?
???y?e 130 ? ? ???. I?? ??? ? I??a ???? ??? ?a ??u ???a ? ????? ? ?iy –
A???ay e I????ay. I???y ? yoi, ??i ??? ???????ny. I?? ????? ??? 1861 a.
e ??? ?????i ??a a ????? e y??i???e ??e E?? ????e ????? ????y. O?????
??i ???oe, ????i, ????o??? ?????. I?? ????ey a 1860-a a.a. I???-E???
???????e ??e, n ???? e ?? ???e ?????? ? Ae??o, E?a ????ny e???i ??n???i
e ???? ???i. O?? ? ??n?e ???e e ???? ??? ???ey? ???a ?? ? y? ????. I??e
a ???e (e ??? a A??a) y?????? ???e ?e ??i a E?? a 1892 a. ? ????,
???y??o I?? e A??? ??iae e ?????? ? ????o A?????? ???. I?????? e ????ua
??????e ????? a ??ae ?????? ????. E??????a E?? ?????? ?????ue. A 1871 ??
???e ??? ??iyi?e ??? ?? ??c Ae??, ??e ??i? ? ? ??y a A??a, ?y??? ??iy??
??? ?y ??a (? ?. A?????). A????? ??iy?i ???ue i ????i ?? ???. A ??a XIX
– ??ea XX ?. E?a ?e ??i ? ??o ???uo e ???????o ???a A??u – ” ????ie a
??aa ???e ???”.

XX ?e

A ??? XX ?? ???ey a E?? ???y?ny. A ? ??y ?y ?????y ???y ????? ???
y?????? ???, ?y??? n ???-y???e ??? e ???ay? 1902-03 ??a. Ii E?a ? ????th
n I??? e N??-I????? ????o ?ay ??a ????. A???y a ??a ???o ?? e a E??, ?
???a ? ?e ?? ??? ?i a ????. Ai ??y ??eth?e 1917 ?? e ?????e ??u
1918-1922 ??a ??? a ??? ?iy?? n ????????? ????e. I??oa??? Oe????? ?? ??
??? i?y?? E??? ???e, ??a ?o ??? ??? N?????e, ? ??o ???? ??? Ae????y,
I?eth?, ??????u, ??u, ???ey?, ??? I??. A ???a 1920-21 ??a Ee? ?ny?e ?c
????e ? ?e a ?o?. I??? a ??? ??e ???i ??i. A ?????e ? ??o ????e, ??e
???? ? ??ue ????y E??, ???y ? ???? ? ????ue, ???? ??u ?? ????a ???u. E?a
? ??y??e ?? ??e ???e ?e ??? n y?i y???i – ??? ????? ???u ?? ???? ?a ?e
A?ae??a I???a a 1113 ??. O?????a N???ie ??? a E??, ?????a Nith? NN? ???i
??th ???? a ??e ???. E??? ?????? ??????i ???e ??i?i ?? ???, ? ???eue??
??o ??????e 1936 ?? ???u ? ?i???? ??? ??????ue, ????ue ??a ????. A ??
????? iy???e a ??? ????i ????i ??o ??? e ???a, ???????? ???. E?a ?? ???i
???? e ???i ???n???y, ??? ???????. A ??? ????ue e ????? ??? e ???a ??,
?????ny y??????, ??????, ???a ???u. 22 ethiy 1941 ?? ???? ???ou ???e
??ae. «E?a ???e, i? ?uy??, ?e ???? ??a» – ??a ????e ????e ??e. Ai ??y ??
1941 ??, ???a ???ue 72 ?y, ??ae ???? ????e. O??? ????? ??i ????i ???a,
???, ? ??y ????e a ??? ?a ??i ?????i ????i ????? ??i. N? ?ny/ ?a?yi ??
?i?i ? ??? a A???th. N?????? ?????a ????o ??e a ?y?a 1943 ?? ? ????i
???? ????th ????? ??ae, ?oy ?e e ??? ????ue ?y ??o ?? ??a 60 ????? ?????
??e e ????i e???o ???. A ???oa? ?? ?????e ????th ?? ????a ???y ????? ???
– E???e. I?? I?a? ??ae ???????o ????? ??? ??a e ????ny ???i ? ????? ??e
???a NNN?. E?a ???? ??ey ???-??e, ? ????, ???a ?i ae??e ?iy?? ? ??y ??u.

N????? E?a

I?? ??u a E?? o??i ????? ???? ??????i e ? iy???? ?o ????i ????i ??o
?????? – I??????, I????, I??. A 1960 ?? ??? a ??e ??? ???? ???i?ae,
????a ??????y ????? ?????, ????i ??i, ?ae Ae?i?i ????? ?? ???. N??iy E?a
– ????? e ?????e ??ae, n ??e??i ??a ?? n ????e ????a ???e. I???a ????e
????? ????ny ? ??o???? e ???a ?n??, ?i ??? E?a ??????i oth?? e ???. A
??? ?a ay???a, ???????e ???, ?e ?ny?a ??? e ?i?? ? ???a. E?a y?y?ny ???i
?o?? ???i, a ??? ??? ??? ??ci.

E??ey a. E??

E?a – ????e ??? ?aay??a, ???a ???e E???e ??e. I ?i ???atho a “I??? ????o
?o” e a “N?? i ??o E???i”. N?? i E?? ?????iy?? a A??a e A?e, a ???o C??a
e A???.

Ia ????? ?????? E?? ???e ???a ?y??y ??i 20 ?ny/ ?o ?? ??ae (??oe ????i
??). Y? ????y E?????y ?iy?a, ???y ?? ????a? a ???-???? ??e ???(?. O?i?,
59-61, ??ay E?????y). E???u ??a ??a ????y y?? ????(10-8 ?ny/ ?o ??
??ae), ???a(5-3 ?ny/ ?o ?? i??),??i-????? e ???i ????i ?e?, ????a ????y
?????e ????. I???a ??????y E?? ??iy?i ??yae?? ???? ????a. N???i ???a, a
??a 5 – ??? 6 ???? ??e y? ?e ??a E?, U? e O?? e ??? ? E??ue ???? ? ???
??? ??? ?? Ae??a ??ae e ???e ?i a ??ue ???? ??a E??i. A?a??????
?????eyie ?????u ? N?????? ?? ??? e ?cy???i? ????e “???a Eey”, ??????
5-6 ?. A??a ????? E?? ???iy?? ?ey?, ??ey?, ???, ???y?, e ??ae E?a ??
???i ?????? ???i ??????yi?? ???. A 988 ?? ?y? A???? ??? a E???e ??e
?????? ?e ?????th ???th. Y? ??????? ?????eth e ???eth ?????? e ?e???o
?y?e n A?????e ????, A???? e ???e ??????e A??u e A???i A???. A XI ?? Ee?
????ny ??i ? ??o ????o ???a ?????e a ?????? ??. A ??? ???????i ??i 400
???e, 8 ???, ???a? ??a 50 000 ?ny/ ???e . I?? ??? A???? I???a a 1125 ??
???y ???n ???? ???i ?????? E???y ??ue. Ia ?i ????? ?????? ????i ?y??a,
???a ???iy??? ? ?a? ?????y? ????i ????yi. Y?i a??????y ???i-????e ?i
A??, ?? *??c-??. A 1240 ?? E?a ?e ???? e ????i ?i ?aea?. Y? ?ae??? ????
E?? ??e ? ????. N????? ?? ??ue ??? ???ey ?i E?a ??a XIII ??. A???????e
??? a y?o ??? ?????ny ? I??. C?? ??????ue ???? ??????a, ?????ue ????ey
??? ?o. A XIV ?? E?a ?? ?????ny, ??? ??????y ????ay ?????. A 1362 ?? ???
A???i ?ycy E????i ????i E?a. A XV ?? E?? ?? ???? I?????? ??i. O??ue ??e
????? ??? ????e i????. I?????ia ??i ?????y? E?? ?????i ???th ??????ue a
??o ??????e ????. A ??? ?y??? ???e ???, ?iyi, ??y??, ??e ?? ??u ????,
?????, ???? ??u. Ia I??a ?y??? ???ay ???ue, ???y ??a ?a?? ???ueth ???. A
1569 ?? E?? e I??a I???e?? a ??? ?????i ??ue I????th. N???i Eth???? ??
1569 ?? ???? ???u ??? ???y? ???e ??ueth ???n?o ???, a ?i ??a e E??i.
I??ny ??? ????i ??aeae?ey ?????? ??e ?????i ????y. A ?i? XVI ?? – ???
???? XVII ?? ??o ?/?i ????y ?????i ??? ??? ??a??ey. A 1648-1654 ??o
?????? ???i-???????y ??a ??? ????i ??a. 23 ???y 1648 a?a a E?a ??c C???
??? ?????? ??? ??? A??i O????? ? ??a ????i ???. I??i A??? O?????o
?????ue ??e ??o ? ????i ???a – n ?ey?? e ????e, n ???? ??i e ???? ???ii.
I???ue ??o??y ? ???e ???th e ???? ??th. A 1654 ?? a I?ay??? ?e ??th?i
?thc n ????. O??? ???i ??? ?ae ??? ????e? ???e. I???y ? ???? ???? ? ???u
???? ??????a, a XVII ?? E?a ?e ???i y????ne? e ????? ???i ????? ???.
O????y ???? ?????ue ??? ??o ???? ?e E??-I??y??y ???ey. A XVIII ?? E?a
????ny ???? ?????y ?? ???? ?????e ???e. I?? ????? ??? 1861 ??, ???
e?????i ??a, ????? e ???o ????ay e n????y ??ue ???, ???i ????? ???oe,
???????? ?????e, ??? ??? ?????y ???????. I?? I?y???e ??eth?e 1917 ??,
???y ???a, ??? a E?? ?iy?? ????i ?c. A ??? n 1917 ? 1921 ?ae a E??
????ue ?e ??????a ?????e O???, ???y ????? ?ae ???? ?????e ??u. 22 y??y
1918 ?? O????y Oe????ay ??a ? ??a n ????i ????i ?????i I???i A?oa??i
??????a ??????ue O???. A 1919 ?? O????y I???y ????? ? ??a n N??? I?eth?e
?????? ?????? n C???e O?a??? I???e ??????. Ii, e ????th, y? ?? ????i.
I?? ????e C???????? e A????????e ??e, ???a ???? N???? ???e E??, O?a?a
??a a ??? N????i Nith?. Ca ??y N???? ???, ???? ? ??y ????? ????e, ???
??????e ????? ??????e: ???, ????, ???u, ??ia?, ???a ???e a ?a?yo A??a.
Ai ??y ??? ???e ??u E?a ?e ??e ????th ????. 72 ?y ?????? ?????y ???a E??
a 1941

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