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ENOI?Ess AAAOAIAEA

Oeeaeeecaoeey iaey

A oa/aiea I ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. a ai?iie iaeanoe Aaaoaiaeu aicieeei
ianeieueei ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa, aeeyiea e oi?aiaua nayce eioi?uo
?ani?ino?aiyeenue aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeu nia?aiaiiie Aaaoaiaeu. Ieiei 300
i.y. ia?aianaeaiiinoue eee eaeay-oi i?e?iaeiay eaoano?ioa auioaeeea
aieueooth a?oiio iaey ia?anaeeoueny aeaeueoa e naaa?o, ia ?aaieio Iaoai.
Yoa iaeanoue noaea oeaio?ii eeanne/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee iaey, aeinoeaoae
?anoeaaoa a 4–6 aa. e iinoaiaiii ?ani?ino?aieaoaeny a i?aaeaeu
nia?aiaiiuo Iaeneee, Aaeeca e Aiiaeo?ana. Caeanue iaia?oaeaiu iiiaea
iaiyoieee yoie eoeueoo?u, iai?eia?, ecoieoaeueiua nii?oaeaiey a Oeeaea,
Oaoaeooia e Ee?eaoa.

Iaey ieeiaaea ia eiaee oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa; aie?oa e?oiiuo
ai?iaeia aicieeaee ae?oaea ai?iaea, ni naieie i?aaeoaeyie, iie?aaoeieny
ia ae?aoeia, ciaoue e aiaiiuo. Ec iniiaiuo eoeueoo? iaey aicaeaeuaaee
iaen (eoeo?oco) e eaeai. Eaeai-aiau eniieueciaaeenue eae aeaiueae, a
oaeaea i?e ecaioiaeaiee oea?aiiieaeueiiai ieouey /ieieaoeue, o.a.
oieieaaea. Au?aueaaeenue oaeaea oueau, o?oeou e oeii/aoiee. ?aeeaey iaey
aeeth/aea eae iaiaoiaeeiue yeaiaio /aeiaa/aneea aea?oaii?eiioaiey,
eioi?ua ?anniao?eaaeenue eae n?aaenoai ion?i/eoue eaoano?ioo, eioi?ay
(niaeanii iauaio aeey anao eoeueoo? Ianiaia?eee iiaa?ueth) oaea
/aou?aaeaeu oie/oiaeaea ie?.

A 9–10 aa. aieueoeinoai ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa iaey auei ?ac?ooaii. O/aiua
auaeaeaatho ?acee/iua aeiioacu, aeeth/ay iaoanoaea ieaiai oieueoaeia,
e?anoueyineea ainnoaiey, a?aaeaeo aioo?e ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna eee
eaoano?ioe/aneoth y?iceth ii/a, eioi?ua ia iiaee i?iei?ieoue ?anoouaa
ianaeaiea. Iaeiaei, oioy oeeaeeecaoeey iaey ia ?aaieiao Aaaoaiaeu
en/acea, iia i?iaeieaeaea nouanoaiaaoue ia i-iaa THeaoai e a ai?ao thaa
Aaaoaiaeu. E 11 a. ia THeaoaia neiaeeeinue iaey-oieueoaeneia
ainoaea?noai ni noieeoeae a *e/ai-Eoea. A yoie eoeueoo?a nio?aieeenue
o?aaeeoeee aicaaaeaiey iiioiaioaeueiuo a?oeoaeoo?iuo nii?oaeaiee
eoeueoiaiai e oea?aiiieaeueiiai iacia/aiey e i?aeoeea /aeiaa/aneeo
aea?oaii?eiioaiee. A?oiiu ieaiai iaey, inoaaoeony a ai?ao Aaaoaiaeu,
oioy e ia aeinoeaee aunieiai o?iaiy a iaoea eee a?oeoaeoo?a, eae iaey
THeaoaia eeanne/aneiai ia?eiaea, noiaee auaeeoue a naieo oi?ioi
i?aaieciaaiiuo ai?iaeao-ainoaea?noaao aei naiiai iiyaeaiey eniaioeaa a
ia/aea 16 a.

O/aiua ?anoiaeyony a ioeaiea /eneaiiinoe iaey e ia/aeo eniaineiai
caaiaaaiey; i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii caeanue iaeoaei ie. 5 iei. /aeiaae,
aiai?yueo ia 35 aeeaeaeoao.

Caaiaaaiea e yiioa eniaineiai aeaaeu/anoaa

Eniaineea caaiaaaoaee – eiieenoaaei?u, i?eoaaeoea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai
Iaae?i aea Aeueaa?aaei ec Iaeneee, caoaaoeee Aaaoaiaeo a 1524 n
iiiiuueth naieo nithcieeia – eiaeaeoeaa ec Oeaio?aeueiie Iaeneee.
Caaiaaaiea iaeaa/eea ?acae?iaeaiiinoue ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa iaey, a
oaeaea yieaeaiee aieaciae, caianaiiuo aa?iiaeoeaie. Aeueaa?aaei nia/aea
caeeth/ee nithc n eae/eeaeyie e ?aca?iiee eo niia?ieeia ee/a, a caoai
aue auioaeaeai a oa/aiea 4-o eao onie?youe naieo iaaeaaieo nithcieeia,
ainnoaaoeo i?ioea eniaineiai ainiiaenoaa. Iinea ianeieueeeo eao
iaeanoi/aiiiai nii?ioeaeaiey iaey a eiioea eiioeia iiei?eeenue
eniaioeai. Eniaineee ei?ieue aea?iaae eiieenoaaei?ai iaoe?iua caiaeueiua
aeaaeaiey, anueaiaeu, e ecaeae caeiiu, iaycuaathuea eiaeaeoeaa ieaoeoue
aeaiue (iaeia) e ?aaioaoue ia anueaiaeao. Eniaineea eieiienou nicaeaee
ieaioaoeeiiiia oicyenoai, i?iecaiaeeaoaa eaeai, eiaeeai e eiaeo ia
yenii?o e ieuaaua i?iaeoeou aeey aioo?aiiaai iio?aaeaiey.
Yenii?oe?iaaeenue oaeaea cieioi e na?aa?i.

A aaeieieno?aoeaiii ioiioaiee Aaaoaiaea aoiaeeea a noaoona «aoaeueainee»
a ninoaa aeoea-ei?ieaanoaa Iiaay Eniaiey (Iaeneea), caoai a 1560 auei
nicaeaii aaia?ae-eaieoainoai Aaaoaiaea, aeeth/aaoaa /anoue oa??eoi?ee
nia?aiaiiie Iaeneee e Aaeeca, a oaeaea oa??eoi?ee Aaaoaiaeu,
Naeueaaaei?a, Ieea?aaoa, Aiiaeo?ana e Einoa-?eee. Noieeoea
aaia?ae-eaieoainoaa, Aioeaoa, auea iaeiei ec naiuo aaeeeieaiiuo ai?iaeia
Iiaiai Naaoa e onooiaea ii aaee/eia oieueei Iaoeei e Eeia. Iinea oiai
eae a 1773 ai?iae aue ?ac?ooai caieao?ynaieai, noieeoea a 1776 auea
ia?aianaia ia iiaia ianoi, aaea iaoiaeeony e nae/an (a. Aaaoaiaea). A
aaeieieno?aoeaiii ioiioaiee Aaaoaiaea iiae/eiyeanue aeoea-ei?ieth Iiaie
Eniaiee, ?aceaeaioeey eioi?iai iaoiaeeeanue a Iaoeei, iaeiaei
i?aeoe/anee iieueciaaeanue cia/eoaeueiie aaoiiiieae.

E eiioeo 18 a. eniaioeu e eo iioiiee ninoaaeyee iaiueoeinoai ianaeaiey
no?aiu, aaea i?aiaeaaeaee eiaeaeoeu e iaoenu. Iaey ia iiaee nie?eoueny n
o/anoueth iiaaaeaeaiiuo e ianeieueei ?ac aaconiaoii ainnoaaaee i?ioea
eniaineiai ainiiaenoaa. Oai ia iaiaa eo i?iaeieaeaee aea?aeaoue a
?aanoaa, eniieuecoy ?acee/iua niiniau, i?aaeaea anaai aeieaiaia ?aanoai
– iaiiaae, ocaeiiaiiue i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Aieiaiey ia/aeenue e n?aaee
e?aieia (iioiieia ia?anaeeaoeony a Aia?eeo aa?iiaeoeaa), eioi?ua
oyaioeeenue eiio?ieai ni noi?iiu Eniaiee.

Iacaaeneiinoue

Caoaao Eniaiee Iaiieaiiii a 1808 ii?iaeee e?ecen a eieiieyo. Aaaoaiaea
nio?aieea aa?iinoue eniaineiio i?aaeoaeuenoao, eioi?ia ?oeiaiaeeei
nii?ioeaeaieai, iaoiaeynue a ecaiaiee a Eaaeena. A 1812 i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?eiyei eiinoeoooeeth, eioi?ay, i?iaicaeaoay iacuaeaiui iiia?oe/aneee
no?ie e aeanoue ei?iiu iaae caieaaineeie aeaaeaieyie, i?aaeoniao?eaaea
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai eieiiee a ei?oanao e auai?u eo i?aaenoaaeoaeae.

Ia/eiay n 1811 auei naeaeaii ianeieueei iiiuoie iieiaeeoue eiiaoe
eniaineiio aeaaeu/anoao. Iinea ii?aaeaiey Iaiieaiia a 1814 e
ainnoaiiaeaiey ia i?anoiea iiia?oa ec aeeianoee Ao?aiiia Oa?aeeiaiaea
VII iiiaea eeaa?aeueiua iiaoanoaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiua eiinoeoooeeae 1812,
auee ioiaiaiu e aiiaue anooieee a neeo eeoue iinea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
niauoee 1820 a iao?iiieee; oiaaea auee ?ac?aoaiu auai?u
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a eieiieyo e cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?aiu
i?aaa ioieoeeiaeueiuo aeanoae. 15 naioya?y 1821 nia?aiea aeaeiuo
a?aaeaeai ai?iaea Aaaoaiaea i?eiyei aeaeea?aoeeth i iacaaeneiinoe
no?aiu. A 1822 iaoiaeeaoayny o aeanoe ooioa ai aeaaa n eiina?aaoi?aie
i?eiyea ?aoaiea i?eniaaeeieoueny e Iaeneeaineie eiia?ee, i?iaicaeaoaiiie
iieeiaieeii Aaonoeiii aea Eoo?aeaea, e i?eiyoue ?ac?aaioaiiue ei «ieai
Eaoaea», icia/aaoee eiiaoe eniaineiai aeaaeu/anoaa. A ethia 1822 a
noieeoeo Aaaoaiaeu anooieee iaeneeaineea aienea. Ia ana
Oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeaineea i?iaeioeee auee niaeaniu i?eniaaeeieoueny e
Iaeneea; iniaaiii oii?ii nii?ioeaeyeenue yoiio Naeueaaaei? e Ieea?aaoa,
/oi i?eaaei e a?aaeaeaineie aieia. Iaeiaei iiae iaaeeiii ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
Aaaoaiaeu i?eniaaeeiaiea ana aea ninoiyeinue, oioy ieacaeinue aanueia
iaaeieaiaa/iui. A 1823 eiia?aoi? Eoo?aeaea aue naa?aioo, e aeaeaaaou
Oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeaineeo no?ai nia?aeenue a a. Aaaoaiaea, /oiau
?ac?aaioaoue eiinoeoooeeth aeey naiae oaaea?aoeee. 1 ethey 1823
aeaeaaaou Iaoeeiiaeueiie o/?aaeeoaeueiie annaiaeae i?iaicaeaneee iieioth
iacaaeneiinoue Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee eae io Eniaiee, oae e io Iaeneee e
iauyaeee i nicaeaiee Niaaeeiaiiuo i?iaeioeee Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee ni
noieeoeae a a. Aaaoaiaea. Auea i?eiyoa eiinoeoooeey iiaie ?anioaeeee,
iniiaiua iieiaeaiey eioi?ie auee caeinoaiaaiu ec eniaineie eiinoeoooeee
1812.

N naiiai ia/aea iieeoeea oaaea?aoeee i?ioiaeeea iiae ciaeii ai?ueau
iaaeaeo eiina?aaoi?aie, au?aaeaaoeie eioa?anu aiaaouo eniaineeo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, e eeaa?aeaie,
aaeioiiaeyaoeieny eaeayie aa?iiaeneiai I?inaauaiey. Ia?aui i?aceaeaioii
oaaea?aoeee aue Iaioyeue Oina A?na, eeaa?ae ec Naeueaaaei?a. Caiya iino
i?aceaeaioa, ii aioae a eiaeeoeeth n aa?oooeie aaaoaiaeueneeo
eiina?aaoi?ia; aiciiaeii, ii iuoaeny yoei iaania/eoue aieaa oe?ieoth
iiaeaea?aeeo naiaio i?aaeoaeuenoao, ii a ?acoeueoaoa aucaae iaaiaeiaaiea
naieo noi?iiieeia – eeaa?aeia. Eiaaea a 1826 ii naiae aeanoueth nianoee
aoaa?iaoi?a Aaaoaiaeu – eeaa?aea, iaaeaeo noi?iiieeaie eeaa?aeia e
eiina?aaoi?ia aniuoioea a?aaeaeaineay aieia, ioaaoeaoay aanue ?aaeii. Ai
aeaaa eeaa?aeueiuo nee anoae aiiaeo?anaoe O?ainenei Ii?anai, eioi?iio
oaeaeinue iaea?aeaoue iiaaaeo, e a ai?aea 1829 aienea eeaa?aeia caiyee
ai?iae Aaaoaiaeo. Iineaaeiaaee ecaiaiea eiina?aaoeaiuo eeaea?ia ec
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ?ai?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey eae Oaaea?aoeee, oae e
Aaaoaiaeu. Ia/aeinue ?acaeoea oi?aiaee, auee i?iaaaeaiu ?aoi?iu a noa?a
ia?aciaaiey e noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia, aaiaeeaoay einoeooo i?enyaeiuo.
I?aaeoaeuenoai aeaaiaeaeaoaeueii ioiineeinue e eiino?aiiui eiaanoeoeeyi
e e eiiea?aoeee, iaeiaei ia?aie/eaaei aeanoue eaoiee/aneie oea?eae (a
/anoiinoe, auea i?iaicaeaoaia naiaiaea aa?ieniiaaaeaiey). ?aoi?ienoneay
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa ano?a/aea iiiaeanoai i?aiyonoaee eae ia
oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia, oae e a eaaeaeii ec ainoaea?noa. Aeaaa
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aaaoaiaeu Ia?eaii Aaeueaan noieeioeny n neeueiui
i?ioeaiaeaenoaeai ia oieueei eiina?aaoi?ia, ii e naeueneeo aeeoaeae. A
1837 aniuoioei e?anoueyineia ainnoaiea, eioi?ia aicaeaaee ?aoayeue
Ea??a?a. Aaeueaan ia noiae ni?aaeoueny n iianoaioeaie e a 1838 aue
auioaeaeai inoaaeoue naie iino. Oaaea?aoeey ia/aea iinoaiaiii
?aniaaeaoueny e ieii/aoaeueii i?ae?aoeea naia nouanoaiaaiea 1 oaa?aey
1839.

?aoayeue Ea??a?a, i?ioanneiiaeueiue aiaiiue, eiaeaaoe ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth, caueuae eioa?anu oea?eae e caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e
iieueciaaeny iiaeaea?aeeie e?anoueyinoaa. Ea??a?a i?aaee Aaaoaiaeie n
1838 ii 1865, ca eneeth/aieai iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai eioa?aaea a 1848,
eiaaea eiia?ann, a eioi?ii i?aiaeaaeaee eeaa?aeu, iono?aiee aai io
iaycaiiinoae i?aceaeaioa. I?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee ainnoaiiaeaiey
oaaea?aoeee, iaeiaei a ia?oa 1847 Aaaoaiaea ia?aie ec
Oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeaineeo no?ai i?iaicaeaneea naie aaniethoiue
noaa?aieoao, iauyaea naay ?anioaeeeie. Ea??a?a onoaiiaee a no?aia
aeanoeoth e eiina?aaoeaioth aeeeoaoo?o, ioiaiee ana ?aiaa i?eiyoua
eeaa?aeueiua caeiiu e any/anee ?acaeeaae iaiaaenoue eiaeaeneeo e?anoueyi
e ai?iaeneie yeeoa. Ai iiiaii auee ainnoaiiaeaiu eieiieaeueiua ii?yaeee.
Yeiiiieea no?aiu ii-i?aaeiaio caaenaea io yenii?oa, iniiaiie noaoueae
eioi?iai aeieaia a?aiy auea eioaieeue (e?anyuaa aauanoai), a iicaeiaa,
eiaaea oeaia ia iaa oiaea, ia?aia ianoi caiye eioa.

Iinea nia?oe Ea??a?u a 1865 ia/aeanue iiaay ai?ueaa ca aeanoue.
Aua?aiiue naiei Ea??a?ie i?aaiiee, aaia?ae Aeinaioa Na?ia, inoaaaeny ia
iinoo i?aceaeaioa aei 1871, eiaaea eeaa?aeu iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Ieaaey
Aa?nee A?aiaaeina e Oonoi ?ooeii Aa??eina inouanoaeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
ia?aai?io. Iaeioi?ia a?aiy iino i?aceaeaioa caieiae Aa?nea A?aiaaein, a
a 1973 aai niaiee Aa??ein. Eeaa?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?acaa?ioei
oe?ieiianooaaiua ?aoi?iu, eiaaoea oeaeueth yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea
no?aiu, aace?othuaany a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia yenii?oa eioa, e nicaeaiea
iaiaoiaeeiie eio?ano?oeoo?u. A oi aea a?aiy ia oa??eoi?ee Aaaoaiaeu
ia/aee aeaenoaiaaoue iaeioi?ua ei?ii?aoeee Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia, i?aaeaea
anaai «THiaeoaae o?oo eiiiaie».

Iaeiie ec ia?auo ia?, i?eiyouo Aa??einii, auei th?eaee/aneia ioaeaeaiea
oea?eae io ainoaea?noaa e eiioeneaoeey oea?eiaiuo caiaeue. A 1876 ii
iieii/ee n eiio?ieai oea?eae a nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, ecaiaa
eacoeoia ec no?aiu. Aa??ein no?aieeny naeaeaoue eioa iniiaiie yenii?oiie
eoeueoo?ie, e iiiu?ye caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa au?aueaaoue eioa, inaiaiaeaeay
eo io iaeiaia. I?aaeoaeuenoai Aa??eina caieiaeinue iino?ieeie aeaeaciuo
aei?ia e i?ieeaaeeie eeiee oaeaa?aoiiai niiauaiey, auea nicaeaia nenoaia
ia?aciaaiey.

A 1883 Aa??ein ia/ae aiaoeaaoueny ai aioo?aiiea aeaea Aiiaeo?ana e
Naeueaaaei?a, iiiiaay i?eaeoe e aeanoe naiei noi?iiieeai. A oaa?aea 1885
ii iauyaee i ainniaaeeiaiee Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee a aaeeioth ?anioaeeeo,
a eiaaea Naeueaaaei? ia niaeaneeny a yoei ieaiii, ia/ae aiaiiua
aeaenoaey. 2 ai?aey 1885 Aa??ein iae ia iiea aiy, a iiiuoea iauaaeeiaiey
Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee aiiaue iioa?iaea iaoaea/o.

Iinea nia?oe Aa??eina ianeieueei i?aaeoaeuenoa niaieee ae?oa ae?oaa, ii
ie iaeii ec ieo ia iiaei aeieai oaea?aeaoueny o aeanoe. A 1898 aeanoue
caoaaoee Iaioyeue Yno?aaea Eaa?a?a i?e iiaeaea?aeea aiaiiuo,
ioaeaeaaoeony a eeaea?a, eioi?ue iia au iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iieeoe/aneoth e
yeiiiie/aneoth noaaeeueiinoue. Ia aai noi?iia noiyee oaeaea e
i?iecaiaeeoaee eioa. *oi aea eanaeinue aia?eeaineeo eiaanoi?ia, oi
Yno?aaea Eaa?a?a auno?i caaiaaae eo aeiaa?ea, i?aaeinoaaea ei iaoe?iua
caiaeueiua eiioeannee. Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai aaiaiia anei?a
nin?aaeioi/eea a naieo ?oeao «THiaeoaae o?oo eiiiaie», eioi?ay noaea
ieacuaaoue neeueiia aeeyiea ia iieeoeeo Aaaoaiaeu.

Auei i?aaei?eiyoi ianeieueei iiiuoie naa?aeaiey Yno?aaeu Eaa?a?u, a oii
/enea i?e iiaeaea?aeea i?aaeoaeuenoa ae?oaeo Oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeaineeo
no?ai. *oiau inoaoueny o aeanoe, ii i?eaaaae e eciaiaieth eiinoeoooeee,
oaeueneoeeaoeee ?acoeueoaoia auai?ia, ia iaai ?aaioae yooaeoeaii
aeaenoaothuee iaoaieci i?iiaaaiaeu, a /anoua iiauoaiey noii aeaiaaeiuo
auieao e auno?ia i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa iaania/eaaee aio iiaeaea?aeeo
aiaiiuo. Yno?aaea Eaa?a?a nio?aiee aeanoeea ii?iu o?oaeiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, onoaiiaeaiiua Aa??einii, i?aaeinoaaea iaeiaiaua
eueaiou aeaaeaeueoeai eioaeiuo e aaiaiiauo ieaioaoeee. A 1920 ii ana aea
aue naa?aioo.

Ia?eiae iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo iao?yaeeoe, iineaaeiaaaoee ca
iaaeaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaa Yno?aaeu Eaa?a?u, caeii/eeny oieueei a 1931, n
iiyaeaieai neeueiie ee/iinoe a n?aaea aiaiiuo – aaia?aea Oi?oa Oaeei
Eanoaiueaaeu, eioi?ue e noae i?aceaeaioii. Oaeei i?aaeaea anaai ?acei
nie?aoee ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu, i?aaeinoaaea
iiaua i?eaeeaaee i?iecaiaeeoaeyi eioa e «THiaeoaae o?oo eiiiaie».

?aniieaaay neeueiie a?ieae e iiaouanoaaiiie oaeiie iieeoeeae, Oaeei
onoaiiaee ?aaeei oa??i?a. Aai iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey ono?aeaaee
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, eioi?ua aiyeenue e iaiaaeaeaee eiaeaeoeaa, iaeiaei
iie iano?aeaaee i?ioea iaai ia?iaeaeathueeny n?aaeiee eeann a ai?iaeao.
?aaeeio Oaeei i?ioeainoiyee nooaeaiou e iieiaeia iieieaiea iieeoeeia,
iiiaea ec eioi?uo, aoaeo/e naie nuiiaueyie ieaioaoi?ia, iieo/eee
ia?aciaaiea ca a?aieoeae.

A 1941 Aaaoaiaea anooieea a aieio i?ioea Aa?iaiee, Eoaeee e ssiiiee, e
iiiaea eioaeiua ieaioaoeee, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea iaiaoeeei
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, auee eiioeneiaaiu, oioy ?aiaa Oaeei ieacuaae ei
any/aneoth iiaeaea?aeeo. A 1944 iaaeiaieuenoai i?aaeoaeuenoaii aueeeinue
a nooaeai/aneea aeaiiino?aoeee a a. Aaaoaiaea e ai anaiauoth caaanoiaeo.
Ia noiaa ni?aaeoueny n caaanoiaueeaie, Oaeei 1 ethey 1944 iauyaee i
naiae ionoaaea, inoaaea aeanoue a ?oeao aiaiiiai o?eoiae?aoa. Iaeiaei 20
ieoya?y 1944 a no?aia i?iecioei aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea, iciaiaiiaaaoaa
ia/aei Aaaoaiaeueneie ?aaiethoeee. Ia auai?ao a aeaeaa?a 1944 eaaei
iiaaaeee i?ioanni? Ooai Oina A?aaaei, eeaea? iniiaaiiie a 1944 ia?oee
Ia?iaeii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiue o?iio.

Oae ia/aeinue Aanaiiaa aeanyoeeaoea (1944–1954) – ia?eiae i?ia?anneaiuo
e aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee. ?aaiethoeeth 1944 aicaeaaeyea
eiaeeoeey i?ia?anneaiuo nee – nooaeaiou oieaa?neoaoia,
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua niaoeeaeenou, ai?iaeneay eioaeeeaaioeey e
i?ionithciua eeaea?u.

Eiinoeoooeey 1945 ia?aie/eaaea aeanoue i?aceaeaioa, eioi?ue iia auoue
eca?ai oieueei ia iaeei 6-eaoiee n?ie, e onoaiaaeeaaea iiaeio/aoiinoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Iaoeeiiaeueiiio eiia?anno e iiaeio/aoiinoue a?iee
i?aceaeaioo e eiia?anno. Auee ?anoe?aiu iieiiii/ey noaeaaiie aeanoe,
iaania/eaathuea aa iacaaeneiinoue, e i?aaeoniio?aiu aa?aioee
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo auai?ia. Eiinoeoooeeae ia i?aaeoaeuenoai aiceaaaeanue
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea no?aiu, nioeeaeueiia
iaania/aiea e ia?aciaaiea a?aaeaeai.

A oa/aiea i?aceaeaioneiai n?iea A?aaaei (1945–1951) iiiaea e?anoueyia
iieo/eee caieth, ia?aciaaiea e nioeeaeueiua iiniaey. Auea ?ac?aoaia
aeayoaeueiinoue i?ionithcia. Ca a?aiy i?aauaaiey A?aaaei o aeanoe ia
iaai e /eaiia aai eaaeiaoa auei niaa?oaii 24 aii?oaeaiiuo iaiaaeaiey.

I?aaiiee A?aaaei, iieeiaiee Oaeiai A?aain Aoniai, aue eca?ai a 1950,
iieo/ea iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aieinia, e i?enooiee e eniieiaieth
iaycaiiinoae i?aceaeaioa a ia?oa 1951. A?aain aue aua aieaa
?aaeeeaeueiui iieeoeeii, /ai A?aaaei. Inouanoaeaiea aai i?ia?aiiu
i?eaaei e na?ueaciui noieeiiaaieyi n e?oiiaeoei caieaaeaaeaeueoeai
no?aiu – «THiaeoaae o?oo eiiiaie», io eioi?ie ii iio?aaiaae oieaou
iiauoaiiuo iaeiaia. Aua aieueoea o?aiey n yoie eiiiaieae aucaae caeii ia
aa?a?iie ?aoi?ia, i?eiyoue a 1952, niaeanii eioi?iio ana iaeniieuecoaiua
caieaaeaaeaiey ieiuaaeueth aieaa 90 aa iiaeeaaeaee yeni?ii?eaoeee.
Aeaaeaeueoeu oaeeo caiaeue iieo/aee eiiiainaoeeth a aeaea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee ni n?ieii iiaaoaiey 25 eao. Nia/aea A?aain
?ani?aaeaeee iaaeaeo aaccaiaeueiuie e?anoueyiaie 200 oun. aa
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiaeue, a e 1954 auee yeni?ii?ee?iaaiu aua ii/oe 400
oun. aa, i?e/ai aieueoay /anoue yoeo caiaeue i?eiaaeeaaeaea «THiaeoaae
o?oo eiiiaie».

Ii ia?a oiai eae i?iaeaeaaeenue ?aoi?iu, NOA eniuouaaee ana aieueoaa
aaniieienoai. Iiae oa?icie ieacaeenue ia oieueei cia/eoaeueiua eaieoaeu,
aeiaeaiiua a aaiaiiaua ieaioaoeee, ii oaeaea e?oiiua aia?eeaineea caeiu.
Eniieueciaaa naie oaniua nayce n ainoaea?noaaiiui aeaia?oaiaioii NOA,
«THiaeoaae o?oo eiiiaie» i?eeiaeeea ana oneeey, /oiau i?aaieciaaoue
aii?oaeaiiia aoi?aeaiea a Aaaoaiaeo.

A ethia 1954 io?yaeu iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai iieeiaieea aaaoaiaeueneie a?iee
Ea?eina Eanoeeuei A?iana aoi?aeenue ia oa??eoi?eth Aaaoaiaeu ec
Aiiaeo?ana, /oi i?eaaei e ionoaaea A?aaina. ?acee/iua ooiou niaiyee
ae?oa ae?oaa, iiea iaeiiaoe e aeanoe ia i?eoei i?aaeoaeuenoai ai aeaaa n
Eanoeeuei A?ianii.

Caiya i?aceaeaioneia e?anei, Eanoeeuei A?ian no?aieeny ?ani?aaeoueny ni
anaie, eoi aunooiae ca ?aaiethoeeiiiua i?aia?aciaaiey. I?aaeoaeuenoai
Eanoeeuei A?iana ioiaieei ana i?eiyoua i?aaeuaeouei ?aaeeiii
aeaiie?aoe/aneea caeiiu e i?ia?anneaiua i?aia?aciaaiey, i?aaeinoaaea
uaae?ua eiioeannee eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ai. Auee cai?auaiu ana eaaua
iieeoe/aneea ia?oee, ?aai/ea e e?anoueyineea i?aaiecaoeee iiaeaa?aeenue
i?aneaaeiaaieyi, a eo eeaea?u auee a?ioaiu a oth?ueio eee aaaeaee ec
no?aiu.

Eanoeeuei A?ian aue oaeo nieaeaoii naiae io?aiu a 1957, a a 1958 iino
i?aceaeaioa caiye aaia?ae Iaioyeue Eaeeai?an Ooyioan, auaoee ieieno?
iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio a i?aaeoaeuenoaa Oaeei e o/anoiee caaiai?a i?ioea
A?aaina. A eiioea 1960 Eaeeai?an iiaeaaee aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea,
i?aaieciaaiiia, eae niiauaeinue, i?e iiiiue eoaeineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
Oeaeaey Eano?i; ?acaeoua io?yaeu iianoaioeaa noiaee oeoe a ai?u e
i?iaeieaeeee ia?oecaineoth aieio i?ioea i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ay
caeii/eeanue oieueei a 1996. Oaaaeeaoenue, /oi Eaeeai?an ia niiniaai
ni?aaeoueny n ia?anoathuei aeaeaeaieai i?ioea aiaiiiai ?aaeeia, e
iianaynue, /oi A?aaaei iiaeao aa?iooueny a Aaaoaiaeo e iiaaaeeoue ia
neaaeothueo auai?ao, aiaiiay aa?oooea inouanoaeea a 1963 ia?aai?io e
onoaiiaeea ?aaeei aiaiiie aeeeoaoo?u ai aeaaa n iieeiaieeii Yi?eea
Ia?aeueoie Ano?aeey, inoaaaaoeiny o aeanoe aei 1966. Oai a?aiaiai aua a
1962 iaeioi?ua a?iaeneea ioeoea?u, iaaeiaieueiua ioiaiie caiaeueiie
?aoi?iu e aeeeoaoi?neei i?aaeaieai, iauaaeeieeenue n aieinoaaiii
iano?iaiiuie nooaeaioaie e ia/aee aii?oaeaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea aeeeoaoo?a,
eniieuecoy oaeoeeo ia?oecaineie aieiu.

Ia?oecaineea io?yaeu i?aaenoaaeyee niaie na?ueacioth oa?ico ?aaeeio. A
1966 i?aceaeaioii aue eca?ai i?aceaeaio Ooeei Nana? Iaiaean Iiioaiaa?i,
iaeiaei aio iicaieeee caiyoue yoio iino oieueei iinea oiai, eae ii
i?aaeinoaaee a?iee iieioth naiaiaeo a i?aaiecaoeee ianniaie eaiiaiee
i?ioea iianoaioeaa. Yoa eaiiaiey i?ioiaeeea iiae iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
?oeiaiaenoaii aiaiiuo niaaoieeia ec NOA, caieiaaoeony ?ai?aaiecaoeeae e
iao/aieai iiae?acaeaeaiee ?aaoey?iie a?iee; a aiaiiuo aeaenoaeyo
o/anoaiaaee aiaiece?iaaiiua «aaoaeueiiu nia?oe», iniiao eioi?uo
ninoaaeee neeu aaciianiinoe. Iauaaeeiaiiuie oneeeyie oaeaeinue a?aiaiii
iiaeaaeoue ia?oecaineia aeaeaeaiea, i?e/ai a oiaea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee
iiaeaei aieaa 8 oun. ie?iuo aeeoaeae.

N?aaeiee eeann, icaai/aiiue eeoue naieie yeiiiie/aneeie auaiaeaie, a
1970 aeoeaii niaeaenoaiaae iiaaaea ia auai?ao iieeiaieea Ea?eina Iaioyey
A?aiu Ini?ei, ?oeiaiaeeaoaai ea?aoaeueiuie iia?aoeeyie i?ioea
iianoaioeaa. Aua?aiiue ei i?aaiiee – aaia?ae E.Yooaiei Aa?ney – caiye
i?aceaeaioneia ianoi iinea auai?ia 1974. A 1976 Aaaoaiaea iino?aaeaea io
neeueiaeoaai caieao?ynaiey, onoaoaeaoaai e aac oiai oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea
a no?aia, /oi iiaeaeei iiaue anieane iaaeiaieuenoaa. Iiyaeeinue
ianeieueei iiauo ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, eiaaoeo neeueioth
iiaeaea?aeeo n?aaee eiaeaeneiai ianaeaiey. Aani?aoeaaeaioiui yaeaieai a
enoi?ee Aaaoaiaeu yaeeenue ainnoaiey eiaeaeoeaa a eiioea 1970-o – ia/aea
1980-o aiaeia, a eioi?uo o/anoaiaaei aei iieoieeeeiia /aeiaae. A?iey
ioaaoeea ianniauie ?ai?anneyie. A 1977, iinea oiai eae «Aiianoe
eioa?iyoie» iioaeeeiaaea aeaiiua i 20 oun. a?aaeaeai Aaaoaiaeu, iiaeaoeo
ii aeia i?aaeoaeuenoaa ca iineaaeiea 10 eao, NOA i?ae?aoeee ieacaiea
aiaiiie iiiiue Aaaoaiaea.

A 1978 i?aceaeaioii noae aaia?ae ?iiai Eoean Aa?ney. Aai ?aaeei aue
ioia/ai ?ani?ino?aiaieai ei??oioeee e iiaie aieiie ?ai?annee, eioi?ua ia
yoio ?ac einioeenue ia oieueei i?ionithciuo aeoeaenoia e eeoe,
iiaeic?aaaaiuo a eaauo oaaaeaeaieyo, ii e aieaa oia?aiiuo a?oiie?iaie
n?aaeiaai eeanna. Aiaiece?iaaiiua io?yaeu oa??i?enoia oaeaaee eeaea?ia
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoia e O?enoeainei–aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee. A ia/aea 1982
iniiaiua ?aaiethoeeiiiua i?aaiecaoeee iauaaeeieeenue a Aaaoaiaeueneia
?aaiethoeeiiiia iaoeeiiaeueiia aaeeinoai (O?IA).

A ia?oa 1982 ninoiyeenue aua iaeie auai?u, iinea /aai e aeanoe i?eoae
aaia?ae Yo?aei ?ein Iiioo, «ooaa?aeeaoeeny a aa?a o?enoeaiei», naycaiiue
n naeoie i?ioanoaioia-ooiaeaiaioaeenoia a Eaeeoi?iee. Ii i?einoaiiaee
aeaenoaea eiinoeoooeee, iauyaee aiaiiia iieiaeaiea e i?aaee eae
aeeeoaoi?. Aeaiiia ei iaauaiea niaethaeaoue i?aaa /aeiaaea i?eaaei e
a?aiaiiiio i?ae?auaieth ianniauo oaeenoa a noieeoea. Iaeiaei a oi aea
a?aiy cia/eoaeueii aeoeaece?iaaeanue ai?ueaa n iianoaioeaie, e
eiaeaeneea aea?aaie ii-i?aaeiaio iiaeaa?aaeenue eno?aaeaieth. A ia?eiae
n na?aaeeiu 1981 ii 1983 auee oaeou ie. 15 oun. ai?iuo eiaeaeoeaa,
iieiinoueth oie/oiaeaii 450 aea?aaaiue, aieaa ieeeeiia aeeoaeae
eeoeeenue naieo aeiiia. A aaaonoa 1983, iinea oiai eae aaia?ae ?ein
Iiioo iiiuoaeny oe?aieoue ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu, iiaunea iaeiae, /aio
iaeanoi/aiii nii?ioeaeyeny n?aaeiee eeann, aiaiiua naa?aee aai e
iinoaaeee ia iino i?aceaeaioa aaia?aea Inea?a Iaoeth Aeeoi?ana.

Iaoey Aeeoi?an i?iaeieaeae ?ai?annee ii ioiioaieth e eiaeaeoeai, iiiaea
ec eioi?uo – io 150 oun. aei 200 oun. /aeiaae – oaea aaaeaee a Iaeneeo;
inoaaoeany ianeeuenoaaiii ia?anaeyeenue ai aiiaue nicaeaiiua
«ia?acoeiaua aea?aaie». Ca a?aiy i?aceaeaioneiai i?aaeaiey Iaoee
Aeeoi?ana iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea nenoaia «io?yaeia a?aaeaeaineie
iai?iiu», e ieiei ieeeeiia eiaeaeoeaa auee i?eioaeaeaiu o/anoaiaaoue a
a?iaeneeo iia?aoeeyo ii ai?ueaa n ia?oecaineeie oi?ie?iaaieyie e
enei?aiaieth iieeoe/aneie iiiiceoeee.

A 1984 auea eca?aia Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay annaiaeay, eioi?ie auei ii?o/aii
iiaeaioiaeoue iiaoth eiinoeoooeeth; yoa eiinoeoooeey anooieea a neeo a
yiaa?a 1986. A iiya?a-aeaeaa?a 1985 ninoiyeenue i?aceaeaioneea auai?u,
ia eioi?uo iiaaaeee noi?iiiee ?aoi?i, eaiaeeaeao io oeaio?enoneie
O?enoeainei-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee Aeienei Na?ani. Iiiaea ec ni?aoieeia
Na?ani auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu «yneaae?iiaie nia?oe», e nai ii iiaeaa?aaeny
iianiinoe ai a?aiy i?aaeauai?iie eaiiaiee e aeaaea iinea oiai, eae
anooiee ia iino i?aceaeaioa.

Aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu, aiceaaaaoeany ia a?aaeaeaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai, io
eioi?iai iaeeaeaee ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaiie?aoee, noaaeeueiinoe e
i?ioeaaoaiey, ia ii?aaaeaeenue; yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen oaeoaeyeny, ii?acea
ia oieueei aaaeiaeoaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey, ii e n?aaeiee eeann.
Aianoi iaauaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i Na?ani noae
i?iaiaeeoue iieeoeeo aeanoeie yeiiiiee. Na?ani ia noiae ie iieiaeeoue
eiiaoe a?aaeaeaineie aieia e naycaiiui n iae ia?ooaieyi i?aa /aeiaaea,
ie iieii/eoue n iaae?athuei neeo ia?eiaecianii, iaeiaei nua?ae aaaeioth
?ieue a ie?iii o?aaoee?iaaiee aii?oaeaiiuo eiioeeeoia; niaeaoaiea,
iiaeienaiiia a Aaaoaiaea iyoueth ainoaea?noaaie Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee a
1987, iieiaeeei ia/aei i?ioeanno, eioi?ue iicaieee i?ae?aoeoue
a?aaeaeaineoth aieio ia oieueei a Aaaoaiaea, ii e a Ieea?aaoa e
Naeueaaaei?a.

Ia/aei i?aaeaiey Na?ani iciaiaiiaaeinue ei?ioeei ia?eiaeii «iooaiaee» a
iieeoe/aneie aeecie, iaeiaei, eae oieueei ?acee/iua aeaeaeaiey
iiiuoaeenue ainiieueciaaoueny naieie iieeoe/aneeie i?aaaie, ?ai?annee
aiciaiiaeeenue n iiaie neeie. Ianiio?y ia aeanoeea ia?u iiaeaaeaiey,
i?eiaiyaoeany aiaiiuie aeey «onie?aiey» ianaeaiey, iniaaiii naeueneiai,
iianoai/aneea a?oiie?iaee Aaaoaiaeueneiai ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaeeinoaa noaee aiiaue iiyaeyoueny ia «auaeaeaiiie
caiea», inoaaoaeny iinea ea?aoaeueiuo iia?aoeee 1980-o aiaeia.

?acoeueoaoii auai?ia 1990 yaeeanue ia?aa?oiie?iaea iieeoe/aneeo nee
Aaaoaiaeu. Eaaua ia?oee inoaaaeenue iiae cai?aoii, a OAeI ni naiei
eeaea?ii Na?ani a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ieacaeanue aeene?aaeeoe?iaaiiie
naieie iaoaea/aie, ii ia inaiaiaeeaoainy iieeoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa
iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai ia?oee, io oeaio?enoneeo aei e?aeia i?aauo.
Iniiaiui niia?ieeii OAeI aue Nithc iaoeeiiaeueiiai oeaio?a (NIOe) n
eeaea?ii O. Ea?iei Ieeieuea; iaeiaei ?ein Iiioo, iieueciaaaoeeny oe?ieie
iiaeaea?aeeie n?aaee naeueneie /anoe ecae?aoaeae, ii?ioanoiaae
eiinoeoooeeiiiue cai?ao ia auaeaeaeaiea naiae eaiaeeaeaoo?u (naycaiiue n
oai, /oi ii oaea ecae?aeny ia iino i?aceaeaioa a 1982). Yoio aii?in
?anniao?eaaeny a noaea, e aio ana-oaee auei cai?auaii o/anoaiaaoue a
auai?ao. Aieueoay /anoue aai noi?iiieeia iiaeaea?aeaea ioiineoaeueii
iaeiecaanoiiai Oi?oa Na??aii Yeeana, aecianiaia eiina?aaoeaiuo
oaaaeaeaiee e i?eaa?aeaioea aaaiaaee/aneie oea?eae, aeeceiai ?eino
Iiiooo. Na??aii oaeaeinue ia oieueei iaania/eoue naaa aieina
aieueoeinoaa noi?iiieeia ?eina Iiiooa ia naea, ii e i?eaea/ue iiiaeo
ai?iaeai, ?aci/a?iaaaoeony a Ea?iei e ia ieoaaoeo eeethcee a ioiioaiee
eaiaeeaeaoa OAeI Aeueoiini Eaa?a?u. A ia?aii oo?a auai?ia a iiya?a 1990
aieueoeinoai aieinia iieo/ee Ea?iei, eioi?ue iia?aaeee Na??aii, ii a
yiaa?a 1991, ai aoi?ii oo?a, aaea o/anoaiaaee oieueei iie aeaia, Na??aii
iiaaaeee n aieueoei io?uaii, iieo/ea 69% aieinia.

I?aaeoaeuenoai Na??aii i?eciaei a aaaonoa 1991 i?aai ninaaeiaai
ainoaea?noaa Aaeec ia naiiii?aaeaeaiea, oioy e i?iaeieaeaei auaeaeaaoue
?yae oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?aoaicee e yoie auaoae a?eoaineie eieiiee. A
iiya?a oiai aea aiaea aeaa no?aiu onoaiiaeee aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey.

I?e i?aaeaiee Na??aii a Aaaoaiaea i?iaeieaeaeenue ianniaua ia?ooaiey
i?aa /aeiaaea. A oa/aiea 1991 ii iieeoe/aneei i?e/eiai auee oaeou ia
iaiaa 550 /aeiaae (nio?oaeieeia oea?eiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee, i?ionithciuo e
ia?oeeiuo aeoeaenoia, nieaeao e iieeoeaeneeo), i?aeiouanoaaiii /eaiaie
oeueo?ai?aauo «yneaae?iiia nia?oe». A 1992 auei niaa?oaii ia iaiaa 387
iieeoe/aneeo oaeenoa, 99 /aeiaae i?iiaee aac aanoe. I?aaicaueoiua
i?aaiecaoeee Aaaoaiaeu, aeaeiua aeoeaenou ?eaiaa?oa Iai/o (iieo/eaoay a
aeaeaa?a 1992 Iiaaeaaneoth i?aieth ie?a) e ?aie?i aea Eaii Ea?iei
?aciaea/aee ia?ooaiey e ?ai?annee, /oi aucuaaei iaaeiaieuenoai aeanoae.
I?aceaeaio Na??aii i?ea?icee i?eiyoue ia?u i?ioea aacao, ia/aoathueo
iiaeiaiua niiauaiey.

A oaa?aea 1992 i?aaeoaeuenoai aiciaiiaeei ia?aaiai?u a Iaoeei n
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eaauo iianoaioeaa ec O?IA, iaeiaei ii/oe n?aco aea iie
aiiaue i?a?aaeenue. Na??aii cayaee i aioiaiinoe i?iaeieaeaoue aeeaeia
iiae iaaethaeaieai III. A aaaonoa 1992 ia?aaiai?u aiciaiiaeeenue i?e
iin?aaeie/anoaa a?oeaieneiia Aaaoaiaeu ?iaeieueoi Eanaaeu. Auei
aeinoeaiooi /anoe/iia niaeaoaiea ii aii?inai i?aa /aeiaaea, aeeth/ay
ianeeuenoaaiiue iaai? a aii?oaeaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey. Iiaue ?aoiae
ninoiyeny a oaa?aea 1993 e aiiaue ieacaeny aaconiaoiui. Ia?oecaiu
ioeacuaaeenue aeiaiaa?eaaoueny i i?ae?auaiee iaiy, iiea ia aoaeoo
niaeaniaaiu ae?oaea aii?inu, a oii /enea i i?aaao /aeiaaea, ii aeanoe ia
niaeaoaeenue ia o/anoea III a ?aaioa eiiennee ii ?anneaaeiaaieth
ia?ooaiee a yoie iaeanoe.

Iaieeaa?aeueiay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea Na??aii aucaaea ianniaia
iaaeiaieuenoai ianaeaiey. A iaa 1993 ia/aeenue i?ioanou e aeaiiino?aoeee
i?ioea nie?auaiey noaneaeee, ca n/ao eioi?uo iiaeaea?aeeaaeny ieceee
o?iaaiue ieaou ca yeaeo?iyia?aeth e i?iacae ia ai?iaeneii o?ainii?oa.
I?ionithcu iauyaeee caaanoiaeo, a noieeoea 10 ouny/ aeaiiino?aioia
iio?aaiaaee ionoaaee Na??aii. A ioaao 25 iay i?aceaeaio ?anionoee
ia?eaiaio e Aa?oiaiue noae, ia?aie/ee aeaenoaea eiinoeoooeeiiiuo
aa?aioee, aaae oeaico?o ia/aoe; i?aaenaaeaoaee Eiia?anna e Aa?oiaiiai
noaea, a oaeaea ?. aea Eaii Ea?iei auee iinaaeaiu iiae aeiiaoiee a?ano.
A noieeoeo aaaee aienea. Iaeiaei e?ecen ia?anoae, e ?oeiaiaenoai
aii?oaeaiiuo nee ioeacaei Na??aii a iiaeaea?aeea. 1 ethiy 1993 aiaiiua
nianoeee aai e caiaieee aeoea-i?aceaeaioii Aonoaai Ynieiie.
I?iaeieaeaiea ianniauo i?ioanoia auioaeeei e aai oeoe n i?aceaeaioneiai
iinoa.5 ethiy Eiia?ann eca?ae a?aiaiiui i?aceaeaioii iiioey?iiai
i?aaicaueoieea ?. aea Eaiia Ea?iei, iaeiiai ec eeaea?ia ia?oee NIOe.
Aaaeaaoea ec no?aiu Na??aii e Ynieia auee iaaeiaiu a ainoaea?noaaiiie
eciaia a nayce n i?eciaieai iacaaeneiinoe Aaeeca.

Iiaue i?aceaeaio ?. aea Eaii Ea?iei iacia/ee ieieno?ii ia?aciaaiey
i?aaenoaaeoaey eiaeaeoeaa iaey N.Oae Eieiy. Ii noae ia?aui ieieno?ii io
ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey no?aiu. A ethea 1993 aea Eaii Ea?iei auaeaeioe iiaue
ieai i?ae?auaiey a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e onoaiiaeaiey ie?a a no?aia.

Iaeiaei ainoaea?noaaiiue e?ecen a no?aia i?iaeieaeaeny. Anei?a Aea Eaii
Ea?iei anooiee a eiioeeeo n o?enoeaineeie aeaiie?aoaie e Eiia?annii. Ii
iaaeiee aeaiooaoia ia?eaiaioa e /eaiia Aa?oiaiiai noaea a ei??oioeee e
iio?aaiaae eo ionoaaee. Ii iiiaauae i?iaanoe eiinoeoooeeiiiua ?aoi?iu,
aeeth/ay oii?yaei/aiea oeiaine?iaaiey iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iaania/aiea iacaaeneiinoe i?ieo?aoo?u e aeaniinoe athaeaeaoa. Ii
iacia/aiiue ei ?aoa?aiaeoi aue ioiaiai Aa?oiaiui noaeii. Iaeiiaoe, a
iiya?a 1993 i?e iin?aaeie/anoaa Eiioa?aioeee aieneiiia, i?aaeoaeuenoai e
ia?eaiaio aeiaiai?eeenue i ?aoi?ia eiinoeoooeee, nie?auaiee n?iea
iieiiii/ee i?aceaeaioa e ia?eaiaioa aei /aou?ao eao, oiaiueoaiee /enea
aeaiooaoia e noi?ie?iaaiee iiaiai ninoaaa Aa?oiaiiai noaea. 30 yiaa?y
1994 68% o/anoieeia ?aoa?aiaeoia iaeia?eee aianaiea iii?aaie a
eiinoeoooeeth Aaaoaiaeu (i?ionithcu, eaaua e nooaeai/aneea i?aaiecaoeee
i?ecaaee aicaea?aeaoueny io o/anoey a aieiniaaiee, iineieueeo
eiinoeoooeey ioe?uaaea aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?iaaaeaiey i?eaaoecaoeee).

A yiaa?a 1994 i?aaeoaeuenoai Aaaoaiaeu e O?IA aeiaiai?eeenue i
aiciaiiaeaiee ie?iuo ia?aaiai?ia. I?e i?aceaeaioa aea Eaiia Ea?iei
i?ioeann aeeaeiaa auno?i iioae aia?aae. A oa/aiea 1994 noi?iiu
niaeaniaaee iinueeo iennee III aeey eco/aiey iieiaeaiey n i?aaaie
/aeiaaea, aica?auaiea aaaeaioeaa, nicaeaiea «eiiennee ii onoaiiaeaieth
enoeiu». A ia?oa 1995 i?aaeoaeuenoai e eaaua ia?oecaiu iiaeienaee
niaeaoaiea i i?aaao ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey. A /anoiinoe, i?aaeoaeuenoai
iaycaeinue eciaieoue iyoue iieiaeaiee eiinoeoooeee, aeeth/ay i?eciaiea
eaeaioe/iinoe eiaeaeneeo ia?iaeia e ?aaiii?aaey eo ycueia. 17 naioya?y
1995 auei iauyaeaii i a?aiaiiii i?ae?auaiee iaiy.

Ianiio?y ia oneeey iiaiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe i?aa /aeiaaea,
oeueo?ai?aaua neeu i?iaeieaeaee oa??i?ece?iaaoue naieo iiiiiaioia.
Oieueei ca ia?aia iieoaiaeea 1994 auee oaeou 166 /aeiaae, aeeth/ay
i?aaenaaeaoaey Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea Y.Yiaieiaeina Aiinaeana, a 1995 –
450 /aeiaae. ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oaeoii auee iioeuaiey ethaeae (anaai, ii
ioeaieai i?aaicaueoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, n 1960 «en/acei» aieaa 50 ouny/
/aeiaae). A ia?oa 1995 Eiia?ann aaae nia?oioth eaciue ca iioeuaiea
ethaeae. A naioya?a 1995 auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i ?inionea i?aauo
iieoaiaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee, /eneaiiinoue eioi?uo a ?acaa?a a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu aeinoeaaea 50 ouny/ /aeiaae. A 1996 ia?aua a?oiiu ec 15 ouny/
aiaaeeia yoeo nee ia/aee naeaaaoue i?oaeea. A oa??i?a iaaeiyee e
aaaoaiaeueneoth a?ieth. A ieoya?a 1995 i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua nieaeaou oaeee
a iaeiie ioaeaeaiiie aea?aaia 11 eiaeaeoeaa. A ?acoeueoaoa aniuoioaoaai
neaiaeaea ieieno? iai?iiu ooae a ionoaaeo.

Aein?i/iua ia?eaiaioneea auai?u a aaaonoa 1994 (a ieo i?eiyee o/anoea
anaai 20% ecae?aoaeae) i?eianee iiaaaeo iiaui i?aaui ia?oeyi. I?aaeaea
anaai Aaaoaiaeueneiio ?anioaeeeaineiio o?iioo (O?A) auaoaai aeeeoaoi?a
?eina Iiiooa (33%) e Ia?oee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaaiaa?aea (26%).
Oeaio?enoneea ia?oee OAeI e NIOe iioa?iaee nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea. A
aeaeaa?a 1994 Eiia?ann aieinaie aeaiooaoia io O?A, NIOe e o?enoeaineeo
aeaiie?aoia eca?ae ?eina Iiiooa naiei i?aaenaaeaoaeai. Ii iiiuoaeny
auaeaeiooue naith eaiaeeaeaoo?o ia i?aaenoiyaoeo i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ao,
ii ecae?aoaeueiay eiienney ioeacaeanue aai ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue, iineieueeo
eiinoeoooeey cai?auaao auaeaeaeaiea auaoeo ioo/enoia. I?aceaeaioneea e
ia?eaiaioneea auai?u a iiya?a 1995 caeii/eeenue iiaaaeie Ia?oee
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaaiaa?aea, caaiaaaaoae aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai iano a
Eiia?anna. Aeey eca?aiey ia iino i?aceaeaioa eeaea?o IIA Aeueaa?i A?no
E?eaieaio iiiaaeiaeeny aoi?ie oo? auai?ia a yiaa?a 1996. I?enooiea e
eniieiaieth iaycaiiinoae, A?no noi?ie?iaae i?aaeoaeuenoai ec 6
i?aaenoaaeoaeae nianoaaiiie ia?oee, 3 i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, 2 iacaaeneiuo e
iaeiiai aaia?aea. Ii iaauae i?iaeieaeeoue ie?iua ia?aaiai?u,
inouanoaeoue icaei?iaeaiea oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey, ai?ioueny n
i?anooiiinoueth e oi?aiaeae ia?eioeeaie, iaania/eoue iaaiaoaoaeuenoai
a?iee a iieeoeeo. A naioya?a 1996 aeanoe ?acaa?ioee iia?aoeee i?ioea
ei??oioeee, eiio?aaaiaeu, iaeaaaeueiie oi?aiaee e ?yeaoa. A ?acoeueoaoa
auee oaieaiu iiiaea nio?oaeieee a?iee, iieeoeee e oaiiaeie. Ca naycue n
iaoeae a?anoiaaiu caianoeoaeue ieieno?a iai?iiu e ainaiue aunoeo
ioeoea?ia.

I?aceaeaio A?no aeiaae aei eiioea i?ioeann ie?iiai o?aaoee?iaaiey a
Aaaoaiaea. A ia?oa 1996 auei aeinoeaiooi niaeaoaiea i iinoiyiiii
i?ae?auaiee iaiy, a iaa – i i?iaaaeaiee aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu e oeo/oaiee
oneiaee aeecie eiaeaeneiai ianaeaiey, a naioya?a – ia ia?aie/aiee ?iee
a?iee, a aeaeaa?a – ia ieii/aoaeueiii i?ae?auaiee iaiy, i?iaaaeaiee
eiinoeoooeeiiiie e ecae?aoaeueiie ?aoi?iu e o.ae. Eeaea?u O?IA Iaaei
Iiinaioi, ?ieaiaei Ii?ai, Ea?ein Aiinaean e Oi?oa ?inaeue aa?ioeenue a
Aaaoaiaeo ec Iaeneee. 29 aeaeaa?y 1996 a i?enoonoaee i?aceaeaioa A?no e
aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y III Aoo?ina Aaee a Aaaoaiaea auei iiaeienaii
niaeaoaiea i ie?a, iieiaeeaoaa eiiaoe naiiio aeeeoaeueiiio aii?oaeaiiiio
e iieeoe/aneiio eiioeeeoo a Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eea. A ?acoeueoaoa oa??i?a
e a?aaeaeaineie aieiu n 1960 aieaa 200 ouny/ /aeiaae iiaeaee eee
«i?iiaee aac aanoe», a 1,5 ieeeeiia i?aa?aoeeenue a aaaeaioeaa. Aieaa
80% aea?oa – i?aaenoaaeoaee eiaeaeoeaa iaey e ae?oaeo a?oii ei?aiiiai
ianaeaiey, iaaeiaiiuo a iiaeaea?aeea ia?oecai. Niaeanii iicaeiaeoaio
io/aoo iaaeaeoia?iaeiie «Eiiennee ii onoaiiaeaieth enoi?e/aneie enoeiu»
(1999), 93% ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aeoia ianeeey niaa?oeea a?iey e i?aaua
iieoaiaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey, 3% – eaaua iianoaioeu.

Oneiaey ie?iiai aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniao?eaaee, a /anoiinoe, i?ae?auaiea
iaiy, i?iaaaeaiea oe?ieeo iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i,
?anoe?aiea i?aa eiaeaeneiai aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey, aica?auaiea
aaaeaioeaa, eioaa?aoeeth eaauo ia?oecai a iauanoaaiioth aeeciue, ?inione
iieoaiaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee, nie?auaiea aii?oaeaiiuo nee e eiio?ieue ca
niaethaeaieai i?aa /aeiaaea. Aaaoaiaeueneay a?iey, a oaeaea aiaiiua
?anoiaeu aeieaeiu auee a oa/aiea 1997 – 1999 nie?aoeoueny ia o?aoue,
iieeoeey ecuiaeanue ec-iiae eiio?iey aiaiiuo, a?iaeneea oaeiua neoaeau
iiae/eiyeenue ia?eaiaioo, a aiaiiua noaeu eeoaeenue i?aaa ?anniao?eaaoue
iaaiaiiua aii?inu. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?aaiecaoeee e no?aiu-e?aaeeoi?u
cayaeee i aioiaiinoe i?aaeinoaaeoue Aaaoaiaea e?aaeeou e noaneaeee a
?acia?a 1,9 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia ia inouanoaeaiea ie?iiai aeiaiai?a.
III iai?aaeea iaaethaeaoaeae aeey eiio?iey ca aai auiieiaieai A ia?oa
1999 i?aceaeaio NOA Eeeioii i?eian ioeoeeaeueiua ecaeiaiey ca ?ieue
naiae no?aiu a aii?oaeaiiii eiioeeeoa a Aaaoaiaea (NOA ieacuaaee
oe?ieoth iiaeaea?aeeo aaaoaiaeueneei aii?oaeaiiui neeai e oaeiui
neoaeaai).

Niaeaoaiea ia/aei inouanoaeyoueny a ia/aea 1997. E iath 3 ouny/e eaauo
ia?oecai auee ?aci?oaeaiu, e ia?aua ec iaaethaeaoaeae III niiaee
iieeiooue no?aio. E naioya?th 1998 caaa?oeeinue nie?auaiea a?iee, ec
eioi?ie aeaiiaeeeciaaee 15,5 ouny/ ec 47 ouny/ aiaiiineoaeaueo. Oai ia
iaiaa, i?aaicaueoieee e?eoeeiaaee ia?u ii ia?aie/aieth iieeoe/aneie ?iee
a?iee eae iaaeinoaoi/iua. Niaeanii aeieeaaeo III a yiaa?a 1999,
nio?aiyeanue i?aeoeea aianoaeaaiuo ?ani?aa: ca 13 ianyoeaa oaeei ia?acii
auee oaeou 60 /aeiaae. Iinea oiai, eae a ai?aea 1998 ath?i ii i?aaai
/aeiaaea a?oeaieneiia Aaaoaiaeu i?aaenoaaeei aeieeaae i ia?ooaiee i?aa
/aeiaaea a ia?eiae a?aaeaeaineie aieiu, aue oaeo a?oeaieneii noieeoeu
Ooai Oa?a?aee Eiiaea?a. A iaa 1999 aue cano?aeai aeaeiue aeayoaeue
Aeaiie?aoe/aneiai o?iioa Iiaay Aaaoaiaea ?iaa?oi Aiinaean.

Aii?aee i?ioanoai i?aaicaueoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, aeanoe iauyaeee aiienoeth
/eiiaieeai, niaa?oeaoei iieeoe/aneea e eiua i?anooieaiey a nayce n
aii?oaeaiiui eiioeeeoii. Iaeiaei aiienoey ia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia aeaea,
naycaiiua n ia?ooaieai i?aa /aeiaaea. A ethea 1997 auaoee ieieno?
aioo?aiieo aeae Ae.Ia??eiaeuei e auaoee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iieeoeee
E.A.Yneiaa? Oa?iaiaean auee i?eaiai?aiu ca ia?ooaiea i?aa /aeiaaea e 10
e 30 aiaeai oth?aiiiai caeeth/aiey. A iiya?a 1998 noae i?eaiai?ee e
nia?oe o?ao auaoeo o/anoieeia oeueo?ai?aauo aii?oaeaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee,
oaeaoeo a 1982 130 eiaeaeoeaa, aeeth/ay aeaiuei e aeaoae. Iaeiaei a
ia?oa 1999 i?aceaeaio A?no ioaa?a ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
«eiiennee ii onoaiiaeaieth enoi?e/aneie enoeiu», eioi?ua
i?aaeoniao?eaaee i?iaaaeaiea ?anneaaeiaaiey ?iee a?iee a aaaoaiaeueneii
eiioeeeoa e oaieueiaiea anao ioeoea?ia, caiaoaiiuo a oaeenoaao. A ethia
1999 aeanoe iacia/eee iiaui ieieno?ii iai?iiu aaia?aea Ooeei Ynieiina,
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aai iaaeiyee a i?e/anoiinoe e oaeenoao a?oeaieneiia
Oa?a?aee.

I?aaeoaeuenoai A?no noaeeeaaeinue n o?oaeiuie yeiiiie/aneeie i?iaeaiaie.
Iii iuoaeinue aeeaaeuaaoue n?aaenoaa a no?ieoaeuenoai aei?ia e ae?oaea
i?iaeou, naycaiiua n ionoaeie eio?ano?oeoo?ie no?aiu. No?aieaiea
i?iaanoe oe?ieoth i?eaaoecaoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeaea
anaai, oaeaoiiiiai iauanoaa, iaoaeeeaaeinue ia nii?ioeaeaiea iiiiceoeee,
nnueaaoaeny ia oi, /oi eiinoeoooeey cai?auaao ia?aciaaiea /anoiuo
iiiiiieee. Aoeniaaea e ?aoi?ia iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, eioi?ay auea
i?aaeoniio?aia niaeaoaieai 1996. E?iia oiai, ia/aoue, iauanoaaiiinoue e
iiiiceoeeiiiua e?oae iaaeiyee i?aceaeaioa A?no a aaoi?eoa?ecia e
aunieiia?ee.

16 iay 1999 ninoiyeny ?aoa?aiaeoi ii i?aaeeiaeaiiiio i?aaeoaeuenoaii
i?iaeoo eciaiaiee eiinoeoooeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiiai ie?iui niaeaoaieai
1996, aeeth/ay oeo/oaiea i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiey ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey,
ia?aie/aiea aeanoe aiaiiuo e i?iaaaeaiea noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu. Ca yoe ia?u
aunooieee aieueoeinoai iieeoe/aneee ia?oee e ia?eaiaio no?aiu. A
aieiniaaiee i?eiyee o/anoea anaai eeoue 18,5% ecae?aoaeae. 55%
aieiniaaaoeo auneacaeenue i?ioea i?iaeoa.

Ia?aua anaiauea auai?u iinea ieii/aiey a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a iiya?a 1999
i?eianee o?eoio i?aaie ia?oee ?eina Iiiooa O?A, caaiaaaaoae aaniethoiia
aieueoeinoai iano a ia?eaiaioa. Eaiaeeaeao O?A Aeueoiini Ii?oeeuei aue a
aeaeaa?a 1999 eca?ai i?aceaeaioii Aaaoaiaeu. Ii iaauae iiiiaaoue
aaaeiui, caueuaoue i?aaa /aeiaaea e niaethaeaoue ie?iua niaeaoaiey 1996.
I?eaey e aeanoe a yiaa?a 2000, iiaue i?aceaeaio cayaee i iaia?aiee
i?iaeieaeaoue eiinoeoooeeiiiua ?aoi?iu, naeaeaa iniaue oii? ia
iiaeaioiaeo caeiia ia a?iee.

Aeueoiini Aioiiei Ii?oeeuei Eaa?a?a ?iaeeeny a 1951, eco/ae yeiiiieeo a
iaeneeaineii oieaa?neoaoa, a oaeaea th?eaee/aneea e nioeeaeueiua iaoee,
?aaioae a ?acee/iuo eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo oieaa?neoaoao, a a ia/aea 1990-o
– a aaaoaiaeueneii oeiainiaii aaaeiinoaa. A 1992 – 1994 yaeyeny
aaia?aeueiui nae?aoa?ai O?enoeainei-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee, a 1994 aue
eca?ai io iaa a ia?eaiaio, aaea aicaeaaee o?aeoeeth OAeI. A 1995 iieeioe
?yaeu O?enoeaineie aeaiie?aoee e ia?aoae a O?A, io eioi?iai
aaeeioe?iaaeny a i?aceaeaiou a 1995 e 1999 aiaeao. Ii?oeeuei aeieaeai
caieiaoue iino i?aceaeaioa aei yiaa?y 2005.

Iieeoe/aneea iiiiiaiou iaaeiytho Ii?oeeuei a oii, /oi ii neoaeeo anaai
eeoue «i?ee?uoeai» aeey ?aaeueiiai eeaea?a – ?ein Iiiooa. Ecaanoiay
i?aaicaueoieoea ?eaiaa?oa Iai/o ia?aoeeanue a eniaineee noae,
aeiaeaoenue a 2000 aicaoaeaeaiey ?anneaaeiaaiey i?ioea auaoaai
aeeeoaoi?a e iiiaeo ae?oaeo aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo aiaiiuo e iieeoeeia
Aaaoaiaeu. Iia iaaeieea eo a iuoeao, ainoaea?noaaiiii oa??i?a e
aaiioeeaea.

6 eao nionoy iinea caeeth/aiey ie?iiai niaeaoaiey, a 2002, ii niiauaieyi
ia/aoe, «yneaae?iiu nia?oe» i?iaeieaeaee aeaenoaiaaoue ii/oe a iieiie
aaciaeacaiiinoe. Oaia?ue iie iai?aaeytho naie oaea?u ii aeoeaenoai
?aai/aai e ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee.

Iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe

Ianaeaiea Aaaoaiaeu oe?iei ecaanoii naiei neeueiui nii?ioeaeaieai
anneieeyoeee, aeaaea a iaoe aeie caeanue i?iaeeaaao aieueoa eiaeaeoeaa,
/ai iaoenia e aa?iiaeoeaa. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiue ?aneie iaaeaeo eiaeaeoeaie,
eioi?ua i?iaeieaeatho neaaeiaaoue o?aaeeoeeiiiiio ia?aco aeecie e
aiai?yueie ia naieo ycueao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e iaoenaie e eniaioeaie n
ae?oaie, oi?ioi caiaoai a iauanoaaiiie aeecie e ia?yaeao no?aiu. A
ioee/ea io ae?oaeo no?ai Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee, aeeoaee Aaaoaiaeu
nio?aieee iau/ae e o?aaeeoeee naieo eiaeaeneeo i?aaeeia a aeiaieueii
aieueoii iauaia. Ieeeeiiu ethaeae ii-i?aaeiaio oiaeyo a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
einothiao e aiiaua aaaeoo ia?ac aeecie, iaei eciaieaoeeny ni a?aiai
Eiieenou. Iioiiee iaey aei neo ii? ii/eoatho, ia?yaeo n o?enoeaineeie
nayouie, ?acee/iuo oioaie/aneeo aeeaioiuo (“iaooaeue”), i?e/ai /a?ou
yoeo aeeaioiuo /anoi noa?athony ia?aianoe a naia iiaaaeaiea.

Aeey iiiaeo eiaeaeoeaa o?enoeaineee e?ano yaeyaony “ianeaaeieeii”
ae?aaiaai neiaiea iaey, icia/aaoaai /aou?a noi?iiu iaaa. Iiyoiio
eaoieeoeeci i?eieiaao ii?ie aeiaieueii i?e/oaeeeaua oi?iu –
o?aaeeoeeiiiua eiaeaeneea aa?iaaiey niaoeaathony caeanue n o?enoeaineeie
aeiaiaoaie, oea?aiiiee aeiaieueii iaiau/iu, a iaioaii nayouo uaae?i
?acaaaeai ianoiuie ia?niiaaeaie. Iai?eia?, a ai?ao i/aiue iiioey?ai
Nayoie Neiaii (?e-Ea-Iii), eioi?ue a ianoiie aa?nee yaeyaony “nieaaii”
ae?aaiaai aiaa eana, eiieenoaaei?ia e aeaeaeneiai Eoaeu (a aea?oao aio
i?eiinyo iau/ii neaa?u e aooueee ?iia). *anoi ioae/eiu iinayuatho aiae
eee aeaa neoaeaieth nayoiio iie?iaeoaeth aea?aaie, anooiay a
aea?aaaineea a?aonoaa eee ioi?aaeyynue ia iineooaiea a iiianou?e. I?e
yoii o?enoeaineay ?aeeaey caieiaao e?aeia aaaeiia ianoi a aaaoaiaeueneie
aeecie. Eaaeaeay aea?aaiy eiaao naith oea?eiaue, a aeiiao iinoiyiii
ai?yo eaiiaaeee o eeeia nayouo, a nayuaiieee iieuecothony iai?a?aeaaiui
aaoi?eoaoii.

Aieueoia aeeyiea, ia?yaeo ni neoaeeoaeyie oea?eae, eiatho eieaeoiu,
ciaoa?e e oaiaiu (“a?ooin”, “aoeoian”, “caoo?ei” eee “/o/eooaaan”),
niiniaiua, ii ianoiui iiaa?ueyi, iaeeaaeuaaoue eee nieiaoue i?ieeyoey,
i?aaeneacuaaoue aoaeouaa e oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ca ethaeae i?aae aiaaie. Ii
eiaeaeneei iiaa?ueyi aieacie e ian/anouey iiaoo auoue aucaaiu “ioia”
(“ceie aeac”). Iiyoiio iniaaiii aini?eei/eaua e naeaco ethaee
(aa?aiaiiua aeaiueiu, aeaoe, noa?eee) ie?oaeathony iau/ii aeanyoeaie
aioeaoia e ia iieacuaathony iinoi?iiiei ethaeyi. Yoie aea oeaee caueou
io ceuo nee neoaeeo o?aaeeoeeiiiay eiaeaeneay oeyia-eioaeie, eioi?ay
iau/ii ianuuaaony ?acee/iuie aioeaoaie e inayuaaony eeai ia aeoa?a
oea?eae, eeai o ianoiiai eieaeoia.

Aieueoay /anoue aaaoaiaeueneie aeecie aa?oeony aie?oa naiuee.
Aaaoaiaeueoeu aiai?yo, /oi “?iaeeoaee – “yniaoin” (ca?eaea): /a?ac ieo
au ociaaoa eai yaeyaoanue e /ai iiaeaoa noaoue”. Aeaoe caaenyo io
?iaeeoaeae e eo niaaoia a oa/aiea anae aeecie. I?e/ai i/aiue /anoi ana
/eaiu naiaenoaa ?aciuo iieieaiee aeeaoo eee aianoa eee ?yaeii ae?oa n
ae?oaii, e i?iaiaeyo aianoa iiiai a?aiaie. Ethaia i?eaeaoaiea
?anniao?eaaaony eae i?eaeaoaiea aeey anao /eaiia naiaenoaa, aeeth/ay
aeaoae e aaaooeo n aeaaeooeie. Oaeaea i/aiue aaeeei oaaaeaiea e caaioa i
iiaeeeuo ?iaenoaaiieeao, a e?anoiua ?iaeeoaee (“iaae?eiuein”) n/eoathony
iieiii?aaiuie /eaiaie naiuee. Aaaoaiaeueneea aeaiueiu iau/ii auoiaeyo
caioae aeiaieueii ?aii e no?aiyony eiaoue iiiai aeaoae (/anoi iie
?iaeatho aeiia, /oiau ia iiianoue iiae “ioia”). I?e/ai a?ae aeiioneaaony
eae oea?eiaiue, oae e naaoneee.

Aieueoeinoai aaaoaiaeueoeaa eniieuecoao aeey iianaaeiaaiie aeecie
iaeioi?ua aeaeu iaeaaeaeu aa?iiaeneiai ia?acoea, oioy a naeueneeo
?aeiiao i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony o?aaeeoeeiiiui oi?iai ieaouey – ioae/eiu
ana aua iinyo “naiaeaeni?” e oa?noyiua “iii/eoi”, eioi?ua n/eoathony
ioee/eoaeueiuie oi?iaie iaeaaeaeu iaey. AEaiueiu eniieuecotho “oeooan”
(?iae iaeayea) e naiaia?aciua iiaycee aeey iioaiey ei?cei eee
ieaaeaioeaa. A o?aaeeoeeiiiua ?aciioeaaoiua aycaiua oaii/ee “n ooeaie” e
oeyiu-eioaeee /anoi yaeythony ia i?inoi aieiaiuie oai?aie, a
eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiui ciaeii, iieacuaathuei i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue iineoaey e
eaeie-oi ieaiaiiie eee nioeeaeueiie a?oiia.

Aieueoeinoai aaaoaiaeueoeaa eiaao neiaeiua oaieeee, ninoiyuea ec aeaoo
/anoae, ii i?e iauaiee eniieuecoaony oieueei ia?aay /anoue (o ioae/ei)
eee aoi?ay (o aeaiuei, eee i?inoi ii oaieeee ioaea).

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aeean ?inniooi O. Oa?aeoa? aaaoaiaeueneie ?aaiethoeee. I., 1962

Enoi?ey Eaoeineie Aia?eee, o 1. M., 1991; o. 2. I., 1993

Aaaoaiaea a nia?aiaiiii ie?a. – Eaoeineay Aia?eea, 1997, ? 7

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