.

История институтов публичного права. Период царей

Язык:
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1997
Скачать документ

ENOI?Ess EINOEOOOIA IOAEE*IIAI I?AAA.

IA?EIAe OeA?AE

Ieai

1. Eoaeeee, eaoeiu e ca?iaeaeaiea ?eia

2. Ae?aaiaeoee iauanoaaiiue no?ie

3. Ae?aaiaeoee ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie. Oea?ue, naiao, ia?iaeiia nia?aiea

4. Nae?aeueiue no?ie

5. Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey

6. Enoi/ieee i?aaa

7. Oaieiaiia i?aai e oaieiaiue noae

8. A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann

9. ?aoi?ia Na?aey Ooeeey e iaaeaiea oea?neie aeanoe

Ae?aaia?eineea oea?eOea?ueAiaeu i?aaeaiey?iioe(753 — 716 aei i. y.)Ioia
Iiiieeee(715 — 674 aei i. y.)Ooee Ainoeeee(673 — 642 aei i. y.)Aie
Ia?oeee(642 — 617 aei i. y.)Eooeee Oa?eaeiee I?ene(616 — 579 aei i.
y.)Na?aee Ooeeee(578 — 535 aei i. y.)Eooeee Oa?eaeiee Ai?aeue(535 — 509
aei i. y.)

1. EOAEEEE, EAOEIU E CA?IAEAeAIEA ?EIA

Niaeanii ecaanoiie ?eineie o?aaeeoeee, ?ei aue iniiaai ?iioeii, eioi?ue
iino?iee ai?iae, ?acaeaeee iaaeaeo ia?auie aai a?aaeaeaiaie caieth,
iaania/ee ei aiciiaeiinoue naiaeiie aeecie, – iaeiei neiaii, aeae aiiaue
aicieeathuaio ainoaea?noao iaiaoiaeeiia iieeoe/aneia e iauanoaaiiia
ono?ienoai. Neaaeothuee oea?ue Ioia nicaeae ono?ienoai ?aeeaeiciia.

Iiaaeoay enoi?e/aneay e?eoeea (Ieao?, Iiiicai, Oaaaea? e ae?.)
iaia?oaeeea iieioth ianinoiyoaeueiinoue yoie eaaaiaeu. Any yoa ?eineay
enoi?ey, eae iia eceaaaaony iai ae?aaieie ienaoaeyie, anoue ia /oi eiia,
eae ia?iaeiia i?aaeaiea, ia?aciaaaoaany a naiii ?eia aeiaieueii iicaeii,
iieiia aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee e enoi?e/aneeo ianiia?aciinoae.

I?e oaeeo oneiaeyo i ae?aaiaeoae yiioa ?eia iu iiaeai ninoaaeoue naaa
oieueei neoaeiua e i/aiue iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey.

Nia?aiaiiay iaoea (aeaaiui ia?acii, n?aaieoaeueiia ycueiaaaeaiea)
iaia?oaeeea iainii?eiia ?iaenoai iaaeaeo aeaaiuie ia?iaeaie Aa?iiu e
iaeioi?uie Acee – ia?iaeaie, ninoaaeythueie, oae iacuaaaioth a?eeneoth
a?oiio. Yoi ?iaenoai (a ycuea, aa?iaaieyo e o. ae.) iauyniyaony oai, /oi
ana iie a eaeia-oi ioaeaeaiiia a?aiy auaeaeeeenue ec iaeiiai iauaai
ei?iy, ec iaeiiai iauaai i?aia?iaea, auoee ec iaeiie iauae i?a?iaeeiu.
Aaea iaoiaeeeanue yoa i?a?iaeeia a?eeoeaa, nii?ii: aieueoeinoai
enneaaeiaaoaeae n/eoaao i?a?iaeeiie N?aaeithth Aceth; iaeioi?ua,
iaeiaei, oeacuaatho ia iaoe?ioth ?aaieio io Eanieeneiai ii?y aei Ea?iao;
anoue e oaeea, eioi?ua ioiinyo ia?aiia/aeueiia ianoiaeeoaeuenoai
a?eeoeaa ia iiaa?aaeuey Aaeoeeneiai ii?y e aeaaea a Neaiaeeiaaeth.

Eae au oi ie auei, ii oaea oai, ia naiae i?a?iaeeia, aei naiaai
?acaeaeaiey, a?eeoeu aeinoeaee ecaanoiie noaiaie eoeueoo?iinoe e
iauanoaaiiinoe, oae /oi enoi?ey aa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia ia/eiaaony aeaeaei
ca i?aaeaeaie eo iicaeiaeoeo aa?iiaeneeo iinaeaiee e ei?iyie naieie
ooiaeeo a iai?iieoeaaioth aeey iaoaai aeaca aeoaeio a?aiai.

Ia iiaee i?ieoe aanneaaeii e aiaeu (aa?iaa, aaea) no?ainoaiaaiee, eiaaea
ia?iaeai i?eoiaeeeinue ai?ioueny ni anaaiciiaeiuie aiaoieie
i?aiyonoaeyie. Iiiyoii iiyoiio, /oi ia ianoa naiaai iicaeiaeoaai
iinaeaiey a Aa?iia iie i?eoiaeeee aeaeaei ia a ninoiyiee i?eieoeaiie
aeeeinoe, a n ecaanoiui aaaaaeii eoeueoo?u e i?aaa.

A iauae ianna a?eeoeaa, aeeaoeony a Aa?iio, ?acee/atho iyoue iniiaiuo
a?oii: a?aee, eoaeeee, eaeueou, aa?iaioeu, neaayia. Iaeaieaa ?aiieie
i?eoaeueoeaie yaeythony, ii-aeaeeiiio, a?aee (a?aiy eo iiyaeaiey a
Aa?iia Yae. Iaea? ioiineo e o?aoueaio ouny/aeaoeth aei ?. O.);
ianeieueei iicaea i?eoiaeyo eoaeeee e eaeueou. Acaeiiay aeecinoue yoeo
o?ao a?oii nii?ia: anee ?aiueoa a?aeia e eoaeeeia naeeaeaee a iaeio
a?aei-eoaeeeneoth a?oiio, oi oaia?ue nei?aa naeeaeatho eoaeeeia n
eaeueoaie e iaoiaeyo aieaa i?aaeeueiui aiai?eoue i eaeueoi-eoaeeeneie
a?oiia.

Aiciiaeii (Eoaeey i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo oao iano, aaea iaeaeaiu neaaeu
i/aiue ae?aaiaai i?aauaaiey /aeiaaea), /oi i?e naiai iiyaeaiee ia
Aiiaieineii iieoino?iaa eoaeeee iaoieeioeenue ia eaeeo-eeai aai?eaaiia.
Iaeiaei, neieueei-ieaoaeue aeieacaiiuo neaaeia yoiai yeaiaioa a ninoaaa
ae?aaiaeoeo eoaeeeneeo iauei ia eiaaony.

Ai anyeii neo/aa, ia ca?a enoi?e/aneie yiioe eoaeeee ioithaeue ia
yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiuie iaeoaoaeyie iieoino?iaa; iai?ioea, [n.27] iie
ie?oaeaiu iiiai/eneaiiuie e ?acii?iaeiuie ninaaeyie. Aeaaiaeoeie ec ieo
yaeythony: eeao?u ia naaa?i-ainoiea, yieae ia thaa e yo?onee ia
naaa?i-caiaaea. Ana yoe ieaiaia i?iieeee a Eoaeeth, ii-aeaeeiiio,
?aiueoa eoaeeeia, e iaeioi?ua ec ieo, auoue iiaeao, ia n naaa?a, a n
thaa – iooai N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y.

Ec oeacaiiuo ninaaeae a ae?aaiaeoae enoi?ee ?eia iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea
eiaee yo?onee. Yoio ia?iae, i?ienoiaeaeaiea eioi?iai aei neo ii?
inoaaony caaaaei/iui, aunooiaao ia?aae iaie oaea a naioth ioaeaeaiioth
yiioo n aunieie eoeueoo?ie e n ?acaeoui, naiaia?aciui a?aaeaeaineei
oeeaaeii. Oaea a ae?aaiaeoaa a?aiy ii i?aaieciaai a e?aiei niei/aiiue
“nithc 12 ia?iaeia” (duodecim populi) iiae aeanoueth iaeiiai iauaai
oea?y. Iiiaea einaaiiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi yo?onee
ea?aee aieueooth ?ieue a ae?aaiaeoae aeecie ?eia. Iaeioi?ua ec
nia?aiaiiuo o/aiuo i?aaeiieaaatho oeaeue ia?eiae, eiaaea ?ei iaoiaeeeny
iiae aeaaeu/anoaii yo?oneia; anoue aeaaea e oaeea, eioi?ua n/eoatho
ae?aaiaeoee ?ei i?yii iaeiei ec yo?onneeo iinaeeia. Eae au oi ie auei,
iaeuecy io?eoeaoue, /oi ae?aaiaeoay enoi?ey eoaeeeia iinea eo iinaeaiey
ia iieoino?iaa iaoiaeeeanue a neeueiie caaeneiinoe io yoeo ninaaeae.

Naie eoaeeee ia i?aaenoaaeyee aaeeiie, niei/aiiie iannu. Iie
?aniaaeaeenue ia iiiaeanoai iaeeeo ieaiai, ec eioi?uo neaaatho aeaa
a?oiiu: eaoeiia e oia?i-naaaeeia (oia?u, naaeiyia, aieuenee e o. ae.).
Eaoeiu, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?eoee ?aiueoa oia?i-naaaeeia e caiyee aieaa
oaeiaioth /anoue n?aaeiae Eoaeee – ?aaieio Eaoeeoia.

Caeanue, a yoie ?aaieia, iie inoaeenue iaaieueoeie iaueiaie (civitates).
Civitates yoe e ii oa??eoi?ee, e ii eiee/anoao ianaeaiey auee iaaaeeee:
aeinoaoi/ii oeacaoue, /oi ia i?ino?ainoaa Eaoeeoia (35 ea. ieeue)
ian/eouaaaony aei 30 iiaeiaiuo iauei.

Eaaeaeay civitas eiaao oe?aieaiiue ioieo – arx, eoaea ianaeaiea
oe?uaaaony ia neo/ae a?aaeaneiai iaaaaa e aaea iaoiaeeony iaueiiay
nayouiy. Iaei-iiiaeo caeanue aea ia/eiatho no?ieoue e iinoiyiiua
aeeeeua; oae aicieeaao ai?iae, urbs, eioi?ue aeaeaaony n?aaeioi/eai anae
aeecie iaueiu (“ainoaea?noai-ai?iae”).

Eaaeaeay ec eaoeineeo iauei auea niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueia (aaoiiiiia)
eae a naieo aioo?aiieo, oae e ai aiaoieo ioiioaieyo; oai ia iaiaa,
iauiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ycuea e ?aeeaeiciuo aa?iaaiee
naycuaaea ana civitates latinae a iaeioi?ia aaeeinoai iiae iauei eiaiai
nomen Latinum. E?iia iauaeaoeineeo ?aeeaeiciuo i?acaeianoa, aiaoiei
au?aaeaieai yoiai aaeeinoaa auea acaeiiinoue i?aaiaie io?aiu [n.28]
(“Rechtsgemeinschaft”). A oi a?aiy eae, iai?eia?, aeey ae?aaiaai
?eieyieia anyeee eiino?aiaoe n/eoaeny i?eioeeieaeueii a?aaii, e iioiio
nouanoaii aani?aaiui (hostis), aeeoaeue anyeie eaoeineie iaueiu
iieueciaaeny a ?eia caueoie caeiia eae a naieo ee/iuo, oae e a
eiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo. Iaiaeoth ?ieue ea?aee e i?ienoiaeeaoea ii
iiaiaeo ?aeeaeiciuo i?acaeianoa iauaeaoeineea ia?iaeiua nia?aiey:
caeanue anoanoaaiii ianoaeaeaeenue iauea aeey anao eaoeineeo civitates
aii?inu, eae iai?eia?, i caueoa io iaueo a?aaia, ia iniiaaiee
iauaeaoeineeo eieiiee e o. ae. ?aoaiey, i?eiyoua ia yoeo nia?aieyo, oioy
e ia auee th?eaee/anee iaycaoaeueiuie aeey eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie civitas,
oai ia iaiaa eiaee, eiia/ii, aieueoia oaeoe/aneia cia/aiea e ii aieueoae
/anoe iaeaeaeenue caoai a oi?io iinoaiiaeaiey eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie
iaueiu. Aiciiaeii, /oi a ecaanoiua iiiaiou ana eaoeiu iauaaeeiyeenue
aeey eaeiai-ieaoaeue niaianoiiai aeaenoaey (iioiaea e o. ae.) e iiae
iaeiie a?aiaiiie iauae aeanoueth: anoue oeacaiey ia iauaeaoeineeo
i?aaeaiaeeoaeae (aeeeoaoi?ia).

Iaeiie ec iienaiiuo eaoeineeo iauei e aue ?ei. Iiae?iaiinoe aai
ae?aaiaeoae enoi?ee, eae auei oeacaii auoa, oaia?ue ninoaaeaiu auoue ia
iiaoo; ?eineia i?aaeaiea eeoaii enoi?e/aneie aeinoiaa?iinoe. Anoue,
iaeiaei, a yoii i?aaeaiee iaeei yeaiaio, eioi?ue eiaao iiae niaie
iaeioi?ia enoi?e/aneia iniiaaiea. Ii i?aaeaieth, ?iioe ?acaeaeee
ia?aiia/aeueiia ianaeaiea ?eia ia 3 o?eau, e aeaenoaeoaeueii a ninoaaa
ae?aaiaeoaai ?eineiai iauanoaa iu iaoiaeei o?e yeaiaioa, ec eioi?uo
eaaeaeue eiaao iniaia eiy – Ramnes, Tities e Luceres. Ii /oi yoi ca
yeaiaiou, aii?in /?acau/aeii nii?iue. Ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo o/aiuo
(iai?eia?, A. Aeiaea?19, A. aea Naieoen), o?eau – yoi anoanoaaiiia
niaaeeiaiea naiaenoa e ?iaeia aeey eo/oae caueou naieo i?aa e eioa?ania,
iaiiaeiaea a?a/aneeo oee. Iaeiaei, yoi iiaiea ii?iaa?aaaony oai, /oi, ii
e?aeiae ia?a, aeaa ia?aua o?eau – Ramnes e Tities – eiatho ianiiiaiiue
iaoeeiiaeueiue ioia/aoie: Ramnes – yoi eaoeiu, a Tities – naaeiyia.
Aaeaeo yoiai iaeaieaa aa?iyoiui i?aaenoaaeyaony iiaiea Iiiicaia: Ramnes
e Tities ia?aiia/aeueii auee aeaoiy niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueiuie
iaueiaie, iaeoaaoeie ia aeaoo [n.29] ninaaeieo oieiao; iie aeieai
a?aaeaeiaaee iaaeaeo niaie (ia yoie a?aaeaea n naaeiaie iiaanoaoao e
i?aaeaiea), ii eii/eee oai, /oi neeeenue a iaeio aaeeioth iaueio.
Ianeieueei iicaea a ninoaa oie aea iaueiu aioea e o?aouey – Luceres,
iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? eioi?ie iaynai (iaeioi?ua aeoiatho aeaaea, /oi
yoi auee auoiaeoeu ec Yo?o?ee).

Neeyiea yoi, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eiia/ii, oaaee/eei iaoa?eaeueioth neeo
niaaeeiaiiie iaueiu e aa cia/aiea n?aaee ninaaeae, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
aeieaeii auei ioicaaoueny iaeioi?ui oneiaeiaieai ainoaea?noaaiiie, oi
anoue iaueiiie, i?aaiecaoeee. Ii e i?e anai oii ?ei ia ca?a naiae
enoi?ee ia i?aaenoaaeye ie/aai a?aiaeeiciiai: ia aieaa 5 ea. ieeue e ia
aieaa 10 ouny/ aeeoaeae.

Ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo ec oao o/aiuo, eioi?ua a oeacaiiuo o?ao o?eaao
oniao?eaatho ?acee/iua iaoeeiiaeueiua yeaiaiou, neeyiea yoeo
?aciioa?aeoa?iuo yeaiaioia aeieaeii auei ieacaoue aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea e
ia ?acaeoea naiiai aeooa ?eineiai ia?iaea: Ramnes aianee i?enouee
eaoeiyiai aeoo naiaiaeu e i?ia?anna, Tities – naaeiyia – noieeinoue
?aeeaeiciuo aicc?aiee e eiina?aaoeci. Ec naiaia?aciiai ni/aoaiey yoeo
/a?o e ?acaeeanue oa ?eineay niiniaiinoue, eioi?oth iu iaaethaeaai caoai
a aeaeueiaeoae enoi?ee, – niiniaiinoue eaeoe aia?aae, ia eiiay noa?uo
oi?i, a eeoue i?eniiniaeyy eo (eiiaaea eneonnoaaiii) e iiaui
iio?aaiinoyi a?aiaie. Yoi aicc?aiea, iaeiaei, aaeaa ee eiaao iiae niaie
i?i/ioth ii/ao: neeueiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iaaeaeo eaoeiyiaie e
naaeiyiaie ia iiaei auoue, oae eae e oa e ae?oaea i?eiaaeeaaeaee e
iaeiie aaoae ia?iaeia (eoaeeee) e, eiia/ii, ia oae oae ?acei
?acee/aeenue iaaeaeo niaie, eae ii naiei i?aaai e naiae eoeueoo?a, oae e
ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o.

A ninoaa Eaoeineiai nithca a yiioo aieaa ?aiithth ?ei caieiaao
iieiaeaiea iaeiie ec ?yaeiauo civitates; iaueiie ia?aainoaothuae aue ia
ii, a, ii-aeaeeiiio, Alba Longa (ii iiaieth TH. Aaeioa e A. Aiioaioa –
Aricia). Iaei-iiiaeo, iaeiaei, cia/aiea ?eia ia/eiaao aic?anoaoue;
aiciiaeii, /oi yoiio niinianoaiaaei eae naiia aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea
?eia (ia a?aieoea Eaoeeoia n Yo?o?eae, a ieciaueyo Oea?a, aaeece io
ii?y), oae e oeacaiiia auoa neeyiea o?ao ninaaeieo iauei a iaeio.
Iaaeaeo ?eiii e Alba Longa aicieeaao niia?ie/anoai ca aaaaiiieth a
nithca, e ai?ueaa ia yoie ii/aa, oe?aoaiiay ?eineie o?aaeeoeeae
?acee/iuie eaaaiaeaie, caeai/eaaaony iieiie iiaaaeie ?eia.

Yoa iiaaaea, ai?i/ai, ia ?ac?ooaao Eaoeineiai nithca e ia [n.30] aeaeaao
?eia iaeaaeaoaeai anae nithciie oa??eoi?ee. Ii eeoue anooiaao ia ianoi
Alba Longa. I?iaeieaeatho nouanoaiaaoue iauaeaoeineea i?acaeianoaa e
iauaeaoeineea ia?iaeiua nia?aiey; nio?aiyaony e i?eioeeieaeueiay
iacaaeneiinoue ioaeaeueiuo civitates. Iaei-iiiaeo, iaeiaei, iinoaiaiii
oaaee/eaaynue, ?ei iaeeaaeuaaao naith ?oeo ia yoo iacaaeneiinoue;
cia/aiea iauaeaoeineeo nia?aiee iinoaiaiii iaaeaao: ?ei i?eia?aoaao
i?eau/eo iaaycuaaoue nithcieeai naie ?aoaiey. A oaeii iieiaeaiee iu e
iaoiaeei Eaoeineee nithc e eiioeo ia?aiai ia?eiaea ?eineie enoi?ee.

2. Ae?AAIAEOEE IAUANOAAIIUE NO?IE.

GENTES, CURIAE. – IAO?EOeEE, EEEAIOU, IEAAAE

Ae?aaiaeoee enoi?e/anee ecaanoiue iauanoaaiiue no?ie o anao a?eeoeaa
iieieony ia ?iaeiaii i?eioeeia. A naiai oai?aoe/anee /enoii aeaea
?iaeiaie i?eioeei caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ?iae, oi anoue anoanoaaiii
?ac?inoeeny nithc naiaenoa, i?ienoaaeoee a aieaa eee iaiaa ioaeaeaiiii
i?ioeii io iaeiiai iauaai ?iaeiia/aeueieea, yaeyaony ie io eaeie aeanoe
ia caaenyuei, naiiaeiaeathuei e naiioi?aaeythueiny (noaa?aiiui) oeaeui.
A i?ioeanna enoi?e/aneie yaiethoeee, iaeiaei, oaea i/aiue ?aii aicieeaao
e i?aaiecaoeey iaae?iaeiaay. Iooai ee aeia?iaieueiiai niaaeeiaiey
ianeieueeeo ?iaeia aeey eo/oae caueou eee iooai iiae/eiaiey iaeieo
?iaeia ae?oaeie, – ai anyeii neo/aa, ?iaeu ieacuaathony aeeth/aiiuie a
iaeioi?ue aieaa iaoe?iue nithc, noiyuee iaae ieie. Oae aicieeaao
i?eieoeaiia ainoaea?noai, nia/aea aua i/aiue iai?i/iia e neaaia, ii
iioii ana aieaa e aieaa e?aiiouaa e oneeeaathuaany. Ii ia?a aea oiai,
eae ainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey e?aiiao e ?anoe?yaony, cia/aiea ?iaeia
e ?iaeiaie nayce iaei-iiiaeo ineaaeyaony e naiaeeony e aaeaa caiaoiui
ia?aaeeaaieyi.

*oi eanaaony ?eia, oi oaea a ae?aaiaeooth yiioo aai enoi?ee iu ia
iaoiaeei a iai /enoiai ?iaeiaiai no?iy, oi anoue no?iy, a eioi?ii [n.31]
?iaeu auee au noaa?aiiu, iacaaeneiu io eaeie au oi ie auei aunoae
i?aaiecaoeee. Oaea ia ii?iaa naiae enoi?ee ?ei yaeyaony iaueiie –
civitas – e aeaaea, eae iu aeaeaee, neiaeiie iaueiie. Oai ia iaiaa,
neaaeu iaaeaaiaai ?iaeiaiai no?iy aua i/aiue iiiai/eneaiiu.

Iaiaa anaai yoeo neaaeia a iaeanoe iieeoe/aneeo ioiioaiee. I?aaaea,
?eineay o?aaeeoeey iiaanoaoao, /oi ana ?eineia iauanoai oiai a?aiaie
aeaeeeinue ia 3 o?eau, 30 eo?ee e 300 ?iaeia (gentes). Yoi iaoaiaoe/anee
i?aaeeueiia aeaeaiea a nayce n ecaanoeai, /oi /enei naiaoi?ia ?aaiyeinue
oaeaea 300, iiaei iaaanoe ia iuneue, /oi ?iae (gens) i?aaenoaaeyao a
yoie nenoaia oaea nithc ia anoanoaaiii neiaeeaoeeny, a eneonnoaaiiue e
iieeoe/aneee (oaeiaa iuneue Ieao?a). Yoa iuneue, iaeiaei, a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ioaa?aaaony: ?iae eae oaeiaie a iieeoe/aneie aeecie ieeaeie ?iee
ia ea?aao. Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iiaeii n aieueoath eee iaiueoath
noaiaiueth aa?iyoiinoe auaanoe ec i?eaaaeaiiiai i?aaeaiey, yoi oi, /oi
ae?aaiaeoee naiao i?aaenoaaeye ec naay niaao ?iaeiauo noa?aeoei, /oi a
ninoaa aai aoiaeeee naie niaie i?aaenoaaeoaee anao ei?aiiuo ?iaeia ?eia.

Iai?ioea, a ae?oaeo ioiioaieyo cia/aiea ?iaea aua aaeeei. Oae, i?aaeaea
anaai, ?iae nio?aiyao ana naia cia/aiea eae nithc ?aeeaeiciue: /eaiu
?iaea – gentiles – naycaiu aaeeinoaii ?aeeaeiciiai eoeueoa (sacra
gentilicia). A nayce n yoei iaoiaeeony ii?aeueiue eiio?ieue ?iaea iaae
naieie ni/eaiaie: ?iae aethaeao ca /enoioie i?aaia, iiaeao ecaeaaaoue
ioiinyueany nthaea iinoaiiaeaiey (decreta gentilicia), iaeaaaoue ia
i?iaeieaoeony ni/eaiia oa eee ae?oaea iaeacaiey aieioue aei iieiiai
ioeo/aiey e o. ae.

A iaeanoe a?aaeaeaineeo, eiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a aieaa ae?aaiaa a?aiy,
ii-aeaeeiiio, nouanoaiaaea ?iaeiaay iauiinoue eiouanoa, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
iaaeaeaeeiuo, iauiinoue caieaaeaaeaiey. A enoi?e/aneoth yiioo, iaeiaei,
yoie iauinoe a /enoii aeaea iu oaea ia iaoiaeei. Iia oaea ?aceiaeeeanue
ia nianoaaiiinoue naiaeioth (nianoaaiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo naiaenoa),
inoaaea eeoue neaaeu naiaai i?aaeiaai nouanoaiaaiey a i?aaa ?iaeiaiai
ianeaaeiaaiey e i?aaa ?iaeiaie iiaee. Ii caeiiai XII oaaeeoe, anee
oia?oee ia [n.32] inoaaee ?iaenoaaiieeia, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ?iaenoai
eioi?uo iiaeii aeieacaoue, – oae iacuaaaiuo aaiaoia, – oi ianeaaenoai e
iiaea ia?aoiaeyo a ?iae, e gentiles, oi anoue e eeoeai, i?eiaaeeaaeauei
e iaeiiio ?iaeo n iieieiui e iinyuei iauaa n iei nomen gentilicium.

Oaeei ia?acii, aicieeioaoaa ainoaea?noai, ioaaoea ioaeaeueiua, aeioiea
iacaaeneiua ?iaeu naiae aunoae i?aaiecaoeee, ineaaeyao cia/aiea ?iaeiauo
naycae, ?aceaaaao ?iaeu ia ninoaaeythuea eo yeaiaiou. Oaeeie yeaiaioaie
yaeythony naiuee – familiae. Yoio yeaiaio aua e?aiie ia?aae eeoeii
ainoaea?noaa. Ae?aaia?eineay familia aeaeaei ia oi, /oi iaoa iuiaoiyy
naiuey. A iaoae nia?aiaiiie naiuea eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue aa /eai
i?aaenoaaeyao a aeacao ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ioaeaeueioth
naiinoiyoaeueioth ee/iinoue; eaaeaeue iiaeao eiaoue naiinoiyoaeueiia
eiouanoai, eneaoue e ioaa/aoue ia noaea e o. ae. ?eineay naiuey yoie
yiioe, iai?ioea, i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay caieiooue, oanii niei/aiiue e?oa
eeoe e eiouanoa, ia/oi aeey ainoaea?noaa ii/oe iai?iieoeaaiia.
Ioaeaeueiuo eiaeeaeaeia ainoaea?noai aua ia ciaao; ai aioo?aiiea
ioiioaiey naiuee iii ia aiaoeaaaony; iii eiaao aeaei oieueei n aeaaith
naiuee, paterfamilias, eioi?ue cae?uaaao niaith anth naiueth aeey
aiaoiaai a?aaeaeaineiai ie?a. Ii ioaa/aao ca iaa, ii caoi iieuecoaony
anaie i?aaaie aioo?e iaa; de jure ii caeanue iaia?aie/aiiue aeaaeuea. “N
oi/ee c?aiey iaoeo nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, ?eineay naiuey yaeyea
niaie iaeaiueeoth iiia?oeth – n oai oieueei ioee/eai, /oi iiaea ia
eiaoue oa??eoi?ee, a auea /enoi ee/iui nithcii”. A ninoaa yoiai
caieiooiai naiaeiiai e?oaa, yoie iaeaiueeie iiia?oee, aoiaeeo aeaia
aeiiiaeaaeuee (eioi?ay th?eaee/anee iaoiaeeony ia iieiaeaiee aei/a?e –
filiae loco), aai aeaoe, aioee e o. ae. (oioy au e niaa?oaiiieaoiea),
?aau e ana iaaeaeaeeiia e aeaeaeeiia eiouanoai. Familia, oaeei ia?acii,
anoue ana, /oi iaoiaeeony iiae aeanoueth paterfamilias, any noa?a aai
/anoiiai iaeaaeaiey e ainiiaenoaa. Caeanue, aioo?e yoie noa?u,
paterfamilias aeaaeu/anoaoao iaae anai aac?acee/ii: eiaao iaae anai e
anaie i?aai aeecie e nia?oe, i?aai i?iaeaaee e o. ae. *eaiu naiuee ia
eiatho th?eaee/aneeo niioaiee n aiaoiei ie?ii, iie ia iiaoo io naay
anooiaoue a aeiaiai?u, aunooiaoue noi?iiith a i?ioeanna e o. ae.; ai
[n.33] anai iie yaeythony oieueei i?oaeeai aeiiiaeaaeuee. Oieueei a
iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee ac?ineua /eaiu naiuee, niiniaiua iineoue i?oaeea,
yaeythony naiinoiyoaeueiuie: iie o/anoaotho a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee ia?aaia
ni naieie aeiiiaeaaeueaie e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeaaeatho anaie
ecaanoiuie oiaaea i?aaaie a?aaeaeaieia.

E?iia ?anniio?aiiuo o?ea e ?iaeia, a ae?aaiaeoae i?aaiecaoeee ?eineiai
iauanoaa ecaanoioth ?ieue ea?atho eo?ee (curiae): niaeanii i?aaeaieth,
iie yaeythony iaeioi?ui iin?aaenoaothuei caaiii iaaeaeo o?eaaie e
?iaeaie: a eaaeaeie o?eaa 10 eo?ee (anaai, oaeei ia?acii, 30), a
eaaeaeie eo?ee 10 ?iaeia. Ii /oi oaeia eo?ey e eaeiai aa
i?ienoiaeaeaiea, aii?in oaeaea /?acau/aeii nii?iue. Iaeie oniao?eaatho a
eo?eyo nithcu prima facie ?aeeaeiciua – ia/oi a?iaea i?eoiaeia; ae?oaea
– nithcu naiaenoa aeey eo/oae caueou, iaiiaeiaea a?a/aneeo o?ao?ee, e o.
ae.

Ii-aeaeeiiio, aeaeaiea ia eo?ee ia yaeyaony o/?aaeaeaieai
eneeth/eoaeueii ?eineei; iii ano?a/aaony o ae?oaeo eaoeineeo ieaiai,
oioy cia/aiea eo?ee o yoeo iineaaeieo ia iiaeao auoue auyniaii. *oi aea
eanaaony ?eia, oi ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi a oi
a?aiy, eae o?eau e ?iaeu a iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee ?eia ieeaeie ?iee
ia ea?atho, eo?ee yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiui aeaeaieai, eiathuei
iieeoe/aneia cia/aiea: ae?aaiaeoea ia?iaeiua nia?aiey i?aaieciaaiu e
aioe?otho ii eo?eyi (comitia curiata). Yoi iaaiaeeo ia iuneue, /oi eo?ey
auea aeaeaieai, nicaeaiiui eneonnoaaiii eiaiii aeey yoie iieeoe/aneie
?iee. Iaeiaei, anee iu i?eiai ai aieiaiea, /oi o ae?aaieo ia?iaeia
iaueiiaaiii ia?iaeiia nia?aiea anoue ia /oi eiia, eae ana ia?iaeiia
iiie/aiea, iino?iaiiia a aiaaii ii?yaeea ii io?yaeai (“Volk im Waffen” –
R. von Mayr), oi aieaa i?aaaeiiiaeiaiui yaeony i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi e
?eineay eo?ey auea ii iniiaiiio naiaio cia/aieth i?aaeaea anaai
ae?aaiaeoae aiaaie aaeeieoeae ?eieyi.

A neeo niaiaaeaiey aienea e ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey, eo?ey a oi aea a?aiy
ea?aao ?ieue aaeeieoeu iieeoe/aneie; a a neeo oiai, /oi iauea eioa?anu
iiaee aucuaaoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaueo aea?oaii?eieoaiee, eo?ey
i?eia?aea oa?aeoa? e aaeeieoeu nae?aeueiie. Iaeiaei, iaoiaeeeinue ee
iauaa /enei eo?ee (30) a oii oeeo?iaii niioiioaiee e o?eaai e ?iaeai, i
eaeii iai iiaanoaoao i?aaeaiea, – yoi aeieaeii auoue i?eciaii
niiieoaeueiui. Aa?iyoiaa, /oi iii [n.34] i?aaenoaaeyao niaith
iicaeiaeoaa eciuoeaiea, iiiuoeo niaaeeieoue a iaeiii iauyniaiee /enea 3
(o?eau), 30 (eo?ee) e 300 (ae?aaiaeoaa enoi?e/anee ecaanoiia /enei
naiaoi?ia, eioi?ua a ae?aaiinoe iuneeeenue eae i?aaenoaaeoaee ?iaeia).

Familiae, gentes, curiae yaeythony, oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie,
e?aaoaieueiuie eaiiyie ?eineiai iauanoaaiiiai no?iy ae?aaiaeoaai
ia?eiaea. Aanue a?aaeaeaineee e iieeoe/aneee iaoaieci ?ann/eoai oieueei
ia a?aaeaeai, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa oiai eee ae?oaiai ec ?iaeia e
ca/eneaiiuo a oo eee ae?oaoth eo?eth. Aia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e iaeiiio ec
?iaeia iaeuecy auei auoue a?aaeaeaieiii iieiii?aaiui. Iiyoiio-oi oaeea
iieiii?aaiua a?aaeaeaia iacuaathony iao?eoeeyie, oi anoue oaie, qui
patrem ciere possunt, eoi iiaeao oeacaoue naiaai iooea, naie ?iae.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iao?eoeee, ii ia?aiia/aeueiie eaeaa naiae, ioithaeue ia
yaeythony eeannii aiaa/ae eee a?enoie?aoia; yoi eiy iaicia/aao oieueei
ei?aiiuo e iioiio iieiii?aaiuo iaeoaoaeae ?eia.

?yaeii n yoeie iieiii?aaiuie a?aaeaeaiaie iu iaoiaeei, iaeiaei, e
iaeoaoaeae iaiieiii?aaiuo. Oaeiau eeeaiou e ieaaae, th?eaee/aneia
iieiaeaiea eioi?uo ?acee/ii.

Eeeaio iaoiaeeony a ee/iie caaeneiinoe io eaeiai-ieaoaeue iao?iia ec
iao?eoeeaa. Ii aoiaeeo a ninoaa naiuee iineaaeiaai, iaycai neaaeiaaoue
ca iei ia aieio, ieacuaaoue aio iaoa?eaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo e
iaiaoa?eaeueiue ieaoao. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iao?ii iaycai caueuaoue
eeeaioa ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie, eai eeeaio a?aaeaeaineie
i?aainiiniaiinoe ia eiaao: ii iiaeao i?eia?aoaoue eiouanoaa, anooiaoue a
aeiaiai?u e o. ae., ii inouanoaeyoue naie i?aaa noaeaaiui ii?yaeeii ii
ia iiaeao. TH?eaee/aneoth caueoo ii iieo/aao oieueei /a?ac iin?aaenoai
iao?iia.

Niaa?oaiii eiui i?aaenoaaeyaony iieiaeaiea ieaaay. Ieaaae, ia
i?eiaaeeaaea ie e iaeiiio ec iao?eoeeaineeo naiaenoa, yaeyaony, oai ia
iaiaa, th?eaee/anee naiinoiyoaeueiui, oioy e iaiieiii?aaiui. Ii
i?eciaaony naiinoiyoaeueiui /eaiii a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa, e a iaeanoe
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa (ii eiouanoao) ii ?aaai iao?eoeeth (eiaao oae
iacuaaaiia jus commercii); oieueei a?aee iaaeaeo iao?eoeeyie e ieaaayie
i?eciathony iacaeiiiuie (ieaaae ia eiatho oae iacuaaaiiai jus connubii).
*anoua aeaeiau ieaaaaa ia oi, /oi aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa iao?eoeeyi
aiaooo eo, iieacuaatho, /oi iaaeaeo iao?eoeeyie e ieaaayie iiaee
nouanoaiaaoue th?eaee/aneea ioiioaiey e /oi ieaaae iiaee
naiinoiyoaeueii, a naiai eeoea, eneaoue e ioaa/aoue ia noaea. Yoi
iineaaeiaa ?acee/ea a iniaaiiinoe nouanoaaiii.

ssaeyynue a iaeanoe /anoiuo a?aaeaeaineeo ioiioaiee i?aainiiniaiuie,
ieaaae ia eiatho ieeaeeo i?aa a iaeanoe ioiioaiee iieeoe/aneeo.
Iaoiaeynue aia iao?eoeeaineie ?iaeiaie i?aaiecaoeee (ieaaae “gentes non
habent”), iie ia o/anoaotho a ia?iaeiuo nia?aieyo e iioiio inoathony
/oaeaeuie iieeoe/aneie aeecie iaueiu.

Oaeiai th?eaee/aneia iieiaeaiea eeeaioia e ieaaaaa. Ni?aoeaaaony
oaia?ue, eaeiai aea eo enoi?e/aneia i?ienoiaeaeaiea?

Aii?in yoio /?acau/aeii nii?ai. Anoue a?oiia o/aiuo, eioi?ua
ioiaeaeanoaeytho iaa yoe yeaiaioa. Oae, ii iiaieth Iiiicaia, ieaaae –
yoi oa aea eeeaiou, oieueei iaei-iiiaeo “au?inoea ec naieo ieia”, oi
anoue oo?aoeaoea ee/ioth caaeneiinoue io iao?iia. Ii iiaieth A. Eia,
ieaaae-eeeaiou i?aaenoaaeytho iiei?aiiia ianaeaiea, neaeyuaa ia caiea e
ieaoyuaa iao?eoeeyi caiaeueiue ia?ie. N o/aieai Eia noiaeii o/aiea
Iaeiaia, eioi?ue aeaeeo a ieaaayo-eeeaioao e?aiinoiia e?anoueyinoai. Ii
ana yoe o/aiey, a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie ioiaeaeanoaeythuea
ieaaaaa e eeeaioia, iaoiaeyo naaa iai?aiaeieeiia i?aiyonoaea a
ioia/aiiii auoa ei?aiiii ?acee/ee iaaeaeo eeeaioaie e ieaaayie n oi/ee
c?aiey eo th?eaee/aneiai iieiaeaiey: iaeie e oa aea eeoea ia iiaoo
iaeiia?aiaiii auoue aani?aaiuie (eae eeeaiou) e iaeaaeaoue a?aaeaeaineie
i?aainiiniaiinoueth (eae ieaaae).

Ae?oaea o/aiua, ?acee/ay iaa yoe yeaiaioa, iuoathony iaeoe e ?acee/iua
enoi?e/aneea enoi/ieee eaaeaeiai. Iaeaieaa niaeaney iu iaoiaeei i?e yoii
a aii?ina i i?ienoiaeaeaiee eeeaioia: eo ii/oe ana n/eoatho ca
/oaeaieaiaiieeia, eee ianeeueii ia?anaeaiiuo (iinea iiei?aiey), eee
aeia?iaieueii ia?anaeeaoeony a ?ei. Caoi aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee
ieaaaaa aucuaaao /?acau/aeiia ?aciiaeanea. Oae, ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo
(Yae. Iaea?, A. aea Naieoen e ae?.), i?e/eia ia?aciaaiey ieaaaenoaa
eaaeeo a oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneeo: ieaaae – yoi aieaa aaaeiia e iioiio
yeiiiie/anee caaeneiia ianaeaiea. Ec ia?aiia/aeueii aac?acee/iie iannu
ianaeaiey iaei-iiiaeo auaeaeyaony eeann aiaa/ae, eioi?ue caoaaouaaao a
naie ?oee ?oeiaiaenoai iieeoe/aneie aeeciueth no?aiu e caiueaaony a
eanoo iao?eoeeaa. Oiaaea ana, /oi ia aioei a yoo eanoo, noaei
iacuaaoueny iauei eiaiai plebs. Ii yoa “yeiiiie/aneay” oai?ey
i?aaeiieaaaao [n.36] oaea a noieue ?aiiaa a?aiy oaeoth
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth eeannia, eioi?ie iu a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia iaoiaeei.
Iia i?eaiineo, aeaeaa, a iiiyoea iao?eoeeaoa eaeath a?enoie?aoecia e
aiaaonoaa, /aai a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eae iu aeaeei, a iai iao.

Oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo o/aiuo auaiaeeo ieaaaaa ec iiei?aiiiai ianaeaiey; ii
eoi yoi iiei?aiiia ianaeaiea, ia yoio aii?in ioaa/atho ?acee/ii. Iaeie
(oae iacuaaaiay “a?oaieiae/aneay oeiea” – eoaeueyioeu Aiie, A.
Iaa?oeeia?) aeoiatho, /oi ieaaae yoi iiei?aiiua eaoeiyiaie aai?eaaiu
no?aiu. Ae?oaea (oae. iacuaaaiay “yo?onneay oeiea” – I.E. Eoii,
Oieueoeaioaeue e ae?.34), n/eoay iao?eoeeaa iioiieaie iiei?eoaeae –
yo?oneia, ioaiaeyo iiei?aiiui eaoeiyiai ?ieue ieaaaaa. O?aouee (H. I.
Oe?eea?, Aeiaea?35) aeoiatho, /oi iao?eoeee – yoi iioiiee iiei?eoaeae
naaeiyi, a ieaaae – iioiiee ei?aiiuo eaoeiyi. Ii ana yoe iineaaeiea
oai?ee enoiaeyo ec oaeeo i?aaeiieiaeaiee (iiei?aiea eaoeiyi yo?oneaie
eee naaeiyiaie, iaee/iinoue aai?eaaiia), eioi?ua naie ii naaa, eae
enoi?e/aneea niauoey, inoathony aeaeaei ia aeieacaiiuie.

Aaeaeo yoiai iaeaieaa i?aaeeueiui aeieaeii auoue i?eciaii neaaeothuaa
iauyniaiea, eioi?ia a iaueo /a?oao iiaeao auoue iacaaii e
ainiiaenoaothuei. Iii a iniiaa aeaii auei oaea Ieao?ii e ?acaeaeyaony
oaeeie o/aiuie, eae Aaeea?, Oaaaea?, Eei/a, Iyaeaea, Aa?oeia e o. ae.

Einoeooo eeeaioaea ano?a/aaony o iiiaeo ia?iaeia, e aacaea ii iaycai
naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai oiio iauaio ae?aaiaio aicc?aieth, a neeo eioi?iai
noae e i?aai eaaeaeiai ia?iaea nouanoaotho oieueei aeey caueou /eaiia
aeaiiiai iauanoaa; eiino?aiaoe i?eioeeieaeueii n/eoaaony a?aaii, e
iioiio nouanoaii aani?aaiui. Aneaaenoaea yoiai aeey oiai, /oiau
iaania/eoue naaa eaeoth-ieaoaeue io?aio aioo?e /oaeiai ieaiaie,
eiino?aiaoe aeieaeai caianoenue iie?iaeoaeuenoaii eaeiai-ieaoaeue
oocaioea; oiaaea ee/iinoue e eiy iineaaeiaai caueuaao /oaeaieaiaiieea.
Oaeia aea iauaa aicc?aiea ia /oaeaieaiaiieeia iu iaoiaeei e a ae?aaiai
?eia: anyeee /oaeano?aiaoe ?anniao?eaaaony, eae hostis. Anee
eiio-ieaoaeue ec yoeo hostes ieacuaaaony iaiaoiaeeiui i?eauoue a ?ei, a
oai aieaa iinaeeoueny caeanue ia [n.37] i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia aeeoaeuenoai
(iai?eia?, aaaeaoeu), oi aio ie/aai ae?oaiai ia inoaaony, eae
i?eaaaiooue e ainoai?eeinoao e iie?iaeoaeuenoao eiai-ieaoaeue ec
ei?aiiuo e iieiii?aaiuo ?eieyi (hospitium privatum).

Yoei iauyniyaony e oeacaiiay ee/iay caaeneiinoue eeeaioa io iao?iia, e
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aai e naiuea iineaaeiaai, e iniaue oa?aeoa? ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo ieie. Eae niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai ioia/aao I?aoa?ooaei,
anooieaiea a eeeaiou i?aaenoaaeyei niaie aeo /anoiie deditio in fidem.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai ia?ooaiea iao?iiii naieo iaycaiiinoae e eeeaioo
iaaeaeaao ia iaai ia naaoneia, a ?aeeaeiciia iaeacaiea: “patronus si
clienti fraudem fecerit sacer esto”, aiai?yo caeiiu XII oaaeeoe. Yoei
aea iauyniyaony e ionoonoaea o eeeaioa a?aaeaeaineie i?aainiiniaiinoe:
ii, eae /oaeano?aiaoe, ia eiae aai e ?aiueoa.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea ieaaaaa oaeaea aa?iaa anaai iiaeao auoue ioaaaeaii ia
iniiaaiee eo th?eaee/aneiai iieiaeaiey. Yoi auee oiaea ia?anaeaioeu a
?ei, ii, i/aaeaeii, ec oaeeo iauei e ieaiai, eioi?ua iieueciaaeenue
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie acaeiiinoueth. A oaeiauie, eae iu ciaai, yaeyeenue
iaueiu Eaoeineiai Nithca. Eaoeiu ia n/eoaeenue ca hostes; iie e a ?eia
iiaee i?eia?aoaoue eiouanoai, caeeth/aoue n a?aaeaeaiaie naeaeee e
aunooiaoue io naiaai eiaie ia noaea, – eiaee iieiia jus commercii.
Iiyoiio eaoeiyiei, ia?anaeyynue a ?ei, ia eiae ioaeaeu a hospitium; ii,
eiia/ii, ia i?eiaaeeaaea ie e iaeiiio ec ?iaeia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa
eo?ee e o?ea, ii ia eiae ieeaeeo iieeoe/aneeo i?aa, neiaii, n?aco
noaiiaeeny a oi iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia yaeyaony oa?aeoa?iui aeey ieaaaaa. N
?inoii ?eia eiee/anoai oaeeo ia?anaeaioeaa (eiiaaea e iaaeia?iaieueiuo)
aic?inei; iie inoaaaeenue aeeoue a ?eia ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea, e,
oaeei ia?acii, ?yaeii n neiai ei?aiiuo ?eieyi e n?aaieoaeueii
iaiiiai/eneaiiui eeannii eeeaioia iinoaiaiii ia?anoae neie iiaiai
ianaeaiey, eioi?ue e noae iacuaaoueny ieaanii.

3. Ae?AAIAEOEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE NO?IE. OeA?Ue, NAIAO, IA?IAeIIA NIA?AIEA

Iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie ae?aaiaeoaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ?eia
yaeythony oea?ue, naiao e ia?iaeiia nia?aiea.

I oii, /oi ia?eiaeo ?anioaeeee i?aaeoanoaiaae a ?eia ia?eiae oea?ae,
e?iia ?eineie o?aaeeoeee, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho oaeea ia?aaeeaaiey n?aaee
iicaeiaeoeo o/?aaeaeaiee ?anioaeeee, eae interregnum, rex sacrificulus,
regifugium e o. ae.

Oea?ue (rex) yaeyaony aa?oiaiui aeaaeueie ainoaea?noaa; a aai ?oeao
nin?aaeioi/eaathony ana ooieoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Ii yaeyaony e
aa?oiaiui iieeiaiaeoeai ia?iaea, e aethnoeoaeai aioo?aiiaai ii?yaeea, e
i?aaenoaoaeai ca ia?iae ia?aae aiaaie. A ea/anoaa iieeiaiaeoea ii
?anii?yaeaaony aiaiiuie neeaie ia?iaea, iacia/aao eiiaiaee?ia e o. ae. A
ea/anoaa aethnoeoaey aioo?aiiaai ii?yaeea ii eiaao i?aai noaea e
iaeacaiey iaae anaie a?aaeaeaiaie (jus coercitionis) aieioue aei i?aaa
aeecie e nia?oe. A ea/anoaa aa?oiaiiai ae?aoea ii caaaaeiaaao
niaa?oaieai iauaia?iaeiuo aea?oaii?eiioaiee e o. ae.

?ei ia yaeyaony, iaeiaei, iiia?oeae aeeianoe/aneie. Aiciiaeii, /oi a
yiioo aeienoi?e/aneoth e ?ei ciae oea?neoth aeanoue, ia?aoiaeeaooth ii
ianeaaenoao a eaeii-ieaoaeue ?iaea [Aa?iaaoo iaoiaeeo neaaeu oaeie
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe], ii, ai anyeii neo/aa, oaea n naiiai ia/aea
enoi?e/aneie yiioe i oaeie ianeaaenoaaiiinoe ?a/e auoue ia iiaeao.
Iaeioi?ua ec nia?aiaiiuo o/aiuo aeoiatho, /oi oea?ue – iaiiaeiaea oiai,
eae aiineaaenoaee aeeeoaoi? e rex sacrorum – iacia/aeny
i?aaeoanoaaiieeii (Aaioaioa, Iae?). Aa?iyoiaa, iaeiaei, ainiiaenoaothuaa
iiaiea, eioi?ia n/eoaao oea?neoth aeanoue auai?iie. Iinea nia?oe oea?y,
a iiiaio iaaeaeooea?noaey (interregnum) aa?oiaiay aeanoue a ainoaea?noaa
ia?aoiaeeo e naiaoo. Naiao auae?aao ec naiae n?aaeu 10 /aeiaae
(interreges), eioi?ua ii i/a?aaee (ii 5 aeiae eaaeaeue) oi?aaeytho
ainoaea?noaii aei oao ii?, iiea ia aoaeao iaia/ai eaiaeeaeao a oea?e.
Iaia/aiiiai eaiaeeaeaoa i/a?aaeiie interrex i?aaeeaaaao ia?iaeiiio
nia?aieth, eioi?ia e iaeaeaao aai aeanoueth (lex curiata de imperio).
Aeey i?eia?aoaiey i?aaa [n.39] niineoueny n aiaaie aiiaue eca?aiiiio
oea?th iaiaoiaeeii aua iniaia iinayuaiea – inauguratio. I?e ioi?aaeaiee
naiae aeanoe oea?ue iiaeao iacia/aoue naaa iiiiuieeia; ii ia?aciaaeinue
ee oaea a oea?neee ia?eiae /oi-eeai a?iaea iinoiyiiuo iaaeno?aoo?,
o?oaeii neacaoue. Ianiiiaiii, nouanoaiaaee eiiaiaee?u ioaeaeueiuo
aieneiauo /anoae (tribuni militum, tribunus celerum); aiciiaeii, /oi ia
a?aiy naiaai ionoonoaey oea?ue inoaaeye a ai?iaea eiai-eeai a ea/anoaa
naiaai caianoeoaey (praefectus urbi), ii iinoiyiiua noaeuee aeey
oaieiaiuo aeae (duoviri perduellionis e quaestores parricidii), ii anae
aa?iyoiinoe, ioiinyony oaea e yiioa ?anioaeeee.

?yaeii n oea?ai noieo naiao (senatus), ninoiyaoee a ae?aaiaeoaa a?aiy ec
anao ?iaeiauo noa?aeoei, eioi?ua yaeyeenue, oaeei ia?acii, eae
i?aaenoaaeoaee ?iaeia, /eaiaie naiaoa ex officio. Ia yoi oeacuaaao oaea
oiiieiaaoaany ?aiaa niaiaaeaiea /enea naiaoi?ia n /eneii ?iaeia, ii
?eineiio i?aaeaieth, a oaeaea iaeiaiiaaiea naiaoi?ia “patres”. Iicaea,
iaeiaei, n iinoaiaiiui iaaeaieai cia/aiey ?iaeia e n oneeaieai oea?neie
aeanoe, yoio i?eioeei ?iaeiaiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ioiaaeaao e naiao
ninoaaeyaony iacia/aieai oea?y.

?ieue naiaoa ii ioiioaieth e oea?th yaeyaony /enoi niaauaoaeueiie: naiao
ianoaeaeaao ii i?aaeeiaeaieth oea?y oa eee ae?oaea aii?inu, e aai
caeeth/aiey (senatusconsulta) eiatho i?eioeeieaeueii cia/aiea niaaoia,
aeey oea?y th?eaee/anee ia iaycaoaeueiuo, ii eiathueo, eiia/ii,
ia?iiioth oaeoe/aneoth neeo. Ii ioiioaieth e ia?iaeo naiao ea?aao ?ieue
iiaeoia. Yoa ?ieue neacuaaaony oaea a iienaiiii auoa interregnum. Ii e
naa?o oiai, anyeee iiaue caeii, i?eiyoue a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee,
ioaeaeaaony aua aeey naiae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a ooaa?aeaeaiee naiaoa
(oae iacuaaaiue auctoritas patrum, eioi?oth Iiiicai ni?aaaaeeeai
naeeaeaao n auctoritas tutoris).

O?aoueei yeaiaioia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa yaeyaony ia?iaeiia
nia?aiea, oi anoue nia?aiea anao ac?ineuo (niiniaiuo iineoue i?oaeea)
iieiii?aaiuo a?aaeaeai (oi anoue iao?eoeeaa). A iniiao i?aaiecaoeee yoeo
ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee iieiaeaii iienaiiia auoa aeaeaiea ia eo?ee, ii/aio e
naiia nia?aiea iacuaaaony comitia curiata, eee (ii niiniao naiaai
auciaa, /a?ac aeaoaoaaa) comitia calata. Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea nicuaaaony
ii eieoeeaoeaa oea?y, [n.40] eioi?ue e aiineo ooaea naie i?aaeeiaeaiey.
I?aaeeiaeaiey yoe a nia?aiee ia aeaaaoe?othony, a eeoue i?inoi
i?eieiathony eee ioaa?aathony ioe?uoith onoiith iiaea/ae aieinia
(i?inoui “aea” eee “iao”). Aieueoeinoai aieinia a aeaiiie eo?ee aeaaaei
aiein eo?ee, a aieueoeinoai aieinia yoeo iineaaeieo aeaaaei ?aoaiea
ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey. I?aaeiaou aaaeiinoaa ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee aaeaa ee
iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu n aeinoaoi/iie yniinoueth. A priori iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a naieoeee ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee ioaeaeaeenue ana
iiaua caeiiu, cao?aaeaaaoea aieaa eee iaiaa nouanoaaiii i?aaiaie no?ie
iauanoaa. A ia?iaeiii nia?aiee, aeaeaa, i?ienoiaeeo i?eiyoea eiai-eeai a
ninoaa iao?eoeeaa (cooptatio in patriciis), a oaeaea iaeioi?ua
aaaeiaeoea aeou /anoii-i?aaiaie aeecie – onuiiaeaiea (arrogatio) e
caaauaiea (testamentum). Iaeiiaoe, aa?iyoii, a nia?aieyo aea ?aoaeenue e
aaaeiaeoea aii?inu oaeouae aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee – iai?eia?,
aii?in ia iauyaeaiee aieiu, i caeeth/aiee ie?a e o. i. Ii, aiiaua,
ia?aaeaoue eee ia ia?aaeaoue oio eee eiie aii?in ia ?aoaiea ia?iaeiiai
nia?aiey caaenaei anaoeaei io aiee oea?y, eai e naiia nia?aiea aac aai
aiee ninoiyoueny ia iiaei.

Iao?ea?oaeueiue oa?aeoa? ae?aaia?eineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy
ono?aiyao iuneue i eaeeo au oi ie auei th?eaee/aneeo (eiinoeoooeeiiiuo)
i?aaao ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee ii ioiioaieth e oea?th. Oaeoe/anee, eiia/ii,
oea?ue ai anao aaaeiaeoeo neo/ayo aeieaeai aue eneaoue iii?u a ia?iaea,
ii th?eaee/anee aai ee/iay aiey, aai aa?oiaiay aeanoue (imperium) ie/ai
ia auea naycaia. Aianoi oiai, /oiau aiineoue naie i?aaeeiaeaiey a
comitia, oea?ue iia e naiinoiyoaeueii iiaaeaoue (imperare) oi, /oi
iaoiaeee ioaeiui, e oaeia ia/aeuenoaaiiia i?aaeienaiea auei aeey
a?aaeaeai oae aea iaycaoaeueii, eae e caeii, – n oai ?acaa oieueei
?acee/eai, /oi caeii, i?eiyoue a ia?iaeiii nia?aiee (lex), anoue jussus
populi, iaycaoaeueiue iaanaaaea (aei ioiaiu a oaeii aea ii?yaeea); iaae
oai eae ee/iia i?aaeienaiea oea?y eiaao neeo eeoue aei oao ii?, iiea
yoio oea?ue iaoiaeeony o aeanoe, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ni nia?oueth aai eo
ipso ia?anoaao auoue iaycaoaeueiui.

Aaeaeo iaee/iinoe anao o?ao iienaiiuo yeaiaioia, iauee oa?aeoa? ?eineiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa yoiai ia?eiaea i?aaenoaaeyaony nii?iui.
Aaeaeo oiai, /oi ?yaeii n oea?ai noiyo naiao e ia?iaeiia nia?aiea,
ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai iiaeao iieacaoueny [n.41] iiia?oeae
eiinoeoooeeiiiie; n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aaeaeo ionoonoaey eaeeo-eeai
th?eaee/aneeo ia?aie/aiee oea?neie aeanoe, iii iiaeao auoue iiiyoi eae
iiia?oey aaniethoiay; iaeiiaoe, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea auai?iue oa?aeoa?
oea?neie aeanoe e n?aaieoaeueioth iieiioo iieiiii/ee iicaeiaeoeo
?anioaeeeaineeo iaaeno?aoia, a iniaaiiinoe aeeeoaoi?ia e eiinoeia,
iiaeii e ae?aaiaeoee ?ei n/anoue ca ?anioaeeeo, oieueei n aeeeoaoi?ii
iiaeeciaiiui. ?aaiui ia?acii, nii?ai e aioo?aiiee oa?aeoa? yoiai
ono?ienoaa: iaeie auaeaeaatho a oea?neie aeanoe ia ia?aue ieai yeaiaio
aiaiiue (iai?eia?, A. aea Naieoen), ae?oaea – yeaiaio ?aeeaeiciue,
oaie?aoe/aneee (iai?eia?, Othnoaeue-aea-Eoeaiae) e o. ae.

Ana yoe nii?u iaoiaeyo naaa iauyniaiea a oii, /oi a ain. ono?ienoaa
yoiai ia?eiaea caeeth/aiu aua ana yoe yeaiaiou aianoa e /oi e ia
neiaeeaoaiony aua no?ith iaeuecy i?eeaaaoue iaoeo iuiaoieo oai?aoe/aneeo
eaoaai?ee. E anee oae aeaeaoaeueii aeaoue yoiio no?ith eaeia-eeai iauaa
ii?aaeaeaiea, oi iaeaieaa aa?iui aoaeao “iao?ea?oaeueiue”. Oea?ue
yaeyaony iao?ea?oaeueiui aeaaeueie naiaai ia?iaea e noieo e iineaaeiaio
a oaeii aea ioiioaiee, eae paterfamilias e naiae naiuea. Eae a ?oeao
paterfamilias nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue ana ooieoeee naiaeiie aeanoe, oae a
?oeao oea?y nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue ia/aeuenoai iaae ia?iaeii ai anao
noi?iiao aai nouanoaiaaiey; eae paterfamilias ia ia?aie/ai ie/ai, e?iia
?aeeaee e iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, oae ia ia?aie/ai e oea?ue a naiai
oi?aaeaiee ia?iaeii.

4. NAE?AEUeIUE NO?IE

?aeeaeiciua aa?iaaiey e ?aeeaeiciay i?aaiecaoeey ia?iaea ieeiaaea ia
inoathony aac aeeyiey ia aai aeeciue e aai i?aaiaua o/?aaeaeaiey, e /ai
ae?aaiaa yiioa, oai cia/eoaeueiaa, ii iauaio [n.42] i?aaeeo, yoi
aeeyiea. O iaeieo ia?iaeia aeeyiea ?aeeaee neeueiaa, o ae?oaeo neaaaa; o
eiaeonia eee aaeioyi, iai?eia?, iii auei ianoieueei neeueii, /oi anaio
eo ainoaea?noaaiiiio no?ith i?eaeaaaei oa?aeoa? oaie?aoee. Oaeiai
cia/aiey o ae?aaieo ?eieyi ?aeeaey oaea ia eiaao (oioy, iai?eia?,
Othnoaeue-aea-Eoeaiae aea?aeeony eiiai iiaiey). ?eieyia oaea i/aiue ?aii
noaee ioaeaeyoue i?aai naaoneia, /aeiaa/aneia (jus humanum) io i?aaa
aiaeaneiai (jus divinum). Ii i?e anai oii e o ?eieyi ?aeeaey ia
inoaaaeanue aac cia/eoaeueiiai aeeyiey, i?e/ai yoi aeeyiea auei
iiiaiia?acii e i?iieeaei a aeeciue ?acee/iuie iooyie. Oeaaeai caeanue
eeoue aaaeiaeoea ec yaeaiee yoiai ?iaea.

Aeaaea aeieaey aei i?eioeeieaeueiiai i?eciaiey anae ioaeaeueiinoe jus
divinum io jus humanum, iaeaaei in concreto i?iaanoe iaaeaeo eo
iaeanoyie oi/ioth aeaia?eaoeeiiioth eeieth, ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi iiaeeaaeeo
naieoeee naaoneiai i?aaa e /oi – naieoeee i?aaa nae?aeueiiai. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, i?e ia?acaeoinoe e iaiieiioa ae?aaiaai naaoneiai i?aaa iiiaea
ioiioaiey, iiaeeaaeaaoea aiineaaenoaee naaoneie th?enaeeeoeee, a
ae?aaiaeoaa a?aiy iaoiaeeee naaa caueoo oieueei a ?aeeaee.

Iiiaea aeayiey, aac?acee/iua aeey i?aaa, n/eoaeenue ia?ooathueie
i?aaeienaiey ?aeeaee e ii i?eaiai?o nae?aeueiiai noaea iaaeaeaee ia
aeiiaieea oi eee ae?oaia, eiiaaea i/aiue nouanoaaiiia, iaeacaiea. Oaeei
ia?acii, ?yaeii n naaoneei oaieiaiui i?aaii nouanoaiaaei i/aiue neiaeiia
oaieiaiia nae?aeueiia i?aai. Oae, iai?eia?, auoa auei oaea oiiiyiooi,
/oi ioiioaiey eeeaioa e iao?iio noiyee eneeth/eoaeueii iiae caueoie
?aeeaee: iaeniieiaiea iao?iiii naieo iaycaiiinoae ii ioiioaieth e
eeeaioo aeaeei ca niaie aeey aa?ieiiiiai iao?iia aunoaa iaeacaiea –
“sacer esto” (“patronus si clienti fraudem fecerit sacer esto”): ii
iauyaeyeny ia?a/aiiui iuaieth aiaia e iioiio iinoaaeaiiui aia iauaiey
ethaeae e aia anyeie caueou caeiia. ?aeeaeiciui i?anooieaieai n/eoaeinue
e ia?ooaiea eeyoau, i?enyae: aeiiaiee iiaeeaaeae aieueoae eee iaiueoae,
ee/iie eee eiouanoaaiiie, ea?a n oeaeueth i/euaiey ia?aae inei?aeaiiuie
aiaaie (expiatio). I?enyaa aea ea?aea a i?eieoeaiie aeecie ae?aaiaai
?eia /?acau/aeii aaaeioth ?ieue: ath iiaee?aieyeenue nieioue e ?yaeii
?aciiia?aciua aeiaiai?iua iaauaiey, eioi?ua a aeacao naaoneiai i?aaa aua
ia eiaee ieeaeie th?eaee/aneie neeu; iaeniieiaiea oaeiai iaauaiey
yaeyeinue [n.43] oaea ia?ooaieai i?enyae e aeaeei ca niaie aeooiaiue
noae e expiatio. Eae oaeaeei aeaeaa, i?enyaa eiaea ia?iiiia cia/aiea e a
ae?aaia?eineii a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna.

I?eiaoeaaeenue aii?inu ?aeeaee, aeaeaa, e ?acee/iui aii?inai naiaeiuo e
ianeaaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. A noa?a naiuee aiaoaoaeuenoai ae?aoeia e
ae?a/aneie th?enaeeeoeee aucuaaea ?aeeaeiciay oi?ia a?aea –
confarreatio, iaeia ec ae?aaiaeoeo oi?i aai caeeth/aiey. A noa?a
ianeaaeiaaiey aieueoia cia/aiea eiae einoeooo naiaeiuo sacra. Eaaeaeay
naiuey eiaea naie iniaue eoeueo, eoeueo naieo i?aaeeia, aeooe eioi?uo,
ii aa?iaaieyi ?eieyi, i?iaeieaeaee aeoaoue ieiei aeiiaoiaai i/aaa e
eioi?ua aeey naiaai caa?iaiiai iieiy ioaeaeaeenue a ecaanoiuo
aea?oaii?eiioaieyo. Yoe aea?oaii?eiioaiey ieeiaaea ia aeieaeiu auee
i?ae?auaoueny, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iaiyoue i?aaeeia aoaeao inei?aeaia;
aeooe i?aaeeia i?aa?aoyony ec aeia?uo aaieaa a ceuo e i?eoii – ia
oieueei aeey aeeaeaeoeo /eaiia naiuee, ii e aeey anaai ?eineiai ia?iaea.
Aaeaeo yoiai aii?in i oii, e eiio a neo/aa nia?oe aeaiiiai paterfamilias
ia?aeaeoo i?aai e iaycaiiinoue iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aeaeaa naiaeiua sacra, –
yoio ?aeeaeiciue aii?in i?eiaoeaaeny e aii?ino i ianeaaeiaaiee e, oaeei
ia?acii, ioe?uaae aei?iao aeey aicaeaenoaey nae?aeueiiai i?aaa ia
naaoneia.

Aieueoia cia/aiea a a?aaeaeaineie aeecie eiaee, caoai oae iacuaaaiua
dies nefasti, aeie i?acaeie/iua, a oa/aiea eioi?uo iaeuecy auei
niaa?oaoue ecaanoiuo a?aaeaeaineeo eee ioaee/iuo aeoia. Ii?aaeaeaiea aea
dies fasti e dies nefasti, ?aaii eae e ana onoaiiaeaiea eaeaiaea?y,
iaoiaeeeinue a ?oeao ae?aoeia.

I?eaaaeaiiui aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaaaony e?oa ioiioaiee, oae eee eia/a
cao?aaeaathueo aii?inu ?aeeaee e nae?aeueiiai i?aaa, e /ai aeaeueoa a
enoi?ee iacaae, oai yoio e?oa oe?a e cia/eoaeueiaa.

Iiiyoii, /oi i?e oaeie neiaeiinoe jus sacrum aai iiciaiea e oieeiaaiea
o?aaiaaei iaiaeuo niaoeeaeueiuo oaieiae/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo naaaeaiee.
Yoe naaaeaiey e eiioeaio?e?iaaeenue a ?acee/iuo ae?a/aneeo eieeaaeyo.

Aeey anao oieueei /oi ia?a/eneaiiuo aii?inia e ioiioaiee eiaea
oeaio?aeueiia cia/aiea eieeaaey iiioeoeeia (pontifices). Ia?aiia/aeueiia
iacia/aiea yoie eieeaaee, eae e aa iacaaiea (ii/aio – “iinoino?ieoaee”?)
oaiii, ii ianiiiaiii, /oi a enoi?e/aneoth [n.44] yiioo a yoie eieeaaee
nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue ciaiea e o?aiaiea nae?aeueiiai i?aaa (jus
pontificium). A yoie eieeaaee au?aaaouaathony i?aaeea e i?eaiu
oieeiaaiey, aaaeoony aeaaea caiene th?eaee/aneeo i?aoeaaeaioia, caiene,
iinyuea iacaaiea commentarii pontificum; oieueei o iiioeoeeia iiaeii
iieo/eoue e iaaeeaaeauee th?eaee/aneee niaao. Oaeei ia?acii, ii anae
ni?aaaaeeeainoe iiioeoeee n/eoathony ia?auie ?eineeie th?enoaie,
iieiaeeaoeie ia/aei ?acaeoeth ?eineiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa.

Ii e iaeanoue ioaee/iiai i?aaa, iaeanoue aeae iieeoe/aneeo, ia auea
naiaiaeia io ?aciiia?aciuo nae?aeueiuo aeeyiee. Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea
eiae caeanue einoeooo auspicia, oi anoue ?aeeaeiciua aaaeaiey. Ia?aae
ia/aeii anyeiai neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiiai aeoa, eae eaaeaeue
ioaeaeueiue a?aaeaeaiei, oae e ana ainoaea?noai a eeoea naieo aeanoae
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii noa?aeenue ociaoue aieth aiaia: aeaaii?eyonoaoao ee iia
i?aaeiieaaaaiiio i?aaei?eyoeth (nicuaaaiiio ia?iaeiiio nia?aieth e o.
i.) eee iao. N?aaenoaaie aeey iiciaiey yoie aiee aiaia auee iaaaniua
ciaiaiey, iiaaaeaiea nayuaiiuo ioeoe e o. ae. Ii oieeiaaiea yoeo
i?eciaeia o?aaiaaei iiyoue-oaee ecaanoiuo niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee, e yoe
ciaiey nio?aiyeenue e iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue a ae?oaie ae?a/aneie eieeaaee –
aaao?ia. Iiaeiaii oiio, eae iiioeoeee eiaee aieueoia cia/aiea aeey
aii?inia a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, oae eieeaaey aaao?ia eiaea aieueoie aan a
iaeanoe ioaee/iiai i?aaa e a aii?inao iieeoeee: iauyaea iaaethaeaaiua
i?aaeciaiaiiaaiey iaaeaaii?eyoiuie, aaao?u iiaee caoi?iiceoue ethaia
ainoaea?noaaiiia ia/eiaiea. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi iao?eoeee
aiineaaenoaee a naiae ai?ueaa n ieaaayie i/aiue aei?iaeeee yoie
eieeaaeae e aeieueoa anaai i?ioeaeeenue aoi?aeaieth a iaa yoeo
iineaaeieo.

Iaeiiaoe, e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey iaoiaeeeenue a caaeneiinoe io
ii?i nae?aeueiiai i?aaa. O/?aaeaeaieai, eiiiaoaioiui a yoie iaeanoe,
yaeyeanue o?aouey cia/eoaeueiay eieeaaey – oaoeeaeia. Ia?aae iauyaeaieai
aieiu oaoeeaeu a ea/anoaa iineia ioi?aaeyeenue aeey ia?aaiai?ia e
iai?eyoaeth e, a neo/aa aaconiaoiinoe eo, ooiaey, a?inaee n iia?aie/iie
/a?ou n iniauie ia?yaeaie a iai?eyoaeueneoth caieth eiiuea. Iie aea
ne?aieyee ie? eeyoaaie e aea?oaii?eiioaieyie.

E?iia oeacaiiuo, nouanoaiaaei aua iaiaei ae?oaeo ae?aoeia (aaeeie/iuo e
eieeaaee – iai?eia?, oeaieiu, aanoaeee, haruspices e o. ae.), ii iie
oaea ia eiaee aeey th?eaee/aneie aeecie oaeiai cia/aiey, eae ia?aua o?e
eieeaaee.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeeyiea nae?aeueiiai i?aaa, iniaaiii a ae?aaiaeoee
ia?eiae ?eineie enoi?ee, auei aanueia cia/eoaeueii. Yoi aeeyiea
oiaiueoaaony aiineaaenoaee, iniaaiii n onoaiiaeaieai ?anioaeeee, aeey
eioi?ie oa?aeoa?enoe/iui yaeyaony no?iai i?iaaaeaiiia ioaeaeaiea
ae?a/aneeo aeieaeiinoae io naaoneeo iaaeno?aoo?. Yoi ioaeaeaiea, aiai?eo
Iiiicai, yaeyaony, auoue iiaeao, iaeiei ec naiuo nouanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia
?anioaeeeaineie ?aoi?iu; aeaaiaea?y yoiio ioaeaeaieth nicaeaeny oio
ia?aaan ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, eioi?ue aeae caoai ?eio a oa/aiea
iineaaeothueo noieaoee aaaaiiieth a aioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee.

5. YEIIIIE*ANEEA IOIIOAIEss

Anee aiiaua a aii?inao ae?aaiaeoae ?eineie enoi?ee iu iaoaeeeaaainy ia
ianno cao?oaeiaiee, oi a iaeanoe yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee iaoe naaaeaiey
ii i?aeiouanoao ieacuaathony neoaeiuie e iaoaa?aiiuie.

Iniiaie anae yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ae?aaiaai ?eia yaeyeinue, aannii?ii,
caieaaeaeea. Ii ni?aaaaeeeaiio caia/aieth A.O. Aooea, aanue ?eineee
eaeaiaea?ue, ?aniieiaeaiea i?acaeieeia e o. ae., oeacuaaao ia
caieaaeaeue/aneee oeeaae iauaeaiiie aeecie. Aua a yiioo ianeieueei aieaa
iicaeithth, a caeiiao XII oaaeeoe, caieaaeaeue/aneea i?anooieaiey
caieiatho, ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie, aanueia aeaeiia ianoi.

Ii ia eaeeo th?eaee/aneeo iniiaao iieieeinue yoi caieaaeaeea? Ae?oaeie
neiaaie, eaeia aue no?ie ae?aaia?eineiai caieaaeaaeaiey? Ia yoio n/ao iu
eiaai aanueia iaii?aaeaeaiiua e i?ioeai?a/eaua aeaiiua, ?acia?aoueny a
eioi?uo a aunoae noaiaie cao?oaeieoaeueii.

Iicaeiaeoaa ?eineia a?aaeaeaineia i?aai anae naiae no?oeoo?ie, [n.46]
i?yiieeiaeiui e /anoi aei e?aeiinoe iineaaeiaaoaeueiui i?iaaaeaieai
ia/aea /anoiie, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, io?eoeaoaeueiui
ioiioaieai ei anyeiai ?iaea eiouanoaaiiui iauiinoyi e o. ae. eae aoaeoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi einoeooo /anoiie, ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe
i?enou naiiio ?eineiio aeooo e yaeyaony eneiiiui einoeoooii ?eineiai
i?aaa. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ia ia?aue acaeyae e niiauaieai iaeioi?uo
?eineeo ienaoaeae (Aa??iia e Ieeiey) i oii, /oi ?iioe i?e naiii
iniiaaiee ai?iaea ?acaeaeee iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie caieth ia o/anoee ii 2
thaa?a, n oai, /oiau yoe o/anoee ia?aoiaeeee ii ianeaaenoao, ii/aio iie
e iacuaaeenue heredia (heredium io neiaa heres, ianeaaeiee).

Iaeiaei oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo aeaiiuo i?ioeai?a/eo oaeiio caeeth/aieth.
Oaea auoa auei oiiiyiooi i oii, /oi ecaanoiia ae?aaiaio ?eio i?aai
?iaeiaiai ianeaaeiaaiey e ?iaeiaie iiaee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaeioi?ie
?iaeiaie iauiinoe eiouanoa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eae ni?aaaaeeeai oeacae
Iiiicai, 2 thaa?a, ?aaiua ia iao n/ao ieiei iieoaeanyoeiu caiee, ia
iiaee auoue aeinoaoi/iuie aeey i?iei?ieaiey aeaaea naiie n?aaeiae
caieaaeaeue/aneie naiuee. Iaeiiaoe, enoi?ey iiiaeo ae?oaeo ia?iaeia
iieacuaaao, /oi einoeooo /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ?acaeaaaony n?aaieoaeueii
iicaeii e /oi aio iaueiiaaiii i?aaeoanoaotho oaeea eee eiua oi?iu
eieeaeoeaiiai caieaaeaaeaiey.

Ia?iae (eee ieaiy), inaaeeaaynue ia eaeie-ieaoaeue oa??eoi?ee, caieiay
aa, niio?eo, eiia/ii, ia iaa, eae ia naith, e aoaeao anaie neeaie
caueuaoue aa io aoi?aeaiey /oaeaieaiaiieeia. Caiyoay oaeei ia?acii caiey
anoue caiey anaai ia?iaea, anaai ieaiaie: aioo?e ia?iaea ia ia?auo ii?ao
aua ia nouanoaoao eaeeo-eeai /anoiuo, eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia oio eee
ae?oaie o/anoie. Ia?iae ?annaeyaony, iaeiaei, ?acee/iuie aieaa iaeeeie
nithcaie, ec eioi?uo ii neaaaaony, – iaueiaie, ?iaeaie e o. i. Ii ia?a
ana aieueoaai e aieueoaai ?acaeoey inaaeeinoe yoe iaueiu eee ?iaeu
i?eaueatho niio?aoue ia caieiaaiue eie o/anoie iauae caiee, eae ia naie
o/anoie, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue /oaeei iaueiai eee /oaeei ?iaeai. Oae
aicieeaao /oanoai iaueiiie eee [n.47] ?iaeiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, a
aianoa n oai e i?aai iaueiiie eee ?iaeiaie nianoaaiiinoe. Iaueia e ?iae,
a naith i/a?aaeue, ?aniaaeathony ia ioaeaeueiua naiuee (aeai?u),
yaeythueany iniiaiuie oicyenoaaiiuie aaeeieoeaie. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo naiae
neaeeo ia ecaanoiii o/anoea iaueiiie eee ?iaeiaie caiee, ia?aaaouaaao
aai e iieuecoaony aai ieiaeaie aeey naiaai i?iaeiaieuenoaey. N ?acaeoeai
iaeioi?ie eioaineaiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eoeueoo?u ?acaeaaaony ia
yoie ii/aa iinoaiaiii /oanoai naiaeiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aeaiiiai
o/anoea, a aianoa e i?aai naiaeiie nianoaaiiinoe. I?aaenoaaeaiea i oii,
/oi caiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo anaio ia?iaeo, iinoaiaiii iooiaeeo ia aoi?ie
ieai, i?aa?auaynue iaei-iiiaeo a oae iacuaaaiia i?aai aa?oiaiie
nianoaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa (dominium eminens) ia ainoaea?noaaiioth
oa??eoi?eth. Oae aea iiiaiiiao ineaaeyaony e niciaiea i?aa iaueiu eee
?iaea; ia yoeo i?aaao aniiieiatho oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea oa eee ae?oaay
naiuey auie?aao: aianoa n iae ioiaaeaao iieueciaaoaeue ecaanoiie /anoe
iaueiiie eee ?iaeiaie caiee, aneaaenoaea /aai yoa /anoue aica?auaaony
oaia?ue e naiaio ia?aienoi/ieeo. A yoii i?ioeanna iinoaiaiiiai
?aceiaeaiey iaueiiie eee ?iaeiaie nianoaaiiinoe, anoanoaaiii, aia?aaee
eaeoo oa caiee, a eioi?ua aeeaaeuaaaony aieueoa o?oaea e eaieoaea.
I?aaeaea anaai onaiythony iaiouaieaii ioaeaeueiui naiueyi caiee
onaaeaaiua, caoai ia?aaaouaaaiua, iaoioiua; eana e eoaa aeieueoa ae?oaeo
inoathony a iauai iieueciaaiee, ii caoai e aeey ieo ianooiaao /a?aae.

Aaeaa ee iiaeao iiaeeaaeaoue niiiaieth, /oi a iaueo /a?oao oio aea
enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann niaa?oeeny a naia a?aiy e a ?eia. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho neaaeu, inoaaeaiiua eaaeaeie ec ioaeaeueiuo ninoaaiuo
noaaeee a yoii i?ioeanna.

Oae, a oa/aiea anae naiae aeaeueiaeoae enoi?ee, i?e eaaeaeii iiaii
caoaaoa caaiaaaiiie caiee, ?ei iaoeinieoaeueii i?eciaao caoaa/aiioth
oa??eoi?eth ca ager publicus, ca caieth anaai ?eineiai ia?iaea, eae
oaeiaiai. Yoio i?eioeei i?eiaiyaony ia oieueei e ioaeaeueiui /anoyi
caoaa/aiiie oa??eoi?ee, ii e e oeaeui ia?iiiui i?iaeioeeyi. Eae aoaeao
iinooieaii caoai n yoei ager publicus, yoi ae?oaie aii?in; ai anyeii
neo/aa, prima facie63 caoaa/aiiay oa??eoi?ey anoue dominium populi
Romani.

Ii, eae iu ciaai, ?eineay civitas ninoiyea ec ecaanoiiai eiee/anoaa
?iaeia (gentes). Eaaeaeue ?iae caieiae ecaanoioth /anoue oa??eoi?ee,
eioi?oth e ia?aaaouaae. Ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi e ?eieyia neaeaee ia
caiea ?iaeaie, oeacuaatho ?iaeiaua iacaaiey ae?aaiaeoeo naeueneeo o?ea
oaea iinea oiai, eae o?eau noaee aeaeaieai /enoi oa??eoi?eaeueiui
(tribus Aemilia, Camilia, Claudia, Cornelia e o. ae.). I?aai ?iaeiaiai
ianeaaeiaaiey e ?iaeiaie iiaee [n.48] naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi iu
eiaai caeanue aeaei ia n i?inoui oa??eoi?eaeueiui ninaaenoaii
th?eaee/anee ?ac?iciaiiuo naiaenoa, a n enoi?e/aneei inoaoeii i?aaeiaai
?iaeiaiai caieaaeaaeaiey.

Iaeiiaoe, a naaoa iauaai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna iieo/aao iaaeeaaeauaa
iauyniaiea e ?eineia i?aaeaiea i heredium. Heredium i?aaenoaaeyao
niaith, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, ia /oi eiia, eae eeoue onaaeaaiia ianoi. A
enoi/ieeao neiai heredium naeeaeaaony ni neiaii hortus, a yoi iineaaeiaa
oiio?aaeyaony /anoi aianoi villa. E aiineaaenoaee, i?e iniiaaiee
eieiiee, iinaeythueiny eieiienoai ioaiaeeeinue oaeaea ii 2 thaa?a, ii
eeoue eae ianoi aeey onaaeueau; inoaeueiay aea iaiaoiaeeiay caiey
ioiaaeaauaaeanue a iaeiie iauae /a?oa. Aaeaeo anaai yoiai aa?iyoii, /oi
i?aaeaiea i heredium anoue eeoue ainiiieiaiea i oie ii?a, eiaaea
onaaeaaiua caiee noaee ieii/aoaeueii n/eoaoueny iaiouaieaiie
nianoaaiiinoueth naiuee, ecuyoie io oaeeo eee eiuo aiciiaeiuo
?anii?yaeaiee ?iaea eee iaueiu (iai?eia?, eaeiai-eeai ia?aaeaea).

Ianiio?y ia aeaeaei i?iaeaeioaoeeny i?ioeann ?aceiaeaiey iaueiiie
(civitas) e ?iaeiaie nianoaaiiinoe, aeieai aua a ?eia nio?aiyaony
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi oio eee eiie o/anoie, i?eiaaeeaaeauee aeaiiie
naiuea, anoue oieueei aeiey yoie naiuee a iauae caiea. Iaen Aaaa?
i?aaeeueii oeacuaaao, /oi ia?aiia/aeueiay “eae?eoneay nianoaaiiinoue”
(dominium ex jure Quiritium) iaicia/aea oieueei i?aai ia ecaanoiue
“ae?aaee” a iaueiiie caiea, ia iaeioi?oth “quota” aa, /oi neiai fundus
iaicia/aei aieaa “iaaeae”, /ai ?aaeueioth ieiuaaeue caiee.

I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue oiai eee ae?oaiai o/anoea naiuea iineo aua aeieai
oa?aeoa? ia ee/iie, a naiaeiie nianoaaiiinoe: o/anoie, ia eioi?ii neaeeo
e eioi?ui aeeaao naiuey, ?anniao?eaaaony ia eae aauue, i?eiaaeeaaeauay
ee/ii aeiiiaeaaeuea, a eae iauaa aeinoiyiea [n.49] e oicyenoaaiiue
ooiaeaiaio oeaeie naiuee. Aua aiineaaenoaee nio?aiyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea,
/oi ana /eaiu naiuee nooue eae au ninianoaaiieee ia yoo caieth aeaaea
i?e aeecie paterfamilias (“quodammodo domini” – o Aay). Caiey,
i?eiaaeeaaeauay naiuea, aoiaeeo a ninoaa familia e yoei eiaiai /anoi
iaicia/aaony. Aaeaeo yoiai e i?aai ?anii?yaeaiey ath auei a ae?aaiaeoaa
a?aiy a ?oeao paterfamilias aeaeaei ia oaeei iieiui, eae aiineaaenoaee:
inoaoeii ae?aaiaeoeo ia?aie/aiee naiaiaeu aeiiiaeaaeuee yaeyaony,
iai?eia?, oae iacuaaaiia oi?iaeueiia iaiaoiaeeiia ianeaaeiaaiea nuiiaae,
i eioi?ii aoaeao ?a/ue aiineaaenoaee. E eeoue iinoaiaiii yoe ia?aie/aiey
ioiaaeatho, i?aaa paterfamilias oneeeaathony, e oi, /oi ?aiueoa
n/eoaeinue iauei iaaeaeii naiuee, ia/eiaao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae ee/iay
nianoaaiiinoue paterfamilias. E oieueei n yoiai iiiaioa iiaeii aiai?eoue
ia ieii/aoaeueiii onoaiiaeaiee a ?eineii i?aaa einoeoooa /anoiie,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. E eaeiio a?aiaie i?eo?i/eaaaony yoio
iiiaio, o?oaeii neacaoue; iaueiiaaiii aeoiatho, /oi ei a?aiaie caeiiia
XII oaaeeoe /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue oaea ieii/aoaeueii neiaeeeanue.

Auei au a aunieie noaiaie aaaeii ninoaaeoue naaa oioy au naiia iauaa
i?aaenoaaeaiea i eiee/anoaaiiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee caiee iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie naiaeiuie oicyenoaaie a ae?aaiaeoaa a?aiy, ii, ?acoiaaony,
ieeaeiai noaoenoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea o ian iao. Iaeioi?ua oeacaiey,
iaeiaei, auoue iiaeao, aeaao iai ?ani?aaeaeaiea a?aaeaeai ii
eiouanoaaiiui eeannai a oae iacuaaaiie ?aoi?ia Na?aey Ooeeey. Eae
ecaanoii e eae ia yoii aoaeao neacaii aeaeaa, a iniiao ?acaeaeaiey
a?aaeaeai auei iieiaeaii eiee/anoai i?eiaaeeaaeauae eaaeaeiio caiee. I?e
yoii a ia?aue ca/eneyeenue a?aaeaeaia, eiaaoea nauoa 20 thaa?ia caiee,
ai 2-e io 15 aei 20, a 3-e io 10 aei 15, a 4-e io 5 aei 10 e a 5-e io 2
aei 5 thaa?ia. Anee iu aniiiiei, /oi iaeei thaa? ?aaiyaony
i?eaeeceoaeueii 1/4 iaoae aeanyoeiu, oi iu oaeaeei, /oi a?aaeaeaia
ia?aiai, aunoaai eeanna, nooue ia /oi eiia, eae eeoea, eiathuea aieaa,
/ai 5 aeanyoei, oi anoue ia /oi eiia, eae n?aaeiea, aeinoaoi/iua
e?anoueyia. Anee iu i?eiai, aeaeaa, ai aieiaiea, /oi yoe a?aaeaeaia
ia?aiai eeanna ninoaaeyee 98 oeaioo?ee (80 iaoeo e 18 anaaeie/aneeo) ec
iauaai /enea 193 oeaioo?ee, oi (i?e i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi oeaioo?ey anoue
ii /eneaiiinoe aieaa eee iaiaa iaeeiaeiaay aiaaay aaeeieoea), ieaaeaony,
/oi a [n.50] iiiaio ?aoi?iu a iauai ninoaaa ?eineiai ianaeaiey oaeeo
iieiicaiaeueiuo e?anoueyi auei aieaa iieiaeiu. Iaeiiaoe, ia?auaao ia
naay aieiaiea neaaay i?ia?anney caiaeueiuo ii?i: io 2 aei 5, io 5 aei 10
e o. ae. thaa?ia; iia oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi aieueoie oicyenoaaiiie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aua ia nouanoaiaaei, /oi i eaeeo-eeai iniaaiii e?oiiuo
oicyenoaao aua e ?a/e auoue ia iiaeao. Anee au eeann e?oiiuo
iiiaueeia-caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e oiio a?aiaie oniae oaea ia?aciaaoueny,
anee au ii caieiae oaea, neieueei-ieaoaeue caiaoiia ianoi a
oicyenoaaiiie aeecie no?aiu, yoi iaecaaaeii neacaeinue au e ia naiii
iino?iaiee eeannia. Aio ii/aio ana oai?ee, no?iyuea oo eee eioth
aeiioaco (iai?eia?, ioiineoaeueii i?ienoiaeaeaiey ieaaaaa) ia
i?aaeiieaaaaiii yeiiiie/aneii ?anneiaiee ae?aaiaeoaai ?eineiai
ianaeaiey, ieacuaathony eeoaiiuie ooiaeaiaioa: ?aceiai ?anneiaiey aua ia
nouanoaiaaei.

E?iia caieaaeaeey, aac niiiaiey, auee oaea ecaanoiu e ae?oaea enoi/ieee
aeioiaea a ea/anoaa iiaeniaiuo. Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea ec ieo eiaei
neioiaiaenoai n auianii ia iauanoaaiiuo auaiiao. Eae ecaanoii, aua
aiineaaenoaee, a ia?eiae ?anioaeeee, cia/eoaeueiua /anoe ager publicus
i?aaeinoaaeyeenue aeey yoie oeaee. A iauai athaeaeaoa naiuee i?iaeoeou
neioiaiaenoaa – pecus – ea?aee ?ieue iai?ioiiai eaieoaea: eie iooai
iaiaia oaeiaeaoai?yeenue oaeouea ioaeaeu naiuee. A ae?aaiaeoaa a?aiy a
?eia neio ea?ae ?ieue aeaiaa; ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao naiia iacaaiea
iineaaeieo pecunia (io pecus); e?iia oiai, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao
enoi/ieeia, aua a ia/aea ia?eiaea ?anioaeeee eiouanoaaiiua oo?aou
iacia/aeenue a aeaea ecaanoiiai eiee/anoaa neioa (iai?eia?, Lex Aternia
Tarpeia ii?aaeaeyao caeiiiue maximum oo?aoa, ca i?aaeaeu eioi?iai ia
aeieaeai ia?anooiaoue iaaeno?ao, a 30 aueia e 2 iaoeu).

Auee ecaanoiu, eiia/ii, e ?aianea. I?aaeaiea ?anneacuaaao iai aeaaea i
oii, /oi aua Ioia i?aaieciaae ?aianeaiieeia a oeaoe. ?anneac i Ioia
iiaeao auoue eaaaiaeie, ii ianiiiaiii, /oi iaeioi?ua ei?ii?aoeee
?aianeaiieeia i/aiue noa?u. Ioaeaeueiua aeaeu ianoa?ia, eiathueo
cia/aiea a aiaiiii aeaea, caieiatho iniaia ianoi e a ?yaeao
na?aeaiianeeo oeaioo?ee (oeaioo?ee ieioieeia e neana?ae – tignarii e
ferrarii e aeaa oeaioo?ee aiaiiuo iocueaioia – cornicines e tibicines).

Iaeiiaoe, ca?iaeaeaeanue e oi?aiaey. Iaeioi?ua ec nia?aiaiiuo [n.51]
o/aiuo aeoiatho aeaaea, /oi oaea a ia/aea naiae enoi?e/aneie yiioe ?ei
aue e?oiiui oi?aiaui oeaio?ii, aeee oi?aiaeae – aeaaea caii?neie. A
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea nnueathony ia i?aaeaiea i oi?aiaii aeiaiai?a n
Ea?oaaaiii 508 a. aei ?. O. (Yae. Iaea? e ae?.). Oaeia iiaiea, iaeiaei,
?aoeoaeueii ii?iaa?aaaony anai oai, /oi iu ciaai ia yeiiiie/aneii
oeeaaea ae?aaiaai ?eia. Iu ciaai oaea, /oi any yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue
yoiai a?aiaie aace?oaony ia caieaaeaeue/aneii e i?eoii iaoo?aeueiii
oicyenoaa. Aua caeiiu XII oaaeeoe ?enotho iai ea?oeio e?aeia ianeiaeiiai
oicyenoaaiiiai auoa. ?acaeoay e aeaaea caii?neay oi?aiaey i?eaaea au e
ai?acaei aieueoaio ?anneiaieth iauanoaa ii eiouanoao, /ai oi iu a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaaethaeaai. Ii naiia ?aoeoaeueiia ii?iaa?aeaiea
oeacaiiiai iiaiey aeaao ninoiyiea n?aaenoa iaiaia, oi anoue oa?aeoa?
ae?aaieo ?eineeo aeaiaa.

Eae auei oeacaii auoa, ?eieyia aeieai aua a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa iaiaia, a
ea/anoaa oiaa?a-iin?aaeieea e ieaoaaeiiai n?aaenoaa, oiio?aaeytho neio,
pecus. Iicaea iie ia/eiatho oiio?aaeyoue iaoaee e eiaiii iaaeue, aes,
ioeoaea iicaeiaeoea au?aaeaiey – aestimatio e o. ae. Ii iaaeue
oeao?e?oao a iai?ioa a neeoeao (aes rude, raudusculum), aneaaenoaea /aai
i?e anyeie naeaeea iaiaoiaeeii auei oaeinoiaa?youeny, ai-ia?auo, a
/enoioa i?aaeeaaaaiiai neeoea, a ai-aoi?uo, a aai aana. Ia?aia
oaeinoiaa?yeinue caoeii, ecaeaaaaiui neeoeii i?e oaea?a i eaeie-ieaoaeue
ae?oaie i?aaeiao; aoi?ia acaaoeaaieai (ionthaea dependere, expendere e
o. ae.). Ec yoeo ia?aiia/aeueii aiieia ?aaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae iai?ioa
neiaeeeinue iiiai aeaenoaee, aiineaaenoaee oaea /enoi neiaiee/aneeo,
a?iaea oiai, iai?eia?, /oi i?e naeaeea aeieaeai aue i?enoonoaiaaoue
(iaioaeiue oaea) aaniaea?aeaoaeue n aanaie, /oi aeathuee aeaiueae
oaea?ye iiiaoie ii aanai e o. ae. (oae iacuaaaiay negotia per aes et
libram, naeaeea i?e iin?aaenoaa iaaee e aania).

E eeoue cia/eoaeueii iicaea iiyaeyaony iiiaoa. Ii iiaieth iaeieo, aa
ia/aee /aeaieoue i?e Na?aee Ooeeee; ii iiaieth ae?oaeo, i?e Na?aee
Ooeeee ainoaea?noai noaei oieueei naiei eeaeiii aa?aioe?iaaoue /enoioo
neeoea (oae neacaoue, iaeeaaeuaaoue i?iao – pecunia forma publica
signata);/aeaiea aea iiiaou onoaiiaeeanue eeoue i?e [n.52]
aeaioeaiae?ao; ii iiaieth o?aoueeo – e oiai iicaea. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
ia?aie /aeaiiie iiiaoie aue as libralis – acc, ?aaiue 1 ooioo iaaee.

Oaeay “iiiaoiay nenoaia” naia ii naaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi i
neieueei-ieaoaeue ?acaeoie oi?aiaea a oi a?aiy e ?a/e auoue ia iiaeao: n
oaeie iaeioeaiiie e oyaeaeiaaniie iiiaoie iiaeao ie?eoueny oieueei
aeiaieueii i?eieoeaiue oicyenoaaiiue auoue, a eioi?ii ?aaeei e iaei
iieoiatho e i?iaeatho, oaeiaeaoai?yy naie ianeiaeiua iio?aaiinoe,
aeaaiui ia?acii, n?aaenoaaie naiaai aea oicyenoaa.

6. ENOI*IEEE I?AAA

I?aai, eae niaieoiiinoue iauaiaycaoaeueiuo ii?i eee i?aaee iiaaaeaiey,
iiaeao iaeoe naaa au?aaeaiea a aeaoo iniiaiuo oi?iao, eioi?ua e
iacuaatho iiyoiio enoi/ieeaie i?aaa; yoi eiaiii iau/ae e caeii. Iau/ae –
yoi iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?iyaeaiea ia?iaeiiai i?aainiciaiey, ii?ia,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothuay i naiai nouanoaiaaiee naiei oaeoii naiaai
iaoeeiiiiai i?eiaiaiey. Caeii – yoi niciaoaeueiia e ynii oi?ioee?iaaiiia
iiaaeaiea oiieiiii/aiiie ia yoi aeanoe.

Ec yoeo aeaoo oi?i a enoi?ee anyeiai ia?iaea ae?aaiaeoae yaeyaony
iau/ae, e aeieaia a?aiy ana i?aai eiaao oa?aeoa? iau/iiai i?aaa.
Eiia/ii, a oa/aiea cia/eoaeueiiai i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie iau/ae iaiythony,
iaiythony /anoi i?e iiiiue noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee, eioi?ua caoai aeaeathony
i?aoeaaeaioaie, ii ana yoe ia?aiaiu noa?uo iau/aaa, aeaaea anee a ieo
anoue yeaiaio niciaoaeueiinoe, ia auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu eiie?aoiuo
neo/aaa, eiie?aoiuo ioiioaiee. E eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea a n?aaea oiai e
ae?oaiai ia?iaea eee eiie aaoiiiiiie a?oiiu, auoue iiaeao, ia iniiaaiee
eiie?aoiuo iaaethaeaiee, iac?aaaao iuneue niciaoaeueii onoaiiaeoue ia
aoaeouaa a?aiy ecaanoioth ii?io, eae iauaa i?aaeei iiaaaeaiey, – eeoue
oiaaea iiyaeyaony caeii. Iiyaeaiea caeiia, oaeei ia?acii, a enoi?ee
eaaeaeiai ia?iaea i?aaenoaaeyao aanueia aaaeiue iiiaio i?iaoaeaeaiey
[n.53] nioeeaeueiie iunee, anooieaiey ia iooue niciaoaeueiiai e
ieaiiia?iiai nioeeaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Ae?aaiaeoee ia?eiae ?eineie enoi?ee iaia?oaeeaaao a yoii ioiioaiee aua
oieueei ia?aua, i/aiue ?iaeea oaae.

Eae auei oeacaii auoa, ?eieyia ia/eiatho naith enoi?eth ia aac
iaeioi?uo, e i?eoii oaea aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiuo, eoeueoo?iuo e
i?aaiauo iniia, auianaiiuo eie aua ec a?eeneie i?a?iaeeiu e
aeaeieciaiaiiuo a ia?eiae ia?anaeaiee. Aeeaeaeoei ei?iai, ec eioi?iai
au?inei ?eineia i?aai, auei, eiia/ii, i?aai iauaeaoeineia, oae eae ?ei
aue oieueei iaeiie ec eaoeineeo iauei, /eaiii aaeeiiai nomen latinum.
Ii, au?inoe ec yoiai ei?iy, ?eineia i?aai caoai iainiaeyaony,
?acaeaaaony oaea eae ia/oi naiinoiyoaeueiia.

Ia?aiia/aeueiui enoi/ieeii i?aaa, ia?aiia/aeueiie oi?iie aai ia?aciaaiey
e nouanoaiaaiey aue e a ?eia iau/ae – oae iacuaaaiua mores majorum,
iau/ae i?aaeeia. Oae aea, eae e aacaea, yoe iau/ae i?aaeeia ia ia?auo
ii?ao ia ioaeaeyeenue io ?aeeaeiciuo ia?yaeia e i?aaee i?aanoaaiiinoe.
Ii auoa auei oeacaii, /oi ?eieyia ioiineoaeueii ?aii ia/aee oaea
i?eioeeieaeueii ioaeaeyoue naaoneia i?aai, jus, io i?aaee ?aeeaee, fas:
“fas ad religionem, jura pertinent ad homines”, “fas lex divina, jus lex
humana est”. Ia aiieia aua yniia a ia?eiae oea?ae, yoi ?acee/ea e ia/aeo
?anioaeeee oaea ieii/aoaeueii au?aceeinue a oiiiyiooii auoa ioaeaeaiee
naaoneeo iaaeno?aoo? io nae?aeueiuo.

Ii aue ee iau/ae aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie i?aaa a ia?eiae oea?ae, eee oaea a
oa/aiea yoiai ia?eiaea ?ei, ?yaeii n iau/aai, ciaao e iaeioi?ua, oioy au
ioaeaeueiua, iiiuoee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa?

Iaeioi?ua aeaiiua, eae aoaeoi, aiai?yo a iieueco yoiai. Oae, Aeeiienee
Aaeeea?ianneee niiauaao, /oi Na?aee Ooeeee nia?ae 50 caeiiia, io/anoe
?iioea e Ioiu, io/anoe naieo nianoaaiiuo, i?aaeeiaeee eo ia?iaeiiio
nia?aieth e iieo/ee ooaa?aeaeaiea yoiai iineaaeiaai. Anee au yoi
niiauaiea auei aa?ii, oiaaea iu eiaee au aeaenoaeoaeueii oaea a oa/aiea
oea?neiai ia?eiaea oi, /oi iineo [n.54] aiineaaenoaee iaeiaiiaaiea lex
rogata, oi anoue iiaeeeiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ii i?aaeeiaeaieth oea?y,
n o/anoeai ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee. Iaeiaei, niiauaiea yoi a nia?aiaiiie
eeoa?aoo?a n/eoaaony iaaeinoiaa?iui; e aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee au yoe 50
caeiiia nouanoaiaaee, ieaaae ia eiaee au iniiaaiee aeaeiaaoueny ia
ionoonoaea ienaiiuo caeiiia e o?aaiaaoue, eae yoi auei anei?a iinea
onoaiiaeaiey ?anioaeeee, ecaeaiey eiaeaena, iieo/eaoaai iacaaiea XII
oaaeeoe.

Ae?oaie oaeo, eae aoaeoi naeaeaoaeuenoaothuee i nouanoaiaaiee oae
iacuaaaiuo “oea?neeo” caeiiia, eee leges regiae, caeeth/aaony a
neaaeothuai. A eiioea ?anioaeeee (a?aiy Oeaca?y) a ?eia oee?eoee?oao
nai?iee oaeeo caeiiia, i?eienuaaaiue iaeiaio Iaie?eth e iioiio
iieo/eaoee iacaaiea jus Papirianum. Oee?eoee?oao ii n eiiiaioa?eyie,
iaienaiiuie A?aieai Oeaeeii. No?aiii, iaeiaei, /oi ie Oeeoea?ii, ie
Aa??ii ie iaeiei neiaii ia oiiieiatho ia yoii nai?ieea. I?aaeiieaaatho
iiyoiio, /oi ii a eo a?aiy aua ia aue ecaanoai e /oi ii ninoaaeai ia
oio/an iinea ecaiaiey oea?ae, eae iiaanoaoao ia yoii i?aaeaiea, a
cia/eoaeueii iicaea. *oi eanaaony niaea?aeaiey Jus Papirianum, oi
ioaeaeueiua iinoaiiaeaiey, ia?aaeaaaaiua iai ec iaai ?eineeie th?enoaie,
ianiiiaiii, i/aiue noa?u; ii iaeie ec ieo eanathony nae?aeueiiai i?aaa e
ae?a/aneiai ?eooaea, a /ai ia?iaeiua nia?aiey ia auee eiiiaoaioiu;
ae?oaea, oioy e caeeth/atho ii?iu a?aaeaeaineiai eee oaieiaiiai i?aaa,
ii yaeythony, ianiiiaiii, ia caeiiaie, ecaeaiiuie oea?yie, a eneiiiuie
?eineeie iau/ayie: i?aaeaiea oieueei i?eienaei eo oiio eee ae?oaiio
oea?th aeey i?eaeaiey ei aieueoae aaoi?eoaoiinoe, Oaeei ia?acii, e yoio
nai?iee ia aeieacuaaao nouanoaiaaiey leges regiae, e aii?in inoaaony
ioe?uoui.

Oai ia iaiaa, ianiio?y ia ionoonoaea i?yiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, aaeaa ee
iiaeii aeoiaoue, /oi a ?eia aieioue aei onoaiiaeaiey ?anioaeeee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia auei ecaanoii. Oaea any oae iacuaaaiay ?aoi?ia
Na?aey Ooeeey, anee aiiaua ia ioiineoue aa e ia?eiaeo ?anioaeeee,
iuneeia eeoue eae ieaiiia?iia caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nicaeaiea. Aaeaa ee
iiaeii aeoiaoue, /oi a ia?eiae oea?ae ia /oanoaiaaeinue iio?aaiinoe
?aaoee?iaaoue oa eee ae?oaea ioiioaiey, ii/aio eeai iaino?eaoeany,
i?yiui onoaiiaeaieai ii?iu. Ii aeaei a oii, /oi a neeo i?eiaaeeaaeauae
oea?th aeanoe ii ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iia onoaiiaeoue oaeoth ii?io iooai
naiaai ee/iiai i?eeaca – iaiiaeiaea oiai, eae yoi aeaeaee aiineaaenoaee
?anioaeeeaineea iaaeno?aou a aeaea naieo yaeeeoia. Oaeea oea?neea
?anii?yaeaiey (eo iiaeii auei au iacaaoue leges dictae), eae auei
oeacaii auoa, i?eioeeieaeueii [n.55] eiaee neeo oieueei aei oao ii?,
iiea ecaeaaoee eo oea?ue inoaaaeny o aeanoe, ii, aa?iyoii, iiiaea oaeei
iooai onoaiiaeaiiua ii?iu i?i/ii a?inoaee caoai a aeeciue e aeaeaeenue
iaioee/eiuie io iau/ay. Iacaaeneii io yoiai, a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
oea?ue aeaeae iniaaiii iia?aoueny ia iiaiea ia?iaea, ii, aa?iyoii,
ia?auaeny e e ia?iaeiiio nia?aieth, e oiaaea onoaiaaeeaaaiay ii?ia
iieo/aea oa?aeoa? lex rogata. Ii, eiia/ii, oaeea leges regiae (eae a
iaeiii, oae e a ae?oaii aeaea) ai?acaei /aua ano?a/aeenue a iaeanoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, oi anoue a iaeanoe ioaee/iiai i?aaa, /ai a
iaeanoe ioiioaiee /anoii-i?aaiauo, a?aaeaeaineeo. I?e iauae
i?eieoeaiinoe a?aaeaeainee-i?aaiaie aeecie aiciiaeii, /oi a yoie noa?a
ana aua iaoiaeeeinue iiae aeaenoaeai iaienaiiuo mores majorum e eeoue
ioaeaeueiua eiie?aoiua ionooieaiey io iau/iiai ii?yaeea (onuiiaeaiea,
caaauaiea) ioaeaeaeenue a naieoeee ia?iaea.

7. OAIEIAIIA I?AAI E OAIEIAIUE NOAe

Io?aiyy iauanoaaiiue ii?yaeie, ainoaea?noai cai?auaao oa eee ae?oaea
aeayiey, i?eciaaaaiua ei a yoii ioiioaiee a?aaeiuie, oa?iaeay ca
niaa?oaiea eo oaeeie eee eiuie iaeacaieyie. Nenoaia ii?i,
ii?aaeaeythueo, eaeea eiaiii aeayiey i?eciathony i?anooiiuie e eaeei
iaeacaieyi iiaeaa?aaaony i?anooiiee, ninoaaeyao iaeanoue oaieiaiiai
i?aaa. A neo/aa niaa?oaiey eai-eeai iaeiiai ec oaeeo cai?auaiiuo aeayiee
ainoaea?noai a eeoea naieo i?aaiia (noaeaaiuo e iieeoeaeneeo aeanoae)
i?iecaiaeeo ?anneaaeiaaiea, noaeeo e niioaaonoaaiii i?eaiai?o
inouanoaeyao iaeacaiea. Nenoaia ii?i, ii?aaeaeythueo aanue yoio ii?yaeie
i?iecaiaenoaa, iineo iacaaiea oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna.

E?oa aeayiee, i?eciaaaaiuo aeey anaai iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea a?aaeiuie,
/?acau/aeii iaoe?ai: nthaea aoiaeyo ia oieueei aeayiey, cao?aaeaathuea
iauanoaaiiue eioa?an i?yii e iaiin?aaenoaaiii (iai?eia?, eciaia, aoio,
iiaeaeaeea iiiaou e o. ae.), ii e oaeea aeayiey, eioi?ua prima facie
iaiinyo a?aae eaeiio-ieaoaeue ioaeaeueiiio eeoeo, ii a oi aea a?aiy
(iin?aaenoaaiii) oa?iaeatho e eioa?anai anaai iauanoaa – iai?eia?,
oaeenoai, a?aaaae, ai?ianoai e o. ae. [n.56] ?acoiaaony, yoio e?oa
i?anooiiuo aeayiee ia anoue /oi-eeai anaaaea – ai ana a?aiaia e o anao
ia?iaeia – iaeeiaeiaia: aeayiea, i?eciaaaaiia i?anooiiui a iaeio yiioo e
o iaeiiai ia?iaea, iiaeao auoue niaa?oaiii aeicaieaiiui a ae?oaoth yiioo
e o ae?oaiai ia?iaea.

I?eieoeaiua ia?iaeu oaieiaiiai i?aaa e oaieiaiiai noaea a iaoai, oieueei
/oi iienaiiii, niunea ia ciatho: ia?acaeaoayny e iaie?aiioaoay
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue i?aneaaeiaaiea i?anooieaiee aua ia n/eoaao a
/enea naieo caaea/. Aeayiey, aiciouathuea iauaa /oanoai anaai ia?iaea,
aucuaatho iai?aaieciaaiioth ?ani?aao, “naiinoae” oieiu iaae aeiiaieeii
(“noae Eei/a”); aeayiey, iai?aaeaiiua i?ioea oao eee ae?oaeo ioaeaeueiuo
eeoe, aucuaatho ianoue naiiai iioa?iaaoaai eee aai aeeceeo.
Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue i?e yoii ie ai /oi ia aiaoeaaaony.

?ani?aaa e ianoue i?e ecaanoiuo oneiaeyo (iaiueoae ino?ioa
?acae?aaeaiey) caiaiythony aueoiii ii niaeaoaieth iaaeaeo i?anooiieeii,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, e iioa?iaaoei eee aai aeeceeie – n ae?oaie; oaeea
niaeaoaiey iinyo iacaaiea /anoiuo eiiiiceoeee.

Iau/ae /anoiie ianoe a aunieie noaiaie, eiia/ii, niinianoaoao
iaeiieaieth a iauanoaa iaino?aiiuo ioiioaiee; ii naao eiiaaea
aeieaia?aiaiioth, ia?aoiaeyuoth ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea e
ioaaouaathuoth oe?ieea e?oae eeoe (naiuee, ?iaeu), nni?o e a?aaeaeo
iaaeaeo noi?iiith iaeae/eea e noi?iiie iioa?iaaoaai. I?ienoiaeyuea
ionthaea aioo?aiiea nioou iiaoo ii?ith cia/eoaeueii ineaaeyoue neeo
ia?iaea, noieue iaiaoiaeeioth, iniaaiii a oo ioaeaeaiioth e aaniieieioth
yiioo, aeey caueou io aiaoieo a?aaia. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai e canoaaeyao
caoai e?aiiouoth iinoaiaiii ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue acyoue ia naay
?aaeaiaioaoeeth oaieiaiiai noaea e iaeacaiee. Ii ia?aua oaae
ainoaea?noaa a yoii iai?aaeaiee aua ?iaee e ia?aoeoaeueiu. I?eia? oaeiai
ia?aoiaeiiai ninoiyiey i?aaenoaaeyao e ?ei ia oieueei a ia?eiae oea?ae,
ii aua e a ia?aua a?aiaia ?anioaeeee, eae ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
caeiiu XII oaaeeoe.

I?anooieaiey, iaiin?aaenoaaiii cao?aaeaathuea eioa?an anaai iauanoaa
(oae iacuaaaiua delicta publica), oaea iiaeeaaeao a i?eioeeia noaeo
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, oi anoue oea?y: iai?aaieciaaiiay ?ani?aaa
ia?iaea oaea ia n/eoaaony yaeaieai i?aaiia?iui. Ii i?aaeaieth, iaeiie ec
noa?aeoeo ?eineeo iaaeno?aoo? yaeythony duoviri perduellionis, iiiiuieee
oea?y aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey aeae i ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia a oe?ieii
niunea neiaa. Nouanoaiaaiea yoeo [n.57] aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe a yiioo
oea?ae iiaeao auoue nii?iui, ii aaeaa ee iiaeao auoue nii?iui oi, /oi
yoiai ?iaea aeaea a i?eioeeia oaea iiaeeaaeao noaeo oea?y. Oea?ue eiaao
iaia?aie/aiiia i?aai iaeacaiey – coercitio; ii ia naycai i?e yoii ie
?iaeii i?anooieaiey, ie ia?ie iaeacaiey: ii iiaeao i?eaea/ue e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca anyeia aeayiea, eioi?ia iaeaeao i?anooiiui, e iiaeao
iaeiaeeoue anyeia iaeacaiea, eaeia iaeaeao ioaeiui. Oaieiaiiai i?aaa a
ianoiyuai niunea aua ia nouanoaoao: iao aua oi/iuo ii?aaeaeaiee ie oiai,
/oi i?anooiii, ie oiai, /oi iiaeao auoue iaeiaeaii, eae iaeacaiea.
Eaeiai-eeai oaieiaiiai eiaeaena, oioy au e ianiaa?oaiiiai, aua iao;
i?eioeei nia?aiaiiiai i?aaa “nullum crimen, nula poena sine lege”80 aua
ia aeaenoaoao; ana caeeth/aii aua a aaca?aie/iie coercitio aunoaai
i?aaenoaaeoaey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, oi anoue oea?y.

Oea?ue noaeeo e ?aoaao, eae ia?aay, ii a oi aea a?aiy e eae aunoay,
ieii/aoaeueiay einoaioeey; eaeie-eeai aiaeeyoeee ia aai ?aoaiey ia
aeiioneaaony. Oea?ue iiaeao, eiia/ii, i?aaeinoaaeoue ieii/aoaeueiia
?aoaiea aeaea ia?iaeiiio nia?aieth, ii yoi aeey iaai ioithaeue ia
iaycaoaeueii.

I?anooieaiey i?ioea /anoiuo eeoe, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, aua
?anniao?eaathony eae aeaei /enoi /anoiia naiiai iioa?iaaoaai, eae
delicta privata. Eeoue iaiiiaea ec ieo aeaeoo ca niaie oaieiaiia
iaeacaiea, iaeaaaaiia ii eieoeeaoeaa ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, e, oaeei
ia?acii, ia?aaiaeyony a ?ac?yae delicta publica. Oaeiai, iai?eia?,
oaeenoai – parricidium; aeey aeae ia oaeenoaa nouanoaiaaee, ii
i?aaeaieth, iniaua quaestores parricidii, ii i ieo ioaeii neacaoue oi
aea naiia, /oi auei oieueei /oi neacaii i duoviri perduellionis;
iaeacaiea ca oaeenoai – nia?oiay eaciue.

Ii caeiiai XII oaaeeoe oaieiaiia iaeacaiea, e eiaiii a aeaea nia?oiie
eacie, aeaeoo aua e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea i?anooieaiey. Oae, iai?eia?, ca
oiuoeaiiue iiaeaeia i?anooiiee, eae niiauaao Aae, “vinctus verberatus
igni necari jubetur”, oi anoue iiaeaa?aaaony oaeaniiio iaeacaieth e
caoai naeeaaaony. No?iai – oith aea nia?oiie eaciueth, poena capitalis,
– ea?athony, aeaeaa, i?anooieaiey caieaaeaeue/aneea: oiuoeaiiia
ia?ooaiea iaaeaauo ciaeia (termini motio; caeanue i?eiaoeaaaony aua
nae?aeueiue iioea, eai iaaee n/eoaeenue iiae io?aiie aiaia; aneaaenoaea
yoiai, ii ?eineiio i?aaeaieth, aua Ioia onoaiiaee: “eum, qui terminum
exarasset, et [n.58] ipsum et boves sacros esse”, oi anoue /oi e
aeiiaiee, e auee, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo auei niaa?oaii i?anooieaiea,
aeaeathony ia?a/aiiuie ea?a aiaia, oi anoue iineaaenoaeyi “sacer esto”),
iioeuaiea e eno?aaeaiea iinaaia (“suspensum Cereri necari jubebant”), a
?aaii eo caeieaeiaaiea (“qui fruges excantassit” e “qui alienam segetam
pellexarit”. Iaeiiaoe, poena capitalis aeaeei ca niaie e ni/eiaiea
ianeaeeae83 (“si quis occentavisset sive carmen condidisset, quod
infamiam faceret flagitiumve alteri”). A eaeie ia?a, iaeiaei, yoe
iineaaeiea aeaeeeou iiaoo auoue ioianaiu aua e yiioa aei caeiiia XII
oaaeeoe, neacaoue o?oaeii.

Ca yoeie iaiiiaeie e aannenoaiiuie eneeth/aieyie ana inoaeueiia
nio?aiyao aua anaoeaei /anoiue oa?aeoa?. Oae, iai?eia?,
/eaiia?aaeeoaeuenoai aua ii caeiiai XII oaaeeoe i?aaeinoaaeyaony /anoiie
ianoe ii i?aaeeo “iei ca iei, coa ca coa” – “si membrum rupsit, ni cum
eo pacit (oi anoue anee ia ninoieony ie?iaay naeaeea), talio esto” –
i?eioeei oaeeiia. Ca i?anooieaiey iaiaa aaaeiua /anoiay ianoue oaea,
iaeiaei, cai?auaaony; iioa?iaaoaio i?aaeinoaaeyaony oieueei i?aai
o?aaiaaoue a naith iieueco ecaanoiue oo?ao. Yoio oo?ao ia anoue oo?ao a
niunea iaoaai oaieiaiiai i?aaa; ii ia acuneeaaaony ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoueth aeey naay (ia eaeao a eacio), a ?anniao?eaaaony, eae /anoiue
aeiea iioa?iaaoaio, eioi?ue yoio iineaaeiee iiaeao acuneaoue, ii iiaeao
e ia acuneeaaoue. Ii yaeyaony caiaiie i?aaeieo aeia?iaieueiuo
niaeaoaiee; ii oaea oaene?iaai ainoaea?noaii, ii e oieueei: ana
inoaeueiia ?aoaaony ii ia/aeai /anoiiai, a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, e iioiio
ia yoeo /anoiuo iaycaoaeuenoaao ec aeaeeeoia aoaeao eaeoe ?a/ue a
enoi?ee a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?iu caeiiia XII oaaeeoe i?aaenoaaeytho aua a?oae/aneoth
nianue ?acii?iaeiuo ia/ae. N iaeiie noi?iiu, a neo/ayo aieaa oyaeeeo
i?anooieaiee aua oea?noaoao ee/iay ianoue; n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
ainoaea?noai oaea ia/eiaao aiaoeaaoueny a ioiioaiey [n.59] iaaeaeo
noi?iiaie, caiaiyy iuaiea /anoiuie oo?aoaie. Ainoaea?noai eae aoaeoi
?aoaaony ia oaeia aoi?aeaiea, ii eeoue a neo/ayo aieaa eaaeeo, ia ?eneoy
cao?aaeaaoue /anoiuo ioiioaiee oai, aaea iii iiaeao iaoieeiooueny ia
aieueoaa ee/iia ?acae?aaeaiea iioa?iaaoeo. Ii anee oaeiai iieiaeaiea
aeae a yiioo XII oaaeeoe, oi anoue a ia/aea ?anioaeeee, oi aeey ia?eiaea
oea?ae iu aeieaeiu i?aaeiieiaeeoue ninoiyiea aua aieaa i?eieoeaiia: aua
iaiaa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee e aua aieueoa yeaiaioia ianoe.

8. A?AAEAeAINEEE I?IOeANN

A iiiyoea a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa (i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia ii?aaeaeaiioth
aauue, i?aaa o?aaiaaiey e ecaanoiiio eeoeo e o. ae.), ii iaoei iuiaoiei
i?aaenoaaeaieyi, eae iaiaoiaeeiue yeaiaio, aoiaeeo e i?aaenoaaeaiea i
caueoa ainoaea?noaii: iu ia n/eoaee au i?aaa i?aaii, anee au ia auee
oaa?aiu, /oi, a neo/aa aai ia?ooaiey eai-eeai, iu iiaeai iio?aaiaaoue
aeey iaoae caueou ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue ni anai aa ii?aeueiui
aaoi?eoaoii e aiaoiath neeie. Iu i?aaeuyaeyai ene, oi anoue ia?auaainy e
i?aaiai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe n o?aaiaaieai i caueoa iaoaai
ia?ooaiiiai i?aaa; ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue, a eeoea naieo noaeaaiuo
i?aaiia, ?acae?aao iaoo i?aoaiceth e, a neo/aa i?eciaiey aa
iniiaaoaeueiie, ainnoaiiaeyao iaoa i?aai oai eee ae?oaei niiniaii.
Ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe enooea e ioaao/eea, ?aaiui ia?acii ii?yaeie
aeayoaeueiinoe noaeaaiuo aeanoae, ii?aaeaeyaony aieaa eee iaiaa oi/ii
caeiiii e ninoaaeyao iaeanoue oae iacuaaaiiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna.

*oi eanaaony ae?aaiaai ?eia, oi eaeeo-eeai i?yiuo oeacaiee ia oi, eae
ianoiyei aeaei a yoie iaeanoe a yiioo oea?ae, iu ia eiaai. Aaeaeo yoiai
i?eoiaeeony e caeanue acyoue a?aiy ianeieueei aieaa iicaeiaa, ii aieaa
iai ecaanoiia (iai?eia?, oao aea caeiiia XII oaaeeoe), e caoai,
onoaiiaea iauaa iai?aaeaiea enoi?e/aneie yaiethoeee, aeaeaoue ia?aoiua
caeeth/aiey ioiineoaeueii yiioe i?aaeoanoaiaaaoae.

Aeaaiui enoi/ieeii (oioy e iaiieiui) iaoeo naaaeaiee i ae?aaiai
a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna a ?eia yaeyaony ?eineee th?eno II aaea ii ?. O.
Aae, eioi?ue eanaaony yoiai aii?ina a /aoaa?oie eieaa naiaai aeioaaeoaai
aei ian ni/eiaiey “Institutiones” (10-29).

Aae niiauaao, i?aaeaea anaai, /oi ae?aaiaeoae oi?iie a?aaeaeaineiai
i?ioeanna auee a ?eia oae iacuaaaiua leges actiones. Ii/aio i?ioeann
yoiai ia?eiaea iacuaaaony legis actio, ia yoio aii?in Aae aeaao
aeaienoaaiiue ioaao: eee iioiio, aiai?eo ii, /oi yoe oi?iu i?ioeanna
auee nicaeaiu caeiiii (“vel ideo quod legibus proditae erant”), eee
iioiio, /oi a ieo i?aoaicee nii?yueo noi?ii aeieaeiu auoue au?aaeaiu
neiaaie oiai caeiia, ia eioi?ue iie iie?athony (“vel ideo ipsarum legum
verbis accommdatae erant”); oae, iai?eia?, i?aaeuyaeyy ene i ii?oaea
aaoaae, iaeuecy auei aiai?eoue “vites”, a iaaei auei oiio?aaeoue neiai
“arbores”, eai ioiinyueeny nthaea caeii XII oaaeeoe aiai?ee oieueei de
arboribus succisis. Ianiaethaeaiea iaaeeaaeauae oi?ioeu aeaeei ca niaie
iieioth iioa?th i?ioeanna.

Iaeiaei, ie oi ie ae?oaia iauyniaiea Aay ia iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi, eai a
oi a?aiy, e eioi?iio ioiineony ca?iaeaeaiea yoeo oi?i noaea, iu ia
iiaeai i?aaeiieiaeeoue nouanoaiaaiey oaeiai aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
caeiiia, leges, eioi?ua ?aaoee?iaaee au e oiae i?iecaiaenoaa, e naiia
a?aaeaeaineia i?aai n iaaeeaaeaueie iiae?iaiinoyie. Aa?iyoii, “lege
agere” a ae?aaiaeoaa a?aiy iaicia/aei i?inoi – aeaenoaiaaoue,
inouanoaeyoue i?aai caeiiiui ia?acii a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
iacaeiiiia?iiio ianeeeth.

Nouanoaiaaei, i?iaeieaeaao caoai Aae, iyoue iniiaiuo oi?i legis actio:
sacramento, per judicis postulationem, per condictionem, per manus
injectionem e per pignoris capionem. Aneaae ca oai ii i?enooiaao e
iienaieth yoeo oi?i, ii cia/eoaeueiay /anoue yoiai iienaiey aeey ian a
iaione?eioa iioa?yia, aneaaenoaea /aai iaaeinoathuaa i?eoiaeeony
ainiieiyoue ae?oaeie, ii aieueoae /anoe i/aiue io?uai/iuie niiauaieyie.

Ii i?aaeaea, iaaeaee iu i?enooiei e iauaio iienaieth oeacaiiuo oi?i,
iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue, /oi aeey ia/aea i?ioeanna iai?aiaiii iaiaoiaeeii
ee/iia i?enoonoaea eae enooea, oae e ioaao/eea. I?e yoii nouanoaaiiui
aii?inii yaeyaony, eiia/ii, [n.61] eae canoaaeoue ioaao/eea yaeoueny a
noae, eia/a naiei oeeiiaieai ii iia au ia?aeeciaaoue naioth
aiciiaeiinoue i?ioeanna. Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ae?aaia?eineiai i?aaa
neoaeeo oi, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue naia ia aucuaaao ioaao/eea e ia
i?eioaeaeaao aai a neo/aa oii?noaa e oaeie yaea; aeinoaaeoue ioaao/eea
ia noae – yoi aeaei naiiai enooea. N yoie oeaeueth enooeo aeaaony
naiaia?aciia n?aaenoai, iinyuaa iacaaiea in jus vocatio88; aio iinayuaiu
ia?aua iinoaiiaeaiey caeiiia XII oaaeeoe, ii eiia/ii, yoi n?aaenoai ia
nicaeaii caeiiaie XII oaaeeoe, auoue iiaeao, oieueei oi/iaa
?aaeaiaioe?iaaii.

Caeiiu XII oaaeeoe aiai?yo: “Si in jus vocat ito; ni it, antestamino;
igitur em capito. Si calvitur pedemve struit, manum endo jacito”.

Niaeanii yoiio iinoaiiaeaieth, enoaoe iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue io ioaao/eea
yaee a noae oai, aaea ii aai ano?aoeo (iaeiaei, aoi?aaoueny a aeii
enoaoe ia aeieaeai), i?e/ai ioaao/ee iaycai iaiaaeeaiii iiae/eieoueny
yoiio o?aaiaaieth (“ito”). A neo/aa ioeaca enoaoe aeieaeai
ii?ioanoiaaoue yoio ioeac ia?aae naeaeaoaeyie (“antestamino”) e
caaea?aeaoue ioaao/eea neeie (“igitur em capito”); a neo/aa
nii?ioeaeaiey eee iiiuoee e aaanoao, ioaao/ee iiaeeaaeeo manus injectio
(ni. ieaea), oi anoue eo ipso aeaeaaony eae au i?eaiai?aiiui ii noaeo a
iieiia ?anii?yaeaiea enooea.

Anee aeey ioaao/eea neaaeiaaoue nae/an aea a noae iaoaeiaii, oi ii
iiaeao aeaoue enooeo iaauaiea yaeoueny a eaeie-ieaoaeue ae?oaie aeaiue,
iiaee?aiea yoi iaauaiea ii?o/eoaeuenoaii eaeiai-eeai ae?oaiai eeoea.
Oaeie ii?o/eoaeue iacuaaaony vas, a naiia ii?o/eoaeuenoai vadimonium.
?aaiui ia?acii, e vadimonium i?eaaaatho e oiaaea, anee ai a?aiy
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaea ieaaeaony iaiaoiaeeiui ioeiaeeoue aai aei ae?oaiai
aeiy.

Eiaaea noi?iiu yaeeenue a noae, oi anoue a yiioo oea?ae – e oea?th, oi
oiae aeaea aoaeao ?acee/iui a caaeneiinoe io oeacaiiuo auoa modi
agendi90, oi anoue oi?i legis actio.

1) Ia?aay oi?ia, legis actio sacramento (eee sacramenti, eee per
sacramentum), anoue, a iienaiee Aay, ii nouanoao, i?ioeann-ia?e. Noi?iiu
auneacuaatho a oi?aeanoaaiiuo oi?ioeao naie i?aoaicee e [n.62]
iacia/atho a caeia naiae i?aaiou ecaanoioth aeaiaaeioth noiio, eioi?ay e
iacuaaaony sacramentum, ioeoaea iacaaiea naiie oi?iu. Noae oi?iaeueii
?aoaao caoai aii?in i oii, /ae caeia i?iea?ai – “utrius sacramentum
justum sit, utrius injustum”: noi?iia i?aaay iieo/aao naie caeia
ia?aoii, noi?iia iai?aaay oa?yao aai a iieueco eaciu. Ii, naii niaie
?acoiaaony, ?aoay yoio oi?iaeueiue aii?in, noae implicite91 ?aoaao
aii?in e i naiie i?aoaicee enooea ii nouanoao.

Legis actio sacramento, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao Aay, anoue iauay oi?ia
i?ioeanna; a yoie oi?ia iiaoo auoue aaaeaiu anyeea enee, aeey eioi?uo ia
onoaiiaeaii eaeie-eeai eiie oi?iu. Ii yoa iauay oi?ia i?eia?aoaao
ecaanoiua iiaeeoeeaoeee a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeao ee nii? i
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eaeie-eeai aaue (actio in rem) eee aea i aeieaa
ioaao/eea enooeo (actio in personam).

a) Ia?aue neo/ae: enoaoe e ioaao/ee nii?yo i aaue (actio in rem). Iiieii
oeacaiiie auoa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ee/iie yaee iaaeo noi?ii, aeey oiai, /oiau
i?ioeann a yoii neo/aa iia ia/aoueny, iaiaoiaeeia aua e iaee/iinoue
naiie nii?iie aaue. Anee nii? eaeao i aaue aeaeaeeiie, oi iia aeieaeia
auoue i?eianaia, i?eaaaeaia eee i?eaacaia ia noae; anee aauue oaeiaa,
/oi aeinoaaea aa cao?oaeieoaeueia, oi i?eiineo eaeoth-eeai /anoue aa:
eonie io nii?iie eieiiiu, iaoeo eee eico ec nii?iiai noaaea e o. ae.
Anee i?aaeiao nii?a aauue iaaeaeaeeiay (o/anoie caiee), oi noi?iiu n
iniauie ia?yaeaie ioi?aaeythony ia nii?iue o/anoie, aa?oo ioooaea eonie
caiee, i?eiinyo aai (any yoa i?ioeaaeo?a iineo iacaaiea manum
consertio), e caoai yoio eonie oeao?e?oao ia noaea, eae naiue o/anoie.

I?ioeann ioe?uaaaony oai, /oi enoaoe, aea?aea a ?oeao iniaoth iaeeo
(vindicta eee festuca), i?ieciineo oi?ioeo, caeeth/athuoth a naaa
ooaa?aeaeaiea aai, enooea, i?aaa ia aauue: “hanc ago rem ex jure
Quiritium meam esse aio; sicut dixi, ecce tibi vindictam imposui”, e
iaeiia?aiaiii iaeeaaeuaaao ia aauue naith vindicta. Yoio aeo enooea
iineo oaoie/aneia iacaaiea vindicatio. Ia yoio aeo enooea neaaeoao
ioaaoiue aeo ioaao/eea – oae iac. contravindicatio: ioaao/ee n naiae
noi?iiu aiai?eo oi aea naiia e oaeaea iaeeaaeuaaao ia aauue naith
vindicta. Oiaaea anooiaao a aeaenoaea iaaeno?ao, ia?aae eioi?ui ana yoi
niaa?oeeinue, e i?eeacuaaao: “inoaaueoa iaa aauue” – “mittite ambo rem”.
Noi?iiu nieiatho iaeee, e caoai enoaoe [n.63] ia?auaaony e ioaao/eeo n
aii?inii: Postulo anne dicas, qua ex causa vindicaveris? – oi anoue ia
neaaeaoue ee, ia eaeii iniiaaiee ou aeiaeeoee?oaoue? Ioaao/ee ia yoi,
aa?iyoii, iia aeaoue iauyniaiea, ii iia e ia aeaoue, cayaeoue i?inoi:
“oaeiai iia i?aai” – “jus feci, sicut vindictam imposui”. A oaeii neo/aa
enoaoe ia?auaaony e ioaao/eeo n i?aaeeiaeaieai onoaiiaeoue caeia –
sacramentum: “Quando tu injuria vindicavisti, quingenti aeris sacramento
te provoco”, ia /oi ioaao/ee ioaa/ae aiaeiae/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai ii
aae?ano enooea: “et ego te”. Noiia caeiaa a XII oaaeeoeao auea
oaene?iaaia: anee nii?iay aauue auea aei?iaea 1000 annia, oi sacramentum
aeieaeii auei ?aaiyoueny 500 annia, anee aeaoaaea, oi 50. Yoa noiia
iieaaaeanue ia?aiia/aeueii ad pontem, oi anoue a eanno iiioeoeeia,
iicaea a aerarium, oi anoue a iauoth ainoaea?noaaiioth eacio.
Ia?aiia/aeueii caeia aeaaaeny noi?iiaie ?aaeueii e a naiii ia/aea
i?ioeanna, oi anoue oio/an aea iinea provocatio sacramento; iicaea
noi?iiu oieueei aeaaaee iaauaiea oieaoeoue caeia, anee i?ioeann aoaeao
i?iea?ai.

Iinea onoaiiaeaiey sacramentum iaaeno?ao ?aaoee?oao aeaaeaiea nii?iie
aauueth ia a?aiy i?ioeanna: ii iiaeao iiea /oi ioaeaoue aa eeai enooeo,
eeai ioaao/eeo, /oi oaoie/anee iacuaaaony “vindicias dicere secundum
actorem” eee “secundum reum”. Noi?iia, iieo/eaoay aauue, aeieaeia,
iaeiaei, aeaoue iaaeno?aoo ii?o/eoaeae – oae iacuaaaiuo praedes litis et
vindiciarum – a oii, /oi anee aauue aiineaaenoaee aoaeao i?enoaeaeaia
i?ioeaieeo, oi eae naiay aauue (lis), oae e ana aa aeioiaeu (vindiciae)
aoaeoo auaeaiu iineaaeiaio.

Eiaaea, iaeiiaoe, e yoio aii?in iieii/ai, ianooiaao oi?aeanoaaiiue
iiiaio – litiscontestatio: noi?iiu ia?auathony e ca?aiaa i?eaeaoaiiui
naeaeaoaeyi n oi?aeanoaaiiui aiccaaieai: “testes estote!” – oi anoue
“aoaeueoa naeaeaoaeyie anaai caeanue i?ienoaaeoaai”.

Iiiaioii litiscontestatio caeai/eaaaony ia?aay noaaeey i?iecaiaenoaa –
oae iacuaaaiia i?iecaiaenoai in jure, niaa?oathuaany ia?aae iaaeno?aoii.
Eae aeaeei, iii ia caeeth/aao a naaa ie ?acai?a aeaea, ie i?eaiai?a;
aeey anaai yoiai i?ioeann aeieaeai ia?aeoe ai aoi?oth noaaeeth – in
judicium. Iinea litiscontestatio ia?aiia/aeueii oio/an aea noi?iiu, i?e
o/anoee iaaeno?aoa, auae?atho naaa naie noaeueth ec [n.64] /anoiuo eeoe
– judex, eioi?ue caoai ?acaa?ao nii? e i?iecianao i?eaiai? oaea aac
anyeiai o/anoey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa a yoie
aoi?ie noaaeee ia nouanoaoao oaea ie oi?i, ie ia?yaeia cayaeaiey noi?ii,
i?eaaaeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa e o. ae. – ana yoi niaa?oaaony i?inoi e
naiaiaeii.

b) Anee nii? oae i eaeii-eeai iaycaoaeuenoaa (aeiea – actio in
personam), oi iieiiai iienaiey ?eooaea aeey yoiai neo/ay iu ia eiaai.
Aa?iyoii, iaeiaei, /oi enoaoe ia/eiae n ooaa?aeaeaiey: “Aio te mihi
centum dare oportere”, oi anoue “y ooaa?aeaeath, /oi ou aeieaeai
oieaoeoue iia 100”; ioaao/ee io?eoeae: “nego me tibi centum dare
oportere”, e caoai i?ioeann oae oeacaiiui auoa ii?yaeeii: provocatio
sacramento, litiscontestatio e ia?aoiae aeaea in judicium.

2) Aoi?ay oi?ia legis actio anoue legis actio per manus injectionem eee
manus injectio i?inoi. Iia i?eiaiyaony oieueei e ecaanoiui eneai ec
iaycaoaeuenoa. Ii?yaeie i?iecaiaenoaa i?e yoii ninoieo a neaaeothuai.

Enoaoe i?eaiaeeo ioaao/eea a noae (ia?aae o?eaoiae iaaeno?aoa) e
caeanue, i?ieciiny oi?ioeo “quod tu mihi damnatus es sestertium X milia,
quandoc non solvisti, ob eam rem ego tibi manum inicio”, iaeeaaeuaaao ia
iaai ?oeo. Anee ioaao/ee caeanue aea, iaiaaeeaiii, ia oieaoeo (/oi, ii
iauaio i?aaeeo, e auaaao, eai, anee au ioaao/ee iia oieaoeoue, ii
oieaoee au ?aiaa), oi enoaoe oaiaeeo aeieaeieea e naaa, iiaeao
caeeth/eoue aai a ieiau. A i?iaeieaeaiee 60 aeiae enoaoe aea?aeeo
aeieaeieea o naay, ii a oa/aiea 3 ?uii/iuo aeiae ii aeieaeai auaiaeeoue
aeieaeieea ia ?uiie e caeanue iauyaeyoue noiio aai aeieaa – a
i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi, iiaeao auoue, iaeaeoony eeoea, eioi?ua iiaeaeatho
aai aueoieoue. Ii enoa/aiee 60 aeiae aeieaeiee i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia
iieioth aieth e?aaeeoi?a: ii iiaeao aai eee oaeoue, eee i?iaeaoue a
?aanoai trans Tiberim. “Tertiis nundinis capite poenas dabant aut trans
Tiberim paregre venum ibant” – aiai?eo Aae Aaeeee. Anee ieaaeaony
ianeieueei e?aaeeoia, oi, iinoaiiaeytho caeiiu XII oaaeeoe, iie iiaoo
?anna/ue ianinoiyoaeueiiai aeieaeieea ia /anoe [n.65] i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
?acia?ai naieo o?aaiaaiee, ii anee eoi-eeai ec ieo (ii ioeaea) iona/ao
aieueoa eee iaiueoa, oi yoi aio ia noaaeony a aeio: “Tertiis nundinis
partis secanto. Si plus minusve secuerunt, se fraude esto”. Iaeioi?ua ec
nia?aiaiiuo o/aiuo aeoiaee ecaaaeaoue oaeiai aoeaaeueiiai iiieiaiey
yoiai iieiaeaiey oai, /oi ioiineee neiaa i ?anna/aiee ia e oaeo
aeieaeieea, a e aai eiouanoao. Ii oaeia oieeiaaiea ia iiaeao auoue
i?eiyoi: anee oaea aeaei aeioiaeeei aei i?iaeaaee aeieaeieea a ?aanoai,
noaei auoue, o iaai ieeaeiai eiouanoaa iao. I?aaeei yoi io?aaeaao a naaa
oo ae?aaiaeooth yiioo iaycaoaeuenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eiaaea
iaycaoaeuenoai aeaaaei e?aaeeoi?o i?aai ia naioth ee/iinoue aeieaeieea e
acuneaiea ii aeieao eaaei ia?aoiaeeei a ianoue ca iaieaoaae (n?.
i?eaaaeaiiua auoa neiaa Aaea Aaeeey, “capite poenas dabant”).

Anee au ioaao/ee, iiaeaa?aioaoeeny manus injectio, caoioae inia?eaaoue
nouanoaiaaiea aeieaa, caoioae “na?ineoue n naay ?oeo”, oi nai ii yoiai
oaea naeaeaoue ia iiaeao: aio ia iicaieyaony “manum sibi depellere et
pro se lege agere”. Ca iaai aeieaeii aunooieoue eaeia-eeai ae?oaia eeoei
– oae iacuaaaiue vindex, eioi?ue, iono?aiea ?oeo enooea, inaiaiaeeo yoei
naiui ioaao/eea ieii/aoaeueii, ii i?eiao aanue nii? oaea ia naay e, a
neo/aa iainiiaaoaeueiinoe naiaai aiaoaoaeuenoaa, ieaoeo aaeaia (ioaa/aao
in duplum).

3) O?aouey oi?ia – legis actio per pignoris capionem eee pignoris capio
i?inoi. Nouiinoue yoie oi?iu ninoieo a oii, /oi eeoei, eiathuaa
ecaanoiia o?aaiaaiea e ae?oaiio, a neo/aa iaieaoaaea, i?ieciiny
eaeea-oi, aei ian ia aeioaaeoea “ii?aaeaeaiiua e oi?aeanoaaiiua neiaa”
(“certa et solemnia verba”), aa?ao naaa eaeoth-ieaoaeue aauue
iaeni?aaiiai aeieaeieea; yoi e iacuaaeinue pignoris capio. Niaa?oaao ii
yoi aac o/anoey i?aaenoaaeoaey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e aeaaea, iiaeao
auoue, a ionoonoaea naiiai aeieaeieea. A yoii iineaaeiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa
caeeth/aaony nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea pignoris capio io inoaeueiuo ligis
actiones, e yoi ioee/ea canoaaeyei oaea iaeioi?uo ec ?eineeo th?enoia ia
i?eciaaaoue pignoris capio ca legis actio. I?eiaiyeanue yoa oi?ia eeoue
e iaeioi?ui o?aaiaaieyi iniaiai ?aeeaeiciiai eee ioaee/iiai oa?aeoa?a:
oae, iai?eia?, pignoris capio eiaao i?iaeaaaoe aeeaioiiai,
i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey [n.66] aea?oaii?eiioaiey, i?ioea aai iieoiueea ii
iiaiaeo iieoiiie oeaiu, a oaeaea ioaeaaoee a iaai naia aeeaioiia i?ioea
iaiyaoaai, anee iaaiiay ieaoa auea i?aaeiacia/aia aeey
aea?oaii?eiioaiey; ?aaiui ia?acii pignoris capio eiaee aieiu i?ioea
tribunus aerarius ca iaieaoaae ei aeaeiaaiuey, e iaeioi?. ae?.

4) Ioiineoaeueii /aoaa?oie oi?iu – legis actio per judicis postulationem
– iu eiaai /?acau/aeii neoaeiua naaaeaiey: niioaaonoaothuaa ianoi
Einoeoooeee Aay aeey ian iioa?yii. Nio?aieeanue oieueei oi?ioea
ia?auaiey e iaaeno?aoo o a?aiiaoeea Aaea?ey I?iaa: “te, praetor, judicem
arbitrumve postulo uti des”. I?aaeiieaaatho, /oi iniaaiiinoue yoie oi?iu
caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi iinea iau/iuo cayaeaiee noi?ii ia?aae
iaaeno?aoii (in jure) nii?yuea ia?auaeenue ia n provocatio sacramento
ae?oa e ae?oao, a n i?inueaie e iaaeno?aoo iacia/eoue ei noaeueth aeey
?acai?a eo i?aoaicee (judicis postulatio). Caoai neaaeiaaea
litiscontestatio e aeaei ia?aoiaeeei in judicium. – Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey
yoie oi?iu oaeaea iaynia: ii iiaieth iaeieo, iia oiio?aaeyaony a oaeeo
eneao, aaea aeaei eaeao aieaa i iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe noaeuee,
– iai?eia?, a eneao i ?acaeaea iauaai eiouanoaa e o. i.; ii iiaieth
ae?oaeo, yoi aieaa iicaeiyy oi?ia legis actio e i?eoii oi?ia
oaeoeueoaoeaiay aeey anyeeo eneia ec iaycaoaeuenoa: aeey oiai, /oiau
ecaaaeaoue ?enea iioa?youe sacramentum, noi?iiu, ii acaeiiiio
niaeaoaieth, iiaee i?eaaaiooue e i?inoie judicis postulatio. Ai?i/ai,
oiai, /oi yoa oi?ia aicieeea iicaea ia?a/eneaiiuo ?aiaa, ia io?eoeatho e
i?aaenoaaeoaee ia?aiai iiaiey (iai?eia?, I. AEe?a?), i?e/ai
niiieoaeueiui i?aaenoaaeyaony aeaaea, nouanoaiaaea ee iia a yiioo XII
oaaeeoe.

5) Iaeiiaoe, iineaaeiyy, iyoay oi?ia – legis actio per condictionem. Ii
e ioiineoaeueii yoie oi?iu iu eiaai io?uai/iua naaaeaiey: ec ?anneaca
Aay i iae iu iiaeai i?i/anoue oieueei ianeieueei no?ie. A yoeo no?ieao
Aae aiai?eo, i?aaeaea anaai, i oii, /oi iacaaiea yoie oi?iu i?ienoiaeeo
io neiaa “condicere”, a condicere cia/eo denuntiare: enoaoe condicit
ioaao/eeo, /oiau oio yaeeny /a?ac 30 aeiae aeey iieo/aiey noaeuee. Ia
iniiaaiee yoiai i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi yoa legis actio ninoiyea ec
neaaeothueo aeoia: cayaeaiea i?aoaicee ia?aae iaaeno?aoii (“aio te mihi
100 dare oportere” – “nego me tibi 100 dare oportere”), caoai oeacaiiay
condictio – denuntiatio e litiscontestatio. Ii i?ioanoaee 30 aeiae
noi?iiu niiaa [n.67] yaeythony aeey auai?a noaeuee, e aeaei ia?aoiaeeo
in judicium. Caoai Aae iaaeioiaaaao, ca/ai iiiaaeiaeeanue yoa oi?ia,
eiaaea aeey eneia ec iaycaoaeuenoa iiaeii auei iieueciaaoueny eae legis
actio per sacramentum, oae e legis actio per judicis postulationem.
Iaeiiaoe, ii niiauaao, /oi yoa oi?ia auea aaaaeaia aeaoiy caeiiaie – lex
Silia aeey eneia i certa pecunia e lex Calpurnia aeey eneia de alia
certa re. Oaeei ia?acii, legis actio per condictionem yaeyaony oaea
naiie iicaeiae oi?iie e i?eiaaeeaaeeo aeiaieueii aeaeaei
i?iaeaeioaoaiony ?anioaeeeaineiio ia?eiaeo.

Oaeiau iyoue oi?i ae?aaiaai ?eineiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna a oaeii
aeaea, eae ii aeaenoaiaae a ia?aoth iieiaeio ?anioaeeeaineiai ia?eiaea e
eae ii iienai iai Aaai, eioi?ue oaea nai eiae i ieo aeaeaei ia iieiua
naaaeaiey. *oi ec iienaiiiai e a eaeii aeaea aeaenoaiaaei a yiioo
ae?aaiaeooth – aei ?anioaeeee, ii?aaeaeeoue, eiia/ii, a aunoae noaiaie
cao?oaeieoaeueii; ii ianiiiaiii ai anyeii neo/aa, /oi nenoaia legis
actionis yaeyaony i?aae iaie a yoii iienaiee aeaeaei ia a naiai
ia?aiia/aeueiii aeaea: iiiaea no?aiiua /a?oi/ee yoiai i?ioeanna
ia?aiinyo ian ai a?aiaia i/aiue ioaeaeaiiua.

No?aiiith, ii aianoa e oa?aeoa?iith, /a?oie iienaiiiai ae?aaia?eineiai
i?ioeanna yaeyaony, i?aaeaea anaai, ?acaeaeaiea aai ia aeaa noaaeee – ia
jus e judicium. Iaaeno?ao, ia?aae eioi?ui aeaei ia/eiaaony, ia nai aai
?aoaao, a ia?aaeaao ia ?acai? e ?aoaiea ae?oaiio, e i?eoii /anoiiio,
eeoeo (judex privatus). Eacaeinue au, iiaeii auei iaieoenue eee aac
ia?aiai (jus), eee aac aoi?iai (judicium). Iaaeeaaeauaa iauyniaiea yoiai
yaeaiey aucuaaao aieueoea cao?oaeiaiey.

Nii?ii, i?aaeaea anaai, a?aiy aicieeiiaaiey yoiai aeaeaiey: anoue ee iii
eneiiiia yaeaiea ?eineiai i?ioeanna eee aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaith
onoaiiaeaiea eaeiai-eeai aieaa iicaeiaai enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie? Iiiaea
iieaaatho, /oi iii auei iinoiyiiui naienoaii ?eineiai i?ioeanna,
aicieeioaoei aua ai a?aiaia aeienoi?e/aneea, /oi oaea a ia?eiae oea?ae
noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai aeaeeeinue ia yoe aeaa noaaeee. Ae?oaea,
iai?ioea, aeoiatho, /oi a oea?neee ia?eiae aeaeaiey ia auei: oea?ue nai
?acae?ae e nai iinoaiiaeye naie i?eaiai?; aeaeaiea aea ia jus e judicium
aicieeei eeoue a yiioo ?anioaeeee.

Ia iaiaa nii?ai e naiue niune yoiai aeaeaiey. Ec eaeie eaeae iii
auoaeaao e eaeei oeaeyi iii neoaeeo? Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaii iiaiea, /oi
iii eiaei, oae neacaoue, eiinoeoooeeiiiia [n.68] iacia/aiea: ia?aaea/a
?acai?a ii nouanoao a ?oee iniaiai i?enyaeiiai noaeuee aeieaeia auea
aa?aioe?iaaoue nii?yueo i?ioea i?eno?anoiuo i?eaiai?ia iaaeno?aoia; n
yoie oi/ee c?aiey, aeaeaiea i?ioeanna aeieaeii auei aicieeiooue ia ?aiaa
onoaiiaeaiey ?anioaeeee.

Auoue iiaeao, iiaeiaiay eaeay aa?aioee niinianoaiaaea nio?aiaieth yoiai
aeaeaiey a oa/aiea aieaa iicaeiaai a?aiaie, ii aaeaa ee iia aucaaea aai
e aeecie. Iaeioi?ua ae?oaea noieue aea oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou legis actiones
oeacuaatho, eae iai eaaeaony, ia niaa?oaiii eiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, eae
yoiai aeaeaiey, oae e anaai no?iaiey ae?aaia?eineiai i?ioeanna. *oiau
iaeoe eeth/ e aai iiieiaieth, iu aeieaeiu caaeyiooue aeaeaei iacaae – a
noi?ae oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea ainoaea?noai aeaeaei aua ia auei anai a
ca?iaeaeathuainy iauanoaa.

Iiaeiaii oiio, eae a iaeanoe oaieiaiiai i?aaa ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue a
ae?aaiaeoea a?aiaia ia aiaoeaaeanue a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo /anoiuie
eeoeaie, i?aaeinoaaeyy naiei iioa?iaaoei aaaeaoueny n i?anooiieeii, –
oae aea oi/ii e a iaeanoe a?aaeaeaineeo ioiioaiee ae?aaiaeoei niiniaii
inouanoaeaiey e caueou i?aa auei naiioi?aanoai: eoi-eeai caaeaaeae iiath
aauueth, ia caieaoee iia aeieaa, – iia ie/aai ae?oaiai ia inoaaony, eae
naiiio, nianoaaiiith neeith, acyoue aauue iacaae eee canoaaeoue
aeieaeieea oieaoeoue aeiea.

Ia /oi eiia, eae eiaiii oaeia naiioi?aanoai e i?aaenoaaeytho niaith aeaa
ec iienaiiuo legis actiones – pignoris capio e manus injectio. Pignoris
capio niaa?oaaony aeaaea aac o/anoey iaaeno?aoa; caeanue iao ie jus, ie
judicium, e aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi i?eaeaaaei yoie oi?ia oa?aeoa? i?ioeanna,
yoi oa “certa et solemnia verba”, eioi?ua i?e caoaaoa aaue
i?ieciineeenue; yoi aue ciae, /oi niaa?oaaony ia a?aaaae, a
inouanoaeaiea iaycaoaeuenoaa. Eiia/ii, oio, eoi ceioiio?aaee au yoeie
oi?aeanoaaiiuie neiaaie, iiaeeaaeae au ioaaonoaaiiinoe eae ai? e
a?aaeoaeue, a, iiaeao auoue, naa?o oiai, oaieiaiie eee nae?aeueiie ea?a.
– A ?eia yoa oi?ia nio?aieeanue eeoue aeey iaeioi?uo iniai
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo o?aaiaaiee, ii o iiiaeo ae?oaeo ia?iaeia caoaao aauae
aeieaeieea yaeyaony ii?iaeueiui niiniaii inouanoaeaiey iaycaoaeuenoa:
oaeiaa, iai?eia?, aussergerichtliche Pfandung ae?aaiaaa?iaineiai i?aaa.

Manus injectio, caoaao naiie ee/iinoe aeieaeieea, i?aaenoaaeyao ae?oaie,
noieue aea anoanoaaiiue ii ae?aaiei iiiyoeyi, niinia oaeiai [n.69] aea
inouanoaeaiey: iaycaoaeuenoai a oi a?aiy naycuaaei e iiae/eiyei naioth
ee/iinoue aeieaeieea, eae au caeeaaeuaaei aai naiiai e?aaeeoi?o. A
neo/aa iaieaoaaea aeieaa e?aaeeoi? iaeeuaeuaaao ia iaai naith ?oeo e
oaiaeeo e naaa, oi anoue aeaeaao eae ?ac oi, /oi ninoaaeyao niaea?aeaiea
manus injectio. Ii ii caeiiai XII oaaeeoe manus injectio niaa?oaaony
oaea ia?aae eeoeii ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe (“in jus ducito”). I?e
ii?iaeueiii iieiaeaiee aeae iaaeno?ao i?enoonoaoao eeoue a ea/anoaa
ianneaiiai c?eoaey (oae iac. addictio aeieaeieea e?aaeeoi?o anoue
yaeaiea aieaa iicaeiaai a?aiaie: e caeiiu XII oaaeeoe, e Aae aiai?yo i
i?inoie ductio e?aaeeoi?a). Ii aeieaeiee iiaeao ieacaoue e?aaeeoi?o
nii?ioeaeaiea, e?aaeeoi? iiaeao ia ia?aoeoue aieiaiey ia i?ioano
vindex’a, – e oiaaea o/anoea e iiiiuue iaaeno?aoa iiaoo iiiaaeiaeoueny.
Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue, oaeei ia?acii, oaea i?enoonoaoao i?e
inouanoaeaiee i?aa, ii ia a oeaeyo ?acai?a e noaea, a a oeaeyo io?aiu
ii?yaeea, oi anoue a ecaanoiii niunea n oi/ee c?aiey iieeoeaeneie.

Anee aeaei oei ia i aeieaa, a i aaue, anee eoi-eeai caaeaaeaaae /oaeith
aauueth, oi eeoei, o eioi?iai iia auea iacaeiiii ioiyoa, a ae?aaiaeoaa
a?aiy aeieaeii auei nianoaaiiith neeie aica?aoeoue aa naaa. Ii, eiia/ii,
a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iii iaoaeeeaaeinue ia nii?ioeaeaiea, e oiaaea
nii? iiaea ?aoeoue oieueei ?aaeueiay, oece/aneay ai?ueaa noi?ii.
Iaaa?iinoue enoiaea yoie ai?ueau canoaaeyea eiiaaea nii?yueo eaeoe eee
ia ie?iaoth naeaeeo, eee ia?auaoueny e o?aoaeneiio noaeo (niaa?oaiii oae
aea, eae a iaeanoe oaieiaiiai i?aaa), ii e oi, e ae?oaia caaeneo io
aeia?ie aiee iaaeo noi?ii, e iioiio, ianiio?y, auoue iiaeao, ia naith
iauoth ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue a aeecie, yaeyaony enoiaeii iaiaycaoaeueiui.

Eiaaea oi?i/eaoayny e ie?aiioaoay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue ia/eiaao
ia?auaoue aieueoaa aieiaiea ia aioo?aiiaa ono?iaiea ainoaea?noaa, ?ani?e
/anoiuo eeoe, eo naiae e ?iaeia ii iiaiaeo anyeeo (oaieiaiuo e
a?aaeaeaineeo) iaeae ia/eiatho i?eciaaaoueny ath yaeaieai
iaaeaeaoaeueiui. E aio oiaaea oi ia ianoi i?aaeiaai iai?aaieciaaiiiai
ii?yaeea io?aiu i?aa onoaiaaeeaaaony iiaue.

I?e yoii, iaeiaei, iuneeiu ?acee/iua aei?iae. Aieueoeinoai ecaanoiuo iai
ia?iaeia, cai?auay ianoue e naiioi?aanoai, nicaeatho iinoaiaiii iniaua
noaeaaiua i?aaiu, eioi?ua e ?aoatho nii?u io eiaie ainoaea?noaa, auaiaey
naith eiiiaoaioiinoue e neeo ia ec eaeiai-eeai niaeaoaiey noi?ii, a ec
iiiyoey ainoaea?noaa e aeanoe. Aiai?y eia/a, ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue,
cai?auay naiioi?aanoai, naia aa?ao ia naay ?aoaiea nii?ia e caueoo
iii?aiiuo i?aa.

?eineee ia?iae, iaeiaei, eca?ae naaa eiie iooue – ia iooue nicaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaeia, a iooue onaiaiey e iaiauaiey einoeoooa
o?aoaeneeo noaeia. Ae?aaiaeoay ?eineay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue eeoue
i?ae?auaao oece/aneoth ai?ueao noi?ii e caoai canoaaeyao nii?yueo oae
eee eia/a i?eeoe e niaeaoaieth i o?aoaeneii noaea, eioi?ue caoai e
?acaa?ao nii? ii nouanoao.

Ana yoi e io?aaeaaony, eae a ae?aiaoe/aneie ea?oeia, a iienaiiii auoa
?eooaea legis actio sacramento. I?aaeaea anaai, ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue
ia aucuaaao ioaao/eea; iia iiyaeony oieueei oiaaea, eae noi?iiu nioeenue
naie. A aeoa vindicatio e contravindicatio noi?iiu ia?auathony ioithaeue
ia e iaaeno?aoo ni naieie cayaeaieyie, a eneeth/eoaeueii ae?oa e ae?oao;
eaaeaeay ec noi?ii aioiaa io neia ia?aeoe e aeaeo: eaaeaeay iaeeaaeuaaao
ia aauue naith vindicta, eioi?ay yaeyaony neiaieii eiiuey; iaa aioiau
anooieoue a ?aaeueioth ai?ueao ca aauue. Ii a yoio iiiaioa aiaoeaaaony
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue naiei i?eeacii: “mittite ambo rem!”. Ai?ueaa
i?ae?auaia, e noi?iiai ie/aai ae?oaiai ia inoaaony, eae anooieoue ia oio
iooue, eioi?ue, eae neacaii, aue e aac oiai oaea /anoui, – ia iooue
niaeaoaiey i o?aoaeneii noaea. Yoi niaeaoaiea e nicaeaaony iin?aaenoaii
provocatio sacramento e ieii/aoaeueii caeeth/aaony a oi?aeanoaaiiii aeoa
litiscontestatio. Nianoaaiiue ?acai? e i?eaiai? i?iecieaeao oaea o
o?aoaeneiai noaeuee (judex privatus), in judicio; i?iecaiaenoai aea in
jure yaeyaony enoi?e/aneei ioeiaeaieai oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue noaaeea naiae caaea/ae oieueei i?aaeioa?aoeoue
aiciiaeioth ai?ueao noi?ii e ia?aaanoe nii? ia iooue ie?iiai ?ac?aoaiey.
Aianoa n oai iiyoue-oaee auyniyaony aaeieieno?aoeaii-iieeoeaeneay oeaeue
ia/aeuenoaaiiiai o/anoey iaaeno?aoa.

Anee pignoris capio e manus injectio aicieeee eae oi?iu aeey
inouanoaeaiey aeieaiauo i?aoaicee, oi, iai?ioea, ianiiiaiii ae?aaiaeoae
noa?ie legis actio sacramento auee eiaiii nii?u i aaue, oi anoue i i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe. Ia?aianaiea yoie oi?iu ia enee ec iaycaoaeuenoa yaeeinue
i?iaeoeoii oaea aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey.

A enoi?e/aneia a?aiy noaeueyie in judicio yaeyeenue naaoneea /anoiua
eeoea. Iaeiaei, iacaaiea i?ioeannoaeueiiai caeiaa sacramentum e ecaanoea
i oii, /oi ii oae ia?aiia/aeueii a eanno iiioeoeeia, a oaeaea oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi a aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy neiaii sacramentum
iaicia/aaony i?enyaa nieaeao, – ana yoi canoaaeyao i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi a
yiioo aeienoi?e/aneoth legis actio sacramento eiaea [n.71] eiie
oa?aeoa?. Sacramentum e caeanue, aa?iyoii, i?aaenoaaeyei i?enyao noi?ii:
inoaiiaeaiiua aeanoueth a ia/aea ai?ueau, noi?iiu iiaeoaa?aeaeaee naie
i?aoaicee i?enyaie, e oiaaea anoanoaaiii aicieeae aii?in, eoi ec ieo
i?enyaioe eiaeii, a yoi iiaeeaaeaei, eae oeacaii auoa, noaeo iiioeoeeia.
I?eciaiiue i?enyaioaoei eiaeii aeieaeai aue oieaoeoue ecaanoiue oo?ao,
eae noiio expiatio. Ii ia?a i?ia?anne?iaaaoae yiaineiaoeee naaoneiai
i?aaa io nae?aeueiiai yiaineie?iaaeny e a?aaeae. i?ioeann: en/acea
i?enyaa, a i?aaeiee nae?aeueiue oo?ao i?aa?aoeeny a aeaiaaeiue
i?ioeannoaeueiue caeia; aianoi iiioeoeeia noaeeoue in judicio noaee
naaoneea judices privati.

?anniio?aiiua o?e oi?iu legis actio yaeythony ae?aaiaeoeie; naieie
ei?iyie iie ooiaeyo aeaeaei aaeoaue aeienoi?e/aneeo a?aiai. Iai?ioea,
aeaa iineaaeiea oi?iu i?eiaaeeaaeao oaea e iiaaeoei enoi?e/aneei
ianeiaieyi. Legis actio per judicis postulationem anoue oi?iuaiiay
oi?ia, i?e iiiiue eioi?ie iiaeii aeiaeoueny i?eaiai?a aac ?enea aeey oie
eee ae?oaie noi?iiu iioa?youe noiio i?ioeannoaeueiiai caeiaa, e eiaiii
yoiio ianoiyoaeuenoao iia, aa?iyoii, iaycaia naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai.
Legis actio per condictionem yaeyaony oaea aannii?iui nicaeaieai
?anioaeeeaineie yiioe.

Eceiaeaiiue aiaeec ae?aaia?eineeo i?ioeannoaeueiuo oi?i iieacuaaao iai e
a yoie iaeanoe ia?aoiaeioth noaaeeth: n iaeiie noi?iiu – neeueiu aua
ia?aaeeaaiey a?aiai i?eieoeaiiai naiioi?aanoaa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu –
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue oaea ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue
a niunea ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiey /anoiuo ioiioaiee. Ai anao iaeanoyo iu
i?enoonoaoai i?e ca?iaeaeaiee i?aaiaiai ii?yaeea, i?e aai ia?auo, aua
ia?aoeoaeueiuo oaaao.

9. OAE IACUAAAIAss ?AOI?IA NA?AEss OOEEEss E IAAeAIEA OeA?NEIE AEANOE

Yiioa, eioi?oth iu ioaaouaaai iaueie neiaeaie iiae eiaiai oea?neiai
ia?eiaea, ioithaeue ia yaeyaony a?aiaiai eaeie-eeai iaiiaeaeaeiinoe; ia
i?ioyaeaiee yoiai ia?eiaea i?ienoiaeeee, eiia/ii, ?aciiia?aciua
eciaiaiey a iauanoaaiiie aeecie e a i?aaiaii [n.72] no?ia. Iaeiaei,
ianooieei a?aiy, eiaaea aeeciue noaea a ?aaeeeaeueiia i?ioeai?a/ea n
naiuie iniiaaie yoiai no?iy e iio?aaiaaea ?aaeeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i. E
aeaenoaeoaeueii, ?eineia i?aaeaiea niiauaao iai i oaeeo ?aoi?iao,
i?eienuaay eo i?aaeiineaaeiaio oea?th – Na?aeth Ooeeeth. Oae aea, eae e
iiiaia ae?oaia, yoi i?aaeaiea nia?aiaiiuie enoi?eeaie, iaeiaei,
iiaeaa?aaaony e?eoeea e niiiaieth.

Iaeioi?ua ec o/aiuo ioiinyo yoe ?aoi?iu oaea e ?anioaeeeaineiio
ia?eiaeo; aeoiatho aeaaea, /oi iie yaeythony ia i?iaeoeoii aaeeiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai aeoa, a noiiie iiiaeo /anoe/iuo eciaiaiee. Ii anee a
priori iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ?eineia i?aaeaiea ecia?aaeaao iai
oiae ?aoi?i ia nianai oae, eae auei a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oi, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, e i?aaeeaaaaiua acaiai aeiioacu nia?aiaiiuo o/aiuo ia?aaeei
i/aiue ?eneiaaiiu e iaei oaaaeeoaeueiu.

Eae auei oeacaii auoa, ae?aaia?eineee iauanoaaiiue e ainoaea?noaaiiue
no?ie aue anaoeaei ?ann/eoai ia ei?aiiuo, ecia/aeueiuo aeeoaeae iaueiu,
iie?aeny ia eo ?iaeiaoth i?aaiecaoeeth. Iicaeiaeoea ia?anaeaioeu,
ieaaae, noiy aia iao?eoeeaineeo ?iaeiauo naycae, noiyee e aia
iieeoe/aneie aeecie: iie ia i?eieiaee o/anoey a ?aoaiee iauanoaaiiuo
aeae, ii caoi ia ianee e iauaa?aaeaeaineeo iiaeiiinoae – aiaiiie,
iiaeaoiie e o. ae. Yoi auee naiaai ?iaea “cao?aaaoieee”, “Hintersassen”
iaueiu, aeey eioi?uo de jure ?ei inoaaaeny /oaeaeiie.

Oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae iiaei ia aicaoaeaeaoue aieiaiey eeoue a oa
a?aiaia, eiaaea iiaeaaeythuei yeaiaioii ianaeaiey auee iao?eoeee, a
eeann i?eoaeueoeaa-ieaaaaa aue iaiiiai/eneai. Eiaaea aea yoio iineaaeiee
eeann cia/eoaeueii ?ac?inny e ionoee i?i/iua ei?ie a ?eia, aai
eciee?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea aeaeaeinue ana aieaa e aieaa iauanoaaiiie
aiiiaeeae. N iaeiie noi?iiu, naie iao?eoeee iaei-iiiaeo i?eaueatho
niio?aoue ia ieaaaaa, eae ia iinoiyiioth ninoaaioth /anoue ?eineiai
ianaeaiey; n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ieaaae, aeey eioi?uo eioa?anu eo iiaie
io/eciu, ?eia, aeaeathony ana aieaa e aieaa iaaac?acee/iuie, ia/eiatho
iaia?oaeeaaoue no?aieaiea e o/anoeth a iaueiiuo aeaeao.

Nouanoaoao i?aaeaiea, /oi oaea Oa?eaeiee I?ene eiae iuneue ninoaaeoue ec
ieaaaaa iiaoth (/aoaa?ooth) o?eao ia ?aaiuo i?aaao n i?aaeieie, ii aai
iiiuoea ?acaeeanue i nii?ioeaeaiea ae?aoeia. I?eoeinue inoaiiaeoueny ia
eiii?iienna: ec n?aaeu ieaaaaa auee aua?aiu iaeioi?ua familiae e
aeeth/aiu iiae eiaiai gentes minores a ninoaa i?aaeieo o?ao o?ea.
Ianeieueei aeinoiaa?ii yoi i?aaeaiea, o?oaeii neacaoue. Gentes minores
aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaotho aiineaaenoaee n?aaee iao?eoeeaineeo ?iaeia,
ii oaeiai ee eo i?ienoiaeaeaiea, eae aiai?eo ?eineia i?aaeaiea,
iaecaanoii. Eae au oi ie auei, anee aeaaea ?aoi?ia Oa?eaeiey I?enea
iiaeeeiiay enoi?e/aneay i?aaaea e anee iia aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaea a aeaeo
ieaaaaa, – iia ia eciaieea iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy,
a oieueei iiiieieea noa?ua i?aaiecaoeee iiauie eeoeaie.

Ai?acaei aieaa na?ueaciia e i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea eiaea ?aoi?ia,
i?eienuaaaiay Na?aeth Ooeeeth. Ionoue e aaoi? e a?aiy aa niiieoaeueiu,
ii iauea iniiau aa, aeioaaeoea aei a?aiai aieaa aeinoiaa?iuo
iaeciaiiuie, aieaa eee iaiaa yniu.

Auei au, eiia/ii, iai?aaeeueii aeoiaoue, /oi yoa ?aoi?ia auea caaeoiaia
e i?iaaaeaia, eae ?aoi?ia iieeoe/aneay, i?aaeaea anaai, eae yoi
i?aaenoaaeyee naaa iicaeiaeoea ?eieyia. Iaeaieaa aaaeiie i?aeoe/anee e
iaeaieaa a?acoieoaeueiie aeey iao?eoeeaa noi?iiie ioia/aiiie auoa
iauanoaaiiie aiiiaeee auei oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iaeie iao?eoeee ianee
ia naaa anth eiouanoaaiioth e ee/ioth oyaioo aieineie iiaeiiinoe. Oeaeue
cia/eoaeueiue eeann ianaeaiey inoaaaeny a yoii iineaaeiai ioiioaiee
niaa?oaiii iaeniieueciaaiiui. Aneaaenoaea yoiai aicieeaei iieiia
ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo aeaenoaeoaeueiui ianaeaieai ?eia e eiee/anoaii
aunoaaeyaiiai ei aienea. A iaaeaeo oai iio?aaiinoe iai?iiu e ?anoouea
caaiaaaoaeueiua no?aieaiey ?eia o?aaotho ana aieueoaai e aieueoaai
iai?yaeaiey anao aai ee/iuo nee. I?aaenoaaeyeinue iiyoiio aeaeaoaeueiui
i?aaeaea anaai eae-ieaoaeue i?eaea/ue anth ianno ieaaaaa e o/anoeth
(ee/iiio e eiouanoaaiiiio) a ianaiee aieineie iiaeiiinoe. E
aeaenoaeoaeueii, any oae iacuaaaiay ?aoi?ia Na?aey Ooeeey anoue ii
iniiaiie eaeaa naiae ?aoi?ia aieineay e iiaeaoiay. Aeinoeaiooue
oeacaiiie oeaee iiaeii auei oieueei ?aaeeeaeueiui eciaiaieai naiiai
iniiaiiai ooiaeaiaioa yoeo iiaeiiinoae, caiaiea i?eioeei i?ienoiaeaeaiey
aianoa n aai ?iaeiaie e eo?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeae ia?iaea e aienea
i?eioeeiii eiouanoaaiiie ninoiyoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai.

Aeaaiui aea ia?eeii eiouanoaaiiie ninoiyoaeueiinoe a oo yiioo yaeyeinue
eiee/anoai ia?aaaouaaaiie eaaeaeie naiueae caiee. Iiyoiio, i?aaeaea
anaai, i?aaenoaaeyeinue iaiaoiaeeiui onoaiiaeoue iaaeeaaeauee niinia
aeey o/aoa iicaiaeueiuo aeaaeaiee. N yoie oeaeueth any ?eineay
oa??eoi?ey auea ?acaeaeaia ia ecaanoiia eiee/anoai ie?oaia, eioi?ua
iacuaathony oaeaea o?eaaie (tribus), ii eioi?ua ia eiatho ie/aai iauaai
ni noa?uie ieaiaiiuie o?eaaie Ramnes, Tities e Luceres. Eaeia eiee/anoai
ie?oaia auei ia?aciaaii ia?aiia/aeueii, iu ia ciaai. A ia/aea ?anioaeeee
iu iaoiaeei 3 ai?iaeneea o?eau a naiii ?eia (tribus Palatina, Collina,
Esquilina e Suburana) e 16 eee 17 naeueneeo o?ea (tribus rusticae;
aieueoeinoai ec ieo iineo aua ?iaeiaua iacaaiey – ni. auoa) aia aai; ii
iiyaeeenue ee ana iie n?aco eee aea ia?aiia/aeueii nouanoaiaaee oieueei
tribus urbanae, aii?in nii?iue. ssaeyynue, oaeei ia?acii, ecaanoiith
“caineie” aaeeieoeae, o?eaa ecae?aea naaa iniaiai “noa?inoo” – tribunus
aerarius, ia iaycaiiinoe eioi?iai eaaeaei o/anoea a ii?aaeaeaiee
eiouanoaaiiie ninoiyoaeueiinoe a?aaeaeai, niae?aiea iiaeaoae e oieaoa
aeaeiaaiuey.

Ia iniiaaiee, oaeei ia?acii, auyniaiiiai eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey
eaaeaeiai, ana a?aaeaeaia, oi anoue eae iao?eoeee, oae e ieaaae,
?ani?aaeaeyeenue caoai ia iyoue eeannia, eioi?ua yaeyeenue a oi aea
a?aiy e ?acee/iuie ii noaiaie aii?oaeaiey ?ac?yaeaie aiene: aieaa
ninoiyoaeueiua aeieaeiu auee yaeyoueny e n aieaa iieiui nianoaaiiui
aii?oaeaieai. Eiouanoaaiiua ii?iu, neoaeeaoea iniiaaieai aeey
?ani?aaeaeaiey ii eeannai, ia?aaeaiu iai iicaeiaeoeie ?eineeie
enoi?eeaie a aeaea ecaanoiuo aeaiaaeiuo ii?i: ia?aue eeann io 100 ouny/
annia, aoi?ie io 75 aei 100 ouny/ e o. ae. Aieaa aa?iyoiui, iaeiaei,
i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi aia/aea yoi auee ii?iu caieaaeaaeaiey. E ia?aiio
eeanno i?e/eneyeenue a?aaeaeaia, aeaaeaaoea nauoa 20 thaa?ia caiee, ei
aoi?iio io 15 aei 20, e o?aoueaio io 10 aei 15, e /aoaa?oiio io 5 aei 10
e e iyoiio eeoea, aeaaeaaoea iaiaa 5 thaa?ia. I cia/aiee yoeo caiaeueiuo
ii?i auei neacaii auoa. A?aaeaeaia, yaeyaoeany caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie e
iioiio ninoiyaoea a oie eee ae?oaie o?eaa – tribules – e aioaaeoea a oio
eee ae?oaie eeann, iacuaaeenue adsidui e classici.

Eaaeaeue ec eeannia aunoaaeye ecaanoiia eiee/anoai aiaiiuo io?yaeia,
oeaioo?ee: ia?aue eeann 80, aoi?ie, o?aoee e /aoaa?oue ii 20 e iyoue 30.
Ana yoe oeaioo?ee ?acaeaeyeenue ia centuriae juniorum e centuriae
seniorum, a eaaeaeii eeanna ii ?aaiiio /eneo. A centuriae juniorum
aoiaeeee eeoea a aic?anoa io 17 aei 46 eao, a [n.75] centuriae seniorum
eeoea io 46 aei 60 eao; ia?aua ninoaaeyee iniiaioth aiaaoth eeieth,
aoi?ua – ?aca?a. E?iia yoeo eeanniuo oeaioo?ee, a ninoaa a?iee aoiaeeee
18 oeaioo?ee anaaeieeia, iaae?aaoeony ec a?aaeaeai ia?aiai eeanna, 2
oeaioo?ee ianoa?ia (fabri tignarii e fabri ferrarii), 2 oeaioo?ee
iocueaioia (cornicines e tubicines) e, iaeiiaoe, 1 oeaioo?ey ec eeoe, ia
aoiaeeaoeo a eeannu, ia caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, oae iacuaaaiua proletarii
eee capite censi. Oaeei ia?acii, iauaa /enei oeaioo?ee auei 193.

A yoii ?acaeaeaiee ia oeaioo?ee aicaoaeaeaao i?aaeaea anaai aieiaiea
ia?aaiia eiee/anoai eo a eeannao. Iiaeii auei au aeoiaoue, /oi oeaioo?ee
auee ia?aaiu e /oi aoeueoaa eiee/anoai eo a ia?aii eeanna, /ai a
inoaeueiuo, iauyniyaony aeaeaieai aeaoue i?aiaeaaeaiea aiaaoui iaae
aaaeiuie; yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea auei au ia eeoaiiui iniiaaiey, anee au
auei aeieacaii, /oi any yoa ?aoi?ia eiaea a aeaeo i?aaeaea anaai oeaee
iieeoe/aneea, a eiaiii yoi i?aaenoaaeyaony iai?aaaeiiiaeiaiui.
Aa?iyoiaa, iiyoiio, ae?oaia iauyniaiea: oeaioo?ee, eae ecaanoiua aiaiiua
io?yaeu, auee i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeeiaeiaie /eneaiiinoe; anee aea a ia?aii
eeanna eo aieaa, /ai a inoaeueiuo, oi iioiio, /oi e a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
aieueoeinoai oiaaeaoiaai ?eineiai ianaeaiey ninoiyei ec a?aaeaeai,
aeaaeaaoeo ia iaiaa 20 thaa?ia caiee. I?e oaeii i?aaeiieiaeaiee
?ani?aaeaeaiea oeaioo?ee ii eeannai iiaeao neoaeeoue ea?oeiie
caieaaeaaeaiey.

Ianeieueei eia/a noieo aii?in i ?acaeaeaiee ia centuriae juniorum e
seniorum: noaoenoeea iieacuaaao, /oi ai anyeii iauanoaa eeoe io 17 aei
46 eao ai?acaei aieueoa, /ai eeoe noa?oa 46 eao. Inoaaony, iiyoiio,
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ?aca?aiua oeaioo?ee noa?eeia ii naiae /eneaiiinoe
auee iaiaa oeaioo?ee iieiaeuo.

?ac iniiaie aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiaeiiinoae auei iinoaaeaii
eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea eaaeaeiai, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi ioeaiea e
ninoaaeaiea nieneia aeieaeiu auee aiciaiiaeyoueny ia?eiaee/anee. Yoa
ioeaiea (census) i?iecaiaeeeanue i?eaeeceoaeueii /a?ac eaaeaeua 5 eao e
caeai/eaaeanue iniauie ?aeeaeiciuie ia?yaeaie (lustratio, io/aai e
iyoeeaoiee ia?eiae iacuaaaony lustrum).

Eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei aeieaeai aue, oaeei ia?acii, yaeyoueny ni naiei
i?oaeeai; aeey ae?oaeo iaaeiaiinoae ia?iaeiie iai?iiu eaaeaeue,
iiyoue-oaee niia?acii naiaio eiouanoaaiiiio iieiaeaieth, aeieaeai aue
ieaoeoue iiaeaoue, eioi?ay iacuaaeanue tributus eee [n.76] tributum.
Iia, ai?i/ai, ia eiaea oa?aeoa?a ?aaoey?iie iiaeaoe, a iacia/aeanue a
neo/aa iaaeiaiinoe oea?ai (rex imperat tributum), i?e n/anoeeaii enoiaea
aieiu (aieueoay aiaiiay aeiau/a) aica?auaeanue ieaoaeueueeai e, oaeei
ia?acii, eiaea nei?aa oa?aeoa? i?eioaeeoaeueiiai caeia ia a?aiy.
Anaaeieee iieo/aee, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, eioaaeue io ainoaea?noaa (equites
equo publico), niaea?aeaiea aea aa iiea/eaaeinue eeoeaie, ia
iiaeeaaeaaoeie aieineie iiaeiiinoe (aaeiau e naiinoiyoaeueiua
ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea); iie ieaoeee iniaoth iiaeaoue – aes equestre e aes
hordearium (hordeum – y/iaiue). Aceiaiea iiaeaoae e oieaoa niaea?aeaiey
naiei ainoaea?noaii ia i?iecaiaeeeenue: anaaeiee aeieaeai aue ia?aoeoue
naia acuneaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii eee e tribunus aerarius eee e oai
eeoeai, eioi?ua auee aeey iaai, eae ieaoaeueueee, iacia/aiu.

Iienaiiay ?aoi?ia eiaea a?iiaaeiia e i?eioeeieaeueiia e i?aeoe/aneia
cia/aiea aeey aeaeueiaeoae ?eineie enoi?ee. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iia ia
oie/oiaeaea noa?iai iao?eoeeaineiai no?iy n aai comitia curiata,
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iia eiaea a aeaeo prima facie oeaee aieineea, – iia
nicaeaea oi?io, a eioi?oth aioea caoai iacaiaoii e e?oiiay ?aoi?ia
iieeoe/aneay.

Aeaaiaea?y ae ia?aciaaeny, i?aaeaea anaai, iiaue aeae iauaia?iaeiie
i?aaiecaoeee – comitia centuriata. Ia?aiia/aeueii, eiia/ii, yoi auei ia
/oi eiia, eae oieueei nia?aiea aienea, ?aniieiaeaiiiai aiaaui no?iai ia
Ia?niaii iiea. Iaeiaei, iaei-iiiaeo, a neeo oaeoe/aneeo oneiaee aeecie,
comitia centuriata noaee iiaui i?aaiii, i?e iin?aaenoaa eioi?iai aanue
?eineee ia?iae (n ieaaayie aeeth/eoaeueii) iia au?aaeaoue naith aieth.
Ia?aiia/aeueii, aa?iyoii, aiein oaeiai nia?aiey, oi anoue aienea, eiae
cia/aiea oieueei aeey aii?inia aieiu e aiaiiiai aeaea, ii caoai,
aneaaenoaea aieaa eee iaiaa oaniie nayce n ieie e ae?oaeo aii?inia
iieeoeee, eiiiaoaioeey (iineieueeo aiiaua aeey oiai a?aiaie iiaeii
aiai?eoue i eiiiaoaioeee) comitia centuriata iinoaiaiii ?anoe?yeanue a
oua?a noa?ui comitia curiata.

Aianoa n oai nouanoaaiii eciaieeinue e iieiaeaiea ieaaaaa: o/anoaoy a
aienea, iie i?eia?aee oaia?ue aiciiaeiinoue o/anoaiaaoue e a ia?iaeiii
nia?aiee. I?aaaea, ia?aia a?aiy iie ia iiaee oaeoe/anee ea?aoue a iai
aeeyoaeueiie ?iee: a?aaeaeaia ia?aiai eeanna, a aieueoeinoaa ninoiyaoea,
eiia/ii, aua ec iao?eoeeaa, eae [n.77] neacaii, aeaaaee 98 oeaioo?ee e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeaaeaee 98 aieinaie ec iauaai /enea 193; iie, oaeei
ia?acii, i?e aaeeiiaeanee a naiae n?aaea anaaaea eiaee ia?aaan. Aaaeii,
iaeiaei, oaea oi, /oi iao?eoeee i?aiaeaaeatho oaea ia eae iao?eoeee, a
eeoue eae aieaa ninoiyoaeueiua caieaaeaaeaeueoeu. Iiianoue aea a /enei
iineaaeieo e ieaaayi aei?iaa ia cae?uoa. Ieaaae auoee, oaeei ia?acii, ec
naiaai i?aaeiaai eciee?iaaiiiai iieiaeaiey, aoyioeenue a iauaia?iaeioth
i?aaiecaoeeth.

Aea e aeey naieo iao?eoeeaa yoa ?aoi?ia ia iiaea i?ieoe aanneaaeii: iia
aeieaeia auea i?aaeaea anaai io?aceoueny a aeaeueiaeoai oiaeaiee
cia/aiey ?iaeia e a aeaeueiaeoai ?aceiaeaiee iao?ea?oaeueiiai no?iy.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue i?eioeei naeaeae iiaue e e?oiiue oaa aia?aae.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay ?eineay enoi?ey anei?a ca ?aoi?iaie Na?aey Ooeeey noaaeo
e naiia iaaeaiea oea?neie aeanoe. Eaeea niauoey, eaeea iio?ynaiey
nii?iaiaeaeaee yoi iaaeaiea; auei ee yoi iaaeaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiui
iecaa?aeaieai, eae iiaanoaoao o?aaeeoeey e eae aeoiatho iaeioi?ua ec
iiauo (iai?eia?, Iae?), eee aea iii yaeeinue ?acoeueoaoii i?inoiai e
iinoaiaiiiai ineaaeaiey oea?neie aeanoe, eae aeoiatho ae?oaea (iai?eia?,
aea Naieoen, Ieca), aue ee ia?aoiae e ?anioaeeea ?aaeoeeae a?enoie?aoee
i?ioea aeaiie?aoe/aneie iieeoeee iineaaeieo oea?ae eee aea, iaiai?io,
iiaie iiaaaeie aeaiie?aoee, – ana yoi aii?inu, eioi?ua i?e iuiaoiai
ninoiyiee iaoeo ciaiee aaeaa ee iiaoo auoue ?ac?aoaiu ieii/aoaeueii.

Iiaeii oieueei neacaoue, /oi aiaeiae/iue i?ioeann ?ai?aaiecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa niaa?oeeny i?eaeeceoaeueii a oi aea a?aiy e
a ae?oaeo ninaaeieo (eaoeineeo e iaeaoeineeo) civitates. Ia niaio
i?aaeiae oea?neie aeanoe a ieo aicieeee ?aciiia?aciua aiaee/iua
iaaeno?aoo?u (dictatores, praetores, meddices, marones e o. ae.).
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, enoi?ey ?eia ia i?aaenoaaeyao a yoii ioiioaiee ie/aai
eneeth/eoaeueiiai.

Eae au oi ie auei, ii a iae ia/eiaaony iiaue ia?eiae – ia?eiae
?anioaeeee.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019