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История Франции в Новое время

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ENOI?Ess AINOAeA?NOAA E I?AAA O?AIOeEE A IIAIA A?AIss

Ieai

O?aioeocneia ainoaea?noai ia/aeueiiai ia?eiaea ?aaiethoeee XVIII a

AEe?iiaeenoneay ?anioaeeea

sseiaeineay ?anioaeeea

Oa?ieaei?eaineay ?anioaeeea

Eiia?ey

Eaaeoeiiay iiia?oey

Aoi?ay ?anioaeeea

Aoi?ay eiia?ey

Ainnoaiiaeaiea ?anioaeeee

Ia?eaeneay Eiiioia 1871 a

O?aouey ?anioaeeea

O?aioeocneia ainoaea?noai ia/aeueiiai ia?eiaea ?aaiethoeee XVIII a.

Ia/aei ?aaiethoeee. Ei?aiiie, aeoaeiiie i?e/eiie ?aaiethoeee yaeeinue
aeinoeaoaa iaeneiaeueiie ino?iou i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie neeaie e ainiiaenoaiaaaoeie a no?aia oaiaeaeueiuie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie. Oaiaeaeeci oaea ia iia iaania/eoue eo
aeaeueiaeoee ?ino e iauaeoeaii i?aa?aoeeny a eo oi?iic. Ia?iae yoi
ii/oanoaiaae i?aaeaea anaai a nayce n oneeaieai oaiaeaeueiiai aiaoa.

Ia auea aeiaieueia naiei iieiaeaieai e iniiaiay /anoue i?iiuoeaiieeia,
eoioeia, oi?aiaoeaa. Iie iaeaaaeenue cia/eoaeueiuie iaeiaaie e nai?aie,
oaaeoeie a iniiaiii ia niaea?aeaiea ei?ieaaneiai aeai?a e
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nineiaee. I?aaeoaeuenoai iaiaeiie?aoii i?iaiaeeei oae
iacuaaaiia «auaeeiaiea aoaie»: ?acaiaaoaaoaai i?aaei?eieiaoaey iiae
eaeei-eeai i?aaeeiaii, aieueoae /anoueth iacaeiiiui, caoi/aee a oth?ueio
e ioioneaee eeoue iinea aianaiey ei cia/eoaeueiiai aeaiaaeiiai aueoia.
Aioo?aiiee ?uiie aue e?aeia oceei aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oae eae
e?anoueyinoai (iniiaiay /anoue ianaeaiey no?aiu) ii/oe ia iieoiaei
i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia. Oi?aiaea iaoaei aaeeeia iiiaeanoai aioo?aiieo
oaiiaeai. Iaiooaeoo?iia i?iecaiaenoai naea?aeeaaea oeaoiaay
?aaeaiaioaoeey. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey, i?aaeaea anaai eieiieaeueiay, auea
eneonnoaaiii nin?aaeioi/aia a ?oeao iaaieueoie a?oiiu i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai
eoia/anoaa, aeaeeaoaai naie aeioiaeu n i?eaeai?iie ciaoueth.

Iniiaiay /anoue aeai?yinoaa e aa?oe aeooiaainoaa no?aieeenue nio?aieoue
nouanoaothuee no?ie. Aeaaiia i?oaeea aai caueou iie ia aac iniiaaiey
aeaeaee a oaiaeaeueii-aaniethoenoneii ainoaea?noaa.

Iaaeaeo oai a no?aia c?aei iiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeoaieeo ia?aiai.
Aioiaeeanue e iei e ao?aeoacey — yeiiiie/anee e iieeoe/anee naiay
aeeyoaeueiay e iaeaieaa i?aaieciaaiiay e, /oi ia iaiaa aaaeii,
ia?aciaaiiay nioeeaeueiay a?oiia a aioeoaiaeaeueiii aeaeaeaiee. Eiaiii
oiaaea ai O?aioeee ao?aeoaceae noaee iacuaaoue aaiee?ia, ioeoiueeia
iaeiaia, nianoaaiieeia iaiooaeoo?, eoioeia e aiiaua e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae; ?aiueoa ao?aeoaceae, ao?aeoa n/eoaeenue ei?aiiua
ai?iaeaia. Ai iiiaii aeaaiaea?y iaoa?eaeueiie e eiie iiaeaea?aeea
ao?aeoacee oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee o?oaeu eaeaieiaia I?inaauaiey
— oai?aoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea iuneeoaeae, iiaeaa?aoeo e?eoeea oaiaeaeueiia
ie?iaicc?aiea, inayuaaoaa eea?eeaeueii-aaniethoenoneee i?iecaie,
nineiaiua i?eaeeaaee, n?aaeiaaaeiaua noaaa?ey e i?aeiaanea. I?inaaoeoaee
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyee ?aaeoeeiiiie eaeaieiaee iiaia iieeoe/aneia
ie?iaicc?aiea, eioi?ia niioaaonoaiaaei, eae iie ienaee, o?aaiaaieyi
anaiauaai e aiaa?aiaiiiai ?acoia e ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Iie ouaoaeueii
eco/aee iiuo ?aaiethoeee a Aieeaiaeee, Aiaeee, NOA, aeeth/ay i?aeoeeo
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a yoeo no?aiao. Eo acaeyaeu ia
iiiaea i?iaeaiu ?anoiaeeeenue, ii auee aaeeiu a aeaaiii — a
iaiaoiaeeiinoe na?ueaciuo ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiauo i?aia?aciaaiee ia
aeaiie?aoe/aneie iniiaa.

A 1788 a. O?aioeeth ii?acee aeoaieee yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. Aneaaenoaea
i/a?aaeiiai iao?iaeay e?anoueyia e ai?iaeneay aaaeiioa aieueoae /anoe
no?aiu ieacaeenue iiae oa?icie aieiaea. Naa?ouaaeinue i?iecaiaenoai, e
iiiaea ouny/e o?oaeyueony-ai?iaeai inoaeenue aac ?aaiou. Ia/aeenue
e?anoueyineea aieiaiey, ia?aeeioaoeany anei?a a ai?iaea. Iiaui a yoeo
niauoeyo auei oi, /oi a ?yaea iano nieaeaou ioeacuaaeenue aunooiaoue
i?ioea ia?iaea.

I?aa?auaiea Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia a O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea. A oneiaeyo,
eiaaea, ii neiaai iaeiiai ieieno?a, «iiaeiiaaiey iao ieaaea, iaeuecy
aeaaea auoue oaa?aiiui a aieneao», i?aaeoaeuenoai auei auioaeaeaii iieoe
ia onooiee. Iii iauyaeei i nicuaa Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia, ia niae?aaoeony
oaea aieaa 150 eao. Ii iiaieth i?aayueo e?oaia, Aaia?aeueiua ooaou
aeieaeiu auee iiii/ue iiia?oee i?aiaeieaoue oeiainiaua o?oaeiinoe,
iaeia?ea aaaaeaiea iiauo iaeiaia. Ii eiua iaaeaaeaeu naycuaaei n
Aaia?aeueiuie ooaoaie «o?aouea nineiaea», i?aaeeaaaaoaa inouanoaeoue
aaaeiua eciaiaiey a iauanoaaiiii e ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia O?aioeee. A
iaeacao naiei aeaiooaoai — i?aaenoaaeoaeyi e?oiiie ao?aeoacee iii
o?aaiaaei ia?aie/aiey ei?ieaaneiai i?iecaiea, aaaaeaiey i?aaa
ooaa?aeaeaiey athaeaeaoa, eiio?iey ca aai eniieiaieai, onoaiiaeaiey
no?iaie caeiiiinoe a aeayoaeueiinoe aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia e noaea,
ioiaiu oeaoiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee, iaeaa/aiey iieiaeaiey e?anoueyi e ae?.

A iaa 1789 a. ninoiyeinue ioe?uoea Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia. I?aayuea e?oae,
no?aiynue nio?aieoue i?ii?aaeoaeuenoaaiiia aieueoeinoai, iio?aaiaaee
niaethaeaiey noa?iai ii?yaeea aieiniaaiey — eaaeaeia nineiaea eiaao
iaeei aiein. N yoei ia niaeaneeenue i?aaenoaaeoaee «o?aoueaai nineiaey».
Iie iio?aaiaaee, /oiau canaaeaiey i?iaiaeeeenue ia ?acaeaeueii ii
nineiaeyi, a niaianoii, ?aoaiey i?eieiaeenue aieueoeinoaii aieinia.
Oieueei a yoii neo/aa aeaiooaou «o?aoueaai nineiaey» iiaee ?ann/eouaaoue
ia oniao naieo ia/eiaiee, iineieueeo eo iauaa /enei ?aaiyeinue /eneo
aeaiooaoia i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nineiaee, e, e?iia oiai, iaaeayeenue,
(aeaeueiaeoea niauoey iieacaee, /oi iie ia ioeaeenue) ia iiaeaea?aeeo
iaeioi?uo aeaiooaoia ec i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nineiaee (eeaa?aeueiiai
aeai?yinoaa e iecoaai aeooiaainoaa). A ioaao ia ioeac i?aaeoaeuenoaa
i?eiyoue iiaue ii?yaeie aieiniaaiey aeaiooaou «o?aoueaai nineiaey» a
ethia 1789 a. iauyaeee naay Iaoeeiiaeueiui nia?aieai, nionoy ianyoe —
O/?aaeeoaeueiui nia?aieai, o. a., aunooiay io eiaie o?aioeocneiai
ia?iaea, iie cayaeee i naiai i?aaa ioiaiyoue noa?ua caeiiu e i?eieiaoue
iiaua. Ei?ieue e ciaoue ?aoeee ?aciaiaoue Nia?aiea. A Aa?naeue, aaea iii
canaaeaei, noyaeaaeenue aienea. Eacaeinue, ie/oi ia iaoaei
i?aaeoaeuenoao inouanoaeoue caaeoiaiiia.

O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea nian ia?iae. Eiaaea a Ia?eaea noaei ecaanoii i
aioiayuaeny ianniaie e?iaaaie ?ani?aaa n aioeoaiaeaeueiui aeaeaeaieai,
ia?iae Ia?eaea iiaeiyeny ia aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea. Ia aai noi?iio
anei?a ia?aoea aieueoay /anoue aiene, e ii/oe aanue Ia?eae ieacaeny a
?oeao ainnoaaoeo. 14 ethey iie acyee ooo?iii ei?ieaaneoth e?aiinoue —
oth?ueio Aanoeeey. Aeaiue iaaeaiey Aanoeeee ii nouanoao noae aeiai
?iaeaeaiey iiaie O?aioeee e iuia ioia/aaony eae aa iaoeeiiaeueiue
i?acaeiee.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey. ?aaiethoeey, ia/aaoenue a Ia?eaea, anei?a
ioaaoeea anth no?aio. Ainnoaaoea ecaiiyee ei?ieaaneeo /eiiaieeia,
e?anoueyia ioeacuaaeenue auiieiyoue oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe. Ai iiiaeo
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ai?iaeao auee oi?acaeiaiu noa?ua i?aaiu ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey. Aienea a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa auoee ec iiaeiiaaiey
ei?ieaaneei aaia?aeai. Nieaeaou ioeacuaaeenue no?aeyoue a ia?iae.

Aa?oe «o?aoueaai nineiaey» (e?oiiay ao?aeoacey), caieiaaoea
aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea a O/?aaeeoaeueiii nia?aiee (o. a. a noieeoea),
eniieueciaaee ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea aeey caoaaoa iieeoe/aneie aeanoe e ia
ianoao. Auee nicaeaiu iiaua i?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey —
ioieoeeiaeeoaou, a eioi?uo iaeaieaa ninoiyoaeueiua eeoea ec «o?aoueaai
nineiaey» ea?aee ?oeiaiaeyuoth ?ieue.

Iaeiia?aiaiii ao?aeoacey i?enooieea e nicaeaieth naieo aii?oaeaiiuo nee.
Aue iauyaeai iaai? a iaoeeiiaeueioth aaa?aeeth — oa??eoi?eaeueiia
iiie/aiea. Eaaeaeue iaoeeiiaeueiue aaa?aeaaoe aeieaeai aue ca naie n/ao
i?eia?anoe aei?iainoiyuaa aii?oaeaiea e nia?yaeaiea — oneiaea, eioi?ia
cae?uaaei aeinooi a iaoeeiiaeueioth aaa?aeeth anai iaeiouei a?aaeaeaiai.
E?oiiay ao?aeoacey oeiaine?iaaea i?eia?aoaiea iooae, iao/aiea e o. ae.
Iia aeiaeeanue auaeaeaeaiey naieo ethaeae ia eiiaiaeiua iinou a
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee. Eiiaiaee?ii iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee noae ia?eec
I. AE- Eaoaeao — o/anoiee Aieiu ca iacaaeneiinoue a Naaa?iie Aia?eea,
noi?iiiee oia?aiiuo ?aoi?i, a oi a?aiy iieueciaaaoeeny ia?iiiie
iiioey?iinoueth a no?aia.

A eoiaa ainoaea?noai ieacaeinue a ?oeao iieeoe/aneie a?oiie?iaee,
iauaeoeaii i?aaenoaaeyaoae eioa?anu aiaaouo ao?aeoa e eeaa?aeueiuo
aeai?yi. Aa ?oeiaiaeeoaee — ia?eec Eaoaeao, aaaao Neaean,
o/aiue-ano?iiii Aaee, o/aiue-nioeeieia A. Aa?iaa, A. Eaiao e iniaaiii
a?ao Ie?aai — aeanoyuee i?aoi?, ii aani?eioeeiiue iieeoee — ia
no?aieeenue e iieiie eeeaeaeaoeee noa?iai no?iy. Eo eaeaaeii yaeyeanue
eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey, iiyoiio iie iacuaaee naay
eiinoeoooeeiiaeenoaie. A iniiaa eo iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeaee
iiiuoee i?eeoe e niaeaoaieth n aeai?yinoaii ia aaca acaeiiuo onooiie.

«Ioiaia oaiaeaeecia». A O/?aaeeoaeueiii nia?aiee auea oi?aeanoaaiii
i?iaicaeaoaia «ioiaia oaiaeaeecia». Iaeiaei iioaeeeiaaiea yoiai caeiia
(aaaono 1789 a.) iieacaei, /oi aeaaiua o?aaiaaiey e?anoueyi ia auee
oaeiaeaoai?aiu. ?a/ue oea ia ioiaia ioiineoaeueii aoi?inoaiaiiuo oae
iacuaaaiuo ee/iuo oaiaeaeueiuo i?aa (na?aaae, i?aai «ia?oaie ?oee»,
eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ioiou e o. ae.). N aacaiciacaeiui ioeacii io ieo
niaeaoaeenue eaaei, oai aieaa /oi iie oaeoe/anee ‘oaea auee iioa?yiu —
e?anoueyia eaii?e?iaaee eo n ia?auo aeiae ?aaiethoeee. Ana inoaeueiua:
i?aaa — ia caieth e ?aaeueiua ieaoaaee e iiaeiiinoe, auoaeaaoea ec
aea?aeaiey e?anoueyieiii, o/anoea caiee, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoae naiuei?o,
nio?aiyeenue.

Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia 1789 a. 26 aaaonoa 1789 a.
O/?aaeeoaeueiui nia?aieai aue i?eiyo aaaeiaeoee aeieoiaio ?aaiethoeee —
Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia.

Ninoaaeaiiay eae i?ia?aiia ?aaiethoeee, iia, ii caiuneo aa oai?oeia,
aeieaeia auea niaeaenoaiaaoue oniieiaieth ia?iaea, nio?aiaieth
«a?aoneiai aaeeinoaa». Aianoa n oai aa niaea?aeaiea a iaiaeie noaiaie
ii?aaeaeyeinue naiaia?aceai eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneiai iiiaioa,
ia?aaeeaaaiiai no?aiie. Oiaaea aua ia i?iecioei ?aciaaeaaaiey
iieeoe/aneeo nee a ?aaiethoeeiiiii eaaa?a, caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a iiaaaea
?aaiethoeee i?aaeii?aaeaeyea iauoth iai?aaeaiiinoue eo aioeoaiaeaeueiie
ai?ueau. *anoue ?aaiethoeeiia?ia e eo eaeaieiae aua aa?eee a
aiciiaeiinoue iaiaaeeaiiiai oi?aeanoaa eaeaaeia naiaiaeu, ?aaainoaa e
a?aonoaa. Ii iaiaei auei e oaeeo, eoi oioae aeaeaoue a Aeaeea?aoeee
noiio aano?aeoiuo i?eioeeiia, e eioi?ui aeieaeii no?aieoueny iauanoai,
ii eioi?ua ia iaycaoaeueiu e iaiaaeeaiiiio i?aoai?aieth a aeeciue.
«Caaea/e Aeaeea?aoeee,— aiai?ee a naiai aunooieaiee a O/?aaeeoaeueiii
nia?aiee iaeei ec aai aaaeoueo aeaiooaoia, Aethii?,— caeeth/athony a
oii, /oiau au?aceoue enoeiu aeey anao a?aiai e ia?iaeia. *oi a oii, anee
iia e aoaeao i?ioeai?a/eoue io/anoe oie eiinoeoooeee, eioi?ay aoaeao
i?eiyoa iaie?» Iieacaoaeueii, /oi yoi cayaeaiea ia aucaaei aic?aaeaiee
i?aayuaai aieueoeinoaa, oaea ai a?aiy i?eiyoey Aeaeea?aoeee
aeiioneaaoaai aiciiaeiinoue ionooieaiey ia aeaea io aa iaeaieaa
i?ia?anneaiuo iieiaeaiee.

Enoi?ey iieacaea, /oi oai?oeai Aeaeea?aoeee, n?aaee eioi?uo aaaeiay
?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeaea Eaoaeaoo, Neaeano, Ie?aai, Ioiuea, Aethii?o, ia
oaeaeinue «i?eie?eoue» ia?iaeiua iannu n iiaui i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Ii yoi
ia oiaeyao cia/eiinoe i?iaeaeaiiie eie ?aaiou.

*aoeinoue oi?ioee?iaie Aeaeea?aoeee, no?iaay, eiae/anee iainiiaaiiay
acaeiinaycue anao aa iieiaeaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aunieii o?iaia
oai?aoe/aneie iiaeaioiaee aaoi?ia aeieoiaioa. Ei oaeaeinue a i?aaeaeueii
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie oi?ia eceiaeeoue aeaaiua auaiaeu i?ia?anneaiie
iieeoe/aneie iunee O?aioeee XVIII a. ioiineoaeueii i?eioeeiia aa
aoaeouaai iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai no?iy. Ai iiiaii yoi yaeeinue
neaaenoaeai aeaaioneie ?aaiou, i?iaeaeaiiie o?aioeocneeie oeeinioaie e
iieeoe/aneeie iuneeoaeyie caaeieai aei ?aaiethoeee. Aaoi?u Aeaeea?aoeee
iniiauaaeenue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia o?oaeao yioeeeeiiaaeenoia. E?iia
oiai, ia eo oai?/anoai ieacaee caiaoiia aeeyiea i?iecaaaeaiey aiaeeeneeo
o/aiuo. A ea/anoaa eiie?aoiiai ia?acoea iie eiaee ia?aae niaie
aia?eeaineoth Aeaeea?aoeeth iacaaeneiinoe 1776 a., Ae?aeineoth
aeaeea?aoeeth i?aa 1776 a., a oaeaea aeieoiaiou ioa/anoaaiiie
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie enoi?ee: aeaeea?aoeee o?aioeocneeo Aaia?aeueiuo
ooaoia, ?aiiino?aoeee ia?eaeneiai ia?eaiaioa e ae?.

Aeaeea?aoeey auea noi?ioee?iaaia a aeooa iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai iaieoanoa,
oi?aeanoaaiii i?iaicaeaoathuaai i?aaa naiaiaeiuo ethaeae, naa?aioaoeo
ainiiaenoai aaniethoecia: «Ethaee ?iaeaeathony e inoathony naiaiaeiuie e
?aaiuie a i?aaao» (no. 1). Aeaeea?e?iaaeenue i?eioeeiu aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai no?iy, n?aaee eioi?uo iniaia ianoi
i?eiaaeeaaeaei «anoanoaaiiui e iaiouaieaiui i?aaai /aeiaaea»,
«ia?iaeiiio noaa?aieoaoo» e «?acaeaeaieth aeanoae». A Aeaeea?aoeee
onoaiaaeeaaeanue acaeiinaycue yoeo i?eioeeiia: iniiaiiieaaathueie
iauyaeyeenue i?aaa /aeiaaea, eo iaania/aiea aiceaaaeinue ia
aeaiie?aoe/anee i?aaieciaaiiia ainoaea?noai («ainoaea?noaaiiue nithc»),
iniiaaiiia ia i?eioeeiao ia?iaeiiai noaa?aieoaoa e ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae.
Oaeia iino?iaiea neaaeiaaei eaeaa oeieu anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa, eioi?ay
aeaaioth oeaeue ainoaea?noaa aeaeaea a caueoa iaiouaieaiuo i?aa
/aeiaaea. *aoei e iineaaeiaaoaeueii oi?ioee?iaaeanue eaeay i?aaiaiai
ainoaea?noaa, eioi?iio naienoaaiii aa?oiaainoai i?aaa, ooaa?aeaeathuaai
anoanoaaiiua e iaiouaieaiua i?aaa /aeiaaea.

Aeeyiea anoanoaaiii-i?aaiauo oai?ee aeaei i naaa ciaoue e a i?iaaaeaiiii
Aeaeea?aoeeae (oioy e ia anaaaea iineaaeiaaoaeueii) ?acee/ee iaaeaeo
i?aaaie /aeiaaea, eioi?ua aio i?enoue io i?e?iaeu eae «anoanoaaiiua e
iaiouaieaiua», e i?aaaie a?aaeaeaieia, iieo/athuaai eo io ainoaea?noaa a
neeo naiae i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e iaio. E iineaaeiei iau/ii ioiineee i?aaa,
ii?aaeaeythuea noaiaiue i?aaeoniio?aiiiai caeiiii o/anoey a?aaeaeaieia a
eaaaeueiie iieeoe/aneie aeecie naiae no?aiu, a aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaa.

A ea/anoaa anoanoaaiiuo e iaiouaieaiuo i?aa i?iaicaeaoaeenue naiaiaea,
nianoaaiiinoue, aaciianiinoue, nii?ioeaeaiea oaiaoaieth (no. 2).
Naiaiaea ii?aaeaeyeanue eae aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaoue ana, /oi ia i?e/eiyao
a?aaea ae?oaiio. Inouanoaeaiea naiaiaeu, eae e ae?oaeo anoanoaaiiuo i?aa
/aeiaaea, ano?a/aao «eeoue oa a?aieoeu», eioi?ua iaania/eaatho i?i/ei
/eaiai iauanoaa iieueciaaiea oaie aea naiuie i?aaaie. A?aieoeu yoe iiaoo
auoue ii?aaeaeaiu oieueei caeiiii (no. 4). Auee iacaaiu
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay naiaiaea (no. 7, 8), naiaiaea ia/aoe (no. 11),
aa?ieniiaaaeaiey (no. 10). Ia oiiieiaeinue i naiaiaea nia?aiee e
nithcia, /oi iauyniyeinue, ai-ia?auo, a?aaeaeaaiinoueth caeiiiaeaoaeae e
ianniaui aunooieaieyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi ?yaeiauo a?aaeaeai, ai-aoi?uo,
iianiinoueth aiciiaeiiai aic?iaeaeaiey oeaoiaiai no?iy e naycaiiie n iei
?aaeaiaioaoeee e, e?iia oiai, io?eoeaoaeueiui ioiioaieai ei anyeiai
?iaea nithcai, eioi?ia aeiieie?iaaei a anoanoaaiii-i?aaiauo oai?eyo. Ii
iiaieth ?onni, nithcu ia?aie/eaatho ee/ioth naiaiaeo, eneaaeatho
au?aaeaiea iauae aiee ia?iaea.

Aeaeea?aoeey iiae/a?eeaaea cia/aiea i?aaa ia nianoaaiiinoue: iiieii no.
2, ioiineaoae aa e anoanoaaiiui i?aaai /aeiaaea, ae auea oeaeeeii
iinayuaia no. 17, iauyaeyaoay i?aai ia nianoaaiiinoue iai?eeiniiaaiiui e
nayuaiiui. Ii eaii?e?iaaiea i?eioeeieaeueiiai ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie nianoaaiiinoe nicaeaaaei aeaeeiinoue ?aaiie caueou
eiouanoaaiiuo eioa?ania anao — ao?aeoa e ?aai/aai, e?oiiiai
caieaaeaaeaeueoea e aao?aea.

Iaeaieaa /aoei noi?ioee?iaaiiay ?onni eaeay i noaa?aieoaoa, iieiinoueth
e aac?acaeaeueii i?eiaaeeaaeauai ia?iaeo, iaoea aiieiuaiea a no. 3. Iia
neoaeeea iainiiaaieai i?eioeeia ia?iaeiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa.
Aeaeea?e?iaaeinue i?aai anao a?aaeaeai ee/ii eee /a?ac naieo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae o/anoaiaaoue a nicaeaiee caeiia (no. 6), eioi?ue
iauyaeyeny au?aaeaieai iauae aiee.

Auaiaeu Iiioaneuea, aeaeaaoaai iaania/aiea naiaiaeu e aaciianiinoe
a?aaeaeai a i?aaiecaoeeiiii iacaaeneiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa e
acaeiio?aaiiaaoeaathueo aaoayo ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe
(caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie, noaeaaiie), iieo/eee a no. 16
eaoaai?e/aneoth oi?ioee?iaeo: «Iauanoai, a eioi?ii ia iaania/aii
iieueciaaiea i?aaaie e ia i?iaaaeaii ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae, ia eiaao
eiinoeoooeee».

I?iaicaeaoaeenue e ae?oaea ia iaiaa aaaeiua i?eioeeiu. Oae, a no. 7
aeaeea?e?iaaeanue iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue ee/iinoe. «Ieeoi ia iiaeao
iiaeaa?aiooueny iaaeiaieth, caaea?aeaieth eee caeeth/aieth eia/a eae a
neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii… Oio, eoi eni?ineo, ecaeano
i?iecaieueiue i?eeac, i?eaaaeao aai a eniieiaiea eee i?eeaaeao aai
auiieieoue, iiaeeaaeeo iaeacaieth».

I?iaicaeaoaeenue i?eioeei «iao i?anooieaiey aac oeacaiey i oii a caeiia»
(no. 7, 8) e i?acoiioeey (i?aaeiieiaeaiea) iaaeiiaiinoe: iaaeiyaiua, a
oii /enea e caaea?aeaiiua, n/eoathony iaaeiiaiuie, iiea eo aeiiaiinoue
ia aoaeao aeieacaia a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii ii?yaeea (no. 9).

No?aieaiea iieiaeeoue eiiaoe oeneaeueii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiio i?iecaieo
iiia?oee nua?aei ia iineaaeithth ?ieue a i?iaicaeaoaiee i?aaa anao
a?aaeaeai onoaiaaeeaaoue naiei eee /a?ac naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acia?u
ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaeiaeaiey, ii?yaeie e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eo
aceiaiey (no. 14). Aeieaeiinoiua eeoea iaycuaaeenue aeaaaoue io/ao
iauanoao ii aaa?aiiie ei /anoe oi?aaeaiey (no. 15).

Aeaeea?aoeey i?iecaaea ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea ia nia?aiaiieeia eae ai
O?aioeee, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie. O iiiaeo iia eciaieea ie?iiiieiaiea
yiioe, noeioee?iaaea eo ai?ueao n aaniethoenoneei no?iai ca noaiiaeaiea
aeaiie?aoee.

Aianoa n oai iieiaeaiey Aeaeea?aoeee, cao/aaoea eae ooaa?aeaeaiea
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, aea?oaiie anai, auee aanueia aano?aeoiu. Yoi aeaaaei
aiciiaeiinoue i?eaeaoue ei ii?aaeaeaiiia eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneia
oieeiaaiea. Ai a?aiy ?aaiethoeee i?iaicaeaoaiea i?aa /aeiaaea e
a?aaeaeaieia a Aeaeea?aoeee 1789 a. auei aini?eiyoi e?anoueyiaie e
iiiaeie ?aai/eie eae iaauaiea oie/oiaeeoue oaiaeaeueiue aiao,
?acaeaeeoue aeai?yineea caiee, i?aaeinoaaeoue ei i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia
ieo. (Iaiaei ?aai/eo aua ia ii?aaee nayce n aea?aaiae, ia/oaee noaoue
naiinoiyoaeueiuie oicyaaaie.) Iaeeaeaeenue oiaiueoaiea aac?aaioeoeu,
nieaeaiea oeai ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, iaaeaeaiea ?yaeiauo a?aaeaeai
i?aaaie, i?iaicaeaoaiiuie a Aeaeea?aoeee. Iaeiaei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue
?acaeea yoe eeethcee.

I?eoaaeoay e aeanoe ao?aeoacey, caaioynue i naieo eioa?anao, aeaea
Aeaeea?aoeee naia, ii nouanoao iaycaoaeueiia aeey anae no?aiu
oieeiaaiea. Caeiiiaeaoaee, ionoaeaaaoea a O/?aaeeoaeueiii nia?aiee i?aai
ia naiaiaeo, a neeo ?yaea enoi?e/aneeo i?e/ei ia iiaee iieiinoueth
iniciaoue aeoaeiiua iioeau naiae iiceoeee. Ai?ueaa ca naiaiaeo, eae,
ai?i/ai, e ca ae?oaea i?aaa, aini?eieiaeanue eie a naaoa eaeae
I?inaauaiey. Ii aianoa n oai i?aai ia naiaiaeo iuneeeinue eie i?aaeaea
anaai eae iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiay iacaaeneiinoue a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa,
eioi?ia ainoaea?noai aeieaeii auei io?aiyoue, ii aiciiaeiinoe ia
aiaoeaaynue a iaai.

Ia?aue ecae?aoaeueiue caeii. Niauoey, ii/oe niaiaaoea ii a?aiaie n
i?eiyoeai Aeaeea?aoeee, iieacaee, /oi iiaua i?aayuea e?oae anoaee ia
iooue ia oieueei oaeoe/aneiai, ii e ii?iaoeaiiai ia?ooaiey i?eioeeiia
Aeaeea?aoeee. Nionoy /aou?a ianyoea iinea aa iioaeeeiaaiey, a aeaeaa?a
1789 a., O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea i?eiyei Aeae?ao i aaaaeaiee
eiouanoaaiiuo e ae?oaeo oeaicia aeey ecae?aoaeae. Niaeanii Aeae?aoo ana
a?aaeaeaia aeaeeeenue ia aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo. Ecae?aoaeueiua i?aaa
iieo/aee oieueei aeoeaiua a?aaeaeaia, ianneaiua iono?aiyeenue io o/anoey
a auai?ao. *oiau /eneeoueny aeoeaiui a?aaeaeaieiii, neaaeiaaei: «1)
auoue o?aioeocii, 2) aeinoeaiooue 25-eaoiaai aic?anoa, 3) i?iaeeoue
oaeoe/anee a aeaiiii eaioiia ia iaiaa iaeiiai aiaea, 4) ieaoeoue i?yiie
iaeia a ?acia?a o?aoaeiaaiie ca?aaioiie ieaou, 5) ia auoue a iieiaeaiee
i?eneoae, o. a. ia auoue neoaie ia aeaeiaaiuea».

Aua aieaa aunieee eiouanoaaiiue oeaic onoaiaaeeaaeny aeey oao aeoeaiuo
a?aaeaeai, eoi iia auoue eca?ai. Iie aeieaeiu auee iaeaaeaoue caiaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoueth e ieaoeoue iaeia, ?aaiue’ iaeiie na?aa?yiie ia?ea
(aanueia cia/eoaeueiay ii oai a?aiaiai noiia).

Aeae?ao i «ia?ea na?aa?a» aucaae iaaeiaieuenoai aeaaea n?aaee
ninoiyoaeueiuo a?aaeaeai. A 1791 a. O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea ianeieueei
iiieceei eiouanoaaiiue oeaic, ia?aie/ea aai aeioiaeii n nianoaaiiinoe
eee ocoo?oeoa a ?acia?a, ?aaiii ianoiie n?aaeiae iieaoa iaaiiiai o?oaea
ca 200 aeiae a ai?iaeao n ianaeaieai nauoa 6 oun. /aeiaae. ?aaiioeaiiui
i?eciaaaeny iaai aeeeuo no?iaiee, aeaaaaoee aeioiae, ?aaiue
niioaaonoaaiii iieaoa o?oaea ca 150 e 100 aeiae, eee a?aiaea iiianouey,
ioeaiaiiiai a noiio, ?aaioth ianoiie iieaoa o?oaea ca 400 aeiae.

A eoiaa aeaaiia inoaeinue iaeciaiiui — a iniiaa aeaeaiey a?aaeaeai
eaaeaea nianoaaiiinoue.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey. Auee
i?eiyou aeae?aou ia ioiaia nineiaiiai aeaeaiey, oi?acaeiaiee oeaoiaiai
no?iy, aioo?aiieo oaiiaeai e ae?oaeo n?aaeiaaaeiauo einoeoooia,
i?aiyonoaiaaaoeo ?acaeoeth i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee. I?ia?anneaiie
ia?ie noaee eeeaeaeaoeey noa?iai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aeaeaiey no?aiu e
aaaaeaiea iiaiai aaeeiiia?aciiai aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
aeaeaiey ia aeaia?oaiaiou, aeeno?eeou, eaioiiu, eiiioiu. A
O/?aaeeoaeueiii nia?aiee iaiaeiie?aoii ianoaeaeaeenue e ooi/iyeenue
iiaua aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiua a?aieoeu, no?oeoo?a e
eiiiaoaioeey ianoiuo i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey e iiiaea ae?oaea naycaiiua n
yoei aii?inu. A eoiaa no?aia auea ?acaeaeaia ia 83 i?eaeeceoaeueii
?aaiuo aeaia?oaiaioa, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeye niaie iaeanoue,
naycaiioth aaeeinoaii yeiiiie/aneie aeecie.

Auee i?eiyou aeae?aou i ia?aaea/a oea?eiaiiai eiouanoaa a ?anii?yaeaiea
iaoeee. Oea?eiaiua caiee auee iauyaeaiu iaoeeiiaeueiui eiouanoaii e
aunoaaeaiu ia i?iaeaaeo. Ec-ca aunieeo oeai iie ieacaeenue i?aeoe/anee
iaaeinooiiuie aeey iniiaiie /anoe e?anoueyinoaa, eo neoiaea naeueneay e
ai?iaeneay ao?aeoacey. Yoe aeae?aou ia oieueei iiaei?aaee iiaouanoai
oaiaeaeueiie oea?eae, ii e niinianoaiaaee iiaaoaieth aioo?aiiaai
aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. A yoii auea iniaaiii
caeioa?aniaaia e?oiiay ao?aeoacey, aeieaia a?aiy oeiaine?iaaaoay
iiia?oeth. E?iia oiai, onoaiaaeeaaeny eiio?ieue ainoaea?noaa iaae
aeooiaainoaii, ai iiiaii aucaaiiue nii?ioeaeaieai aunoae oea?eiaiie
ea?a?oee iiaie aeanoe. Aaiaeeeinue oae iacuaaaiia a?aaeaeaineia
ono?ienoai oea?eae; oi?acaeiyeinue aaeieieno?aoeaiia iiae/eiaiea
o?aioeocneie eaoiee/aneie oea?eae Aaoeeaio; nayuaiieee aeieaeiu auee
auae?aoueny i?eoiaeaiaie e i?eiineoue i?enyao aa?iinoe ainoaea?noao,
i?e/ai oieueei i?enyaioaoea nayuaiieee iieo/aee aeaeiaaiuea io
ainoaea?noaa; oea?eiaue eeoeeanue i?aaa ia «aeanyoeio». Ec aa aaaeaiey
auei ecuyoi i?aai ?aaeno?aoeee aeoia a?aaeaeaineiai ninoiyiey.

Ii ii ae?oaei aaaeiaeoei aii?inai ?aaiethoeee O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea
caieiaei eiina?aaoeaioth iiceoeeth. A iaeanoe aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee iii
ii-i?aaeiaio iuoaeinue nio?aieoue iniiau naiuei?eaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
ia caieth. Ecaanoiui iiaoanoaii auei eeoue no?aieaiea «inaiaiaeeoue»
e?anoueyineea iiaeiiinoe, naycaiiua n iieueciaaieai ainiiaeneie caieae,
io oaiaeaeueiie i?aaiaie oi?iu e ia?aaanoe eo ia ycue ?eineiai /anoiiai
i?aaa, o. a. a eaeie-oi ia?a «iao?aeoaceoue». Ana nio?aieaoeany
eiouanoaaiiua iaycaiiinoe e?anoueyi iauyaeyeenue i?e?aaiaiiuie e
«iaueiiaaiiie ?aioa e iicaiaeueiui iiaeiiinoyi».

Caeii Ea-Oaiaeuea. A 1791 a. ii ianoiyieth i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea i?eiyei aeae?ao «ioiineoaeueii nia?aiee ?aai/eo
e ?aianeaiieeia iaeiiai e oiai aea ninoiyiey e iaeiie e oie aea
i?ioannee», eioi?ue noae ecaanoai eae Caeii Ea-Oaiaeuea (ii oaieeee
aeaiooaoa, i?eieiaaoaai aeoeaiia o/anoea a aai ninoaaeaiee e
i?aaenoaaeaoaai aai i?iaeo Nia?aieth). Iiae aeaiaaiae/aneei i?aaeeiaii
caueou eiinoeoooeeiiiuo naiaiae a?aaeaeai ?aai/ei cai?auaeenue
iauaaeeiaiea a nithcu e i?iaaaeaiea noa/ae. Eieeaeoeaiua ?aoaiey ?aai/eo
ioiineoaeueii ca?ieaou e oneiaee o?oaea iauyaeyeenue «i?ioeai?a/aueie
Eiinoeoooeee, i?ioeaiuie naiaiaea e Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea» e iioiio
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie. Caeii oa?iaeae anai «ca/eiueeai, aiaeaeai,
iiaeno?aeaoaeyi» i?eiyoey iiaeiaiuo ?aoaiee oo?aoii a 500 eea?ia —
aanueia cia/eoaeueiay ii oai a?aiaiai noiia. Anee aea ?aoaiey «aoaeoo
niaea?aeaoue oa?icu i?ioea i?aaei?eieiaoaeae» e ?aai/eo, «eioi?ua
niaeaneeenue au aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny aieaa ieceie ca?aaioiie ieaoie»,’
oo?ao oaaee/eaaeny aaeaia e aeiiieiyeny o?aoiany/iui oth?aiiui
caeeth/aieai. Oi?iaeueii Caeiiii cai?auaeenue ana ei?ii?aoeee, ii ia
i?aeoeea aeanoe ia i?aiyonoaiaaee iauaaeeiaieyi i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Eiinoeoooeey 1791 a. O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea i?enooieei e au?aaioea
Eiinoeoooeee ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii n ninoaaeaieai Aeaeea?aoeee. Oaea e
eiioeo 1798 a. iii ianoaeeei e ooaa?aeeei iniiaiua eiinoeoooeeiiiua
i?eioeeiu, ii?aaeaeythuea noaoon aunoaai i?aaia caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
aeanoe, ei?iey, i?aaeoaeuenoaa, noaea, ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaiu. Ii ino?ay
iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa a no?aia iinoiyiii ia?aeeth/aea aieiaiea Nia?aiey
ia ?aoaiea ae?oaeo iaioeiaeiuo aeae, eiinoeoooeeiiiay ?aaioa oo?aoeea
iaiaoiaeeioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue. Ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey Eiinoeoooeee
i?eieiaeenue a aeaea caeiiia, ia anaaaea niaeaniaaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Yoi iiaoaeeei Nia?aiea nicaeaoue iniaoth eiienneth ii ioai?o e
nenoaiaoecaoeee eiinoeoooeeiiiuo aeoia. Ninoaaeaiiue eiienneae naiae
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo caeiiia eaa a iniiao eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?iaeoa, eioi?ue
3 naioya?y 1791 a. aue ooaa?aeaeai Nia?aieai. Anei?a aai iiaeienae
ei?ieue, eioi?ue iiae aeaaeaieai ia?anoathuae neeu ia?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey
i?eian i?enyao ia aa?iinoue Eiinoeoooeee. Ei?ieaaneay iiaeienue e
i?enyaa i?eaeaee iiaiio no?ith aeaeeiinoue eaaaeueiie i?aainoaaiiinoe, e
/aio no?aieeenue iooeu Eiinoeoooeee. Ii e iie ia ia?aioeaieaaee cia/aiey
i?aainoaaiiinoe, i?ae?anii iiieiay, /oi aii?in i oii, auoue eee ia auoue
Eiinoeoooeee, oaea ia caaeneo io iiia?oee. Yoi iie iiae/a?eioee, oeacaa
ioeoeeaeueioth aeaoo i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee — 3 naioya?y, o. a. a?aiy
ooaa?aeaeaiey aa Nia?aieai.

Eiinoeoooeey onoaiaaeeaaea ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie, iniiaaiiue ia
i?eioeeiao ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ia?aie/aiey iiia?oee, ooaa?aeaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa e i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaeaiey.

I?iaicaeaoaeinue oieoa?iia ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai: «Ei?ieaanoai
aaeeii e iaaeaeeii. A aai ninoaa aoiaeyo 83 aeaia?oaiaioa, eaaeaeue
aeaia?oaiaio aeaeeony ia aeeno?eeou, eaaeaeue aeeno?eeo— ia eaioiiu» (i.
1, ?acae. II). Niioaaonoaaiii /aoei oi?ioee?iaaeinue aaeeinoai
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, oa??eoi?ee e i?aaiaiai i?ino?ainoaa. Aunoei
i?aaiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe noaiiaeeinue iaeiiiaeaoiia
Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea, eioi?ia ecae?aeinue ia aeaa aiaea e ia iiaei
auoue ?aniouaii ei?ieai. Aeaiooaou iaaeaeyeenue i?aaii
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe: iie ia iiaee auoue iiaeaa?aioou oaieiaiiio
i?aneaaeiaaieth e noaeo ca iunee eee aeaenoaey, auneacaiiua eee
niaa?oaiiua eie i?e eniieiaiee naieo iaycaiiinoae. Aeey i?aneaaeiaaiey
aeaiooaoia ca iauaoaieiaiua i?anooieaiey o?aaiaaeinue niaeanea
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey.

Aeaaiui iacia/aieai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey yaeyeinue i?eiyoea caeiiia.
Caeiiii?iaeo, i?eiyoue Nia?aieai, iiaeeaaeae ooaa?aeaeaieth ei?ieai. Ii
anee ioaa?aiooue ei?ieai caeiiii?iaeo aue aiiaue i?eiyo neaaeothueie
aeaoiy iiauie ninoaaaie Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey, oi ii i?eia?aoae neeo
caeiia (o. a. ei?ieaaneia aaoi auei oieueei ioeaaaoaeueiui).

Eiiiaoaioeee Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey iiaeeaaeaee neaaeothuea iniiaiua
aii?inu:

a iaeanoe aiaiiuo aeae — ecaeaiea aaeaaiaeiuo iinoaiiaeaiee i
/eneaiiinoe e ninoaaa aii?oaeaiiuo nee, ii?aaeaeaiea eo aeaiaaeiiai
niaea?aeaiey, iauyaeaiea aieiu;

a iaeanoe oeiainia — aaeaaiaeiia ninoaaeaiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea athaeaeaoa,
onoaiiaeaiea iaeiaia, eiio?ieue ca ?anoiaeiaaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo
n?aaenoa;

a iaeanoe aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey — o/?aaeaeaiea e oi?acaeiaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae;

a iaeanoe thnoeoeee — i?eaea/aiea e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae
Aa?oiaiui noaeii ieieno?ia e ae?oaeo aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
aicaoaeaeaiea oaieiaiiai i?aneaaeiaaiey eeoe, iiaeic?aaaaiuo a caaiai?a
i?ioea aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa;

a iaeanoe aiaoieo ioiioaiee — ?aoeoeeaoeey aeiaiai?ia n eiino?aiiuie
ainoaea?noaaie.

Onoaiaaeeaaeny ii?yaeie, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui nannee Nia?aiey
aeieaeiu auee nicuaaoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii a neeo caeiia, a ia ii
oniio?aieth ei?iey.

Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue a?o/aeanue ei?ieth, eioi?iio i?aaenoiyei
inouanoaeyoue aa n iiiiuueth iacia/aaiuo ei ieieno?ia. Ei?ieue
aicaeaaeye aii?oaeaiiua neeu, iacia/ae /anoue eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa,
ooaa?aeaeae iacia/aiea aunoeo /eiiaieeia, inouanoaeye iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai
aioo?aiiei oi?aaeaieai e aiaoieie ioiioaieyie.

Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue ei?iey cia/eoaeueii ia?aie/eaaeanue. Ii iia
aeaenoaiaaoue oieueei a ?aieao caeiiia, i?eiyouo Nia?aieai. Aaiaeeeanue
eiio?aneaiaoo?a — ?anii?yaeaiey ei?iey i?eia?aoaee caeiiioth neeo eeoue
iinea iiaeienaiey eo niioaaonoaothuei ieieno?ii, eioi?ue e ian
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?eiyoia ?aoaiea. Ieieno?u iacia/aeenue ei?ieai, ii
iiaee auoue i?aaeaiu noaeo Iaoeeiiaeueiui nia?aieai ca iai?aaiia?iua
aeaenoaey ii naiaio aaaeiinoao.

Oi?aaeaiea ia ianoao aiceaaaeinue ia auai?iua i?aaiu, eioi?ua
aeaenoaiaaee iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii e eiio?ieai niioaaonoaothueo ieieno?ia.
Ei?ieue iia ioiaieoue ?aoaiey ianoiuo aeanoae, anee iie i?ioeai?a/eee
caeiiai e iinoaiiaeaieyi i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a a neo/aa iaiiaeiiaaiey
iono?aieoue eo io aeieaeiinoe, iinoaaea ia yoii a ecaanoiinoue Nia?aiea.
Iineaaeiaa ioaa?aaei eee ooaa?aeaeaei i?eiyoia ?aoaiea, iiaei i?aaeaoue
aeiiaiuo noaeo.

Noaeaaiay aeanoue inouanoaeyeanue aua?aiiuie ia n?ie noaeueyie. Iie
iiaee auoue niauaiu oieueei ca i?anooieaiey ii aeieaeiinoe,
onoaiiaeaiiua a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea. Aeey ?anniio?aiey oaieiaiuo aeae
o/?aaeaeaeny noae i?enyaeiuo. Nicaeaaaeny eannaoeeiiiue noae. Ii
aeieaeai aue i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey ii aeaeiaai ia i?eaiai?u, auianaiiua
noaeaie a iineaaeiae einoaioeee, e iaeioi?ui ae?oaei cayaeaieyi. A
eannaoeeiiiii i?iecaiaenoaa noae ?anniao?eaae aeaea ii nouanoao, ii iia
ioiaieoue i?eaiai? ieaeanoiyuaai noaea, auianaiiue n ia?ooaieai ii?yaeea
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa eee niaea?aeauee yaiia ia?ooaiea caeiia. A yoii
neo/aa eannaoeeiiiue noae iai?aaeye aeaei ia iiaia ?anniio?aiea ii
nouanoao a noae, eioi?iio iii iiaenoaeii.

I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue nicaeaiea Aa?oiaiiai noaea, i?ecaaiiiai ?acae?aoue
i?aaiia?ooaiey ieieno?ia, a oaeaea i?anooieaiey, oa?iaeathuea
aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa.

Iniaia cia/aiea eiaee ?acaeaeu Eiinoeoooeee, iinayuaiiua ecae?aoaeueiie
nenoaia. Ii nooe caeanue ?aoaeny aeaaiue aii?in — eoi aoaeao i?aaeoue
no?aiie.

Aeaiooaou Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey aeieaeiu auee ecae?aoueny ia iniiaa
aeaoonoaiaiiuo auai?ia, a eioi?uo iiaee o/anoaiaaoue oieueei aeoeaiua
a?aaeaeaia. Eie i?eciaaaeenue eeoea, eiathuea o?aioeocneia
a?aaeaeainoai, eioi?ui eniieieeinue 25 eao io ?iaeo, i?iaeeaathuea a
ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa a oa/aiea onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiii a?aiaie,
oiea/eaathuea i?yiie iaeia a ?acia?a iieaou ia iaiaa o?ao ?aai/eo aeiae,
ia iaoiaeyueany a oneoaeaiee, aianaiiua a nienie iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaa?aeee. I?aai auoue auai?ueeaie iieo/eee oa aeoeaiua a?aaeaeaia,
?acia?u aeioiaea eioi?uo a caaeneiinoe io ianoa eo i?iaeeaaiey
?aaiyeenue iieaoa o?oaea ca 100—200 ?aai/eo aeiae, oa, eioi?ua iaieiaee
eee a?aiaeiaaee eiouanoai noieiinoueth, yeaeaaeaioiie iieaoa o?oaea ca
400 ?aai/eo aeiae.

A Eiinoeoooeee iaoee aiieiuaiea i?eioeeiu iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa e
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaeaiey. Eiinoeoooeey aeaneea: «Noaa?aieoao
i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaoeee: ii iaaeaeei, iaio/oaeaeaai e iaiouaieai. Ie iaeia
/anoue ia?iaea, ieeaeia eeoei ia iiaeao i?enaieoue naaa aai
inouanoaeaiea». Oae ?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aaeanue iniiaiiieaaathuay aeieo?eia
aaniethoecia ia eneeth/eoaeueiie aeanoe iiia?oa — noaa?aia «Aiaeueae
ieeinoueth». Ei?ieue ia aue aieaa ei?ieai ii i?aao i?aainoaa. Ii
ooaa?aeaeaeny ii aiea iaoeee e iiae/eiyeny eiinoeoooeeiiiiio caeiio,
oiaaea eae ?aiueoa noiye iaae iei. Ei?ieaaneay aeanoue noaiiaeeanue
eiinoeoooeeiiii ia?aie/aiiie.

Acaiai noa?iai iiiyoey, ioiaeaeanoaeyaoaai iaoeeth n niaieoiiinoueth
?acee/iuo iainiaeaiiuo, nineiaiuo ei?ii?aoeee, iaoiaeeaoeony ia ?aciuo
nooiaiyo oaiaeaeueiie ea?a?oee, aaiaeeeinue i?aaiaia iiiyoea iaoeee eae
aaeeiie iauiinoe oi?iaeueii ?aaiii?aaiuo a?aaeaeai. I?e/ai iaoeey
?anniao?eaaeanue ia i?inoi eae noiia ioaeaeueiuo a?aaeaeai, a eae ia/oi
oeaeia — «niaieoiiinoue», io eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea a ioaeaeueiinoe ia
caaenyuay.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiia aiieiuaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa, aoaeo/e
yaeaieai i?ia?anneaiui, eniieueciaaeinue aeey iainiiaaiey oeaiciaiai
ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa. N/eoaeinue, /oi auoea iaoeee ia caaeneo io
ioaeaeueiuo «aieue» ninoaaeythueo aa eiaeeaeaeia. Iaoeey iiaeao ii
naiaio oniio?aieth onoaiiaeoue oneiaey e ii?yaeie eca?aiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa eeoe, a oaeaea iacia/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeoea,
eioi?iio aaa?yaony iaoeeiiaeueiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai. Iaoeey eae au
oiieiiii/eaaao aai ?aaeeciauaaoue i?eiaaeeaaeauoth ae aeanoue. «Iaoeey,
eioi?ay yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii anao aeanoae, iiaeao
inouanoaeyoue eo eeoue iooai oiieiiii/ey. O?aioeocneay eiinoeoooeey
eiaao oa?aeoa? i?aaenoaaeoaeueiue: i?aaenoaaeoaeyie yaeythony
caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion e ei?ieue» (no. 2, ?acae. III).

Aaiaey iiiyoea i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaeaiey, Eiinoeoooeey ia?ac?uaii
naycuaaea aai n oeaiciaui ecae?aoaeueiui i?aaii. Iaeiaei
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiia i?aaeaiea ia auei eneeth/eoaeueii auai?iui: ei?ieue
ia?yaeo n Iaoeeiiaeueiui nia?aieai iauyaeyeny oiieiiii/aiiui iaoeee.

Eiinoeoooeey eaoaai?e/anee ioaa?aaea aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aeaiooaoaie
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey. Eo caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue
n/eoaeanue au?aaeaieai ia noiiu ioaeaeueiuo aieaecuyaeaiee, a
iauaeoeaecaoeeae iaeie iauae ioaee/iie aiee, oi?ie?iaaiea eioi?ie ia
iaycaoaeueii naycuaaeinue n o/aoii iiaiee anao a?aaeaeai.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi aeanoue, eioi?oth inouanoaeyao aeaiooao, anoue
aeanoue ia aai ecae?aoaeae, a anae iaoeee. «I?aaenoaaeoaee, eca?aiiua ii
aeaia?oaiaioai, yaeythony i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ia ioaeaeueiiai
aeaia?oaiaioa, ii anae iaoeee» (i. 3, ioae. III, ?acae. III). Ionthaea
?acthie?iaaeinue aaaeiia iieiaeaiea, oeie/iia iuia aeey ethaie
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie eiinoeoooeee: aeaiooaou th?eaee/anee ia
yaeythony ioaaonoaaiiuie ia?aae ecae?aoaeyie e iacaaeneiu io ieo. Iie Ia
naycaiu iaauaieyie, aeaiiuie a oiaea ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee.
Niioaaonoaaiii «ecae?aoaee ia iiaoo aeaaaoue ei ieeaeeo iaeacia» (i. 7,
ioae. III, ?acae. III). Cai?auaeny iocua aeaiooaoa naieie ecae?aoaeyie.
Aeaeaiea no?aiu ia ecae?aoaeueiua ie?oaa ?anniao?eaaeinue eae /enoi
oaoie/aneay iia?aoeey, ie a eiae ia?a ia onoaiaaeeaathuay eaeie-eeai
th?eaee/aneie nayce iaaeaeo ecae?aoaeyie e oaea aua?aiiui eie
aeaiooaoii. Oaeei ia?acii, aaeeinoaaiiui n?aaenoaii aicaeaenoaey ia iaai
auea oa?ica aai aiciiaeiiai iaeca?aiey ia neaaeothuee n?ie.

E eiioeo inaie 1791 a. a iniiaiii caaa?oeeinue oi?ie?iaaiea
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo einoeoooia. Oaea a oiaea auai?ia noaei ynii, /oi ec
ii/oe 24-ieeeeiiiiai ianaeaiey no?aiu oieueei ieiei 4,3 iei. /aeiaae
i?eia?aee i?aaa aeoeaiuo a?aaeaeai e ieiei 40 oun. iiaee auoue eca?aiu.
A eoiaa e?oiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee (aaiee?u, nianoaaiieee iaiooaeoo? e
ae?.) /a?ac naieo aeaiooaoia iaeaaeaee caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoueth, a
aeai?yinoai ai aeaaa n ei?ieai — eniieieoaeueiie. Eiii?iienn iaaeaeo
e?oiiie ao?aeoaceae e aeai?yinoaii, neiaeeaoeeny aua a ia?aua ianyoeu
?aaiethoeee, iaoae i?aeoe/aneia aiieiuaiea a eiinoeoooeeiiiii
?acaeaeaiee aeanoae.

Aieueoeinoai aeaiooaoia auee iano?iaiu eiina?aaoeaii — iie n/eoaee
?aaiethoeeth caeii/aiiie.

Ii-eiiio neooaoeeth a no?aia ioeaieaae ia?iae. E?anoueyinoai, ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiiia aa?a?iui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, oneeeaaei ai?ueao ca
caieth, iieiia oi?acaeiaiea naiuei?eaeueiuo iiaeiiinoae. O?oaeyueany
ai?iaeaia o?aaiaaee i?eiyoey aeaenoaaiiuo ia? i?ioea aac?aaioeoeu, ?inoa
oeai. Ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao eiaee ianoi noieeiiaaiey o?oaeyueony n
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeeae.

A yoi a?aiy aeoeaece?iaaei naith aeayoaeueiinoue aeai?yinoai —
iiia?oe/aneay eiio??aaiethoeey. ?acei oneeeeanue i?iiiia?oe/aneay
aaeoaoeey iai?enyaioaoaai eaoiee/aneiai aeooiaainoaa.

A yoeo oneiaeyo Eiinoeoooeey i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea naith
iaaeecianiiniaiinoue. Iauaeoeaii i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
a ?aieao n?aaieoaeueii noaaeeueiiai iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai no?iy, iia
ia iiaea aeoue ?aaeeciaaia a ianoaiiaea ia?anoathueo
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee. Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea 1791 —
1792 aa., iinoiyiii eiioeeeooy n eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth ii
ioiineoaeueii aoi?inoaiaiiui aii?inai, oaeoe/anee ia i?eieiaei
na?ueaciuo ia? i?ioea eiio??aaiethoeee.

Iieeoe/aneea a?oiie?iaee. Iaino?aiea ai?ueau onei?eei ?aciaaeaaaiea
iieeoe/aneeo nee a aioeoaiaeaeueiii eaaa?a. Aua aeaiooaou
O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey, i?eaea?aeeaaaoeany noiaeeo acaeyaeia ii
aaaeiaeoei aii?inai, niae?aeenue ia o?aeoeeiiiua niaauaiey aeey
au?aaioee aaeeiie eeiee. Aia Nia?aiey a oao aea oeaeyo nicaeaaaeenue
eeoau, eioi?ua noaee naiaia?aciie oi?iie iauaaeeiaiey aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia.
Iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaee ia?eaeneea eeoau, o/?aaeaeaaoea naie
ioaeaeaiey a i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ai?iaeao e iauaaeeiyaoea noi?iiieeia
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iieeoe/aneiai eo?na. Oaeei iooai ainiieiyeinue ionoonoaea
a oi a?aiy ai O?aioeee iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee.

Ie iaeia ec iieeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie ia n/eoaea naay
i?aaenoaaeoaeueieoeae eioa?ania eaeie-eeai nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu.
Aieueoeinoai noauaeoeaii aini?eieiaei naia o/anoea a eeoaa eae
iauaaeeiaiea n aaeeiiiuoeaiieeaie ii i?aoai?aieth a aeeciue
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eaeae I?inaauaiey. Ii iauaeoeaii ai iiiaii a neeo naiaai
nioeeaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey iie aieaa eee iaiaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii
caueuaee iiceoeee oie eee eiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu.

E 1791 a. noi?ie?iaaeenue o?e iniiaiua a?oiie?iaee: oaeueyiia,
i?aaenoaaeyaoeo aeaaiui ia?acii eioa?anu e?oiiie
eiinoeoooeeiiii-iiia?oe/aneie ao?aeoacee e eeaa?aeueiiai aeai?yinoaa
(iieo/eee iacaaiea ii eiaie iiianou?y i?aeaia oaeueyiia a Ia?eaea, aaea
niae?aeenue eo noi?iiieee); aee?iiaeenoia, i?aaenoaaeyaoeo a iniiaiii
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiioth, aeaaiui ia?acii i?iaeioeeaeueioth, n?aaeithth
ao?aeoaceth (iiiaea ?oeiaiaeeoaee auee aeaiooaoaie io aeaia?oaiaioa
AEe?iiaeu); yeiaeioeaa, iauaeoeaii au?aaeaaoeo eioa?anu iaeeie, io/anoe
n?aaeiae ao?aeoacee, ?aianeaiieeia, e?anoueyinoaa, iaiaeiicia/iinoue eo
iieeoeee ai iiiaii iaoneiaeeaaea eciaiaiea ioiioaiey e iei ioaeaeueiuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii (canaaeaiey Ia?eaeneiai eeoaa yoie i?aaiecaoeee
i?ioiaeeee a aeaeeioaea iiianou?y na. sseiaa). A 1789—1791 aa. a
iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu aeiieie?iaaee oaeueyiu.

2. AEe?iiaeenoneay ?anioaeeea

Naa?aeaiea iiia?oee. A 1792 a. ia iieeoe/aneoth ai?ueao a no?aia
ia/eiaao ana aieaa iuooeii ieacuaaoue aeeyiea aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay
ianoaiiaea, neeaaeuaaaoayny aie?oa ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee. Ioi?ieeanue
aioeo?aioeocneay aiaiiay eiaeeoeey e?oiiaeoeo aa?iiaeneeo iiia?oee. Aa
oeaeyie i?iaicaeaoaeenue aiaiiue ?aca?ii ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee e
ainnoaiiaeaiea a iae noa?iai ii?yaeea. Aeai?yia-caaiai?ueee naycuaaee n
eiino?aiiui aoi?aeaieai ana naie iaaeaaeaeu ia aoaeouaa. Ei?ieaaneee
aeai? ieacaeny a oeaio?a caaiai?a e iiaeoaeeeaae no?aio e aieia.

A ?acoeueoaoa a ia?iaea oneeeeenue aioeiiia?oe/aneea iano?iaiey, eioi?ua
iniaaiii aic?inee iinea iaoaea/iie iiiuoee aaanoaa ei?iey n oeaeueth
aicaeaaeoue eiino?aiioth eioa?aaioeeth. Ia?iae aua ia eiae
aeieacaoaeuenoaa aai eciaiu, ii ii aeiaaaeuaaeny i caiuneao aeai?a, aai
oaeiuo naycyo n aeai?yineie yiea?aoeeae e a?aaeaeaaiuie O?aioeee
eiino?aiiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaaie.

A yoi a?aiy iiauneeinue cia/aiea Ia?eaeneie eiiioiu — i?aaia
naiioi?aaeaiey noieeoeu. Iia ninoiyea ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae naeoeee
(aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaeeieoe — i?aaiia ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo
?aeiiia noieeoeu) Ia?eaea. Eaaeaeay naeoeey iinueaea a Eiiioio o?ao
auai?iuo aeaeaaaoia. Naeoeee aicieeee aua a ia?eiae auai?ia a
Aaia?aeueiua ooaou (oiaaea yoi auee ?aeiiiua nia?aiey auai?ueeia a
Aaia?aeueiua ooaou). Iinea iiaaaeu ?aaiethoeee iie yai/iui ii?yaeeii
acyee a naie ?oee oi?aaeaiea niioaaonoaothueie ?aeiiaie ai?iaea.
Ia?aiia/aeueii a Eiiioia i?aiaeaaeaei aeeyiea oaeueyiia, caoai
aee?iiaeenoia, ii iaoeeiiii ?inei /enei noi?iiieeia yeiaeioeaa.

A ii/ue ia 10 aaaonoa 1792a. ia?aciaaeanue oae iacuaaaiay iianoai/aneay
Ia?eaeneay eiiioia (aieueoeinoai a iae ninoaaeyee yeiaeioeu). E iae
i?eniaaeeieeanue cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?aaeiae Eiiioiu (ieiei 80
/aeiaae).

10 aaaonoa 1792 a. aue acyo ooo?iii ei?ieaaneee aeai?aoe, i?aaeaiea
oaeueyiia naa?aiooi. Eiiioia, o eioi?ie ieacaeanue any aeanoue a
noieeoea, a?anoiaaea Ethaeiaeea XVI e canoaaeea Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia
nia?aiea (oaia?ue aee?iiaeenou caeanue auee naiie aeeyoaeueiie
a?oiie?iaeie) i?eiyoue ?yae aaaeiuo ?aoaiee. Aeae?aou io 10 aaaonoa
iono?aiyee ei?iey io iaycaiiinoae aeaau eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe,
iaaeaeyee Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea i?aaii (a?aiaiiui) iacia/aoue
ieieno?ia «iooai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai auai?a, ii iie ia iiaoo auoue
iaia/aiu ec aai n?aaeu»; iauyaeyee i nicuaa iiaiai i?aaia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe — Iaoeeiiaeueiiai eiiaaioa.

Aeae?ao io 11 aaaonoa 1792a. onoaiaaeeaae iiaue ii?yaeie auai?ia a
Eiiaaio: «Ia?ae/iua nia?aiey ecaa?oo oaeia aea eiee/anoai auai?ueeia,
eaeia iie ecae?aee ai a?aiy iineaaeieo auai?ia. ?acaeaeaiea o?aioeocia
ia a?aaeaeai aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo oie/oiaeaaony. Aeey oiai /oiau auoue
aeiiouaiiui e auai?ai, aeinoaoi/ii auoue o?aioeocii, eiaoue io ?iaeo 21
aiae, eiaoue inaaeeinoue a aeaiiie ianoiinoe a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea,
aeeoue ia aeioiaeu eee o?oaeiaie ca?aaioie e ia yaeyoueny i?eneoaie…
Aeey oiai /oiau eiaoue i?aai auoue eca?aiiui a ea/anoaa aeaiooaoa eee
auai?ueea, aeinoaoi/ii eiaoue io ?iaeo 25 eao e oaeiaeaoai?youe
oneiaeyi, o?aaoaiui i?aaeuaeouae noaoueae. Auai?u aoaeoo i?iecaaaeaiu ii
oiio aea niiniao, eae e auai?u a Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea». Auei
i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i iiauo auai?ao ai ana ioieoeeiaeeoaou e noaeu ia iniiaa
iiaiai ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa.

A iineaaeothuea aeie Ia?eaeneay eiiioia, a?anoiaaea cia/eoaeueiia /enei
eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia. Aeey noaea iaae ieie o/?aaeaeaeny *?acau/aeiue
oaieiaiue o?eaoiae (aeae?ao Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey io 17 aaaonoa 1792
a.).

Acaiai niauaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea noi?ie?iaaei
A?aiaiiue eniieieoaeueiue niaao, a iniiaiii ec aee?iiaeenoia.

A naioya?a caaa?oeeenue auai?u a Eiiaaio. Auee eca?aiu 783 aeaiooaoa (a
oii /enea 34 io eieiiee), ec ieo ieiei 200 aee?iiaeenoia (eo /enei
iacia/eoaeueii eieaaaeinue) e ieiei 100 yeiaeioeaa (Ia?eae aieiniaae a
iniiaiii ca ieo). A Eiiaaioa yeiaeioeu caiyee aa?oiea neaiuee, e iiyoiio
eo noaee iacuaaoue «ai?ie», «ai?oeaie (iiioaiuey?aie)». Aieueoeinoai
aeaiooaoia ia i?eiaaeeaaeaee ie e iaeiie ec a?oiie?iaie. Ia ioee/aynue
ie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth, ie /aoeinoueth iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia, iie
a, caaeneiinoe io neeaaeuaaaoaeny iieeoe/aneie eiiuthieoo?u i?eiueaee oi
e iaeiie, oi e ae?oaie ec oeacaiiuo ia?oee. Nia?aiaiieee a ianiaoeo
iacuaaee eo «?aaieiie», a eiiaaea aua aieaa ?acei — «aieioii».

Eiiaaio ia/ae naith ?aaioo a aeie iiaaaeu iaae eioa?aaioaie i?e Aaeueie.
A ianoaiiaea anaiauaai eeeiaaiey e yiooceacia iaiaoeeinue aeaaea
iiaeiaea a?aiaiiiai i?eie?aiey noi?ii. I?aeoe/anee aaeeiiaeooii Eiiaaio
ooaa?aeee oi?acaeiaiea iiia?oee ai O?aioeee e ioiaio Eiinoeoooeee 1791
a., a aianoa n iae e aeaeaiea a?aaeaeai ia aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo (aeae?ao
io 21—22 naioya?y 1792 a.).

Ooaa?aeaeaiea ?anioaeeee. O?aioeey iauyaeyeanue ?anioaeeeie aaeeiie e
iaaeaeeiie (aeae?ao io 25 naioya?y 1792 a.).

Aianoa n oai inoaaaeny ia?aoaiiui aaaeiaeoee aii?in — ieii/aoaeueiay e
iieiay eeeaeaeaoeey oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee a aea?aaia. (Inaiueth 1792 a.
aee?iiaeenou oaeoe/anee ioiaieee ioaa/aaoea eioa?anai e?anoueyi
aaaonoianeea aeae?aou i ia?aaea/a a aann?i/iia aeaaeaiea eee i?iaeaaea
yiea?aioneeo caiaeue.) A 1792—1793 aa. e?anoueyineea aieiaiey aiiaue
oneeeeenue.

Ia iaiaa ino?ie inoaaaeanue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay i?iaeaia. Oeaaa a no?aia
auei aeinoaoi/ii, ii oi?aiaoeu i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, aiaaoua e?anoueyia
i?iaeieaeaee i?eaea?aeeaaoue ca?ii, eneonnoaaiii nicaeaaay iaoaaoeo
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, acaei/eaaee oeaiu. Iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/aeenue
iaiaaeaiey ia neeaaeu e o?ainii?o n i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. ?aai/ea aaee
oii?ioth ai?ueao ca aaaaeaiea oaa?aeuo oeai ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey
(«iaeneioia»).

A ia?oa 1793 a. .aniuoioe ?iyeenoneee iyoaae a Aaiaeaa. A oi aea a?aiy
?acei oooaeoeeinue iieiaeaiea ia o?iioa. A cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
aneaaenoaea i?aaeaoaeuenoaa aaia?aeia, aeeceeo e aee?iiaeenoai,
a?aaeaneei a?ieyi oaeaeinue ii?aaeoueny iinea ii?aaeaiey i?e Aaeueie e
iaianoe ?yae na?ueaciuo oaea?ia o?aioeocai. A?iee a?aaa aiiaue
iiaeoiaeeee e a?aieoeai no?aiu. Iieiaeaiea noaei oaeei aea e?eoe/aneei,
eae e a aaaonoianeea aeie 1792 a.

3. sseiaeineay ?anioaeeea

Onoaiiaeaiea aeeeoaoo?u yeiaeioeaa. 2 ethiy 1793 a. aii?oaeaiiua
a?aaeaeaia e iaoeeiiaeueiua aaa?aeaeoeu, ?oeiaiaeeiua yeiaeioeaie ai
aeaaa n iianoai/aneei eiieoaoii Ia?eaeneie eiiioiu, naa?aee
i?aaeoaeuenoai aee?iiaeenoia.

3 ethiy Eiiaaio, aaea oaia?ue aeiieie?iaaee yeiaeioeu, i?eiye aeae?ao i
eueaioiie i?iaeaaea e?anoueyiai eiioeneiaaiiuo o eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia
caiaeue. Aue ?ac?aoai ?acaeae iaueiiuo caiaeue iaaeaeo aeeoaeyie iaueiu
(aeae?ao io 10—11 ethiy 1793 a.).

Iniaia cia/aiea eiae aeae?ao io 17 ethiy 1793 a., eeeaeaee?iaaaoee ana
inoaaoeany e iaeaieaa caueuaaiua ?aaeoeeae oaiaeaeueiua i?aaa.

I?eiyoua ?aoaiey ia/aee iaiaaeeaiii i?aoai?youeny a aeeciue. A
?acoeueoaoa cia/eoaeueiay /anoue e?anoueyi i?aa?aoeeanue a naiaiaeiuo
iaeeeo caiaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia. Yoi ia icia/aei, /oi en/acei e?oiiia
caieaaeaaeaiea (auee eiioeneiaaiu caiee yiea?aioia, oea?eae,
eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia, a ia anao iiiaueeia; iiiai caiaeue neoieea
ai?iaeneay e naeueneay ao?aeoacey). Nio?aieeinue e aaccaiaeueiia
e?anoueyinoai.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei e noieue aea auno?i (a oa/aiea ia?auo o?ao
iaaeaeue) i?iaiaeeeenue aaaeiua i?aia?aciaaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia.
Auea i?eiyoa iiaay Eiinoeoooeey.

Eiinoeoooeey 1793a. Iiaay Eiinoeoooeey auea i?eiyoa Eiiaaioii 24 ethiy
1793a. Ii onoaiiaeaoaeny o?aaeeoeee iia ninoiyea ec Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa
/aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia e nianoaaiii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai aeoa.
Aeaiie?aoe/aneea ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth, iie aeieaeiu auee aeaoue
ia?iaeo iieeoe/aneoth ieaooi?io aeey aai niei/aiey. A ieo iaoee
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia cae?aieaiea ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaua acaeyaeu
yeiaeioeaa, oi?ie?iaaaoeany iiae aeeyieai eaeaieiaia eaaiai e?uea
I?inaauaiey. ?oeiaiaeeoaeae yeiaeioeaa ?iaaniuea?a, Nai-AEthnoa, Eooiia
e iiiaeo ae?oaeo iniaaiii i?eaeaeaei o/aiea ?onni i aeaiie?aoe/aneie
?anioaeeea, aai yaaeeoaienoneea eaeae. Yaaeeoa?eci a iiieiaiee eeaea?ia
yeiaeioeaa i?aaeiieaaae oieueei iieeoe/aneia ?aaainoai, ii e
i?aiaeieaiea aacia?iiai eiouanoaaiiiai ia?aaainoaa i?e nio?aiaiee
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe a naiae ?aaioa «Ia iauanoaaiiii aeiaiai?a…»
?onni aeinoaoi/ii /aoei i?iaiaeee ?acee/ea iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneei e
oaeoe/aneei ?aaainoaii, iiae/a?eeaay aiciiaeiinoue naaaeaiey naiaiaeu e
«oeia?a» i?e /?acia?iii eiouanoaaiiii ia?aaainoaa. Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa
/aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia 1793 a. Iiaay Aeaeea?aoeey aini?iecaiaeeea
iniiaiua iieiaeaiey Aeaeea?aoeee 1789 a., ii ioee/aeanue io iaa aieueoei
aeaiie?aoeciii e ?aaiethoeeiiiinoueth, aieaa ?aaeeeaeueiui iiaeoiaeii e
i?iaeaia iieeoe/aneeo naiaiae e i?aa.

Aeaeea?aoeey ia/eiaaony n cayaeaiey i oii, /oi oeaeueth iauanoaa
yaeyaony «iauaa n/anouea». I?aaeoaeuenoai onoaiiaeaii, /oiau iaania/eoue
/aeiaaeo iieueciaaiea aai anoanoaaiiuie e iaiouaieaiuie i?aaaie e /eneo
eioi?uo auee ioianaiu ?aaainoai, naiaiaea, aaciianiinoue e
nianoaaiiinoue. A oaeii ea/anoaa i?aaa ia ?aaainoai ia auei a
Aeaeea?aoeee 1789 a., e yoi ia neo/aeii. Iiaeiaii ?onni, yeiaeioeu
i?eciaaaee th?eaee/aneia ?aaainoai a iieiii iauaia (ioaa?aaeinue
aeaeaiea a?aaeaeai ia aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo). Ii eiouanoaaiiia ?aaainoai
iauyaeyeinue ?iaaniuea?ii «oeia?ie», a /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue –
«anoanoaaiiui e iaiouaieaiui i?aaii eaaeaeiai». Aianoa n oai yeiaeioeu
auneacuaaeenue i?ioea /?acia?iie eiioeaio?aoeee aiaaonoaa a ?oeao
iaiiiaeo. «ss aiana ia ioieiath o aiaaouo ethaeae /anoiie i?eauee eee
caeiiiie nianoaaiiinoe -aiai?ee ?iaaniuea?,- y oieueei eeoath eo i?aaa
iaiineoue a?aae nianoaaiiinoe ae?oaeo. ss oie/oiaeath ia oi?aiaeth, a
?acaie iiiiiieenoia; y inoaeaeath eo eeoue ca oi, /oi iie ia aeatho
aiciiaeiinoe aeeoue naiei aeeaeiei». Ooiie/iinoue oaeie iieeoeee noaea
i/aaeaeia ianeieueei iicaea, ii iia ia iiaea ia i?eaea/ue neiiaoee
i?inouo ethaeae.

Oae aea eae e a ia?aie Aeaeea?aoeee, caeii ii?aaeaeyeny eae au?aaeaiea
iauae aiee, «ii iaeei e oio aea aeey anao eae a oii neo/aa eiaaea
ieacuaaao iie?iaeoaeuenoai, oae e a oii neo/aa, eiaaea ea?aao» Ii a aai
ii?aaeaeaiea aiineony aaaeiia ooi/iaiea: «…Ii iiaeao i?aaeienuaaoue
eeoue oi, /oi ni?aaaaeeeai e iieacii iauanoao.. Caeii aeieaeai io?aiyoue
iauanoaaiioth e eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth naiaiaeo i?ioea oaiaoaiey ni noi?iiu
i?aayueo».

Aa?oiaainoai caeiia, ?anniao?eaaaiiai eae «au?aaeaiea iauae aiee»
ia?ac?uaii naycuaaaony n iiiyoeai noaa?aieoaoa ia?iaea. «Noaa?aieoao
ceaeaeaony a ia?iaea: ii aaeei, iaaeaeei, ia iiaaoaaony aeaaiinoueth e
iaio/oaeaeaai».

Aianoi iiiyoee «iaoeey» e «noaa?aieoao iaoeee» aaiaeyony iiiyoey
«ia?iae» e «noaa?aieoao ia?iaea». Yoi auea ia i?inoay niaia oa?ieiia.
Auoa aiai?eeinue, /oi iaoeey, o?aeooaiay a aeooa oai?oeia ia?aie
Eiinoeoooeee, ?anniao?eaaeanue eae ia/oi oeaeia — niaieoiiinoue
a?aaeaeai, io eaaeaeiai ec ieo a ioaeaeueiinoe ia caaenyuay; aa aiey ia
naiaeeony e i?inoie noiia aieue ioaeaeueiuo a?aaeaeai, e iiyoiio iia
iiaeao ii naiaio oniio?aieth onoaiiaeoue ii?yaeie eca?aiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa eeoe, eioi?ui aeiaa?ythony oi?ie?iaaiea yoie
iaoeeiiaeueiie aiee, inouanoaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa.
Ionthaea neaaeiaaee aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaiey a?aaeaeai ia aeoeaiuo e
ianneaiuo, iono?aiaiea iaeioueo io o/anoey a oi?aaeaiee aeaeaie
ainoaea?noaa. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio ia?iae ?anniao?eaaeny
yeiaeioeaie aneaae ca ?onni eae niiauanoai a?aaeaeai, eioi?iio a oeaeii
i?eiaaeeaaeeo noaa?aieoao «aaeeiue, iaaeaeeiue, iaio/oaeaeaaiue».
Ia?iaeiue noaa?aieoao ia iiaeao auoue ia?aaeai iaeiiio eeoeo eee a?oiia
eeoe.

A yoii aeaeaee oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee,
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey ia?iaea a caeiiioai?/anoaa e ainoaea?noaaiiii
oi?aaeaiee, iaaeiionoeiinoe eiouanoaaiiuo oeaicia. «Ie iaeia /anoue
ia?iaea ia iiaeao inouanoaeyoue aeanoue, i?eiaaeeaaeauoth anaio ia?iaeo.
…Eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei eiaao ?aaiia i?aai o/anoaiaaoue a ia?aciaaiee
caeiia e a iacia/aiee naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae». «Caeii anoue naiaiaeiia e
oi?aeanoaaiiia au?aaeaiea iauae aiee». I?e/ai iiae iauae aieae
iiieiaaony aiey aieueoeinoaa. ?onni iiyniye, /oi iauay aiey ia o?aaoao
niaeaney anao. Inoaaoeany a iaiueoeinoaa a ?aaiie ia?a n ae?oaeie
o/anoaiaaee a oi?ie?iaaiee iauae aiee, ii i?inoi «ia oaaaeaee aa».

Iacaaiiua i?eioeeiu aeieaeiu auee noaoue iniiaie ainoaea?noaa, eioi?iio
i?aaenoiyei auoue aa?aioii i?iaicaeaoaiiuo i?aa e naiaiae n?aaee
i?iaicaeaoaiiuo i?aa iniaia ianoi ioaiaeeeinue naiaiaea. Iia
ii?aaeaeyeanue eae «i?enouay /aeiaaeo aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaoue ana, /oi ia
i?e/eiyao oua?aa i?aaai ae?oaiai, iaania/aiea naiaiaeu anoue caeii» (no.
6) — oi?ioea, o?aaeeoeeiiiay aeey eaeae I?inaauaiey. Aaoi?u Aeaeea?aoeee
eiie?aoece?iaaee aa iiiyoea i?eiaieoaeueii e ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaui,
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui e oaieiaii-i?aaiaui ioiioaieyi. Yoi: a) naiaiaea
ia/aoe, neiaa, nia?aiee (no. 7), i?aai iiaeaaaoue iaoeoeee
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe (no. 32), naiaiaea niaanoe (no.
7); a) naiaiaea caieiaoueny eaeei oaiaeii o?oaeii, caieaaeaeeai,
i?iiuneii, oi?aiaeae (no. 17). Cai?auaeenue ?aanoai e ana aeaeu
oaiaeaeueiie caaeneiinoe: «Eaaeaeue iiaeao aeinoaaeyoue ii aeiaiai?o
naie oneoae e naia a?aiy, ii ia iiaeao ie i?iaeaaaoueny, ie auoue
i?iaeaiiui, aai ee/iinoue ia anoue io/oaeaeaaiay nianoaaiiinoue. Caeii
ieeiei ia?acii ia aeiioneaao nouanoaiaaiea aeai?ie: aiciiaeii eeoue
acaeiiia iaycaoaeuenoai ia oneoaao e aiciaa?aaeaeaiee iaaeaeo
o?oaeyueiny e iaieiaoaeai» (no. 18). A ?acaeoea yoiai i?eioeeia
iineaaeothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai onoaiiaeei n?i/iinoue ethaiai aeiaiai?a
ee/iiai iaeia.

I?aai ia aaciianiinoue ?anniao?eaaeinue eae i?aai ia caueoo
ainoaea?noaii ee/iinoe eaaeaeiai /eaia iauanoaa, aai i?aa e aai
nianoaaiiinoe (no. 8). «Ieeoi ia aeieaeai auoue iaaeiai, caaea?aeai eee
iiaeaa?aioo caeeth/aieth eia/a eae a neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii,
e a ii?yaeea, i?aaeienaiiii ei aea» (no. 10).

A Aeaeea?aoeee iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaiaeeeny i?eioeei caeiiiinoe:
«Anyeee aeo, iai?aaeaiiue i?ioea eeoea, eiaaea ii ia i?aaeoniio?ai
caeiiii eee eiaaea ii niaa?oai n ia?ooaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii oi?i,
anoue aeo i?iecaieueiue e oe?aie/aneee; eeoei, i?ioea eioi?iai oaeie aeo
iiaeaeaee au inouanoaeoue ianeeuenoaaiiui ia?acii, eiaao i?aai ieacaoue
nii?ioeaeaiea neeie» (no. 11). ?acaeoeai i?iaicaeaoaiiiai i?eioeeia
yaeeenue i?acoiioeey iaaeiiaiinoe (no. 13 e 14) e i?eioeei ni?acia?iinoe
iaeaaaaiiai noaeii iaeacaiey oyaeanoe niaa?oaiiiai i?anooieaiey (no.
15).

Eneeth/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue i?aao nianoaaiiinoe: ieeoi ia
iiaeao auoue eeoai ie iaeaeoae /anoe nianoaaiiinoe aac aai niaeaney,
e?iia neo/aaa, eiaaea yoiai o?aaoao onoaiiaeaiiay caeiiii
iaiaoiaeeiinoue e eeoue i?e oneiaee ni?aaaaeeeaiai e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
aiciauaiey (no. 19). Oae aea eae e a 1789a., ia i?iaiaeeeenue ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie nianoaaiiinoe, /oi nicaeaaaei aeaeeiinoue
?aaiie eiouanoaaiiie caueou anao.

Niaeanii Aeaeea?aoeee 1793a. «iauanoaaiiay aa?aioey ninoieo a
niaeaenoaee anaio, iai?aaeaiiiio ia oi, /oiau iaania/eoue eaaeaeiio
iieueciaaiea aai i?aaaie e io?aio yoeo i?aa; yoa aa?aioey ceaeaeaony ia
ia?iaeiii noaa?aieoaoa» (no. 23). Ionthaea aue naeaeai i?eioeeieaeueii
iiaue aeey o?aioeocneiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa auaiae: «Eiaaea
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?ooaao i?aaa ia?iaea, ainnoaiea aeey ia?iaea e aeey
eaaeaeie aai /anoe anoue nayuaiiaeoaa i?aai e iaioeiaeiaeoay
iaycaiiinoue» (no. 35).

Eiinoeoooeeiiiue aeo 1793a. Aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu Aeaeea?aoeee auee
eiie?aoece?iaaiu a eiinoeoooeeiiiii aeoa, onoaiaaeeaaaoai
ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie.

Iaaeaeo yoeie aeieoiaioaie a ioee/ea io eiinoeoooeeiiiuo aeieoiaioia
1798—1791 aa. ia auei i?eioeeieaeueiuo ?anoiaeaeaiee. A Eiinoeoooeee
1793 a. aiieioeeenue iaeioi?ua aaaeiua aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu
i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaa. Oi?aeanoaaiii iiaeoaa?aeaeaeinue onoaiiaeaiea
?anioaeeee. Aa?oiaiay aeanoue iauyaeyeanue i?eiaaeeaaeauae noaa?aiiiio
ia?iaeo, e eae neaaenoaea yoiai onoaiaaeeaaeinue anaiauaa (ii oieueei
ioaeneia) ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai. Aiciiaeiinoue ecae?aoue
i?aaeinoaaeyeanue anai a?aaeaeaiai, eiathuei iinoiyiiia ianoi
aeeoaeuenoaa ia iaiaa oanoe ianyoeaa (no. 11). Eaaeaeue o?aioeoc,
iieuecothueeny i?aaaie a?aaeaeainoaa, iia auoue eca?ai ia anai
i?ino?ainoaa ?anioaeeee (no. 28).

O?aioeocneia a?aaeaeainoai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue eaaeaeiio ?iaeeaoaiony e
eiathuaio ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa ai O?aioeee. Ii aeinoeaeaiee 21 aiaea ii
aeiioneaeny e inouanoaeaieth i?aa o?aioeocneiai a?aaeaeaieia. Yoe i?aaa
iia iieo/eoue oaeaea eaaeaeue eiino?aiaoe ii aeinoeaeaiee 21 aiaea,
i?iaeeaathuee ai O?aioeee a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea, aeeaouee naiei
o?oaeii, i?eia?aooee nianoaaiiinoue eee aeaieaoeeny ia o?aioeoaeaiea,
eee onuiiaeaoee ?aaaiea, eee i?eiyaoee ia eaeaeeaaiea noa?eea; iaeiiaoe,
eaaeaeue eiino?aiaoe, eiathuee, ii iiaieth Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona,
aeinoaoi/iua caneoae ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii (no. 4).

I?aaiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe noae Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion
(Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea), eioi?ue «aaeei, iaaeaeei e aeaenoaoao
iinoiyiii». Ii ninoiye ec iaeiie iaeaou e ecae?aeny ia iaeei aiae.
Noieue ei?ioeee n?ie, ii iiaieth ?iaaniuea?a, eneeth/ae aiciiaeiinoue
/?acia?iiai iainiaeaiey aeaiooaoia io ecae?aoaeae.

A aeooa eaeae ia?iaeiiai noaa?aieoaoa ?onni i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue o/anoea
?yaeiauo a?aaeaeai a caeiiioai?/anoaa, a nayce n /ai aaiaeeeanue
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay ieaaenoeeoa?iay nenoaia. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion
ninoaaeye oae iacuaaaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey caeiiia. Eo i?aaeiaoii auee
iaeaieaa aaaeiua noa?u caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa: a?aaeaeaineia e oaieiaiia
i?aai, athaeaeao, iauyaeaiea aieiu e o. ae. (no. 54).

I?aaeeiaeaiey caeiiia iai?aaeyeenue ia ooaa?aeaeaiea ia?ae/iuo nia?aiee,
eioi?ua ia?aciauaaeenue a ninoaaa 200—600 a?aaeaeai, eiaaoeo i?aai
o/anoaiaaoue a aieiniaaiee. Anee /a?ac 40 aeiae iinea ?annueee
i?aaeeiaeaiey caeiia a iieiaeia aeaia?oaiaioia iethn iaeia aeanyoay
/anoue ia?ae/iuo nia?aiee a eaaeaeii ec ieo ia ioeeiiyee aai, i?iaeo
n/eoaeny i?eiyoui e noaiiaeeny caeiiii. A neo/aa ioeeiiaiey i?iaeoa
i?aaeoniao?eaaeny ii?in anao ia?ae/iuo nia?aiee, ?aoaiea eioi?uo ii
aeaiiiio aii?ino, eae neaaeoao iieaaaoue, noaiiaeeinue ieii/aoaeueiui.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion iieo/ee oaeaea i?aai ecaeaiey aeae?aoia, ia
o?aaothueo iineaaeothueo ieaaenoeeoia. Eo i?aaeiaoii auei ana,
auoiaeyuaa ca ?aiee caeiiia.

Oaeouaa aaeieieno?aoeaii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea a?o/aeinue
eniieieoaeueiiio niaaoo, eioi?ue ia?aciauaaeny neaaeothuei ia?acii:
nia?aiea auai?ueeia eaaeaeiai aeaia?oaiaioa auaeaeaaei ii iaeiiio
aeaeaaaoo; ec iacia/aiiuo oaeei iooai 83 eaiaeeaeaoia (ii /eneo
aeaia?oaiaioia) Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion ecae?ae 24 /eaia
eniieieoaeueiiai niaaoa, iieiaeia ec ieo iiaeeaaeaea aaeaaiaeiiio
ia?aeca?aieth. Eniieieoaeueiiio niaaoo, aeaenoaiaaaoaio no?iai a
a?aieoeao i?eiyouo caeiiia e aeae?aoia, i?aaenoiyei ?oeiaiaeeoue
aeayoaeueiinoueth anao aaaeiinoa (ieienoa?noa), eii?aeeie?iaaoue e
eiio?iee?iaaoue aa, iacia/aoue aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ai ana
aaaeiinoaa.

?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai. Aaaaeaiea a aeaenoaea iiaie Eiinoeoooeee
ioeeaaeuaaeinue aei iieiiai ?aca?iia eiio??aaiethoeee. Ia a?aiy ai?ueau
n iae nicaeaaaeanue nenoaia i?aaeaiey, iaaeaeaiiiai eneeth/eoaeueiuie
i?aaiii/eyie. Iniiao ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa (i?aaeaiey)
ninoaaeee o/?aaeaeaiey, aicieeoea aua i?e aee?iiaeenoao, ii oieueei a
yeiaeineie ?anioaeeea ia/aaoea ea?aoue aeoeaioth ?ieue.

Eiiaaio n/eoaeny aunoei i?aaiii ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Aio
i?eiaaeeaaeaei i?aai ecaeaiey caeiiia e eo oieeiaaiey. sseiaeioeu,
aeiieie?iaaaoea a Eiiaaioa, inoaaeee, iaeiaei, anao aeaiooaoia oeaio?a —
«?aaieia» nio?aieeanue.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea no?aiie aiceaaaeinue ia niaoeeaeueiua
eiieoaou e eiiennee Eiiaaioa, i?aaeaea anaai Eiieoao iauanoaaiiiai
nianaiey e Eiieoao iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe.

Eiieoao iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey noae oeaio?ii ?aaiethoeeiiiie aeanoe. Aai
cia/aiea iniaaiii aic?inei, eiaaea a aai ninoaa aioee ?iaaniuea?,
Nai-AEthno, Eooii. Ian/eouaay 14-15 /eaiia ia?aecae?aaiue eaaeaeue
ianyoe, ii oai ia iaiaa ii/oe ia iaiye naiaai ninoaaa a oa/aiea anaai
a?aiaie iaoiaeaeaiey yeiaeioeaa o aeanoe. Eiieoao iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey
iieo/ee io Eiiaaioa eneeth/eoaeueiua iieiiii/ey ia ?oeiaiaenoai iai?iiie
no?aiu, oaeouaa oi?aaeaiea, aeeth/ay aiaoithth iieeoeeo. Iiae aai
ia/aeii e eiio?ieai iaoiaeeeenue ana ieienoa?noaa, aaaeiinoaa, a oii
/enea eniieieoaeueiue niaao.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiay ai?ueaa n aioo?aiiae eiio??aaiethoeeae auea aiceiaeaia
ia Eiieoao iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe. Ii aae ?anneaaeiaaiea anao aeae,
naycaiiuo n eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie e eiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, oa?iaeaaoae
aaciianiinoe ?anioaeeee. Eeoea, oee/aiiua ei a i?anooieaiee,
i?aaeaaaeenue noaeo ?aaiethoeeiiiiai o?eaoiaea. A aaaeaiee Eiieoaoa
iaoiaeeeanue iieeoeey. Ii iaaethaeae ca oth?ueiaie.

Aaaeiia ianoi a nenoaia ?aaiethoeeiiiie aeanoe caiye ?aaiethoeeiiiue
o?eaoiae (?aiaa — *?acau/aeiue oaieiaiue o?eaoiae). A iai auei aaaaeaii
onei?aiiia noaeii?iecaiaenoai. Aai i?eaiai?u n/eoaeenue ieii/aoaeueiuie,
aaeeinoaaiiie ia?ie iaeacaiey a ioiioaiee eeoe, i?eciaiiuo aeiiaiuie,
auea nia?oiay eaciue.

Ia iaiaa aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aee eiienna?u Eiiaaioa, iaaeaeaiiua
/?acau/aeiuie iieiiii/eyie e iinueaaiua ooaea, aaea ?aaiethoeee
oa?iaeaea iaeaieueoay iianiinoue (a a?ieth, aaaeiinoaa aeaia?oaiaiou e
o. i.). Iiae eo ?oeiaiaenoaii auee i?iaaaeaiu aaaeiaeoea ia?ii?eyoey ii
iiauoaieth aianiiniaiinoe a?iee eeeaeaeaoeee iyoaaeae, iaania/aieth
no?aiu i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. Ia?aaeei eiienna?u iono?aiyee io aeieaeiinoe
aaia?aeia, a?aee ia naay oaeoe/aneia eiiaiaeiaaiea aieneaie.
Iaauiieiaiea ?anii?yaeaiee eiienna?ia ?anniao?eaaeinue eae oya/aeoaa
i?anooieaiea e ia?aaeei ea?aeinue nia?oiie eaciueth. Eiienna?u Eiiaaioa
iiae/eiyeenue Eiieoaoo iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey e auee iaycaiu eaaeaeua
aeanyoue aeiae iinueaoue aio io/aou.

N oeaeueth oneeaiey aeeyiey oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe e aa eiio?iey ca
ianoiui oi?aaeaieai a aeaia?oaiaiou e aeeno?eeou iai?aaeyeenue
iinoiyiiua oiieiiii/aiiua i?aaeoaeuenoaa — iaoeeiiaeueiua aaaiou.
Eneeth/eoaeueioth ?ieue a i?iaaaeaiee iieeoeee yeiaeioeaa ea?aee ianoiua
?aaiethoeeiiiua, eee iaaethaeaoaeueiua, eiieoaou, a oaeaea ia?iaeiua
eeoau e iauanoaa. N?aaee ieo iniaia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeaei Ia?eaeneiio
yeiaeineiio eeoao e aai ioaeaeaieyi a ?acee/iuo ?aeiiao no?aiu.

Ii-i?aaeiaio ia?iiiia cia/aiea a iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu eiaea
Ia?eaeneay eiiioia.

A naioya?a 1793 a. auea nicaeaia iniaay ?aaiethoeeiiiay a?iey aeey
ai?ueau n iyoaaeieeaie e niaeoeyioaie, a oaeaea aeey iaania/aiey Ia?eaea
e ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ai?iaeia i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. Aa eiiaiaee?u iaaeaeyeenue
eneeth/eoaeueiuie i?aaiii/eyie, aieioue aei i?eiaiaiey nia?oiie eacie,
aeey /aai a iaica eaaeaeiai io?yaea aacee aeeueioeio. sseiaeineay
?anioaeeea oaeoe/anee ii?aaea n eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth. *anoue
yeiaeioeaa i?aaeeaaaea caiaieoue eaoieeoeeci «eoeueoii ?acoia». Ia/aee
cae?uaaoueny oea?eae. Iaeiaei aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey ano?aoeei
«aeaeaoieecaoeeth» a?aaeaeaaii. Auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i naiaiaea
eoeueoia. Ii ai?ueaa n ?aaeoeeiiiui aeooiaainoaii i?iaeieaeaeanue.

Oi?i/aiea caaiaaaiee ?anioaeeee. ?aoathuoth ?ieue a yoii nua?aee
nioeeaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey yeiaeioeaa. Eie auei ieii/aoaeueii
eeeaeaee?iaaii oaiaeaeueiia caieaaeaaeaiea.

Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea yeiaeioeu oaeaeyee nioeeaeueiie iieeoeea a
ai?iaea. Ia/aa n ia? iiiiue aac?aaioiui, iiiaiaeaoiui naiueyi (iaeei ec
ia?auo aeae?aoia), iie caoai ia?aoeeenue e ?aoaieth aii?inia i
ii?ie?iaaiee oeai ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey e ae?oaea aaaeiaeoea
iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u (aeaaiaa o?aaiaaiea o?oaeyueony ai?iaeia).
?iaaniuea? e aai aeeaeaeoea niiaeaeaeieee, nia/aea io?eoeaoaeueii
ioiineaoeany e ii?ie?iaaieth, e aaaaeaieth anaiauaai iaeneioia, caoai,
o/eouaay iano?iaiea ia?iaea, eciaieee naia ioiioaiea e iaio. A ?acaeoea
aeae?aoa io 4 iay 1793 a. Eiiaaio 11 naioya?y 1793a. i?eiye aeae?ao,
onoaiaaeeaaaoee iaeneiaeueiua oeaiu ia ca?ii, ioeo, oo?aae. 29 naioya?y
1793 a. aue ooaa?aeaeai aeae?ao «I anaiauai iaeneioia», aaiaeeaoee
oaa?aeua oeaiu ia ana iniiaiua oiaa?u ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
iaeneiaeueiua ?acia?u ca?aaioiie ieaou.

I?aoai?aiea a aeeciue aeae?aoia i «iaeneioia», aeaaea ianiio?y ia eo
/anoia ia?ooaiea oi?aiaoeaie e aiaaouie e?anoueyiaie, a iaeioi?ie
noaiaie iaocaeaei niaeoeyoeaioth aaeoaiaeeth.

Aeey eiio?iey ca ?aaeecaoeeae aeae?aoa «I anaiauai iaeneioia» e
oii?yaei/aiey niaaaeaiey a ieoya?a 1793a. auea nicaeaia Oeaio?aeueiay
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay eiienney. A Ia?eaea e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo ai?iaeao
aaiaeeeanue ea?oi/iay nenoaia. Aieaa yia?ae/ii, /ai ?aiueoa, aaaeaony
ai?ueaa i?ioea niaeoeyoeee i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. A ?acoeueoaoa e eiioeo
1793 a. iieiaeaiea n i?iaeiaieuenoaeai a ai?iaeao oaeaeinue ianeieueei
noaaeeece?iaaoue.

Auaeathueiny aeoii yeiaeineiai Eiiaaioa yaeeanue ioiaia ?aanoaa a
eieiieyo: «AEeoaee eieiiee aac ?acee/ey ?anu yaeythony o?aioeocneeie
a?aaeaeaiaie e iieuecothony anaie i?aaaie, onoaiiaeaiiuie
Eiinoeoooeeae».

Eneeth/eoaeueioth yia?aeth Eiiaaio i?iyaee i?e i?aaiecaoeee iai?iiu io
aiaoieo a?aaia: auee nicaeaiu e aii?oaeaiu iiaua a?iee, i?iaaaeaia
/enoea eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa, ia inaiaiaeeaoeany eiiaiaeiua aeieaeiinoe
niaei auaeaeaaeenue niiniaiua, iiae/an i/aiue iieiaeua ethaee. Neeyiea
aeia?iaieue/aneeo e eaae?iauo /anoae i?eaaei e iiauoaieth aianiiniaiinoe
a?iee. Aeae?ao i anaiauai iiie/aiee 23 aaaonoa 1793 a. aeae
aiciiaeiinoue e ia/aeo 1794 a. aeiaanoe /eneaiiinoue aii?oaeaiiuo nee
aei 1 iei. /aeiaae (ec ieo a aeaenoaothuae a?iee — 600 oun.).

Eiiaoe 1793 e ia/aei 1794 a. iciaiaiiaaeenue ?aoathueie iiaaaeaie ia
o?iioao. Ii e yoiio a?aiaie iniaaiii io/aoeeai i?iyaeeenue iaaaoeaiua
noi?iiu i?aaeaiey yeiaeioeaa ai aeaaa n ?iaaniuea?ii. Eo no?aieaiea
aeiaeoueny ?aaeecaoeee eniiaaaeoaiuo eie yaaeeoa?enoneeo eaeae ethauie
n?aaenoaaie, aeaaea aii?aee eioa?anai e iano?iaieyi aieueoeinoaa
ianaeaiey no?aiu, noaei iniiaiie i?e/eiie ia?a?iaeaeaiey ?aaeeia.
Nicaeaiiue ai eiy ai?ueau n eiio??aaiethoeeae, ?aaee i?aoai?aiey a
aeeciue eaeaaeia aeaiie?aoee ii ia/ae i?aa?auaoueny a aaoi?eoa?iue.
?aaiethoeeiiiue o?eaoiae ana /aua eniieueciaaeny eae ea?aoaeueiue i?aai
i?ioea ia niaeaniuo n iieeoeeie noi?iiieeia ?iaaniuea?a, iaiaeoth /anoue
eioi?uo ninoaaeee yeiaeioeu, a eo ieeae iaeuecy auei i?e/eneeoue e
eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ai. ?ai?anneyi iiaeaa?aeenue e iiiaea ae?oaea eeoea
aeiiaiinoue eioi?uo ii nouanoao ia auea onoaiiaeaia. Oaeoe/aneia
eneaaeaiea oeaee, ?aaee eioi?ie aue nicaeai ?aaiethoeeiiiue o?eaoiae,
niinianoaiaaei aiaae?aieth iaaeinoieiuo n?aaenoa ai?ueau ei??icee
i?aanoaaiiinoe noaeae. Yoiio niaeaenoaiaaee e iaeioi?ua aeae?aou, ii
caiuneo i?ecaaiiua oneeeoue ai?ueao n eiio??aaiethoeeae, ii ia
niaea?aeaaoea eaeeo-eeai ?aaeueiuo aa?aioee caueou i?aa a?aaeaeai io
iaiainiiaaiiuo ?ai?annee e iiyoiio i?eiaiyaoeany e i?ioea iaaeiiaiuo.
Iniaaiii iieacaoaeueiui a yoii ioiioaiee aue aeae?ao, aaiaeeaoee iiiyoea
«a?aa ia?iaea».

sseiaeineay ?anioaeeea ia?yaeo n aa aa?ie/aneeie no?aieoeaie aeaea
i?aaeinoa?aaathuee o?ie enoi?ee, eiaaea iaoa?iaiea iaoiaeeaoeony o
aeanoe aeieo?eia?ia iiaeao au?iaeeoueny a iaoa?ieiinoue, a
?aaiethoeeiiiia ianeeea, inaiaiaeaeaiiia io ?aiie caeiiiinoe, a eiia/iii
n/aoa i?aa?auaaony a i?iecaie.

Iaaeaiea yeiaeineie ?anioaeeee. E eaoo 1793 a. iniiaiua caaea/e
?aaiethoeee auee iauaeoeaii ?aoaiu. I?iaeieaeaaoay aiaaoaoue ao?aeoacey
ie?eeanue n e?aeiinoyie yeiaeineiai i?aaeaiey aei oao ii?, iiea oa?ica
?anoaa?aoeee aaniethoecia inoaaaeanue ?aaeueiie. Iiaeaaeaiea iyoaaeae,
aiaiiua iiaaaeu oi?i/eee iieiaeaiea O?aioeee, e n yoiai a?aiaie
ioiioaiea ao?aeoacee e yeiaeineiio i?aaeaieth iaiyaony.

Io yeiaeioeaa ia/aei iooiaeeoue e e?anoueyinoai, eioi?ia iiaeaea?aeeaaei
?aaiethoeeiiiua i?aia?aciaaiey aei oao ii?, iiea ia auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu
oaiaeaeueiua ioiioaiey, onoaiiaeaii eo i?aai / iie nianoaaiiinoe ia
caieth. Iinea oiai eae yoi auei aeinoeaiooi, e?anoueyia ana ?aoeoaeueiaa
noaee au?aaeaoue naia iaaeiaieuenoai iieeoeeie oaa?aeuo oeai e anai oai,
/oi n yoei naycaii.

Nio?aiaiea Caeiia Ea Oaiaeuea, ?aca?ii eaauo oa/aiee ineaaeee aeeyiea
?iaaniuea?a e aai noi?iiieeia ia o?oaeyueony ai?iaeia. Iieeoe/aneee
oa??i? aucuaae ana aieueoaa iaaeiaieuenoai.

Noaeaiea nioeeaeueiie iii?u yeiaeioeaa auei iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei eo
iono?aiaiey io aeanoe. 27 ethey 1794 a. (eee 9 oa?ieaei?a II aiaea ii
?anioaeeeaineiio eaeaiaea?th) a oiaea aii?oaeaiiiai aunooieaiey a
Ia?eaea yeiaeineay ?anioaeeea iaea.

4. Oa?ieaei?eaineay ?anioaeeea

Eiinoeoooeey 1795 a. Iinea i?eoiaea e aeanoe oa?ieaei?eaioeaa auee
eaciaiu iaeaieaa ecaanoiua ?aaiethoeeiia?u, a oii /enea ?iaaniuea?,
Nai-AEthno, Eooii, a oaeaea aieueoay /anoue /eaiia ia?eaeneie eiiioiu
(aieaa 100 /aeiaae). Eiiioia auea oi?acaeiaia, ouny/e yeiaeioeaa
a?anoiaaiu. I?e iiionoeoaeuenoaa aeanoae oieiu ethaeae iiae
i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii «cieioie iieiaeaaee» a?uaaeenue a oth?ueiu e
oaeaaee iieeoe/aneeo caeeth/aiiuo. Auee ioiaiaiu caeiiu i iaeneioia e
iaeiaao ia aiaaouo. ?acaoe niaeoeyoeee e ei??oioeee i?eiye iaaeaeaiiua
?aiaa ?acia?u. E aeanoe i?eoea e?oiiay ao?aeoacey.

No?aiynue oe?aieoue naia iieeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea, oa?ieaei?eaioeu
i?aaei?eiyee ?ai?aaiecaoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. N yoie oeaeueth
oa?ieaei?eaineee Eiiaaio au?aaaouaaao, a caoai aeiaeaaaony ooaa?aeaeaiey
iiaie Eiinoeoooeee.

Ii oaea onoaiiaeaoaeny o?aaeeoeee Eiinoeoooeey 1795 a. ioe?uaaeanue
Aeaeea?aoeeae, eioi?ay auea nouanoaaiii eciaiaia e iacuaaeanue
«Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa e iaycaiiinoae /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia».
Caeiiiaeaoaee eneeth/eee ec iaa ana ?aaiethoeeiiiua iieiaeaiey
Aeaeea?aoeee yeiaeioeaa. Aieaa ia aiai?eeinue i i?aaa ia?iaea ia
ainnoaiea, i naiaiaea nia?aiee, ia/aoe, i ?aaiii i?aaa anao auoue
eca?aiiuie ia ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe. Iiaoi?yy oaea
i?iaicaeaoaiiua ?aiaa iauea i?eioeeiu ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, Aeaeea?aoeey
iiae/a?eeaaea iaycaiiinoue eaaeaeiai caueuaoue ainoaea?noai e
nianoaaiiinoue.

Iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy ii Eiinoeoooeee auee
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiia i?aaeaiea e ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae. Onoaiaaeeaaeenue
aeaoonoaiaiiua auai?u a aunoea i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Aia/aea
ecae?aoaee (oieueei ioae/eiu, ?iaeeaoeany e aeeaouea ai O?aioeee,
aeinoeaoea aic?anoa 21 aiaea, oiea/eaathuea i?yiie iaeia e i?iaeeaoea a
iaeiii ianoa ia iaiaa aiaea) ecae?aee auai?ueeia. Auai?ueeaie iiaee
auoue eeoea, aeinoeaoea 25-eaoiaai aic?anoa e iieueciaaaoeany i?aaaie
a?aaeaeaieia, a oaeaea iaeaaeaaoea eiouanoaii, noieiinoue eioi?iai auea
ia ieaea ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/aai ca 200 aeiae. Auai?ueee ecae?aee
/eaiia Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona e aunoeo noaeaaiuo i?aaiia. Eca?aiiuie
iiaee / auoue eeoea, ioaa/athuea aua aieaa aunieei oeaicai.

Aunoei i?aaiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe iauyaeyeny Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue
ei?ion, ninoiyuee ec aeaoo iaeao: aa?oiae — Niaaoa noa?aeoei e ieaeiae —
Niaaoa iyoenio. Ieaeiyy iaeaoa ecaeaaaea caeiiii?iaeou, eioi?ua caoai
ooaa?aeaeaeenue eee ioeeiiyeenue Niaaoii noa?aeoei.

Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue a?o/aeanue Aee?aeoi?ee a ninoaaa iyoe /eaiia,
iacia/aaiuo Niaaoii noa?aeoei ec eaiaeeaeaoia, auaeaeioouo Niaaoii
iyoenio. Aee?aeoi?ee i?eiaaeeaaeaei i?aai iacia/aiey ieieno?ia,
eiiaiaeothueo a?ieyie e ae?oaeo aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. Aaeaaiaeii
iaeei ec /eaiia Aee?aeoi?ee aeieaeai aue ia?aecae?aoueny.

5. Eiia?ey

Ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa. I?eoaaeoay e aeanoe
e?oiiay ao?aeoacey anei?a ieacaeanue iaaeaeo aeaoiy i?ioeainoiyueie
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeie neeaie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ai?iaeneea
o?oaeyueany, no?aaeaaoea io aac?aaioeoeu e iinoiyiiiai oooaeoaiey o?iaiy
aeecie, oneeeaaee ai?ueao n ?aaeeiii oa?ieaei?eaioeaa. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, aeoeaece?iaaeanue aeai?yineay ?aaeoeey — c?aee ?iyeenoneea
caaiai?u, noaaeaoea naiae caaea/ae ?anoaa?aoeeth iiia?oee. Yoi
auioaeaeaei oa?ieaei?eaioeaa ai?ioueny ia aeaa o?iioa. Aunooiay i?ioea
ia?iaea, ao?aeoacey eneaea iiaeaea?aeee ni?aaa; no?ao ia?aae aeai?yineie
?aaeoeeae canoaaeye aa caeeth/aoue a?aiaiiua niaeaoaiey n eaaui e?ueii
aeaiie?aoia. «Iieeoeea ea/aeae», eae iacuaaee aa nia?aiaiieee,
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea i aioo?aiiae iai?i/iinoe oa?ieaei?eaineie
?anioaeeee.

Naia iieeoe/aneia nianaiea i?aayuea e?oae aeaeaee a nicaeaiee ?aaeeia
aiaiiie aeeeoaoo?u. I?aaeaeueii oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ainoaea?noai,
aicaeaaeyaiia «neeueiie ee/iinoueth», iiaei neeie i?oaeey caueoeoue
eioa?anu e?oiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae io iianiinoe ni?aaa e neaaa.
Noaaeeecaoeey auea ioaeia e cia/eoaeueiie /anoe e?anoueyinoaa,
no?aieaoaainy nio?aieoue i?eia?aoaiioth a oiaea ?aaiethoeee caieth.

Iaeaieueooth iiaeaea?aeeo iieo/ee aaia?ae Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o, noaaoee
/?acau/aeii iiioey?iui aeaaiaea?y iiaaaeai, iaea?aeaiiui o?aioeocneeie
aieneaie iiae aai eiiaiaeiaaieai (iniaaiii a Eoaeee e Aaeioa).

A 1799 a. (9-10 iiya?y, eee 18-19 a?thia?a VIII aiaea ii
?anioaeeeaineiio eaeaiaea?th) Aiiaia?o n iiiiuueth aiene ?aciaiae
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion e oi?acaeiee Aee?aeoi?eth.

Eiinoeuenoai. Oi?aaeaiea no?aiie auei ia?aaeaii a ?oee o?ao eiinoeia.
?aaeueiay aeanoue nin?aaeioi/eeanue o ia?aiai eiinoea, aai iino caiye
Aiiaia?o.

Aeaiie?aoe/aneea neeu, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ineaaeaiiua a i?aaeuaeouea
aiaeu, ia niiaee ieacaoue aeieaeiiai nii?ioeaeaiey iiaie aeeeoaoo?a.
Ae?aea ioaaoeea ia ia?aai?io iiauoaieai eo?na oeaiiuo aoiaa. Iiaue
?aaeei iiaeaea?aeaei e?anoueyinoai, eioi?iio auea iaauaia e
aeaenoaeoaeueii iaania/aia caueoa aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth.

Eiinoeoooeey 1799 a. (ii ?anioaeeeaineiio eaeaiaea?th — Eiinoeoooeey
VIII aiaea) Eiinoeoooeey th?eaee/anee cae?aieyea iiaue ?aaeei. Iniiaiuie
/a?oaie aaiaeeiiai ath ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy auee aa?oiaainoai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ii ieaaenoeeoo. I?aaeoaeuenoai
ninoiyei ec o?ao eiinoeia, auae?aaiuo n?ieii ia 10 eao. Ia?aue eiinoe
iaaeaeyeny iniauie iieiiii/eyie: ii inouanoaeye eniieieoaeueioth
aeanoue, iacia/ae e niauae ii naiaio oniio?aieth ieieno?ia, /eaiia
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa, iineia, aaia?aeia, aunoeo /eiiaieeia ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey, noaeae. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeaei i?aai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
eieoeeaoeau. Aoi?ie e o?aoee eiinoeu eiaee niaauaoaeueiua iieiiii/ey.
Eiinoeoooeey iacia/eea ia?aui eiinoeii Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa.

A ea/anoaa i?aaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe o/?aaeaeaeenue:
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, O?eaoiao, Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion e
Io?aieoaeueiue naiao. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iie auee eeoue ia?iaeeae ia
ia?eaiaio. Caeiiii?iaeou iiaei i?aaeeaaaoue oieueei i?aaeoaeuenoai, o.
a. ia?aue eiinoe. Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao inouanoaeye ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea
yoeo caeiiii?iaeoia, O?eaoiao eo ianoaeaeae, Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion
i?eieiae eee ioaa?aae oeaeeeii aac i?aiee, Io?aieoaeueiue naiao
ooaa?aeaeae. Oaeei ia?acii, yoe i?aaiu, ie iaeei ec eioi?uo ia eiae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey, eeoue ianee?iaaee aaeeiiaeanoea ia?aiai
eiinoea.

I?ioeaaeo?a eo oi?ie?iaaiey aua aieaa oneeeaaea eo caaeneiinoue io
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. *eaiu Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa iacia/aeenue
ia?aui eiinoeii. Io?aieoaeueiue naiao ninoiye ec iiaeeciaiii iacia/aiiuo
/eaiia (a aeaeueiaeoai eo auae?ae Naiao ec eaiaeeaeaoia, auaeaeioouo
ia?aui eiinoeii, Caeiiiaeaoaeueiui ei?ionii e O?eaoiaoii), /eaiu
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona e O?eaoiaoa iacia/aeenue Naiaoii.

Ia iaiaa nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?aoa?iaei e ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai. Ana
ioae/eiu, eiathuea o?aioeocneia a?aaeaeainoai, aeieaeiu auee i?eieiaoue
o/anoea a auai?ao ii eiiioiai. Eca?aieth iiaeeaaeaea aeanyoay /anoue
a?aaeaeai eiiioiu, eioi?ua aeeth/aeenue a nienie eca?aiiuo ii anai
eiiioiai aeeno?eeoa. Iie ecae?aee ec naiaai ninoaaa oaeaea aeanyooth
/anoue. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ecae?aeanue aeanyoay /anoue ii
aeaia?oaiaioneiio nieneo e aeaeaa ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio nieneo. Eeoea,
aeeth/aiiua a yoe nienee, iacia/aeenue auoanoiyueie /eiiaieeaie ia
aaeaioiua aeieaeiinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa niioaaonoaothuaai
o?iaiy (ec eiiioiaeueiiai nienea — ia aeieaeiinoue a eiiioia, ec
aeaia?oaiaioneiai — a aeaia?oaiaioa e o. ae.). Oaeay nenoaia
eeeaeaee?iaaea ana i?ia?anneaiua caaiaaaiey a?aiai ?aaiethoeee a iaeanoe
ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa. Auai?u yaeyeenue oeeoeeae, oae eae «eaiaeeaeaoia»
auei noieueei, /oi /eiiaieee eiaee iieioth naiaiaeo auai?a i?e
iacia/aiee ia niioaaonoaothuea aeieaeiinoe. Iiaeiaiay nenoaia a oeaeii
noaea ecaanoia eae «i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ii ieaaenoeeoo». N ia?eaiaioneei
no?iai auei iieii/aii, ieieioi eiaaoeony aeaiie?aoe/aneeo naiaiae
oie/oiaeai.

Nionoy aiae oi?acaeiyaony e auai?iia ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea.
Iiaeoaa?aeaeaeinue aaeieieno?aoeaiia aeaeaiea no?aiu ia aeaia?oaiaiou,
aeeno?eeou, eiiioiu. Any iieiioa aeanoe a aeaia?oaiaioa a?o/aeanue
iacia/aaiiio i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?aoaeoo, a a aeeno?eeoa — noi?aoaeoo.
I?aaeoaeuenoai iacia/aei iy?ia e /eaiia niaauaoaeueiuo niaaoia eiiioi e
ai?iaeia. Onoaiaaeeaaeanue no?iaay ea?a?oe/aneay iiae/eiaiiinoue anao
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ia?aiio eiinoeo. I?ioeann oeaio?aeecaoeee e
ath?ie?aoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa aeinoea naiaai eiae/aneiai
caaa?oaiey.

I?iaicaeaoaiea eiia?ee. A 1802 a. Aiiaia?o aue iauyaeai iiaeeciaiiui
eiinoeii n i?aaii iacia/aiey i?aaiieea. Aai aeanoue, aua i?ee?uoay
?anioaeeeaineei aeaei?oiii, i?eieiaea iiia?oe/aneee oa?aeoa?. Anei?a
Aiiaia?o aue i?iaicaeaoai eiia?aoi?ii o?aioeocia. N yoiai a?aiaie ia
oieueei eniieieoaeueiay, ii e caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue
nin?aaeioi/eeanue a aai ?oeao (e io/anoe Naiaoa).

Ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue no?aiu i?eia?aea a?iey. E
yoiio a?aiaie iia ec inaiaiaeeoaeueiie, ?aaiethoeeiiiie i?aa?aoeeanue a
a?ieth i?ioanneiiaeueioth e oaeoe/anee iaaiioth. Auee nicaeaiu
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua aienea — eiia?aoi?neay aaa?aeey.

Iniaia cia/aiea a ainoaea?noaa eiaea iieeoeey, nianoaaiii aeaaea ia
iaeia, a ianeieueei, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo inouanoaeyea oaeioth neaaeeo ca
ae?oaie. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie, ii/oe iaia?aie/aiiuie iieiiii/eyie auea
iaaeaeaia oaeiay iieeoe/aneay iieeoeey. Auea aaaaeaia no?iaay oeaico?a.
A eaaeaeii aeaia?oaiaioa oaeoe/anee ?ac?aoaeinue ecaeaiea eeoue iaeiie
aacaou, iaoiaeeaoaeny iiae eiio?ieai i?aoaeoa.

Iaiieaiiianeia i?aaeoaeuenoai caeeth/eei niaeaoaiea (eiiei?aeao) n
aeaaie ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Eaoieeoeeci i?eciaaaeny «?aeeaeae
aieueoeinoaa o?aioeocia». Ana /eiu oea?eiaiie ea?a?oee iacia/aeenue
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, a caoai ooaa?aeaeaeenue Aaoeeaiii. Aeooiaainoai noaei
iieo/aoue aeaeiaaiuea io ainoaea?noaa. A naith i/a?aaeue oea?eiaue
ioeacaeanue io anao i?aoaicee ia caiee, ecuyoua o iaa a aiaeu
?aaiethoeee.

A?iey, iieeoeey, ath?ie?aoey, oea?eiaue noaee iniiaiuie ?u/aaaie
eiia?aoi?neie aeanoe.

Enoi?ey eiia?ee — yoi enoi?ey iai?a?uaiuo aiei, iineaoeo caoaaoie/aneee
oa?aeoa?. A 1812 a. Iaiieaii aoi?any a ?inneth. A oiaea
inaiaiaeeoaeueiie, Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu iaiieaiiianeea a?iee auee
?aca?iieaiu. A 1814 a. ?onneea aienea niaianoii n aieneaie nithcieeia
(aano?eeneeie, i?onneeie, aiaeeeneeie) anooieee ai O?aioeeth. Eiia?ey
Iaiieaiia iioa?iaea e?ao.

6. Eaaeoeiiay iiia?oey

Oa?oey 1814 a. Iinea ii?aaeaiey eiia?ee ai O?aioeeth iiae caueoie ooueia
nithciuo a?iee aa?ioeenue aeai?yia-yiea?aiou. Auea ?anoaa?e?iaaia
iiia?oey Ao?aiiia. ?iyeenou caoaaoeee eiiaiaeiua iiceoeee a
ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa e a?iee e o?aaiaaee ainnoaiiaeaiey
aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai aaniethoecia. Iaeiaei aeaaea ei anei?a noaei ynii,
/oi ?anoaa?e?iaaoue i?ioeia a iieiie ia?a iaaiciiaeii. ?aaiethoeey aei
iniiaaiey ?ac?ooeea onoie noa?iai ii?yaeea. Ei?ieue Ethaeiaee XVIII aue
auioaeaeai niaeaneoueny ia aaaaeaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaeaiey. A 1814
a. iii auei ioi?ieaii Oa?oeae.

Oa?oey aa?aioe?iaaea iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue nianoaaiiinoe: «Ana aeaeu
nianoaaiiinoe iai?eeiniiaaiiu. Caeii ia aeaeaao ieeaeiai ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo ieie». Iaania/eaaeenue ana iaycaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa ii
ioiioaieth e aai e?aaeeoi?ai.

A Oa?oee i?iaicaeaoaeenue, oioy e a aanueia o?acaiiii aeaea, iaeioi?ua
iieeoe/aneea naiaiaeu. Aiai?eeinue i ?aaainoaa anao ia?aae caeiiii, i
ee/iie naiaiaea: «Ieeoi ia iiaeao auoue iiaeaa?aioo i?aneaaeiaaieth eee
caaea?aeaieth eia/a eae a i?aaeoniio?aiiii caeiiii neo/aa e a
i?aaeienaiiie oi?ia». Ai?i/ai, ana yoi oaeoe/anee inoaeinue oieueei ia
aoiaaa.

A no?aia ainnoaiaaeeaaeanue eaaeoeiiay eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey
(eaaeoeiiay iiia?oey a aeaiiie neooaoeee iiieiaeanue eae iiia?oey, aaea
aiiaue i?aaeea «caeiiiay» aeeianoey Ao?aiiia), i?e/ai i?a?iaaoeau
ei?iey, iniaa eioi?iai iauyaeyeanue «nayuaiiie e iai?eeiniiaaiiie»,
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeenue ii n?aaiaieth n oai, /oi oeene?iaaea
Eiinoeoooeey 1791 a. Ei?ieth a?o/aeanue any iieiioa eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe. Ii iacia/ae ia ana aeieaeiinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa,
a?iee, iieeoeee e noaea. A iaeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii eiae i?aai
ecaeaiey oeacia e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau. Caeiiii?iaeo, i?eiyoue
ia?eaiaioii, i?eia?aoae neeo caeiia eeoue iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey aai
ei?ieai. Caeiiii?iaeo, ioaa?aiooue ei, ia iia auoue i?aaenoaaeai
aoi?e/ii a oa/aiea aiaea oie aea nannee ia?eaiaioa. Ia?eaiaio ninoiye ec
aeaoo iaeao — iaeaou iy?ia e iaeaou aeaiooaoia. Ei?ieth i?eiaaeeaaeaei
i?aai iiaeaeiaaiey oeooea iy?a. Iii iiaei auoue iiaeeciaiiui eee
ianeaaenoaaiiui. Iy?aie ii i?aao ?iaeaeaiey auee /eaiu ei?ieaaneie
naiuee e i?eioeu e?iae.

A auai?ao a iaeaoo aeaiooaoia eiaee i?aai o/anoaiaaoue eeoea, aeinoeaoea
30-eaoiaai aic?anoa e ieaoyuea ia iaiaa 300 o?aieia i?yiiai iaeiaa.
Eca?aiiuie iiaee auoue eeoea, aeinoeaoea 40 eao e oiea/eaathuea ia ieaea
1000 o?aieia i?yiuo iaeiaia. Eiouanoaaiiua e aic?anoiua oeaicu
iono?aiyee io o/anoey a auai?ao cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ac?ineiai
ioaeneiai ianaeaiey no?aiu. Ec 31-ieeeeiiiiai ianaeaiey i?aai auae?aoue
eiaee ieiei 50 oun., a eca?aiiuie iiaee auoue ia aieaa 15 oun.

Eaaeoeiiay iiia?oey a iniiaiii nio?aieea aiaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneee e
noaeaaiue aiia?ao, nicaeaiiue i?e Iaiieaiia.

Ainnoaiiaeaiiay iiia?oey Ao?aiiia aucuaaea ino?ia iaaeiaieuenoai a
no?aia, eioi?ia onoaoaeyeinue i?iecaieii e aaccaeiieai e?aeia i?aauo
iiia?oenoia, ia oa?yaoeo iaaeaaeaeu ioia?aoue o e?anoueyi caiee,
i?eia?aoaiiua eie a aiaeu ?aaiethoeee.

Etheueneay iiia?oey. ?aaiethoeey e Oa?oey 1830 a. Aeai?yineay ?aaeoeey
aeinoeaea naiaai aiiaay a na?aaeeia 20-o aiaeia XIX a., eiaaea ia
i?anoie anooiee Ea?e X. ?oeiaiaeyuea iinou a ainoaea?noaa iieiinoueth
ia?aoee a aa ?oee. Iiaue ei?ieue, eaey iaano?a/o o?aaiaaieyi aeai?yi
aica?aoeoue caiee, eiioeneiaaiiua a aiaeu ?aaiethoeee, ooaa?aeee caeii i
auieaoa aa?ioaoeiny yiea?aioai aeaiaaeiiai aiciauaiey a ?acia?a ieiei 1
ie?ae. o?aieia. Any oyaeanoue auieaou eiaeeeanue ia iea/e e?anoueyinoaa.
E?iia oiai, auee i?eiyou caeiiu, nouanoaaiii ouaieyaoea eioa?anu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, aaaaeaiu no?iaua iaeacaiey ca aunooieaiey i?ioea
oea?eae, i?aaeinoaaeaia naiaiaea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aeaio eacoeoia.

A ethia 1830 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aoeei oi?acaeieoue eiinoeoooeeiiiue
?aaeei, onoaiiaeaiiue Oa?oeae 1814 a. Auee i?eiyou /aou?a i?aeiiaina: i
?inionea iaeaou aeaiooaoia (iineaaeiea auai?u aeaee aieueoeinoai a iae
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi oia?aiiie eeaa?aeueiie iiiiceoeee); ia oiaiueoaiee
aaeaia /enea aeaiooaoia a ieaeiae iaeaoa (a nieneao eeoe, eiathueo i?aai
ecae?aoue e auoue eca?aiiuie a ieaeithth iaeaoo, auee inoaaeaiu eeoue
e?oiiua caiaeueiua nianoaaiieee); i aaaaeaiee aeiiieieoaeueiie oeaico?u
i?annu; i cai?auaiee nia?aiee e iaieoanoaoeee.

I?aeiiainu aucaaee ao?iua i?ioanou a no?aia. Iinoiyiii ia?anoaaoaa
iaaeiaieuenoai ?aaeeiii au?aaeinue ia?oaeo. A ethea 1830 a. ia?eaeaia
iiaeiyeenue ia aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea. Iinea iaeanoi/aiiuo aiaa noieeoea
ieacaeanue a ?oeao ainnoaaoeo, eioi?uo iiaeaea?aeaea i?iaeioeey. Ea?e X
aaaeae. N eaaeoeiiie iiia?oeae auei iieii/aii iaanaaaea.

Ieiaeaie iiaaaeu ainiieueciaaeanue e?oiiay, i?aaeaea anaai oeiainiaay,
ao?aeoacey. Aa noaaeaiieee noi?ie?iaaee A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai,
eioi?ia iaania/eei i?iaicaeaoaiea ei?ieai Eoe-Oeeeiia I?eaaineiai
(i?aaenoaaeoaey ieaaeoae aaoae Ao?aiiia), oanii naycaiiiai n e?oiiaeoeie
aaiee?aie no?aiu.

Iiaue ?aaeei iciaiaiiaae naia ?iaeaeaiea eiinoeoooeeae, iieo/eaoae
ecaanoiinoue eae Oa?oey 1830 a. Ii oi?ia e ai iiiaii ii niaea?aeaieth
iia aini?iecaiaeeea Oa?oeth 1814 a. Auea eeoue ianeieueei ?anoe?aia
?ieue ia?eaiaioa. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay eieoeeaoeaa a?o/aeanue iaaei iaeaoai
e ei?ieth. Auee ianeieueei nieaeaiu aic?anoiie e eiouanoaaiiue oeaicu,
/oi i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth /enea auai?ueeia (aei 240 oun.). Ii aaaeiaeoea
caaiuey ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia e ia yoio ?ac ia i?aoa?iaee
nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee. «Ioiuia O?aioeeae i?aaeoue aoaeai iu, aaiee?u».
Yoi caia/aiea, naeaeaiiia iaeiei ec aaiee?ia ai a?aiy ei?iiaoeee
Eoe-Oeeeiia, aa?ii ii?aaeaeeei nouiinoue iiaie iiia?oee.

7. Aoi?ay ?anioaeeea

?aaiethoeey 1848 a. Ceiie 1848 a. ianaeaiea Ia?eaea, i?aaeaea anaai
?aai/ea, iiaeiyeinue ia aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
oie/eii e iaio iineoaeee ?anno?ae a oaa?aea yoiai aiaea ie?iie
aaci?oaeiie aeaiiino?aoeee ia?eaeai, o?aaiaaaoeo aeaiie?aoecaoeee
iieeoe/aneiai no?iy e i?eiyoey eiie?aoiuo ia? ii oeo/oaieth oyaeaeiai
yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey ia?iaea. Ceiaeayiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa aucaaei
ao?th aiciouaiey. Oaea ia neaaeothuee aeaiue ainnoaaoea iaeaaeaee
iniiaiuie no?aoaae/aneeie ioieoaie noieeoeu. Eoe-Oeeeii io?aeny io
i?anoiea.

Noi?ie?iaaeinue A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie iiiiceoeee. Auea i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeea.
I?aaeoaeuenoai iaycaeinue aaanoe anaiauaa i?yiia ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai.
Aeae?aoii i o?oaea i?iaicaeaoaeinue i?aai ia o?oae e iaycaiiinoue
ainoaea?noaa iaania/eoue anao ?aaioie, nie?aoeoue i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
?aai/aai aeiy a Ia?eaea aei 10 /ania e a i?iaeioeee aei 11. Auei iaauaii
i?iaanoe e ae?oaea aeaiie?aoe/aneea ia?u.

Iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaeoaeuenoai oe?aieyei aii?oaeaiiua neeu. Auea nicaeaia
iaaiiay oae iacuaaaiay iiaeeueiay aaa?aeey. Noi?ie?iaaiiay aeaaiui
ia?acii ec aeaeeanne?iaaiiuo yeaiaioia iauanoaa, iia noaea iii?ie
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a ai?ueaa n ?aaeeeaeueiui aeaeaeaieai.

Anei?a A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiauneei iaeiae, /oi iniaaiii neeueii
oaea?eei ii e?anoueyinoao. Iaaeiaieuenoai e?anoueyi i?aaeoaeuenoai
iinoa?aeinue eniieueciaaoue a naieo oeaeyo, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi oaaee/aiea
iaeiaia naycaii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth niaea?aeaoue ia?eaeneeo ?aai/eo,
aoaeoi au aeaeathueo aeeoue ca n/ao ainoaea?noaa.

Aaniie 1848 a. ninoiyeenue auai?u a O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea, eioi?ia
aeieaeii auei i?eiyoue eiinoeoooeeth ?anioaeeee. Iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai Nia?aiey ninoaaeee e?oiiua ao?aeoa e caiaeueiua
nianoaaiieee, aaia?aeu, i?aaenoaaeoaee aunoaai aeooiaainoaa. Iinea
auai?ia iiaua i?aayuea e?oae ioiaieee ana ii?iaoeaiua aeou,
i?aaeoniao?eaaaoea iaeioi?ia oeo/oaiea iieiaeaiey o?oaeyueony. Ia
eneeth/aii, /oi ao?aeoaciia i?aaeoaeuenoai, iaiae?aiiia ?acoeueoaoaie
auai?ia, oiuoeaiii i?iaioee?iaaei ?aai/eo ia aunooieaiea. Ainnoaiea
ia/aeinue 22 ethiy 1848 a. *aou?a aeiy ?aai/ea aa?ie/anee n?aaeaeenue ia
aa??eeaaeao, ii, ia eiay nithcieeia, auee ?acaeou ?aaoey?iie a?ieae —
iiaeeyie (iiaeeueiie aaa?aeeae).

Eiinoeoooeey 1848a. Iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie onoaiiaeaiiiai Eiinoeoooeeae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy noaee ?anioaeeeaineay oi?ia i?aaeaiey,
?acaeaeaiea aeanoae, i?aaenoaaeoaeueiia i?aaeaiea. Aunoei i?aaiii
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe iauyaeyeinue Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea. Aio
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai i?eiyoey caeiiia, aeeth/ay
oi?ie?iaaiea athaeaeaoa, ?aoaiea aii?inia aieiu e ie?a, ooaa?aeaeaiea
oi?aiauo aeiaiai?ia e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aii?inu. Aeaiooaou Nia?aiey
ecae?aeenue n?ieii ia o?e aiaea. Aeaaie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe
noaiiaeeny i?aceaeaio. Iiae aai ia/aeii auee a?iey, iieeoeey,
aaeieieno?aoeaiue aiia?ao. I?aceaeaio iacia/ae e niauae ieieno?ia,
eiiaiaeothueo a?ieae e oeioii, i?aoaeoia, aoaa?iaoi?ia eieiiee e ae?oaeo
aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea iinoaaeei
i?aceaeaioa ai iiiaii a iacaaeneiia io ia?eaiaioa iieiaeaiea: i?aceaeaio
auae?aeny ecae?aoaeyie io aeaia?oaiaioia, a ia Nia?aieai.

A ea/anoaa niaauaoaeueiiai i?aaia, ?anniao?eaathuaai caeiiii?iaeou
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, o/?aaeaeaeny Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao. A aai eiiiaoaioeeth
aoiaeee oaeaea iaaeci? ca i?eiaiaieai caeiiia. *eaiu Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
niaaoa iacia/aeenue Iaoeeiiaeueiui nia?aieai n?ieii ia oanoue eao.

I?aaiu oeaio?aeueiiai e ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey ia i?aoa?iaaaee
neieueei-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee. Nio?aiyeinue i?aaeiaa
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea ia aeaia?oaiaiou, aeeno?eeou
e eiiioiu. Iaeciaiiie inoaaaeanue aeanoue i?aoaeoa a aeaia?oaiaioa.

Aaiaeeeinue anaiauaa e i?yiia ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai i?e oaeiii
aieiniaaiee. Ecae?aoaeyie iiaee auoue ana o?aioeocu a aic?anoa io 21
aiaea, iieuecothueany a?aaeaeaineeie e iieeoe/aneeie i?aaaie. Eca?aiiuie
iiaee auoue oa aea eeoea, aeinoeaoea 25-eaoiaai aic?anoa. Niaoeeaeueiay
aeaaa Eiinoeoooeee auea iinayuaia aeaiie?aoe/aneei i?aaai e naiaiaeai
a?aaeaeai. Oeene?iaaiiua a Eiinoeoooeee aeaiie?aoe/aneea einoeooou,
?aaii eae e iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaaaeaiiia ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae, iiaee
auoue oniaoii ?aaeeciaaiu eeoue i?e oneiaee ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiie
aioo?eiieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee, /aai ia auei oiaaea ai O?aioeee. Iaaeaeo
oai Eiinoeoooeey ia niaea?aeaea aeieaeiuo i?aaiauo n?aaenoa
noaaeeecaoeee iauanoaa. Aieaa oiai, iia ia i?aaeoniao?eaaea iaiaoiaeeiuo
«i?ioeaiaania» a neo/aa aiciiaeiiai eiioeeeoa eiinoeoooeeiiiuo aeanoae.
A no. 68 aiai?eeinue i oii, /oi i?e ia?ooaiee i?aceaeaioii Eiinoeoooeee
aiciiaeiu eeoaiea aai iieiiii/ee e ia?aaea/a eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe
Iaoeeiiaeueiiio nia?aieth. Ii Nia?aiea ia auei iaaeaeaii ?aaeueiie
aeanoueth aeey i?aoai?aiey oaeie aiciiaeiinoe a aeeciue. I?aceaeaio aea,
iaiai?io, ia eiae eiinoeoooeeiiiuo iieiiii/ee aeey ?inionea
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey, ii caoi iia naeaeaoue yoi neeie.

Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey Eiinoeoooeee ieacaeenue
iaaeieaiaa/iuie. Nia/aea aue aaaaeai 6-iany/iue oeaic inaaeeinoe aeey
ecae?aoaeae, iioii aai oaaee/eee aei o?ao eao. Ii?aaeaeaiea n?iea
i?iaeeaaiey ?aai/eo auei iinoaaeaii a caaeneiinoue io iieacaiee
?aaioiaeaoaeae. A ?acoeueoaoa ec nieneia ecae?aoaeae au/a?eioee nauoa 3
iei. a?aaeaeai. I?eiyoea niaoeeaeueiiai caeiia oooaeoeei oeiainiaia
iieiaeaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneie i?annu.

8. Aoi?ay eiia?ey

I?aceaeaioneee ia?aai?io. Ia?aui eca?aiiui i?aceaeaioii ?anioaeeee noae
Eoe-Iaiieaii, ieaiyiiee Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa. Iieeoe/aneee aaaioth?eno,
Eoe-Iaiieaii aue eca?ai aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y aieinai e?anoueyi,
iaeaii iiaa?eaoeo aiiaia?oenoneei aaeoaoi?ai, oaa?yaoei, /oi «ieaiyiiee
naiaai aeyaee» oiaiueoeo a?aiy iaeiaia,- iaania/eo aeaoaaua e?aaeeou e
o. ae. Yoe iaauaiey ia auee auiieiaiu. Ii aeieaeii auei i?ieoe iaiaei
a?aiaie, i?aaeaea /ai aiiaia?oenoneea eeethcee e?anoueyinoaa ?annayeenue
iaanaaaea. *oi eanaaony aaiee?ia e e?oiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, oi
eaiaeeaeaoo?a Eoe-Iaiieaiia ono?aeaaea eo aeaaiui ia?acii iinoieueeo,
iineieueeo iie naycuaaee n aai ia?aiia/aeueiie iiioey?iinoueth e
/anoiethaeai ieaiu onoaiiaeaiey a no?aia neeueiie aeanoe, niiniaiie
i?aaeioa?aoeoue iiaua ?aaiethoeeiiiua aunooieaiey e iaania/eoue ei
iieioth naiaiaeo aeey niaeoeyoeee aioo?e no?aiu e eieiieaeueiuo caoaaoia
ca aa i?aaeaeaie.

Anai yoei ainiieueciaaeny Eoe-Iaiieaii. Aai aeaeaiea inoaoueny o aeanoe
iaoaeeeaaeinue ia oaa?aeue n?ie i?aceaeaionoaa, onoaiiaeaiiue
Eiinoeoooeeae (/aou?a aiaea), e cai?auaiea ia?aeca?aiey.

A aeaeaa?a 1851 a., a?oai ia?ooea Eiinoeoooeeth, Eoe-Iaiieaii, iie?aynue
ia ooaeoea yeaiaiou aienea, ?aciaiae Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea. Iaeaieaa
aeoeaiua aioeaiiaia?oenou auee a?anoiaaiu, Eiinoeoooeey 1848 a.
oi?acaeiaia. Aiaiii-iieeoeaeneeie ia?aie auee ?aca?iieaiu eee caaiaiu a
iiaeiieuea aua inoaaoeany e oiio a?aiaie ?anioaeeeainei-aeaiie?aoe/aneea
a?oiiu e i?aaiecaoeee. Iiiaea ?anioaeeeaioeu auee auioaeaeaiu
yiea?e?iaaoue.

Eiinoeoooeey 1852 a. Iiaay Eiinoeoooeey auea i?ecaaia caeiiiaeaoaeueii
cae?aieoue ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io 1851 a.

Any iieiioa ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ia?aaeaaaeanue a ?oee i?aceaeaioa.
Aio auee iiae/eiaiu ana iniiaiua caaiuey ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia,
aeeth/ay a?ieth, aeaiaea?ia?eth, iieeoeeth, aaeieieno?aoeaii-oeiainiaue
aiia?ao. I?aceaeaio iieo/ee i?aai ii naiaio oniio?aieth iacia/aoue e
niauaoue anao aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeanoue inouanoaeyee Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao,
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion e naiao, ii oaea niaianoii n i?aceaeaioii. Ii
iacia/ae /eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e naiaoa. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue
ei?ion ecae?aeny «anaiauei aieiniaaieai», ii eaiaeeaeaoia a aeaiooaou
ooaa?aeaeae i?aceaeaio. Oieueei aeaaa ainoaea?noaa i?aaeinoaaeyeinue
i?aai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau: ia iniiaa i?aaeeiaeaiee i?aceaeaioa
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao ninoaaeye caeiiii?iaeou. Iineaaeiea i?eieiaeenue
eee ioaa?aaeenue a oeaeii Caeiiiaeaoaeueiui ei?ionii. Naiao iaaeaeyeny
i?aaii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiio?iey a iaeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Ianoiia oi?aaeaiea ia i?aoa?iaei nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee e ia yoio ?ac.
Ia?aai?io 1851 a. ie a iaeaeoae noaiaie ia cao?iioe ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa.

Iiaeiaii oiio eae iaiieaiiianeay Eiinoeoooeey 1799 a. yaeyeanue
i?iiaaeooi/iie nooiaiueth ia iooe e onoaiiaeaieth iiia?oee, oae e
Eiinoeoooeey 1852 a. iiaeaioaaeeaaea oneiaey aeey i?iaicaeaoaiey
eiia?ee. I?aceaeaioa ioee/aei io iiia?oa oieueei oi, /oi aai aeanoue ia
auea ianeaaenoaaiiie. Ii ecae?aeny ia 10 eao.

?anoaa?aoeey eiia?ee. A iiya?a 1852 a. niaoeeaeueiui caeiiii eiia?ey
auea ainnoaiiaeaia aea-th?a, a Eoe-Iaiieaii noae eiia?aoi?ii o?aioeocia
iiae eiaiai Iaiieaiia III.

A no?aia onoaiiaeeanue aiaiii-iieeoeaeneay aeeeoaoo?a Eoe-Iaiieaiia.
Iiaiio ?aaeeio auee naienoaaiiu iaeioi?ua niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou. Ea?ay ia
i?ioeai?a/eyo, eaae?oy iaaeaeo eioa?anaie ao?aeoacee e i?ieaoa?eaoa,
eiia?ey iuoaeanue ea?aoue ?ieue iin?aaeieee iaaeaeo ieie, iaaeeeanniaiai
a?aeo?a, noa?aynue aiooeoue iuneue i aiciiaeiinoe eeeaeaeaoeee
iaaenioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee ie?iui iooai i?e niaeaenoaee aeanoae.
Aianoa n oai iiia?oey i?aneaaeiaaea aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee.

A eiioea 60-o aiaeia XIX a. auee i?aaei?eiyou iiiuoee iooai ioaeaeueiuo
iacia/eoaeueiuo onooiie ?anoe?aiey i?aa Naiaoa e Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai
ei?iona, niya/aiey oeaico?u ia/aoe n oeaeueth ineaaeoue ?aaiethoeeiiiia
a?iaeaiea.

A 1870 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai iauyaeei i i?eiyoee iiaie, «eeaa?aeueiie», eae
aa iacuaaea ioeoeeaeueiay i?anna, Eiinoeoooeee, iaeaieaa aaaeiui
iiaiaaaaeaieai eioi?ie yaeyeinue iaeioi?ia ?anoe?aiea iieiiii/ee
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona.

Aiiaia?oeci. A iieeoeea eiia?ee eiioea 60-o aiaeia XIX a. ai anae
iieiioa ane?ueanue oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa aiiaia?oenoneiai oi?aaeaiey —
ni/aoaiea aeaiaaiaee e ?ai?annee. Auoiae ec ia?anoaaoeo cao?oaeiaiee
eiia?ey aeaeaea aeaaiui ia?acii a iiaie aieia. Iiaaaeiiiniay aieia, ii
iiaieth i?aayueo e?oaia, aeieaeia auea oe?aieoue iioaoioaoeeny i?anoeae
aiiaia?oenoneiai ?aaeeia, ioaea/ue aieiaiea ?yaeiauo a?aaeaeai io
i?iaeai aioo?aiiae aeecie no?aiu.

Eaoii 1870 a. Eoe-Iaiieaii ia/ae aieio i?ioea I?onnee, eioi?ay, ai?i/ai,
iaiaei naeaeaea, /oiau ni?iaioee?iaaoue aai ia yoi. Ii iaia?aaaeny,
iiieii anaai i?i/aai, iiiaoaoue enoi?e/anee iaecaaaeiiio iauaaeeiaieth
Aa?iaiee. Ia noi?iia I?onnee aunooieee ae?oaea aa?iaineea ainoaea?noaa.
Aieia n iauaaeeieaoaeny Aa?iaieae ai aeaaa n I?onneae a iieiie ia?a
iaia?oaeeea iai?i/iinoue aiiaia?oenoneie eiia?ee.

9. Ainnoaiiaeaiea ?anioaeeee

Naioya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey 1870 a. Ii?aaeaiea O?aioeee a ?aoathuai
n?aaeaiee iiae Naaeaiii ii?aaeaeeei noaeueao iaiieaiiianeie iiia?oee.
Eiaaea aanoue ia yoii ?aca?iia aeioea aei Ia?eaea (naioya?ue 1870 a.),
oai aniuoioei ia?iaeiia ainnoaiea. I?aaeoaeuenoai ia ieacaei
aeaenoaaiiiai nii?ioeaeaiey, e aeanoue ia?aoea e i?aaenoaaeoaeyi
i?aaeiae iiiiceoeee a iaiieaiiianeii Caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ei?iona. Iiae
aeaaeaieai ainnoaaoaai ia?iaea auea i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeea.

E yoiio a?aiaie eciaieeny oa?aeoa? aieiu aeey O?aioeee. A iiiaio, eiaaea
noae i/aaeaeiui iieiue e?ao aiiaia?oenoneie iiia?oee, ?oeiaiaeeiay
Aenia?eii I?onney ?aoeea eniieueciaaoue ianoaiiaeo aeey inouanoaeaiey
naieo ieaiia iooi?aeaiey io O?aioeee aeaoo i?iaeioeee — Yeuecana e
Eioa?eiaee. Aeey O?aioeee aieia i?aa?auaeanue ec iani?aaaaeeeaie a
ni?aaaaeeeaoth, inaiaiaeeoaeueioth.

Yoi ia iiaei ia aucaaoue iao?eioe/aneiai iiaeuaia a no?aia. Oneeeeny
i?eoie aeia?iaieueoeaa a a?ieth e Iaoeeiiaeueioth aaa?aeeth
(oa??eoi?eaeueiia iiie/aiea). A yoe iiae?acaeaeaiey anooieei aieueoia
/enei ?aai/eo, iniaaiii a Ia?eaea, aaea iiaeaaeythuoth /anoue ai?iaeneie
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee (ieiei 200 aaoaeueiiia) ninoaaeyee ?aai/ea eee
a?oiiu, i?eiueathuea e iei. Ia?eaeaia aa?ie/anee auaea?aeeaaee iaacaiaeu
aiaiiie inaaeu.

A yoio ioaaonoaaiiue aeey no?aiu ia?eiae ?ane?uaaeny iiaeeeiiue oa?aeoa?
iieeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie iiaui i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Iieo/ea aeanoue ec ?oe
ainnoaaoeo n iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai eniieueciaaoue aa aeey oeaeae
iaoeeiiaeueiie iai?iiu, i?aaeoaeuenoai iiiuoeyei oieueei i nei?aeoai
aeinoeaeaiee ie?a ethaie oeaiie. A ia/aea 1871 a. auei caeeth/aii
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ie?iia niaeaoaiea. O?aioeey ioaeaaaea Yeuecan e
Eioa?eiaeth, iaycuaaeanue oieaoeoue eiio?eaooeeth. Oaeie oeaiie i?aayuea
e?oae no?aieeenue ?acaycaoue naaa ?oee aeey oi?i/aiey naiae aeanoe a
no?aia.

10. Ia?eaeneay Eiiioia 1871 a.

I?aaiecaoeey e oeaee Ia?eaeneie Eiiioiu. A ii/ue ia 18 ia?oa 1871a.
io?yae i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aiene iiiuoaeny caoaaoeoue iooee ia?eaeneie
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee, i?eia?aoaiiua ia n?aaenoaa, nia?aiiua
o?oaeyueieny. Yoi aeieaeii auei yaeoueny ia?aui oaaii ia iooe
?aci?oaeaiey ?aai/eo.

Ii iaiaeeaeaiiia iaiaaeaiea ia oaeaeinue. Nieaeaou, ioeacaaoenue
no?aeyoue a ai?iaeai, noaee a?aoaoueny n ia?iaeii. I?aaeoaeuenoai e
aunoay ath?ie?aoey a iaieea aaaeaee a Aa?naeue. Aneaae ca ieie ec
?aaiethoeeiiiie noieeoeu ooee aeiiaoe aeaci?aaieciaaiiua aienea. Aeanoue
a ai?iaea ieacaeanue a ?oeao Oeaio?aeueiiai eiieoaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaa?aeee.

Nouanoaaiiie iniaaiiinoueth niauoee 18 ia?oa yaeeanue eo noeoeeiinoue.
Ii?aaeaiea a aieia n Aa?iaieae, ?aceia oooaeoaiea e aac oiai oyaeaeiai
iieiaeaiey ia?iaea, ianiiniaiinoue i?aayueo e?oaia ni?aaeoueny ni
neiaeeaoaeny a no?aia neooaoeeae, iaeiiaoe, iiiuoea ioe?uoiai aiaiiiai
iiaeaaeaiey — ana oieeioei o?oaeyueony Ia?eaea ia ainnoaiea, a?o/eaoaa
aeanoue noiee/iie Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee, ninoiyuae a iniiaiii ec
?aai/eo.

E ia?eaeneiio i?ieaoa?eaoo i?eieioea ai?iaeneay iaeeay ao?aeoacey,
iieiaeaiea eioi?ie a oi a?aiy auei aanueia oyaeaeui.

?oeiaiaeyuaa yae?i ainnoaaoeo aeaeeeinue ia «aieueoeinoai» e
«iaiueoeinoai». Ia?aia ninoiyei a iniiaiii ec iiauo yeiaeioeaa
(noi?iiieeia eaeae e i?eioeeiia yeiaeineie ?anioaeeee 1793—1794 aa.) e
aeaieenoia — iineaaeiaaoaeae ?aaiethoeeiia?a I. Aeaiee. Aeaieenou
ene?aiia ai?ieenue ca eioa?anu o?oaeyueony. Yoi auee niaeua e
ioaeanoaaiiua ?aaiethoeeiia?u. Ii yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey, a eioi?uo
aeieaeii auei i?iecieoe ei?aiiia eciaiaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
iieiaeaiey o?oaeyueony, iie i?aaenoaaeyee niooii. Aeaaiia aieiaiea iie
nin?aaeioi/eaaee ia niiniaao caoaaoa iieeoe/aneie aeanoe, iieaaay, /oi
?aaiethoeey iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaia neeaie iaaieueoie, oi?ioi
caeiinie?e?iaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue «iaiueoeinoaa»
ninoaaeyee iineaaeiaaoaee o/aiey I. AE. I?oaeiia. I?oaeiieci a eiia/iii
n/aoa aue ooiie/aneie aeieo?eiie, oeaeue eioi?ie — niyoea i?ioeai?a/ee a
iauanoaa iooai nicaeaiey iniauo iauaaeeiaiee, iniiaiie y/aeeie eioi?uo
aeieaeii auei noaoue iaeeia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia oicyenoai. I?oaeiienou
io?eoeaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiie iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau. Iie
cayaeyee i naiai no?aieaiee e iieiie e iaiaaeeaiiie ioiaia anyeiai
ainoaea?noaa. «Aieueoeinoai» e «iaiueoeinoai», ianiio?y ia ?acee/ey a
oai?ee, ii iniiaiui iieeoe/aneei aii?inai aunooiaee aeinoaoi/ii
niei/aiii.

Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue iinea aaanoaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa (19 ia?oa)
Oeaio?aeueiue eiieoao Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee ia?aoeeny e a?aaeaeaiai:
«…Aeaaiaea?y aaoae ioaeanoaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea iu i?iaiaee
i?aaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ia aan i?aaeaei, iu aica?auaai aai iao iaiaeao, eai
ia no?aieiny caiyoue ianoi oao, eiai oieueei /oi niaea ao?y ia?iaeiiai
iaaiaeiaaiey. Aioiaueoanue aea iaiaaeey e eiiioiaeueiui auai?ai… Iiea
aea, eiaiai ia?iaea, iu i?iaeieaeaai caieiaoue ?aoooo. …?aai/ea, ia
iaiaiuaaeoanue: …eaeao aaeeeay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ia?aceoeciii e o?oaeii,
iaaeaeo yenieoaoaoeeae e i?iecaiaenoaii. Anee au onoaee einiaoue a
iaaaaeanoaa e i?icyaaoue a ieuaoa, anee au oioeoa, /oiau aaoe aeaoe
naeaeaeenue ethaeueie, iieuecothueieny ieiaeaie naiaai o?oaea, a ia
aeeaioiuie, auae?anne?iaaiiuie aeey ianoa?neie eee eaca?iu, anee au
oioeoa, iaeiiaoe, oea?noaa ni?aaaaeeeainoe,— ionoue aaoe neeueiua ?oee
iecaa?aioo i?ac?aiioth ?aaeoeeth».

Ia?aae ainnoaaoeie anoaea caaea/a o/?aaeaeaiey iiaie aeanoe. Iaeioi?ua
aa aaaeiua yeaiaiou oaea aeaenoaiaaee. Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaa?aeey yaeyeanue
aaeeinoaaiiie aiaiiie neeie a Ia?eaea. A ia?aua aea aeie ainnoaiey auee
?aca?iieaiu iieeoeaeneay i?aoaeoo?a e ioaeaeaiey iieeoeee a ai?iaeneeo
ie?oaao. Ooieoeee aioo?aiiae io?aiu ai?iaea auiieiyee niaoeeaeueii
auaeaeaiiua aaoaeueiiu Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee. Aue e ?oeiaiaeyuee i?aai
iiaie aeanoe — Oeaio?aeueiue eiieoao Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee.

?oeiaiaenoai ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa, auiieiyy i?eeac i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
iieeioei ai?iae e iainiiaaeinue a Aa?naea. N?aaeiaa caaii ath?ie?aoee
i?ae?aoeei ?aaioo. Eeoue iacia/eoaeueiay /anoue iaeeeo neoaeaueo
inoaeanue ia naieo ianoao.

Ia?aae eeoeii ioe?uoiai naaioaaea /eiiaieeia auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea ia
oaieueiaiee anao neoaeaueo, ia auoaaeoeo ia ?aaioo. Iacia/aiiua a
ieienoa?noaa e aaaeiinoaa niaoeeaeueiua oiieiiii/aiiua oaeoe/anee
aicaeaaeee yoe o/?aaeaeaiey.

Oeaio?aeueiue eiieoao Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee i?eiye ?aoaiea i
i?iaaaeaiee anaiaueo i?yiuo auai?ia a aunoee i?aaenoaaeoaeueiue i?aai
aeanoe — Niaao Ia?eaeneie Eiiioiu. A ?acoeueoaoa auai?ia, ninoiyaoeony
26 ia?oa, iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aeaiooaoia Niaaoa ninoaaeee ?aai/ea
eee i?eciaiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aai/eo.

Cae?aieyy neiaeeaoaany iieiaeaiea a iaeanoe iai?iiu, aeae?ao Eiiioiu io
29 ia?oa iauyaee Iaoeeiiaeueioth aaa?aeeth aaeeinoaaiiie aii?oaeaiiie
neeie a noieeoea. Acaiai iinoiyiiie a?iee i?aaeiieaaaeinue nicaeaiea
ia?iaeiiai iiie/aiey. Aeae?ao iiae/a?eeaae: «…Ana niiniaiua e iioaieth
i?oaeey a?aaeaeaia aoiaeyo a Iaoeeiiaeueioth aaa?aeeth». Oaeei ia?acii,
?a/ue oea i anaiauai aii?oaeaiee ia?iaea.

I?aaiu aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey Eiiioiu. Aunoei iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuei
i?aaiii noae Niaao Ia?eaeneie Eiiioiu. Auai?iua /eaiu Niaaoa ia
aeaiie?aoe/anee i?aaieciaaiiuo canaaeaieyo ii?aaeaeyee iieeoeeo Eiiioiu
ii aaaeiaeoei aii?inai, i?eieiaee caeiiu. Aeey i?aoai?aiey a aeeciue
i?eiyouo ?aoaiee Niaao i?aaieciaae a naiai ninoaaa 10 niaoeeaeueiuo
eiiennee. Aiaiiay eiienney aaaeaea aii?inaie aii?oaeaiey, nia?yaeaiey e
iiaeaioiaee Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee. I?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay eiienney
?oeiaiaeeea niaaaeaieai ai?iaea i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. Eiienney iauanoaaiiie
aaciianiinoe aeieaeia auea aanoe ai?ueao ni oieiiaaeai, aeeaa?neyie,
niaeoeyoeeae e o. ae. A caaea/e eiiennee o?oaea e iaiaia aoiaeeee
?oeiaiaenoai iauanoaaiiuie ?aaioaie, caaioa ia oeo/oaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey o?oaeyueony, niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
A aaaeaiee eiiennee thnoeoeee iaoiaeeeenue noaeaaiua o/?aaeaeaiey.
Aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae eiiennee oeiainia yaeyeinue iaaeeaaeauaa
?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. A aaaeaiea eiiennee iauanoaaiiuo
neoaea ia?aaeaaaeenue ii/oa, oaeaa?ao, iooe niiauaiey. Eiienney ii
i?inaauaieth aeieaeia auea inouanoaeyoue ?oeiaiaenoai anaiauei
iaycaoaeueiui aanieaoiui naaoneei ia?aciaaieai. Ia eiienneth aiaoieo
niioaiee aiceaaaeinue onoaiiaeaiea eiioaeoia n ioaeaeueiuie
aeaia?oaiaioaie no?aiu, a i?e aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo — n
i?aaeoaeuenoaaie eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo eiiennee
aeieaeia auea aicaeaaeyoue niioaaonoaothuaa ieienoa?noai. Iniaoth ?ieue
ea?aea eniieieoaeueiay eiienney. A aa caaea/e aoiaeeee eii?aeeie?iaaiea
?aaio ioaeaeueiuo eiiennee e iaaethaeaiea ca eniieiaieai aeae?aoia
Eiiioiu e iinoaiiaeaiee eiiennee.

Niaao Eiiioiu aue naycai n i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ia
ianoao — ie?oaeiuie ioieoeeiaeeoaoaie. Aeaiooaou Eiiioiu, eca?aiiua io
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ie?oaa Ia?eaea, aicaeaaeyee aeayoaeueiinoue
ioieoeeiaeeoaoa aeaiiiai ie?oaa.

Noae e i?ioeann. Eiienney thnoeoeee i?iaiaeeea a aeeciue i?iaicaeaoaiiua
Eiiioiie aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee noaea e i?ioeanna:
auai?iinoue, aeaiie?aoecaoeey noaea i?enyaeiuo, ?aaainoai anao ia?aae
noaeii, aeaniinoue noaea, oaeaoaaeaiea i?ioeanna, naiaiaea caueou e o.
ae. Noaeaaiay nenoaia eiiioiu eiino?oe?iaaeanue ii ia?a iiyaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiinoe a iiaii noaeaaiii i?aaia. Noaeu auae?aeenue. A eoiaa
noaeaaiay nenoaia Eiiioiu neiaeeeanue a neaaeothuai aeaea: 1)
iauaa?aaeaeaineea noaeu — iaaeieoaeueiia aeth?e ii aeaeai aa?naeueoeaa,
iaeaoa a?aaeaeaineiai noaea, ie?iaua noaeu; 2) aiaiiua noaeu —
aeenoeeieeia?iua noaeu a aaoaeueiiao, noaeu a eaaeiiao, iauaa?iaeneee
aiaiii-iieaaie noae.

Aeae?aoii Eiiioiu onoaiaaeeaaeinue iineaaeothuaa ooaa?aeaeaiea
eniieieoaeueiie eiienneae nia?oiuo i?eaiai?ia, auiineiuo noaeaie. Ia
i?aeoeea ec anao i?eaiai?ia e nia?oe eiienney ia ooaa?aeeea ie iaeiiai.
Ana caaiuey noaeaaiie nenoaiu aicaeaaee Niaao Ia?eaeneie Eiiioiu. Ii aea
yaeyeny noaeii ia?aie einoaioeee ii aeaeai, i?aaenoaaeyaoei iaeaieueooth
aaaeiinoue. Ii ioiioaieth ei anai inoaeueiui noaeai Niaao aue noaeii
aunoae eannaoeeiiiie einoaioeee.

*oiau enei?aieoue ea?uea?enoneea ono?aieaiey, Eiiioia onoaiiaeea, /oi
ieeaaeu anao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe a i?aaiao aeanoe, oi?aaeaiey e noaea ia
aeieaeiu i?aauoaoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo.

Nioeeaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Eiiioiu. Auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea ia
ioaeaeaiee oea?eae io naaoneie aeanoe e yeni?ii?eaoeee oae iacuaaaiuo
iaio/oaeaeaaiuo eiouanoa ?aeeaeiciuo eiia?aaaoeee. Oi?acaeiyeny
athaeaeao eoeueoia.

Eiiioia i?eiyea ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia oeo/oaiea
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey iaeiaiaa ninoiyoaeueiuo neiaa
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey. Iaeaieaa ioaeaeathueiny auee auaeaiu aeaiaaeiua
iiniaey, ion?i/ai aciin eaa?oe?iie ieaou, aeaeaeeiia eiouanoai ia noiio
aei 20 o?aieia, caeiaeaiiia a eiiaa?aea, aacaiciacaeii aica?auaeinue
nianoaaiieeai, cai?auaeenue oo?aou e au/aou ec ca?aaioiie ieaou.
Aeae?aoii Eiiioiu io 16 ai?aey ianoa?neea, a?ioaiiua naieie
aeaaeaeueoeaie, aaaeaaoeie aianoa n i?aaeoaeuenoaii a Aa?naeue,
ia?aaeaaaeenue eiiia?aoeaiui annioeeaoeeyi ?aai/eo. I?aaeoniao?eaaeinue
o/?aaeaeaiea o?aoaeneiai noaea, «eioi?ue a neo/aa aica?auaiey oicyaa
aeieaeai aoaeao onoaiiaeoue oneiaey ia?aaea/e ianoa?neeo ?aai/ei
oiaa?euanoaai e ?acia? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ia yoe oiaa?euanoaa
aeieaeiu aoaeoo oieaoeoue auaoei oicyaaai».

Iaeiia?aiaiii Eiiioia iioaeeeiaaea i?ia?aiiiue aeieoiaio ioiineoaeueii
iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia i?aaeeaaaaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy O?aioeee —
Aeaeea?aoeeth e o?aioeocneiio ia?iaeo (19 ai?aey 1871 a.).

Inoaaaynue aaeeiie aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeeie, O?aioeey aeieaeia auea
i?aaeinoaaeoue a?aaeaeaiai anae no?aiu i?aai nicaeaaaoue aaoiiiiiua
eiiioiu, i?aaieciaaiiua ii oeio Ia?eaeneie. I?aaiii/ey ioaeaeueiie
eiiioiu iiaee auoue ia?aie/aiu oieueei iaeeiaeiauie i?aaaie anao i?i/eo
eiiioi, nithc eioi?uo iaania/eaae aaeeinoai no?aiu. E aaaeaieth eaaeaeie
eiiioiu ioiineeenue aioe?iaaiea ianoiiai athaeaeaoa, oi?aaeaiea ianoiui
eiouanoaii, i?aaiecaoeey nianoaaiiiai noaea, iieeoeee e iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaa?aeee, ia?aciaaiea. Iaiouaieaiui i?aaii a?aaeaeai eiiioiu
iauyaeyeinue eo o/anoea a aa aeaeao iooai naiaiaeiiai au?aaeaiey naieo
acaeyaeia e naiaiaeiie caueou naieo eioa?ania, a oaeaea iieiay aa?aioey
naiaiaeu ee/iinoe, naiaiaeu niaanoe e o?oaea. Aeieaeiinoiua eeoea,
auai?iua eee iacia/aiiua iinea iiaaaeu ii eiieo?no, aeieaeiu
iaoiaeeoueny iiae iinoiyiiui iauanoaaiiui eiio?ieai e iiaoo auoue
ioicaaiu. Oeaio?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai — «oeaio?aeueiay
aaeieieno?aoeey», eae iii iacuaaeinue a Aeaeea?aoeee,— iuneeeinue a
aeaea nia?aiey aeaeaaaoia io ioaeaeueiuo eiiioi.

«Eiiioiaeueiay ?aaiethoeey» ?anniao?eaaeanue eae ia/aei iiaie y?u
«yenia?eiaioaeueiie, iiceoeaiie, iao/iie iieeoeee».

Aa?naeueneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?acaa?ioei a Ia?eaea aeoeaioth iiae?uaioth
aeayoaeueiinoue (oieiiaae, iiaeeoi, naaioaae, aeeaa?nee,
oa??i?enoe/aneea aeou). Iieuecoynue i?iaicaeaoaiiui i?aaii naiaiaeu
ia/aoe aeey anao, ei??aniiiaeaiou auoiaeeaoeo a Ia?eaea i?iaa?naeueneeo
aacao iinauaee iaeaieaa ioaaonoaaiiua o/anoee o?iioa, iinea /aai
ia/aoaee iiae?iaiaeoea aiaiiua iaci?u. Iie neoaeeee aeiiieieoaeueiui
enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee aeey aa?naeueoeaa, eiaaoeo aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/aoue yoe aacaou a oio aea aeaiue. (Oieueei iinea aeieaeo e
io/eoaeueiuo eieaaaiee Eiiioia i?eiyea ?aoaiea ia?aie/eoue naiaiaeo
ia/aoe.)

I?ioeainoiyiea iaaeaeo Ia?eaeai e Aa?naeai auei ?ac?aoaii aiaiiui iooai.
Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia iay aa?naeueoeu, eniieuecoy eieinnaeueiia
i?aainoiaenoai a aiaiiie neea, ai?aaeenue a Ia?eae, a 28 iay iaea
iineaaeiyy aa??eeaaea eiiioia?ia. Ia/aeenue eacie ii «noaeo» e aac
noaea.

11. O?aouey ?anioaeeea

Ai?ueaa ca ?anioaeeeo. Iineaaenoaey aieiu 1870—1871 aa.
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy neacuaaeenue ia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii e
iieeoe/aneii iieiaeaiee O?aioeee. No?aia ia aein/eoaeanue iiiaeo naieo
a?aaeaeai, oaeouo ia iieyo n?aaeaiee. Ii ie?iiio aeiaiai?o Aa?iaiee
ia?aaeaaaeenue Yeuecan e Eioa?eiaey, a oaeaea auiea/eaaeanue
eiio?eaooeey a ?acia?a 5 ie?ae. o?aieia. Inoaaaeinue iai?yaeaiiui
aioo?eiieeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea a no?aia.

Iniiaiay iieeoe/aneay i?iaeaia ia?auo iineaaiaiiuo eao auea naycaia n
aoaeouei ainoaea?noaaiiui no?iai no?aiu. I?eiyoea Eiinoeoooeee aeieaeii
auei noaoue aeaeii niaoeeaeueii eca?aiiiai O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey.
Iaeiaei ii ianoiyieth i?aaeoaeuenoaa ooieoeee oaeiai i?aaia auee a?o/aiu
Iaoeeiiaeueiiio nia?aieth, eca?aiiiio aua a aiaeu aieiu. Aai ninoaa aue
e?aeia eiina?aaoeaiui. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ninoaaeyee iiia?oenou.

Ii ai O?aioeee oaea ia auei aeinoaoi/iie nioeeaeueiie aacu aeey
iiia?oee. Iieeoeea aoi?ie eiia?ee ieii/aoaeueii ?acaayea iiia?oe/aneea
eeethcee e?anoueyinoaa, ninoaaeyaoaai oiaaea ieiei 70% ianaeaiey no?aiu.
?anioaeeeaineea oaaaeaeaiey ?aai/eo auee ecaanoiu. Yoi auioaeeei
iiia?oe/aneia aieueoeinoai a Nia?aiee a?aiaiii ioeacaoueny io
ainnoaiiaeaiey iiia?oee. A Nia?aiee ana /aua noaee aiai?eoue i oii, /oi
aaoi?eoa?iua ?aaeeiu anaaaea eii/aeenue «aa??eeaaeaie e ?oaeueyie,
eioi?ua naie ia/eiaee no?aeyoue». Aaciaaeaaeiinoue aeaea iiia?oenoia aua
aieaa iiae/a?eioei auyaeaoaany e oiio a?aiaie iieiia ionoonoaea
aaeeinoaa n?aaee iiia?oe/aneeo o?aeoeee. A yoeo oneiaeyo Nia?aiea
ianeieueei eciaieei naith iieeoeeo, nooue eioi?ie aeinoaoi/ii ioe?iaaiii
ii?aaeaeee iaeei ec eeaea?ia i?aauo: «…Ia aoaeo/e a ninoiyiee
nicaeaoue iiia?oeth, ioaeii nicaeaoue no?ie, aieaa anaai e iae
i?eaeeaeathueeny». I?e aeaaii?eyoiii noa/aiee ianoiyoaeuenoa ii iicaieee
au auno?i e aacaieaciaiii ia?aeoe io ?anioaeeee e iiia?oee.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiua caeiiu 1875 a. Auei i?eiyoi o?e iniiaiuo caeiia,
eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe e ninoaaeee iiaoth Eiinoeoooeeth no?aiu:
Eiinoeoooeeiiiue caeii ia i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae, Caeii
ia i?aaiecaoeee naiaoa e Caeii ia ioiioaieyo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae.
Eiinoeoooeeiiiua aeou ii?aaeaeyee no?oeoo?o e eiiiaoaioeeth ioaeaeueiuo
aunoeo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Ionoonoaea aaeeiiai
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue iaieoe aii?in
ia iaueo i?eioeeiao ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy. Ie iaeia noaouey i?yii ia
ooaa?aeaeaea ?anioaeeeo. Eeoue iaee/ea i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i iaiiia?oe/aneie oi?ia i?aaeaiey aea a naiii Caeiia
oiio?aaeyeny oa?iei «i?aceaeaio ?anioaeeee». I?e yoii noaouey, aaea
aiai?eeinue i «i?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee», auea i?eiyoa aieueoeinoaii a
iaeei aiein. A Eiinoeoooeee ia auee oiiiyioou aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?aaa e
naiaiaeu a?aaeaeai.

Ii a oeaeii o?e eiinoeoooeeiiiuo caeiia onoaiaaeeaaee ?anioaeeeaineee
no?ie ai aeaaa n i?aceaeaioii, ia?eaiaioii eae aunoei i?aaiii
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe e ia?eaiaioneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

I?aceaeaio ecae?aeny ia naiue eao aaniethoiui aieueoeinoaii aieinia
naiaoa e iaeaou aeaiooaoia, niaaeeiaiiuo aeey yoie oeaee a aaeeiia
Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea. Ii iia auoue ‘ia?aeca?ai. Aio auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau, iioaeeeiaaiey
caeiiia, iaaethaeaiey ca eo eniieiaieai. Ii iia ion?i/eoue canaaeaiey
iaeao, iio?aaiaaoue iiaoi?iiai ianoaeaeaiey caeiiii?iaeoa, oaea
niaeaniaaiiiai iaeaoaie. N niaeaney naiaoa ii ?anioneae iaeaoo
aeaiooaoia aei enoa/aiey caeiiiiai n?iea aa iieiiii/ee. I?aceaeaio
yaeyeny aeaaie aii?oaeaiiuo nee. Aio i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai iacia/aiey
ia ana aunoea aiaiiua e a?aaeaeaineea aeieaeiinoe. Ii eiae i?aai
iiieeiaaiey. A eoiaa Eiinoeoooeey iaaeaeeea i?aceaeaioa anaie ao?eaooaie
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai iiia?oa, ia oaaoaei eeoue iieiaeaiey i ianeaaenoaaiiii
oa?aeoa?a aai aeanoe (yoio «i?iaae» iiia?oenou ia oa?yee iaaeaaeaeu
aiineaaenoaee ainiieieoue).

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue aeieaeia auea inouanoaeyoueny iaeaoie
aeaiooaoia e naiaoii. Eiinoeooe?iaaiea ia?eaiaioneeo o/?aaeaeaiee
i?aneaaeiaaei i?aaeaea anaai oeaeue iaeo?aeeciaaoue iaeaoo aeaiooaoia —
ii nouanoao aaeeinoaaiiue i?aai a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia,
eiiieaeooaiue ia iniiaa i?yiuo auai?ia, iiyoiio a eaeie-oi ia?a
caaenyuee io iiaiey ecae?aoaeae. A ea/anoaa i?ioeaiaana ieaeiae iaeaoa
o/?aaeaeaeny naiao. Ia aaaeiinoue yoiai i?aaia oeacuaaee iiia?oenou,
i?yii cayaeyaoea: «Eiinoeoooeey 1875 a.— yoi i?aaeaea anaai-naiao».
?ieue e i?aaiii/ey naiaoa a oi/iinoe iiaoi?yee ?ieue e i?aaiii/ey iaeaou
iy?ia a?aiai ?anoaa?aoeee i?aaeaiey Ao?aiiia, /oi i?aaeaea anaai
icia/aei iacaaeneiinoue naiaoa io ?yaeiauo ecae?aoaeae. Aianoa n oai
naiaoo i?aaeinoaaeyeenue ?aaiua n iaeaoie aeaiooaoia i?aaa a iaeanoe
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Onoaiaaeeaaeinue oieueei, /oi iaeaoa aeaiooaoia
ia?aie ?anniao?eaaao oeiainiaua caeiiii?iaeou. Oaeoe/anee nicaeaaaeinue
iieiaeaiea, eiaaea aac niaeaney naiaoa ie iaeei caeiiii?iaeo ia iia
iieo/eoue neeo caeiia. Aieaa oiai, naiao eiae ?yae i?aeiouanoa ii
n?aaiaieth n iaeaoie aeaiooaoia. N aai niaeaney i?aceaeaio iia
?anionoeoue iaeaoo aeaiooaoia, naiao aea ?inioneo ia iiaeeaaeae. Naiao
iia auoue i?aa?auai a aa?oiaiue noaeaaiue i?aai aeey noaea iaae
i?aceaeaioii e ieieno?aie.

A Eiinoeoooeee ia auei niaoeeaeueiiai ?acaeaea, iinayuaiiiai aunoei
i?aaiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Caeiiu niaea?aeaee ioaeaeueiua
o?aaiaioa?iua iieiaeaiey, eanathueany aeayoaeueiinoe ieieno?ia. Oae,
aiai?eeinue i nieeaea?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ieieno?ia ia?aae iaeaoaie ca
iauoth iieeoeeo i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i i?aaa ieieno?ia eiaoue aeinooi a iaa
iaeaou e o. ae.

Anai yoei ii nouanoao e ia?aie/eaaeinue niaea?aeaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiuo
caeiiia.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea ?anioaeeee. Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo iiia?oenoaie e
?anioaeeeaioeaie i?iaeieaeaeanue e iinea 1875 a. Ana aieaa yaiie
noaiiaeeanue e aa nioeeaeueiay iiaeiieaea. Niaea?aeaiea ai?ueau ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeyeinue no?aieaieai ioaeaeueiuo a?oii iiia?oe/anee
iano?iaiiuo aaiee?ia, e?oiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa
caiyoue iniai i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea a ainoaea?noaa. I?ioea
i?aoaiaeaioia ia «iiiiiieeth aeanoe» aunooiaea any inoaeueiay O?aioeey.
Yoi e iaoneiaeei eiia/ioth iiaaaeo ?anioaeeeaioeaa, oioy ai?ueaa auea
iai?yaeaiiie e eciaeeiaaea ae?aiaoe/aneeie neooaoeeyie.

A 1877 a. o?e iiia?oe/aneea a?oiie?iaee (eaaeoeienou, i?eaaienou e
aiiaia?oenou) iauaaeeieeenue a caaiai?a i?ioea ?anioaeeee. I?aceaeaio
Iae-Iaaii (aiiaia?oeno) aicaeaaeaoee caaiai?ueeia, iiiuoaeny niaa?oeoue
ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io. Iaeiaei, noieeioaoenue n nii?ioeaeaieai
?anioaeeeaioeaa, Iae-Iaaii aue auioaeaeai oeoe a ionoaaeo. Iaoaea/iie
auea e aoi?ay iiiuoea aioe?anioaeeeaineiai ia?aai?ioa, i?aaei?eiyoay
aiaiiui ieieno?ii Aoeaiaea. Iianaynue ainnoaiey ia?eaeai, Aoeaiaea oae e
ia ?aoeeny ia ioe?uoia aiaiiia aunooieaiea i?ioea ?anioaeeee. Ano?aoea
oii?iia, ana aic?anoathuaa nii?ioeaeaiea ia?iaea, iiia?oenou ioeacaeenue
io ieaiia iiauo aeeianoe/aneeo ia?aai?ioia.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiue ?aaeei. Oi?i/aiea ?anioaeeee i?eaaei e aaaeiiio
eciaiaieth oaeoe/aneiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ?aaeeia. Yoi eanaeinue
i?aaeaea anaai i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe. A aeacao ?anioaeeeaioeaa aeanoue
i?aceaeaioa auea neiii?iiaoe?iaaia iiia?oe/aneei ia?aai?ioii,
niaa?oaiiui i?aceaeaioii aoi?ie ?anioaeeee Eoe-Iaiieaiiii,
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aceaeaioa-caaiai?ueea Iae-Iaaiia. Oe?ieea iieiiii/ey
i?aceaeaioa noaee i?aaeiaoii ?aceie e?eoeee. A oi aea a?aiy a
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo iieiiii/eyo aeaau ainoaea?noaa iiaua i?aayuea e?oae
aeaeaee aaaeioth aa?aioeth ia neo/ae aioo?eiieeoe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee.
Auoiae aue iaeaeai a oaeoe/aneii ia?aie/aiee ?iee e ooieoeee
i?aceaeaioa. Ii iie/aeeaiio niaeaoaieth ia?oee ia yoio iino noaee
auae?aoue iaeicia/eoaeueiuo aeayoaeae, ia niiniaiuo e i?iaaaeaieth
naiinoiyoaeueiie iieeoe/aneie eeiee. Aieueoay /anoue i?aaiii/ee
i?aceaeaioa oaeoe/anee ia?aoea ia?eaiaioo e i?aaeoaeuenoao. Iaeioi?ua
iaeaieaa aaaeiua ec inoaaoeony iieiiii/ee (i?aai ?inionea iaeaou
aeaiooaoia, caeiiiaeaoaeueiia aaoi) i?aceaeaioii naiinoiyoaeueii ia
eniieueciaaeenue. I?e oaeoe/aneii noaeaiee aai iieiiii/ee aio
ioaiaeeeanue ?ieue naiaia?aciiai ?aca?aa aeanoe ia neo/ae aiciiaeiiai
e?ecena ia?eaiaioneeo e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo no?oeoo?.

A 1884 a. a ianoaiiaea iaeeaeaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a no?aia
auee i?eiyou iaeioi?ua aaaeiua iii?aaee e aeiiieiaiey e Eiinoeoooeee
1875 a. A /anoiinoe, cai?auaeinue ia?aniao?eaaoue ?anioaeeeaineoth oi?io
i?aaeaiey; i?aaenoaaeoaee aeeianoee, i?aaeaoeo ai O?aioeee, eeoaeenue
i?aaa ecae?aoueny ia iino i?aceaeaioa; aue eciaiai ii?yaeie
eiiieaeoiaaiey naiaoa (oi?acaeiyeanue eaoaai?ey ianiaiyaiuo naiaoi?ia
—joaia?ue eo anao ecae?aee auai?ueee io eiiioi; i?e/ai eiiioiu n
aieueoae /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey ecae?aee aieueoaa eiee/anoai
auai?ueeia).

Iaiiiai ?aiueoa (a 1879—1880 aa.) oi?aeanoai ?anioaeeeaioeaa
iciaiaiiaaei ianeieueei neiaiee/aneeo aeoia: ?aceaeaioeey ia?eaiaioa ec
Aa?naey auea ia?aianaia a Ia?eae, iaoeeiiaeueiui aeiiii noaea
«Ia?naeueaca», iaoeeiiaeueiui i?acaeieeii — 14 ethey (aeaiue acyoey
Aanoeeee).

A eoiaa oaeoe/aneee eiinoeoooeeiiiue no?ie i?aoa?iae aaaeiua eciaiaiey.
A eiioea XIX a. a no?aia ooaa?aeeeanue ia?eaiaioneay ?anioaeeea.
Ia?eaiaio caiye aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea a ainoaea?noaaiiii iaoaiecia.
Yoi i?aaeaea anaai iaia?aie/aiiua iieiiii/ey a iaeanoe
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ?anoe?aiea aeeyiey ia aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Niaao ieieno?ia oi?ie?oaony ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia?oee,
iieo/eaoeo aieueoeinoai ia auai?ao e ninoaaeaoeo ia?eaiaioneia
aieueoeinoai. I?aaeoaeuenoai ioaaonoaaiii ia?aae ia?eaiaioii (aiooi
iaaeiaa?ey, auianaiiue oioy au iaeiie ec iaeao ia?eaiaioa, iaycuaae
i?aaeoaeuenoai aueoe a ionoaaeo). I?iecioei oiaeaiea aeanoe i?aceaeaioa.
Iaaeaeaiiue eiinoeoooeeiiiuie caeiiaie cia/eoaeueiuie iieiiii/eyie, ii
ia i?aeoeea ia ieacuaae nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia ainoaea?noaaiioth
?aaioo.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ?aaeeia ?anioaeeee. Aaaeiui aniaeoii
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie enoi?ee O?aoueae ?anioaeeee, eae, ai?i/ai, e
ethaie ae?oaie no?aiu, yaeeenue oi?iu e niiniau acaeiiaeaenoaey
ioaee/iie aeanoe n iauanoaii, a a aieaa oe?ieii ieaia — ?aaeeia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu a oeaeii, aaaeiaeoae /anoueth
eioi?ie yaeythony ainoaea?noai e i?aai. A ?anniao?eaaaiia a?aiy aaaeiui
yeaiaioii iaoaiecia aeanoe, ooaa?aeeaoaeny a no?aia, noaee iieeoe/aneea
ia?oee. E eiioeo XIX a. en/acei i?aaeiaa aeaeaiea ia?oee ia
iiia?oe/aneea e ?anioaeeeaineea. Auaoea e?aeiea iiia?oenou ninoaaeee
iaaieueooth, iieuecothuothny iacia/eoaeueiui aeeyieai eiina?aaoeaioth
ia?oeth. Ia aunooiay ioe?uoi i?ioea ?anioaeeee, iia iuoaeanue iiiaoaoue
anai ia?ii?eyoeyi, niinianoaothuei aeaiie?aoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
no?iy.

?anioaeeeaioeu ?acaeaeeeenue ia ianeieueei iieeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie,
iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo auee eaaua ?anioaeeeaioeu, eaaua aeaiie?aou,
?anioaeeeainei-aeaiie?aoe/aneee nithc. Iie ia i?aaenoaaeyee
neieueei-ieaoaeue onoie/eauo iauaaeeiaiee. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeea ia?oey
?aaeeeaeia, i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieaiiay ?anioaeeeaioeaie a 1901 a. e
oa?aeoa?eciaaaoayny iaeioi?ie noaaeeueiinoueth. A yoi a?aiy iiyaeeinue
aieueoia eiee/anoai ae?oaeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e a?oiie?iaie.
Iiiaiia?oeeiinoue auea iaoneiaeaia a iniiaiii i?aaeoanoaothuae ao?iie
iieeoe/aneie enoi?eae no?aiu. Iai?a?uaii neaaeiaaaoea iaeii ca ae?oaei
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea iio?ynaiey i?aiyonoaiaaee eiinieeaeaoeee
iieeoe/aneeo nee. Aicieeaaoea ia?oeeiua i?aaiecaoeee auee e?aeia
iaonoie/eau: iie o/?aaeaeaeenue, aeaeeeenue, niaaeeiyeenue, iaeiiaoe,
en/acaee, /oiau aiiaue iiyaeoueny iiae iiaui iaeiaiiaaieai. Aieueoeinoai
«ia?oee» ia eiaei oaa?aei onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i,
iinoiyiiiai /eainoaa, i?ia?aiiiuo aeieoiaioia e o. ae. Iie nei?aa
i?aaenoaaeyee niaie a?aiaiiua iauaaeeiaiey iieeoeeia, nicaeaiiua n
aaeeinoaaiiie oeaeueth — aeiaeoueny eca?aiey ia i/a?aaeiuo auai?ao a
ia?eaiaio aiciiaeii aieueoaai /enea naieo noi?iiieeia. Iau/iui yaeaieai
aue ia?aoiae aeaiooaoia ec iaeiie ia?eaiaioneie o?aeoeee a ae?oaoth.
*anoue ia?eaiaioa?eaa iaiyea naie «ia?oeeiua oaaaeaeaiey» a caaeneiinoe
io neeaaeuaaaoaeny eiiuthieoo?u, no?aiynue iaania/eoue naaa ea?uea?o,
iieo/eoue aeioiaeioth aeieaeiinoue. Nioeeaeueiay aaca anao yoeo ia?oee
auea /?acau/aeii iaiaeii?iaeiie, ii a oeaeii a ieo aeiieie?iaaee neeu,
aunooiaaoea ca nio?aiaiea nouanoaiaaaoaai iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai
no?iy.

A eiioea XIX a. aicieeee ?aai/ea ia?oee. Oae, a 1879 a. ia nuacaea
i?ionithcia auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i nicaeaiee nioeeaeenoe/aneie ia?oee. A
naiai ?acaeoee ia?oey ia?aaeeea iiiai ?aneieia e iauaaeeiaiee, ii a
oeaeii a iae aiciaeaaeaei oa/aiea «iinneaeeecia», nooue eioi?iai
naiaeeeanue a eiia/iii n/aoa e no?aieaieth aeaenoaiaaoue, «ii
aiciiaeiinoe» aeiaeaaynue ei?aiiuo nioeeaeueiuo eciaiaiee, ia?aoiaea e
nioeeaeecio ie?iui, yaiethoeeiiiui iooai, iin?aaenoaii ?aoi?i.

Ia?eaiaio inoaaaeny iniiaiui caaiii ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae. A yoie
nayce iniaia cia/aiea eiae ii?yaeie auai?ia aeaiooaoia. Iaeaoa
aeaiooaoia ecae?aeanue ia iniiaa i?yiiai ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa ii
iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia a aeaa oo?a. No?aia aeaeeeanue ia ecae?aoaeueiua
ie?oaa. Io eaaeaeiai ie?oaa iia auoue eca?ai iaeei aeaiooao. A ia?aii
oo?a eca?aiiui n/eoaeny eaiaeeaeao, nia?aaoee aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai
aieinia (aieaa 50% anao o/anoaiaaaoeo a auai?ao). Anee ieeoi ia iieo/ae
o?aaoaiiai aieueoeinoaa, i?iaiaeeeny aoi?ie oo?, a eioi?ii aeey eca?aiey
auei aeinoaoi/ii ioiineoaeueiiai aieueoeinoaa aieinia. A oneiaeyo
iiiaiia?oeeiinoe iieo/aiea aaniethoiiai aieueoeinoaa a ia?aii oo?a auei
yaeaieai aeiaieueii ?aaeeei. Noaeueaa ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee ?aoaeanue,
eae i?aaeei, ai aoi?ii oo?a, /oi nicaeaaaei /?acau/aeii aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey caeoeeniuo iaaeia?oeeiuo niaeaoaiee. Ia?oee, auyniea a
ia?aii oo?a naie aiciiaeiinoe, ia?aae aoi?ui oo?ii aeiaiaa?eaaeenue ia
iaueo eaiaeeaeaoao, ia iauaaeeiaiee aieinia e o. i. Iineieueeo aeey
eca?aiey ai aoi?ii oo?a o?aaiaaeinue ioiineoaeueiia aieueoeinoai
aieinia, iiiaea aeaiooaou i?aaenoaaeyee iaiueoeinoai ecae?aoaeae naiaai
ie?oaa (iai?eia?, a ie?oaa ni 100 oun. ecae?aoaeae ai aoi?ii oo?a
aaeeioe?iaaeenue /aou?a eaiaeeaeaoa, iieo/eaoea niioaaonoaaiii 25 oun.,
25 oun., 24 oun. e 26 oun. aieinia; eca?aiiui n/eoaeny iineaaeiee).

A auai?ao iiaee o/anoaiaaoue eeoea, eiaaoea o?aioeocneia a?aaeaeainoai,
aeinoeaoea 21 aiaea e i?iaeeaaaoea a iaeiii ianoa ia iaiaa oanoe
ianyoeaa. Ecae?aoaeueiuo i?aa auee eeoaiu aeaiueiu, aiaiiineoaeauea e
ei?aiiua aeeoaee eieiiee.

Naiaoi?u ecae?aeenue iooai iai?yiiai anaiauaai aieiniaaiey. Eaaeaeay
eiiioia auae?aea iaeiiai auai?ueea. I?e/ai iaeioi?ua, auai?ueee ia
ecae?aeenue niaoeeaeueii aeey i?iaaaeaiey auai?ia a naiao, oae eae oaea
auee eca?aiu a ?acee/iua ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu (aeaiooaou,
aaia?aeueiua niaaoieee, ie?oaeiua niaaoieee). Auai?ueee ecae?aee
naiaoi?ia. Ecae?aoaeueiuie ie?oaaie aeey ieo auee aeaia?oaiaiou (auai?u
i?iaiaeeeenue a aeaaiii ai?iaea eaaeaeiai aeaia?oaiaioa). Aeey eca?aiey
a naiaoi?u o?aaiaaeinue aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai aieinia a ia?auo aeaoo
oo?ao. A o?aoueai oo?a aeinoaoi/ii auei ioiineoaeueiiai aieueoeinoaa.

Iineieueeo naeueneeo eiiioi auei aieueoa, /ai ai?iaeneeo, a naiaoa
aeiieie?iaaee eiina?aaoeaii iano?iaiiua iieeoeee.

I?aaeoaeuenoai. Iiiaiia?oeeiue (iiiaio?aeoeeiiiue) ninoaa ia?eaiaioa e
eae neaaenoaea yoiai ionoonoaea noaaeeueiiai aieueoeinoaa i?eaiaeeee e
/anoie niaia eaaeiaoia ieieno?ia. N?ie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa
a ia?eiae n 1875 ii 1918 a. ia i?aauoae a n?aaeiai iaeiiai aiaea.
Iaeiaei niaia eaaeiaoa ia icia/aea iaycaoaeueii iieioth niaio aai
ninoaaa. Neiaeeeanue ii?aaeaeaiiay a?oiia iieeoeeia, eioi?ua iiia?aiaiii
aoiaeeee ii/oe ai ana i?aaeoaeuenoaa, caieiay a ieo ?acee/iua
ieienoa?neea iinou. Oaeei ia?acii, yoe eeoea iaoiaeeeenue o aeanoe
aanueia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy.

Ath?ie?aoey. Ia?eaiaioneea auai?u e /anoay niaia eaaeiaoia ieieno?ia
ieneieueei ia cao?aaeaaee iniiaioth /anoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa,
inouanoaeyaoaai oi?aaeaiea no?aiie. ?aaiethoeee, ia?aai?iou XIX a. ia
oieueei ia iieieaaaee ath?ie?aoe/aneee iaoaieci, nicaeaiiue aua ai
a?aiaia Ia?aie eiia?ee, ii aua aieaa aai oniaa?oainoaiaaee e oneeeee.
O?aaeeoeey, ii eioi?ie /eiiaieee inoathony, ianiio?y ia niaio
i?aaeoaeuenoaa eee ?aaeeia, auea iieiinoueth nio?aiaia a O?aoueae
?anioaeeea. A oneiaeyo, eiaaea ieieno?u cia/eoaeueioth /anoue naiaai
a?aiaie o?aoeee ia iaaeo?aeoeeiiioth ai?ueao, ieoe iianaaeiaaiiai
oi?aaeaiey nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue a ?oeao oceiai e?oaa aunoeo /eiiaieeia,
caieiaaoeo naie iinou ia iaeei aeanyoie eao.

Iniaaiii i?eia/aoaeueiie auea ?ieue, auiieiyaiay Ainoaea?noaaiiui
niaaoii. Yoio i?aai, o/?aaeaeaiiue aua i?e Iaiieaiia I, ninoiye ec
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aunoae ath?ie?aoee, iacia/aaiuo aeae?aoii i?aceaeaioa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao eiinoeueoe?iaae i?aaeoaeuenoai ii aii?inai
oi?aaeaiey. Aeaenoaoy a oaie, ii iiae/an ieacuaae ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia
oa?aeoa? i?eieiaaiuo i?aaeoaeuenoaii ?aoaiee. Iaeiia?aiaiii
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao yaeyeny aunoei noaeii aaeieieno?aoeaiie
thnoeoeee, ?anniao?eaaaoei i?aaiia?ooaiey, niaa?oaiiua /eiiaieeaie i?e
eniieiaiee naieo iaycaiiinoae.

Ianoiia oi?aaeaiea. ?anioaeeea a iniiaiii nio?aieea i?aaeiaa
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea, oianeaaeiaaiiia io Ia?aie
eiia?ee. Ioaeaeueiua ieienoa?noaa eiaee aeaia?oaiaiou, a a ?yaea neo/aaa
a aieaa iaeeeo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaeeieoeao naie oa??eoi?eaeueiua
oi?aaeaiey. Iieiiii/iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe a
aeaia?oaiaioa, eiioeaio?e?iaaaoei ii/oe anth iieiioo aeanoe ia ianoao,
yaeyeny i?aoaeo, iacia/aaoeeny ia iino aeae?aoii i?aceaeaioa (ii
i?aaenoaaeaieth ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae). I?aaeoaeuenoai nio?aieei
iieioth naiaiaeo a auai?a yoeo /eiiaieeia. Ai aeaaa ie?oaa iaoiaeeeny
noi?aoaeo, iacia/aaoeeny ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae e iiae/eiaiiue
i?aoaeoo. A i?aaeaeao ie?oaa noi?aoaeo a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eiie?iaae
iieiiii/ey aeaau aeaia?oaiaioa.

Auai?iua ianoiua i?aaiu. Aeaia?oaiaioneea aaia?aeueiua niaaou, ie?oaeiua
niaaou, ioieoeeiaeeoaou a eiiioiao aaaeaee aii?inaie ianoiiai
aeaaiono?ienoaa, ?aneeaaeee iaeiaia e o. ae. I iacia/eoaeueiie ?iee
i?aaiia ianoiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei oi, /oi i?aoaeo
eiae i?aai i?einoaiaaeeaaoue e ii?ioanoiauaaoue ?aoaiey aaia?aeueiuo
niaaoia e ioiaiyoue ?aoaiey ie?oaeiuo niaaoia. ?aoaiey ioieoeeiaeeoaoia
aiiaua i?eia?aoaee caeiiioth neeo eeoue iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey eo
i?aoaeoii. Iy? — auai?iia aeieaeiinoiia eeoei a eiiioia iia auoue
i?eeacii i?aoaeoa iono?aiai io eniieiaiey naieo iaycaiiinoae, a ieieno?
aioo?aiieo aeae eiae i?aai aiiaua nianoeoue aai n iinoa.

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