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История государства и права Древнего Египта

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?AOA?AO II OAIA:

ENOI?Ess AINNOAeA?NOAA E I?AAA Ae?AAIAAI AAEIOA

Ieai

1. Aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaa

2. ?aiiaa oea?noai

3. Ae?aaiaa oea?noai

4. N?aaeiaa oea?noai

5. Iiaia oea?noai

6. Iicaeiaa oea?noai

7. Iniiaiua /a?ou i?aaa Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa

1. Aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaa

A Aaeioa ?aiueoa, /ai a ae?oaeo no?aiao, neiaeeeinue eeanniaia
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia iauanoai e aia?aua a ie?a aicieeei ainoaea?noai.
Eiaaea oai iiyaeeenue ia?aua ainoaea?noaaiiua ia?aciaaiey, aeinoiaa?ii
ia ecaanoii, ii oaea e 3-io oun. aei i.y. ainoaea?noai a Aaeioa
nouanoaiaaei.

?aceiaeaiea iaueiiuo ii?yaeeia i?ienoiaeeei a yoie no?aia iaaeeaiii, e
oai naiui oi?iiceeinue ?acaeoea /anoiinianoaaiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai no?iy.

Ei a?aiaie ia?aciaaiey aaeeiiai aaeiaoneiai oea?noaa ia aai oa??eoi?ee
auei i?eia?ii 40 ioaeaeueiuo iaeanoae (iiiia), ai aeaaa eioi?uo noiyee
i?aaeoaee – iiia?oe. Iiia?oe iuoaeenue ?ani?ino?aieoue naith aeanoue
iaae anae no?aiie, aaaey iaeanoi/aiiua aieiu ni naieie ninaaeyie.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iiiu iauaaeeieeenue a aeaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo ainoaea?noaa
– Aa?oiee Aaeiao e Ieaeiee Aaeiao. Ia?aia iauaaeeiaiea Aaeioa i?iecioei
a ia?eiae ?aiiaai oea?noaa e auei inouanoaeaii oa?aiiii Iaianii.

Enoi?ey ae?aaiaaaeiaoneiai ainoaea?noaa aeaeeony ia ianeieueei
ia?eiaeia: ?aiiaa, Ae?aaiaa, N?aaeiaa, Iiaia e Iicaeiaa oea?noaa.

2. ?aiiaa oea?noai

Enoi?ey ?aiiaai oea?noaa ecaanoia aeiaieueii iaei. Aaeiaoneia
ainoaea?noai yoiai ia?eiaea aua iaiiieiaao ae?aaiee aeinoaoi/ii
i?eieoeaiue ieaiaiiie nithc. Iaueiu oaeoe/anee aeaaeaee caieae ia iniiaa
iaueiiiai caieaaeaaeaiey, iaeiaei ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue n/eoaea naay
aa?oiaiui nianoaaiieeii anae caiee e aceiaea a naith iieueco /anoue
aeioiaeia naiaiaeiiai ianaeaiey iauei. Ianaeaiea ninoiyei aeaaiui
ia?acii ec naiaiaeiuo e?anoueyi-iaueiieeia.

Ia?yaeo n oea?neei iaoe?iui oicyenoaii nouanoaiaaee e ae?oaea e?oiiua
oicyenoaa. Oea?ue, oioy e aue ia naiii aa?oo iauanoaaiiie eanoieoeu, aua
ia auaeaeyeny n?aaee iiaouanoaaiiuo aaeueiiae. A ?acoeueoaoa
iiiai/eneaiiuo aiei, eioi?ua aaeenue a ia?eiae ?aiiaai oea?noaa,
iinoaaeyeenue ieaiieee-?aau, eniieueciaaaoeany a e?oiiuo oicyenoaao.

A ia?eiae ?aiiaai oea?noaa i?iecioei iiei?aiea Ieaeiaai Aaeioa Aa?oiei,
e a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaeinue aeaoaaeeiia oea?noai. Iaeiaei yoi
aaeeinoai auei iai?i/iui, e any enoi?ey ?aiiaai oea?noaa i?iiecaia
ai?ueaie iaaeaeo aa?oiaaaeiaoneeie caaiaaaoaeyie e Ieaeiei Aaeioii.

Ai aeaaa ainoaea?noaa noiye oea?ue. Aai ie?oaeae iiiai/eneaiiue aeai?,
ninoiyaoee ec iiiaeanoaa i?eaeai?iuo /eiia e ?acee/iuo i?eneoaeieeia.
Cia/aiea oea?neie aeanoe iiae/a?eeaaeinue iieiui iaiaeanoaeaieai aa
iineoaeae. ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneay ciaoue iaeaaeaea aaaeiuie aeieaeiinoyie a
naiii oea?neii oicyenoaa. Aeaiiue ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony oi?ie?iaaieai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo caaea/ ainoaea?noaa yoiai ia?eiaea auea i?aaiecaoeey
i?ineoaeueiiai aeaea a Ieeueneie aeieeia. Aa?oiaiia ?oeiaiaenoai ?aaio
ii i?ioaieth iaoiaeeeinue a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa

Iinoiyiiia aienei oieueei oi?ie?iaaeinue, oioy ainoaea?noai aaei
iiiai/eneaiiua aieiu n ninaaeieie ieaiaiaie.

3. Ae?aaiaa oea?noai

Ae?aaiaa oea?noai ioaaouaaao ia?eiae ieiei 2700-2400 aa. aei i.y. A yoi
a?aiy a Aaeioa ia?aciaaeinue ia?aia neeueiia oeaio?aeeciaaiiia
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneia ainoaea?noai. Ae?aaiaa oea?noai ioee/aeinue aunieei
o?iaiai ?acaeoey oicyenoaa. Oi?ioi i?aaieciaaiiay a?iey ?aaioieeia
iaania/eaaea ianaeaiea no?aiu anai iaiaoiaeeiui. AEeciaiiue o?iaaiue
?acee/iuo neiaa ianaeaiey oaea aue /aoei ii?aaeaeai. Ia aa?oo
iauanoaaiiie eanoieoeu noiyea e?oiiay ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneay ciaoue,
iaeaaeaaoay ia?iiiuie caiaeueiuie aeaaeaieyie. E?oiiua caieaaeaaeaeueoeu
caieiaee aaaeiua aeieaeiinoe i?e aeai?a e a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee.

Iniaoth ?ieue a aaeiaoneii iauanoaa ea?aee ae?aoeu. Iie auee ie?oaeaiu
anaiauei ii/eoaieai, iineieueeo n/eoaeinue, /oi ae?aoeu iaeaaeatho
ciaieyie i caa?iaiii ie?a. Iaeaieaa aaaeiua ec yoeo ciaiee auee caienaiu
a «Eieaa ia?oauo», nayuaiiie aeey aaeioyi. E?iia oiai, cia/aiea ae?aoeia
oaaee/eaaeinue a nayce n oai, /oi iie aeaaeaee eneonnoaii a?a/aaaiey,
aicaaaeaiey neiaeiuo a?oeoaeoo?iuo nii?oaeaiee, oiaee au/eneyoue
ieiuaaee caiaeueiuo o/anoeia. AE?aoeu neoaeeee iii?ie oea?neie aeanoe,
i?ineaaeyy oa?aiiia; iineaaeiea, a naith i/a?aaeue, inaiaiaeaeaee
o?aiiaua oicyenoaa io iaeiaia e io?aaioie ia ainoaea?noai.

Iniiaiie ?aai/ae neeie a ainoaea?noaa auee e?anoueyia-iaueiieee. Iie
iauaaeeiyeenue a «?aai/ea io?yaeu», eniieueciaaaoeany ia oieueei aeey
?aaio a naeueneii oicyenoaa, ii e ia no?ieoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo
nii?oaeaiee, i?e i?ieeaaeea aei?ia, ?uouea eaiaeia. Oi?aaeye «?aai/eie
io?yaeaie» oa?aii /a?ac naieo /eiiaieeia.

A yiioo Ae?aaiaai oea?noaa ?aaia auei aua iaei, oioy nouanoaiaae ?aaneee
?uiie, ethaeae iieoiaee e i?iaeaaaee. ?aaiaeaaeaiea auei ?ani?ino?aiaia
ia oieueei a aa?oao iauanoaa, ii e a n?aaeieo neiyo ianaeaiey. ?aau
eniieueciaaeenue, eae i?aaeei, aeey ?aaiou a aeiiaoiai oicyenoaa.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie Ae?aaiaai oea?noaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony
oeaio?aeecaoeeae oi?aaeaiey. I?e iiiiue ?aeeaeiciie eaeaieiaee
iaiaioai?aiey oea?y e aai aeayiee oe?aieyeny aaoi?eoao oa?aiia. A aai
?oeao nin?aaeioi/eeanue any caeiiiaeaoaeueiay, eniieieoaeueiay e
noaeaaiay aeanoue. Aieiaiea oa?aiiia ia?auaeinue ia ana aaaeiua aeaea
ainoaea?noaa. Ia?ii?eyoey ii i?ioaieth, noae, iacia/aiey e iiaeaeiaaiey,
iaeiaeaiea iiaeiiinoae e inaiaiaeaeaiea io ieo, aiaiiua iioiaeu,
ia?ii?eyoey ii noaeioiaenoao, ainoaea?noaaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai e
?ac?aaioea caiiuo iaae? – ana inouanoaeyeinue ii i?eeacai oea?y.

Aaaeiaeoea aeieaeiinoe a ainoaea?noaa – aa?oiaiuo naiiaieeia,
aiaia/aeueieeia, o?aieoaeae nie?iaeu, ia/aeueieeia ?aaio, aa?oiaiuo
ae?aoeia – caieiaee, eae i?aaeei, /eaiu oea?neiai aeiia.

Ia?aui eeoeii a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee iinea oea?y aue aa?oiaiue
naiiaiee (aeaeaoe). Ii iai?aaeye aeayoaeueiinoue aa?oiaiuo noaeaaiuo
i?aaiia, aaaeae ianoiui oi?aaeaieai, oi?aaeye ?aciuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie
ianoa?neeie, ?oeiaiaeee anaie ?aaioaie oea?y, a aai aaaeaiee
iaoiaeeeenue ?acee/iua ainoaea?noaaiiua o?aieeeua. Eiiaaea aa?oiaiua
naiiaieee ia?aaeaaaee /anoue ooieoeee ae?oaei naiiaieeai.

Cia/eoaeueiiai ?acaeoey a Ae?aaiai oea?noaa aeinoeaei aiaiiia aeaei.
Ecaanoai ?yae caaiee aiaia/aeueieeia. Aaeiaoneay a?iey ninoiyea ec aeaoo
/anoae: iaaieueoiai io?yaea niaoeeaeueii iao/aiiuo e oi?ioi
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo nieaeao e aieueoiai iiie/aiey ec e?anoueyi, iaae?aaoeony
a aienei ia ianeieueei ianyoeaa e a?aiaiii inaiaiaeaeaaoeony io iieaauo
?aaio. Iieeoeaeneea ooieoeee auiieiyee niaoeeaeueiua io?yaeu.

A yoio ia?eiae nicaeathony aaaeiaeoea aaaeiinoaa ainoaea?noaa: aiaiiia,
aaaeiinoai iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio, oeiainiai-iiaeaoiia, noaeaaiia.

Ae?aaiea iaueiiua noaeu ana aieueoa auoaniyeenue i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
oea?neie th?enaeeeoeee. Aunoay noaeaaiay einoaioeey – «oanoue aaeeeeo
aeiiia» – iaoiaeeeanue a noieeoea. Iineoaeai aunoae th?enaeeeoeee
n/eoaeny oa?aii, eioi?ue a yeno?aiiuo neo/ayo iacia/ae iniauo noaeae ec
/enea iaeaieaa aeiaa?aiiuo eeoe aeey ?acai?a oaeiuo aeae, naycaiiuo n
i?anooieaieyie ainoaea?noaaiiie aaaeiinoe. E oea?neei noaeai ioiineeenue
oaeaea eieeaaey o?eaeoeaoe, noaeu iiiia, noaeu ai?iaeia. Ecaanoiu
o?aiiaua noaeu.

Noiyaoea ai aeaaa iaeanoae – iiiia iiia?oe inouanoaeyee oicyenoaaiiia
oi?aaeaiea iaeanoueth e ioaeaaaee i?eeacaiey i iiaeaioiaea iieae e
iinaao, aicaaaeaiee iiauo ieioei, i?ieeaaeea eaiaeia, neaaeeee ca nai?ii
o?iaeay e ?ani?aaeaeaieai aai n?aaee ianaeaiey.

Oaeay oi?ia nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa, i?e eioi?ie aeaaa
ainoaea?noaa, iaeaaeathuee anae iieiioie aeanoe, iaiaeanoaeyaony,
oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa, a
naiaiaeiia ianaeaiea no?aiu ia?aiaiaii ?acee/iuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie
iiaeiiinoyie, iacuaaaony ainoi/iie aeaniioeae.

E eiioeo yiioe Ae?aaiaai oea?noaa aeanoue oa?aiiia noaea ineaaaaaoue.
Iiieiaeueii any caiey no?aiu n/eoaeanue nianoaaiiinoueth oa?aiia.
?aaeueii aea oea?neea iiianouey oiaiueoaeenue ca n/ao aea?aiee,
?acaeaaaaiuo a iaa?aaeo ca i?eaeai?ioth e ae?oaoth neoaeao. Ie?oaeathuay
oa?aiia a?iey i?eaeeaaeueueeia oaaee/eaaeanue, /oi i?eaiaeeei e
iionoioaieth oea?neie eaciu. Aaeueiiaee aeiaeaaeenue inaiaiaeaeaiey io
oieaou iaeiaia, io niaea?aeaiey i?iacaeathueo ii eo caiea eeoe,
iaoiaeeaoeony ia neoaeaa o oa?aiia, io iinueee; naieo ethaeae ia
iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou. Ai iiiaeo ianoao i?aaeaiea iiiaie ia?aoiaeeei ii
ianeaaenoao io iooea e nuio.

Oiaaeie oea?neie aeanoe i?eaiaeeo e ianooieaieth a Aaeioa «niooiiai
a?aiaie». Iiiai/eneaiiua aeai?oeiaua ia?aai?iou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
iieeoe/aneii e?ecena, ca eioi?ui ianooiee yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. Ae?aaiaa
oea?noai ?aniaeinue. Ii ii i?ioanoaee ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea nioo ia
?acaaeeiao aai aicieeaao iiaia oea?noai – N?aaeiaa. No?aia aua?aeanue ec
oaina, e Aaeiao iiyoue oeaeeeii ieacaeny, eae e i?aaeaea, iiae aeanoueth
iaeiiai oa?aiia. Ii iinee oeooe «aiaeanoaaiiue».

4. N?aaeiaa oea?noai

N eiioea 3-ai oun. aei 1600 a. aei i.y. i?iaeieaeaaony yiioa N?aaeiaai
oea?noaa.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia yiioe Ae?aaiaai oea?noaa ia ianoao noaee
auaeaeaaoueny iiiiaua aeaaeaoaeueiua ?iaeu. E eiioeo yoie yiioe cia/aiea
ianoiie ciaoe oneeeaaaony. Aa iiaeaea?aeeaatho oe?ieea e?oae ianaeaiey.
A ?acoeueoaoa no?aia ?aniaaeaaony ia iieoiacaaeneiua iaeanoe.
Iauaaaeiaoneay aeanoue oa?aiiia i?eoiaeeo a oiaaeie.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea iaeanoae io oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe aucaaei iaeeaeaiea
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia ianoao.

Iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey a yiioo ?anoeaaoa N?aaeiaai oea?noaa (XVIII a.
aei i.y.) ioia/aiu aeaoiy aaaeiuie /a?oaie: n iaeiie noi?iiu,
i?ienoiaeeo cia/eoaeueiue ?ino ?aaiaeaaeaiey a /anoiuo oicyenoaao e
eciaiyaony iieiaeaiea caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?anneiaiea
naeueneeo iauei i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth neiy iaeeeo nianoaaiieeia –
iaaeaeania («iaeaiueeeo»). N?aaee iaaeaeania auaeaeyeenue caaeeoi/iua
oicyaaa e iaeeea e?anoueyia. ?acaiaaoaaoea i?aaenoaaeoaee n?aaeiaai neiy
ianaeaiey i?iieeaee a n?aaeo ae?a/anoaa e /eiiaie/anoaa, noaiiaeeenue
ienoeaie, oi?aiaoeaie e aeaaea caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie. Eo iacuaaee
neeueiuie iaaeaeanaie. Ei i?ioeainoiyee aaaeiua iaaeaeanu, ii naiaio
iieiaeaieth iaei ioee/athueany io ?aaia. ?anoao cia/aiea n?aaeieo neia
ai?iaeai a aeecie iauanoaa. Ai?iae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaueio, eioi?ay
yaeyeanue th?eaee/aneei eeoeii, aeaaeaaoei ?aaaie e caieae.

Ia/aei yiioe N?aaeiaai oea?noaa iciaiaiiaaii ii/oe iaia?aie/aiiie
aeanoueth iiia?oia. A ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa N?aaeiaai oea?noaa oa?aiiu,
no?aiynue e iauaaeeiaieth ainoaea?noaa e oe?aieaieth oeaio?aeueiie
aeanoe, iuoathony ia?aie/eoue aeanoue iiia?oia, caiaiyy noa?uo,
iacaaeneiuo i?aaeoaeae iaeanoae iiauie, iiae/eiaiiuie oea?neie aeanoe.
Aeaaiie iii?ie oea?y auee i?eaeai?iay, neoaeeeay ciaoue, a oaeaea
aieinoai, io?aiyaoaa oea?y.

A i?aaeaiea Aiiaiaioaoa III i?ienoiaeeo oneeaiea iiaouanoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Aio oaeaeinue ineaaeoue aeanoue iiia?oia,
iaeiaei yoi ia oie/oiaeeei i?ioeai?a/ee, ?acaee?aaoeo iauanoai Aaeioa ai
a?aiy N?aaeiaai oea?noaa, /oi niinianoaiaaei caaiaaaieth Aaeioa iiae
eiiaoe N?aaeiaai oea?noaa aeeninaie.

5. Iiaia oea?noai

N ii?aaeaiey e ecaiaiey aeeninia ia/eiaaony ia?eiae Iiaiai oea?noaa,
eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaaony ieiei 500 eao (1575-1087 aa. aei i.y.).

A ?acoeueoaoa aiei oa??eoi?ey Aaeioa oaaee/eaaaony, e ii noaiiaeony
ia?iiiie aea?aeaaie. Yoi aue aoi?ie cieioie aae Aaeioa.

Iiiai/eneaiiua aieiu niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth ?aanoaa.
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneea ioiioaiey a Aaeioa a ia?eiae Iiaiai oea?noaa
n?aaieoaeueii aeoaiei i?iieeee a iauanoai. ?aaaie aeaaeaee aeaaea ethaee
ne?iiiiai iauanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey – ianoooe, ?aianeaiieee, naaeiaieee e
o.i. ?acaeoea ?aanoaa iiaeii iauynieoue aic?inoae iio?aaiinoueth
iaaieueoeo oicyenoa a ?aaneii o?oaea, eioi?ue eniieueciaaeny oaea ia
oieueei a aeiiaoiai oicyenoaa. Ec n?aaeu ?aaia auoiaeeee eaiaiioanu,
ia?aaic/eee eaiiy, eociaoeu, oea/e, no?ieoaee e ae?oaea ?aianeaiieee.

N?aaee caieaaeaeueoeaa, i/aaeaeii, eiaeinue iaiaei iaueiieeia. Eeoue
iaiiiaea ec ieo ?acaiaaoaee, iniiaiay aea ianna
iaueiieeia-caieaaeaeueoeaa aaaeiaea. Caieaaeaeueoeaa a i?eioaeeoaeueiii
ii?yaeea eniieueciaaee ia oea?neeo e o?aiiauo caieyo. Auee oaeaea
caieaaeaeueoeu, eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue /anoiuie eeoeaie. Iaeioi?ua
ninoiyoaeueiua caieaaeaeueoeu eiaee naie ?aai/ee neio, ?aai/aa
nia?yaeaiea. O?aiiaua caieaaeaeueoeu iiaee eiaoue ?aaia. Ia?eiaee/anee
i?iaiaeeeenue niio?u ethaeae, neioa, ioeoeu n oeaeueth iaeiaeaiey
?acee/iuo oyaio, iacia/aiey ia oo eee eioth ?aaioo.

Iniaaiiinoueth iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a Iiaii oea?noaa yaeyaony
aicauoaiea ae?a/anoaa. N ?inoii aiaaonoaa aunoaai ae?a/anoaa i?ienoiaeeo
aai inaiaiaeaeaiea io caaeneiinoe ii ioiioaieth e oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe.
AE?a/anoai i?aa?auaaony a caieioooth ianeaaenoaaiioth eanoo.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie oa?aeoa?ecoaony oe?aieaieai nenoaiu
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ath?ie?aoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey. No?aia auea ?acaeaeaia
ia aeaa aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ie?oaa: Aa?oiee e Ieaeiee Aaeiao, eioi?ua, a
naith i/a?aaeue, aeaeeeenue ia iaeanoe (iiiu). Ai aeaaa eaaeaeiai ie?oaa
noiye iniaue iaianoiee oa?aiia, /oi aua aieaa niinianoaiaaei
oeaio?aeecaoeee oi?aaeaiey. Any aeanoue a iiiao nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue a
?oeao oea?neeo /eiiaieeia. Ai?iaea e e?aiinoe aicaeaaeyee ia/aeueieee,
iacia/aiiua oa?aiiii.

Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy aeaiiiai, ia?eiaea
yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi oa?aii iie?iaeoaeuenoaoao naiiaieeai, auoaaeoei
ec iecia, a i?ioeaiaan oai, eoi oianeaaeiaae ?aia e aiaaonoai io
i?aaeeia. Oaeei ia?acii, neoaeeeay ciaoue ioiaeaeaaao ia aoi?ie ieai
ciaoue a?enoie?aoe/aneoth.

Ia?aui e aunoei naiiaieeii aue aace?. Ii aaaeae onoaiiaeaieai
i?eaeai?iiai oea?aiiieaea ai aeai?oea, anaie eaioeaey?eyie, oi?aaeaieai
noieeoeu, ?anii?yaeaeny anai caiaeueiui oiiaeii no?aiu e anae nenoaiie
aiaeiniaaaeaiey; a aai ?oeao auea aunoay aiaiiay aeanoue, nin?aaeioi/aiu
aa?oiaiue noaeaaiue iaaeci? e eiio?ieue ca anai iiaeaoiui e ianoiui
oi?aaeaieai.

Aaaeiuie /eiiaieeaie auee aeaaiue eacia/ae e ia/aeueiee anao oea?neeo
?aaio. Iiiai/eneaiiua ienoeu caienuaaee i?eeacu, iaaece?aee ca ?aaioaie
caieaaeaeueoeaa e ?aianeaiieeia, iiaen/eouaaee aeioiaeu, eaeouea a
eacio.

Caaiaaaoaeueiay iieeoeea oa?aiiia iaeiaeeea iniaue ioia/aoie ia anth
nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey Aaeioa, i?eaeaa aio aiaiiue
oa?aeoa?, oneeea ?ieue aieineeo ia/aeueieeia a noa?a oicyenoaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey.

A XII-XI aa. aei i.y. Iiaia oea?noai i?eoiaeeo a oiaaeie.
I?ioeaiai?noaothuea iauanoaaiiua neeu, nin?aaeioi/aiiua ia naaa?a e
thaa, ia aoaeo/e a ninoiyiee iaeieaoue ae?oa ae?oaa, aaee no?aio e
?aniaaeo ia aeaa /anoe. Aaeeiay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue i?e yoeo
oneiaeyo noaiiaeeanue iiieiaeueiie.

6. Iicaeiaa oea?noai

Enoi?ey Iicaeiaai oea?noaa ia/eiaaony a VII a. aei i.y. e i?iaeieaeaaony
aei VI a. aei i.y.

A oi a?aiy ?ac/a, /ai i?aaeaea, iaicia/eeinue aeaeaiea iauanoaa ia
naiaiaeiuo e ?aaia. Iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea naeaeee ii naiii?iaeaaea a
?aanoai. ?inei iaieuaiea oe?ieeo neiaa naiaiaeiuo ethaeae. Cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue ianaeaiey ii-i?aaeiaio iaoiaeeeanue a caaeneiinoe io eaciu,
o?aiia, ciaoe. Oooaeoeeinue iieiaeaiea ?aianeaiieeia.

I?eaeeaae?iaaiiui nineiaeai ia?yaeo ni ae?a/anoaii noaiiaeony aieineia.
Aiaiioth iii?o oa?aiiia ninoaaeyee eiicaiiua iaaiieee.

Einoye ianoiie ciaoe, eae e ?aiaa, ninoaaeyee iiia?oe e ai?iaeneea
i?aaeoaee. I?i/ea i?aaenoaaeoaee /eiiaiie ciaoe iaei /ai ioee/aeenue io
naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia: yoi auee aa?oiaiue naiiaiee, o?aieoaeue
nie?iaeuieoeu, o?aieoaee eaciu, ia/aeueieee ?aaio, noaeuee e o.ae.
Iniaia ianoi caieiaee aiaia/aeueieee.

7. Iniiaiua /a?ou i?aaa Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa

Enoi/ieeii i?aaa a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa ia?aiia/aeueii aue iau/ae. N
?acaeoeai ainoaea?noaa aeoeaiie noaiiaeony caeiiiaeaoaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue oa?aiiia. Anoue naaaeaiey i ninoaaeaiee eiaeeoeeaoeee,
iaeiaei ie iaeia ec ieo ia aeioea aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie.

I?aai nianoaaiiinoe. A Aaeioa nouanoaiaaei ianeieueei aeaeia caiaeueiuo
aeaaeaiee. Auee caiee ainoaea?noaaiiua, o?aiiaua, /anoiua e iaueiiua.
Aeiaieueii ?aii aicieeei e?oiiia caieaaeaaeaiea. A ea/anoaa e?oiiuo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa aunooiaee o?aiu e oea?neea aaeueiiaee. Iie iiaee
niaa?oaoue ?acee/iiai ?iaea naeaeee n caieae (aea?eoue, i?iaeaaaoue,
ia?aaeaaaoue ii ianeaaenoao). A aea?aaia ?acaeoea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe
oei aeiaieueii iaaeeaiii. A ea/anoaa naea?aeeaathuaai oaeoi?a caeanue
aunooiaea iaueia. Iaeiaei enoi/ieee iieacuaatho, /oi oaea a ia?eiae
Ae?aaiaai oea?noaa iaueiiua caiee ia?aoiaeyo ec ?oe a ?oee.

Aeaeaeeiia eiouanoai – ?aau, ?aai/ee neio, eiaaioa?ue – iaiiiai ?aiueoa
ia?aoei a /anoiua ?oee e auei i?aaeiaoii ?acee/iuo naeaeie.

Iaycaoaeuenoaa. Ae?aaiaaaeiaoneia i?aai ciaei ?yae aeiaiai?ia. N?aaee
ieo aeiaiai? caeia, iaeia, eoiee-i?iaeaaee, a?aiaeu caiee, iieeaaee,
oiaa?euanoaa.

Aneaaenoaea aieueoie oeaiiinoe caiee a Aaeioa aue nicaeai iniaue
ii?yaeie ia?aoiaea aa ec ?oe a ?oee. Yoio ii?yaeie i?aaeoniao?eaae
niaa?oaiea o?ao aeoia: ia?aue caeeth/aeny a aeinoeaeaiee niaeaoaiey
iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai i i?aaeiaoa aeiaiai?a e i?iecaiaenoaa
ieaoaaea; aoi?ie aeo iinee ?aeeaeiciue oa?aeoa? e caeeth/aeny a aea/a
i?iaeaaoeii eeyoau, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuae aeiaiai?; o?aoee aeo i?aaenoaaeye
niaie aaiae iieoiaoaey ai aeaaeaiea, /oi aaei e ia?aoiaeo i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth. Iinoaiaiii aoi?ie aeo ia?anoae niaa?oaoueny.

A?a/ii-naiaeiua ioiioaiey. A?ae caeeth/aeny ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a, io
eiaie ioaea e aeaiu. Aeiaiai? ii?aaeaeye e i?aaiaie ?aaeei eiouanoaa,
i?eianaiiiai aeaiie a aeaea i?eaeaiiai: iii inoaaaeinue nianoaaiiinoueth
aeaiu. Aeiioneaeanue oaeaea ia?aaea/a aeaia anaai eiouanoaa naiuee. A
Aaeioa aeiaieueii aeieai nouanoaiaaee ia?aaeeoee iao?ea?oaoa, /oi
neacuaaeinue ia ioiineoaeueii aunieii iieiaeaiee aeaiueiu a naiuea. N
oa/aieai a?aiaie, ii ia?a oe?aieaiey i?aa ioaea, ii noaiiaeony aeaaie
naiuee, e aeaiueia, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a oeaeii aa iieiaeaiea auei
aeinoaoi/ii aunieei, oo?a/eaaao i?aaeiaa ?aaainoai n ioaeai. A Aaeioa
naiaiaeii aeey iaaeo noi?ii inouanoaeyeny ?acaiae.

Aaeiaoneia i?aai ciaei ianeaaeiaaiea ii caeiio e ii caaauaieth.
Ianeaaeieeaie ii caeiio auee aeaoe iaiaai iiea. Caaauaiea iiaee
ninoaaeoue eae ioae, oae e aeaia.

Oaieiaiia i?aai e i?ioeann. Aaeiaoneiio i?aao aue ecaanoai aeiaieueii
oe?ieee e?oa aeayiee, i?eciaaaaiuo i?anooieaieyie. Iaeaieaa oyaeeeie
n/eoaeenue iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia ainoaea?noaaiiue e iauanoaaiiue no?ie
(oaeiauie n/eoaeenue eciaiu, caaiai?u, iyoaaee, ?acaeaoaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oaei). A oaeeo neo/ayo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?yaeo n
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aeiiaieeii ianee ana /eaiu naiuee. No?iai
iaeacuaaeenue i?anooieaiey ?aeeaeiciiai oa?aeoa?a (oaeenoai nayuaiiuo
aeeaioiuo – eioee, niau; /a?iaeaenoai).

N?aaee i?anooieaiee i?ioea ee/iinoe enoi/ieee iacuaatho oaeenoai;
iniaaiii inoaeaeaeinue e no?iai iaeacuaaeinue iooeaoaeenoai. Oyaeeei
i?anooieaieai n/eoaeenue ia?ooaiey onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee ea/aaiiai
eneonnoaa a neo/aa nia?oe aieueiiai.

N?aaee eiouanoaaiiuo i?anooieaiee enoi/ieee iacuaatho e?aaeo,
iaia?eaaiea, iaaaoeaaiea.

E i?anooieaieyi i?ioea /anoe e aeinoieinoaa ioiineeenue i?aethaiaeayiea,
ecianeeiaaiea.

No?iaua iaeacaiey i?aneaaeiaaee oeaeue ono?aoaiey. I/aiue
?ani?ino?aiaiiui iaeacaieai auea nia?oiay eaciue. E?iia oiai,
i?eiaiyeenue /eaiia?aaeeoaeueneea iaeacaiey – io?acaiea iina, ooae;
ecaeaiea iaeeaie; caeeth/aiea a oth?ueio, ioaea/a a ?aanoai; aeaiaaeiua
oo?aou.

I?ioeann ii oaieiaiui e a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai inouanoaeyeny iaeeiaeiai e
ia/eiaeny ii aeaeiaa iioa?iaaoaai.

A ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoa neoaeeee naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey, eeyoau.
I?eiaiyeenue iuoee. Aeaeii?iecaiaenoai iineei ienueiaiiue oa?aeoa?.

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