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I?ay ???y ??? ??o ?? ? ??i ????y ?????a, a ???, ?i ? ???? ? ?????
???tho, ??a ? ????a ????o ??? ???? n ???e.

I?n I??

E?? i ??????e ????a – Aa???e ??? ? ??i ????, ??e??i ?????o ??, ?????
???e?? y?????? ???? A.E. O??a? ? ??? ???? a ?y? n th??? y?? ??? ? ???eo?
???a i?a ?i 2500-???. A??a, ?e e eth?, ?atho ?ith ???, ?ith ????th, ??
???????y ? ????? ??e ????? ???u C?ey.

A???ey ? ?ny???y e ??? ???ey ???? ???u e ??u, ??i? ???? e ?????e ???i
????ey. Ec ?? e ???? ??i??o ?? ?????i ??? ??a ????y ???i ??a e ??a ??ey?
??ae, ????? ??a ???? e ???a ???u, ???ua ?y?, ?u?o??i-????? e ?????? ???.

A ???i ???i ???e ???, ?i ? ????y ? ????y?e ?a?????ie ??a, ???e ???????
????e ?e??, ????e ??? ?????i ???i ??y. A? Oe??? ??e i ?i, ?i ??e e ???
oy??a ???? ??? a??tho a ????y?a ???.

A???? ????th?? ??eth??? ??? e ???th?e ?i ?e?? ??? ???? – ?????? ?????
???o i???e e ??a??, ??? e ?????o ????e ??a ??? ? ?? ???? ??i, ????
????ey ??o ?a??e. Ia ??e ?? ???? ??? e ?e??? ????a y??ey – ???a?y,
????y??y, a ??a y???y ??? e ?y? ??? ????.

I A????, ? ???i, ????-????a?? ???yo, ???? e ?????? ??, ?????? ?????yo,
????i-y?????? e ???????o ????o ???? ?i? ???a e ??.

Ii ??ue ?????ny. I?y?ny ??e ???a e ??i ??.

E ???y ?yaey a ???a ? ??? ????? ???, ???i?ue ??? ??ae ????y? ??????, ?
??? ??? ????ue, ????y ? ?a ???? e ????y. Ae?a ??????a ? ??? ??? ? ?
???ey, ? ???? ???, ? e ???a ???, ????ue e ????? ??? ????, ???? a?iae ?
????? y???: ?????? e ?????.

E? ?????i ???? ????e ???e ???? A.????i: «O? ????e e ?????y ??????
????tho ???y a i?a – y??ay, y?????ay e ????ue, ?y??ay n ?????i ????… A
?a??? ??? ??i ??????, ?i ??uey ????ue, o.a. ????a ???i-????i?? ????,
???a e ?y??eth e ??uo ??».

O??i ????, ?i ??? e ??? ???tho ? ???i ????u, ??? e ??????a ?iy??e, ???i
eth? e ? ????? ????ey, ???-????? ???, ?????y ???????y, ???????ue ????e,
??? ? ???th?e ???? ??a ???ey. A???y, ???a, ?????? e ???? ???o ? ???e, ?
???ey e ???? y? ? i??ue.

A ????i ?????? ?????? ??a ?a ??? ?? ????i: e ???a, e eth?, e ?? ?????
???. *?? ?a ???? «?? ???a??.

N??? ?? a ???? e ???? n ????.

E??y y?? ??????i ???ey ??a???a ??a ?? ?????e.

A ??????e y?eth?e ?????? ?ae? ???? ?e y??.

Ia ??? y?? ???e ??????y e ?????y?? ????-?e????? ???yi – «????? ??i ????.
A ????? «???? ?????, ??? ???e ????? (?????? ?e ? ??a 25-30 ?o) ????ue
????y ?? ??ue ???.

Ia ??? y??, ? ?? ??????a?ey ?????o ???a, o ???? ?a iiy??? ?????ue
??????, ??iy? e ???????ue ?y ??o ?? ???th?th ???o.

O???? e ????????a ???e ?c? ???i e ??????o ??o ?????e ??????, a ??a e
?y??eth ?a «???? ??????, e, ???oe, ? ??ue? y??, a ???yo ?????? ???ey
???e y???? e ?????, ???eo ????ny ??????ny ? ???i e ????i ???yi, ???i e
??????i o???i, ?i ???? e ?y??eth ?????i? ????, ????th ????u ??????? e
?????, ????? ???????a ????? ????y, ????th ???u ????o ????.

O?? ???i, ?????? ????o ?e??e ??? ?y ???? ?????? ?y?e??? ??? ?a ??oth?y
??ey a ???e y???e ????.

Y???y ???? – y? ?????y ????????y ??a, ??ath?y ??i??i?? ??????ey ??i
?????? e ????? ???? n ???th?e ??? ? ?? ? ??????, ???u ????ey e ????y
???uey eth?e, ????????a ???n?o e ?????? ?????? ????. A??y ???a y???e
???ea ??th??ny a ????e ???????e ???ey /???? ????e ???? ???u, ???ey ???a
????ey ???uey ??ey?e a ?? ??? ???ey.

I??? A???? ??? ????? ?y ???uey e ???ay????e ????, ? ??? n ?i ?a ???y e
???y. Iiy?? ?? ?i ?? ????ny e ??iy?? ?????? ??o ????e, ? ?? ????ny ? ???
i ??i ????, ? e i ???? ???th?e ??u.

N??? ??a ??ue i ?i, ?i ?e?o ???i ???, ???i ???a ???? ??????? ?????y?
????e ?y ??? ???? ??y?????e, a ??? ????????? ?y ???i ???e. A nay? n y?i
? ??????? ??????y ? y?????? ????.

Y?????? ???o – ?????? ?i???? ??????o ???a e ??????? ?????????o ????a,
?????oth?o ??????th ????th ?????a e ?????o ??? ??? ???? ??u ???ey
(?????a, ???y ??, E??? N?? e ?.).

*?? ????ue ???? ????? ???o ???? ???ue ??? ?ay e ???? ???? ???????e ????e
?e ????o a ?????? ???y, ?e ?????yo ?????? ????o ?y?a ?e ???????o ????o,
a ??a ?e ??a ??????o ?i e ???? ?????aa?????o ????. A ??a ?a???i
?????ath?y ??a ???u ????e ????, e ?????? ????????? ?????? ?y eth?e
????th??y n ????o ???? a th?? e ????, ???athu? n N??a ? ??iy?? ??i
????aa, a th?? ??? ???.

Ii ???? ??o ??ue ?????? ???? – ??iy?ay ????y-???????. «O??ue ?? – ??
????y», – ???yo a ???. «Oe?a ????? ???o ? ???e y??????? ??e ??u ???ey,
???? ???? e ??i ???yi e ???? ???? ????a – ??iy ???? ??????? ????. *?
y?????? ??a e ?? ???ue ??????? ????, ?i ?? ??a ? ????th. Y? ???? ??
????ue, ??a ?? ?? i ?oyo, ethaeyo ???? ???oa, ???o.

E, ???i, ?????, ??u ????y e ??i ???yi ????ey?? ?????.

A?????ay ???? ?? ? ???????o ???i ???-??????e ??e. C??y ??a y?e ??e ?????
? ??? ?e ???? ??o ???? e ?a???? ???? ?y????e, ? e ?e ????? ???e, ?e
????? ????i-?????e?? ???ey?e, ????? ????e ????e.

I ???? ????e ? ???i ? ?????, a ????ay ???? ?????i ???. A??? E????/ O???
??a 20 ?o ????? ??? ????i, ????y ?????ey? a ???e ????e ???? e y??????
???yi, ?????e ?? ?????? e ????e ??????o ???i? a ???yo E???i N??a, a ?i
/?? ??i 10 ?o a A??? (?n. O???ye ? ss??, ????a O????i).

I?e ?????? e ????u ?????a ???a y????e a A???, A????o, ???????th ??????
??? Oy?-O?y, Ia??, ???th ??

A ????? y?o ?????? ?? i???? ????ue?a ??? ? ???? ????e, ?????u ????
????e, ?? ?????e e ????e ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????a.

?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????e ????i ??a a ?e?eyo E???i N??a e
C??y?y. I???? y?o ?????? ???? a ??o ????eyo e ??iy???o ???o, ?????o a
??a ??e.

A ??iy?i ???e, ???e, ???a ??i ???ey ??y?ny ?? ??????i i????, ? ???y ???o
???o ?? ?ae??, ???a ??i ??????. ??ue ?? ? y???e ???? – ?????oe? e
????????, ? y???e ??, i??e, y??, ???a ?????y e ????ey.

A ??th????e ??a ??e ???????y ???i-?????? ???? e ?????u ???e ?????e a 21
????. A ??iy?a ??y ??? ???e ??? ????tho ???, a ?i ??a e ????. Aeey ??? ?
y?? ???a ????? ? ??? ??a ???ey, ? e ??a ????u. A ??a ????ny ???? ???u, ?
???? a?? ???? ??? ???e ?????e, ??ny ???c ????e ???-????a?? ???? e
??????i ??a ????u. «A?? ???ey? ????» – ???i ???????th ?? a ???i ????. A
i?? ???? ??? «N??? e ???? ?eae? ???ey? ???. Y? y?y?ny ??e ? ???o ???? 21
???ey.

I?a ? ??ue ???????a e ??a?a ???a ???, ???oe, ??????? ?? ???ey ??? ?????i
e ?????i ????, ??????o ???? e ????a?? ??a ????u.

N??yy ??? ??ae ???i, ?? ?n??ue ??? e ???ue ???a. A? a ??o ??o.

I??y?th ??o ? ??y?? 2500-??th a??a A????, ??y?, ?i y?o ??ae i????o ???i
?????? ?? e ??? ???? ??o ?????o ???????o ???????e ??o eth??, ???? a ????
n ?????i, ??th?i ?? e ?? ????i ?????.

O???, ?i, ??oy y? ??o, ??? ????i, ???? ethay?e ?? ????e ??, ??? ?ith ??o
a ?????a a??a

A??u ???tho ??????ue iy? ??? A???ey Ae???? A??th I???? ? ??oth ?????? n
?? a ????? ??????th?o ????a ???ey ???ea e ???u, a ??a a ???? ????? ?e
???e ??iy?e ??e.

Ae??? ?????o ??, ?????, ae??????e ?? ?????e ???? ????e? ??, ?????e ????
?????? ?oe, ?????e y?????? ????, ??????? ?? I?????? ???? ??. I???e ????
A???e ?? A??????, ???? I??i???e ???? ?????ee, ???? A???e ?ey?? ???? e
y?????? y???e ????, ???? ????? IEE ?????e e ?????e ????, ???? ???
A?????? ???????e ?????e ????, ?????e ???? ??ae ??u ?O. I.A. A???yi – ???
??a 600 ???? ??o, a ?i ??a 42 ?????, 5 ????a ? ????? ???i?e, y???e ????
e y?????? ?????, ???-??????? e ???-??ey?? ?ea.

I.A.A???yi

I*A?EE IA ENOI?EE,

?????e ??? e ???a

– ???a, ??iy?a, ???a

«…y eth?th A????, eth?th ?e ??y?, ?e ??? ??i eth?? ???. ss ??th a ???a
???a A???? e ??? ??ath, ?i ???a y? ? ? ???, ?i ??a, ????a ? ??????th
??o, ???tho ? ??o ????y?oth».

N.Y.Ae??

Aa???y, ??????y ? ??? ?????? E?????i ???, ???? ???th ?????ue ?e ??????e
??????e e ????????e ???, ???y ????a. N???? e???? ???? ??ue ???? ????i:
??? ??? e ??? ??, ??? oe???e ???, ??iy?? ? ???a ???o ??, ????? ???? ?y?,
???? ?y? e ?? I????? ??a, ????? ????e ?????o ?ae.

A???ey ?????a ? 4512 (???i ? y? ???? e ????, o.e. y? ??u a ????? ?i
???y?y) ???? ???, ???o ? ?? ???: ??? ??ae, ??e ??ae, e ???y ????y ??ue.

N??e ??ae ????? ???? ??????th ????? e ????ey? ??e o?? ??? ??? ??e ?c
????a, ??? e ???a ???? ???, ??? ?ia n ??? ? ??. ?????ny ? ?oo ????eyo ?
????i ? y?o ?? ?????.

I?? ??ae – y?, ?e ???i, ???a ??u e ????u, ?????a a ???? a ????a ??y ???
e ????????e ??ey?.

A ?????? ? ??? ? ?a i????ny ? ??? e ??????????yo ??? ???. A ?? ????y e
?i ???e.

A?? 110 ?o ??ae a 1889a. A n?? ??a «Ii E??» ??????? e ????o N.O???a ??e
i A????: «A???ey – ??ae ????. ???a ??? ????atho, ?i ? ???? ??ue ??o
???e??? ??i ?y ??y??????ey. Ii ?e ?e ??ath?y!.. A? ???a ??? a ??a ? ? ?
?? ???a ?????i ??? ?c ???????, ?c ???e ???e ??, ?c ??-???e ???????e ???e
?????? e o.i.… ss ? ?oath? ???? ? ????e ? ???? ???ey, ?e ????? ???, o.e.
i?? ?a, ???i, ??ue ? ???.

Ii ?o ??? ??a i ??i ??aea, ????e a ? ? ??. «I??? ?i?ey a A???? ??y?y,?e
??a ??? a E??, e ????tho ???a ??i ?n????. A?????? ??a ??o ????ny ??? n
???i E?i a th?? O???; ??e ? ???e e ????», – ?e ??? ??? ?y?iy A.A???? a
??e ??a i E??, ???? ?a a 1883a. I??i, ?? ?? ?y?iy ????: «Aa???y ???o ???
? ??y ???o e???, a ????a ??y ?? ?eo ?????i ?? ??o ???o ???a, ??o ?i ?e ?
??? ????th ?a ??a ? ????y ???i e ???? ????? ????.

A 80-a ?. 19 ??, a ??? ???? ??? a A????, ? ????e ????o, ? ??????ay ?? ?
????? ??th ???ue ?????u ???? ???, ??? ?i ???th.

Io ????? ??? ? ?????e ???e

I???? E?????i ???, ?i, ?a ??? ????? ??ae A???ey ??o ??????a ??? ????,
????? ?? ??u ?a 4-5 ?ny/ e? ??ae.

C??, a E??, ? ????? ????n?a ??????o ??e, ?????ue ??? e ??? ??? ???i e
???a. E?? ??? e ?????a, ????? a ??? ???u ??ey? ??u e ???u, ???a ??e e
??y?, ?? e ??u – a ???oth y??; th?? ??y? e a?y?, ???? e ???u, ??? e
?????, ????? e ??y?u, ???, ??e, e ???u – a ???a ??. E y? ??? ??y ??ue
?o, ?? ??i ?? ?????ue. Ai ?a ???a ????a ?e???? ?? ??ue ???i.

A????? ?????a, ????, ?? ??u, ??? e ???? ??? ?????o – O???. O?? ??ey?
th?oth ??ue E?? (O???), 9 ?e ? i.y. – 4 ?e i.y. C????ue ??????i, ???,
??????, ?a? ????i e ????a ??a. I??ia ??? ?? a ?????o ????yo. Ai??? ???
O????, A????? ?????a. N 1 a. i. y. ????ue n ????e i???e (????? e ?.).

«I?oe ???? A??? ??e i ???, ??ey?? ????eth ?????a ? ???? ?i ??? ? E?????
?????a. «O?? – ??e A???, – ???yo a ??? Ae?a ?????o ???????a e ?? y???,
?? ???yo a ???ii ???. A? ?? ????? ????a i ??? ???? I??? (2 a. i.y.):
«O??, ????ya ??o, ??? ??a???tho ??? a ??, ??? ? ??????e, ???tho a ?e;
??tho ?e y? ?y ??, ??u, ? ?ay ?????e ???, – ???? ?e ????.

E??? ??u a ??? ???ey ??e y?. I???? y? a ????? ????iey ??? a ?????? ???a
?yaeyth??y e ???th?o ? ?????? ???o??.

A???? ????u ?y??? a E?? ??a 2700 ?o ??ae. O???ay ? ????a ???a ????, a
??i e ???e-??? (?????a ? ????? ???-?????a) ??e y??? ????ey? ????? ??
????th?o a E?? ???a. A 5 a. ? i.y., ? ??? E???? ?????a ?y??? ??a
???????a ?????a – O???n – ????????y ????? n ???????e ??? ????y, ???e ??
????u A?????e ?????, a ??a E????? (A???ey) e E??-E?? (??i ???y??i ???a
????? ?? *?????a).

A ???y ??? A???? ?????o 2500 ?o. A?? ??? a ?ny?o ??o ??? ???a ???i
N????i Nith?. Ii ??? A??? e E??, ? ??? O?e??, I??u e E??. N??? y?y?ny
?a???? ? ???? a. O???e (???i y?o ??ae ?????? 2524 ?o), ?e ?e ?c?? A????
???ey?ny n ????th ? ??a ?i 50 ?o.

Ca 2,5 ?ny???y ??? ??????y ??? ??? ?e ??e.

I????ue ?a n ????i ??? E?????.

A ???e ???? 6 a. ? i.y. (550-525?. ? i.y.) ???e ????e ec I??a – ?? ????
E????? – ???iy???a ????????a ??ae-?????i, ???????y ?????. E??e, ??a??
??ae I?? ???e ?a ??i 80-? ???e. I??a ????ey i E?????, ? ???i o ???o
???a: A???a, N???a, A???, A??ay I????i.

A?ue ????y ?????, ?i ??a i??a ???? ??? ???i ?e E?e???a.

A??? ??i ? ??? a ??i o?? a 5 a. ? i.y. «E??ey» (a ??a 4) ??? ????o
E?????. A ??? ?i??? A??? ??o, ?i ?? A???? «????? ???ue ???-????? e ??i
???o a ?? o ??? E?????». A??ie ?c A???, ???ay ??e N??e, ???o, ?i ?a
«?????ny ? ???, ?????i E?????th».

N???i ????i ????, ???????i ??? e ?????? O??? ?e eth??e ???e ??e A??e, ?i
?? C?? e ???? ???u A??iu, ???e ????? ??o ????? ????.

A???ay ????y ??? ???? ??ai ??????, ??????i e ???ath?? ??y ? ??e N????
I?????uey, ??e ???a ???? ?e e ?o ??ae, ?n??e a ??? ????? ???? E?????. A
??? ? ?????e ???th A??e ???a ????? N??th.

«I?oe ???? A??? ?????? i ???i ??a, ?e i ?????a ????i ???. A ??? ??a
?????? ??e?a A??? A??e ??ue ???? ? ????eth N???? I?????uey, ?a ?????ny ?
???? ????i: ????e – i???? – ???e, ???y ???? o ?y?? A??? ??e, ?y?y? ?
???ue i?? ???ey ?? ???e. ?????? y?? ????i ?th? ?? ?y??? ? ?? A???a, A??a
e N??. I??ay ?????a ?????, ??e ??o ????? a y?o ?ayo ?? ? ???e, ???? ???
?oy?? ????e ?e e ?iy??ny ?y?i n ??????e ???e ??e. E???? ???? ??? ???e ?i
N?o, ???e e ?? ???????i i??a. O?? ???i, ??c ??? etha??i ??y A??? e ???th
??ith – ??? ? A?? ??e ????e a ???a ?ay ? ???e – ??? ?????i?? ????y?
N???? I?????uey a 7 a. ? i.y. – 3 a. i.y.

A ??? «? ?? ??? ? ??o?e y???e ??? ????e, ?? ????i ??y ?y? ??e ??c
I??????? ??e. I??? «a ??th??, ????, ae??? e ??? ?ath» ? ?????o I?i?ay,
?????? e ??? E??? ? ?????a ???i ?????? ??ue, ????a e ??e.

I??i ???? ? ??o ???e A?a?, ????? ? ??? ???o e ???, ???y ???y, ????e ??
?? ?ae? ???? ????? e ?????? ?ycy?. E, ??y?i ?y??, ??? ?i ???a ??e ???e
?????? ???? ?ae e ?y?e. A ??? ??? ?????o ?????, a ??a ???? ?y?e ??e
????e ?y??? a ??ue A???, ????e ???? ????u. I???, ?i ??? a ??o ??? a ???
A???? ?? ???u 8 ???iy??o ???? ??y (?a ? ??a? I????? ??a).

I??a ? 6 a. ? i.y. N???a I??????, a ??? n y?i e N??i-C???e E?i, ??e ????
nth? ?? ???, ? ????a ??i ??e ???o ???e ??o ???? A???. Aeey ???e ???i????
???a-?????: O????, E????? e ????e N??i-C???? E?? ? a? ?????? e ?????
???o ??ae, ?????i ??? e ? ???, ?????ai ????, ????a e ?? ???, ??i ???uey,
????? ? ????o ?ae. A ?i ??ue ?????? ????e, ?????ny A???y?, ???a ???????
o?????e ??????y? ? nth?? ??a i ??a; a ??ue ??y ???? ??o n??? e ???
?????e ???, ??o e ?thu; ????? ??? n ?????? A???.

E?th???e ??e ?a?a ??e ? ??a N???? I?????uey ?? ??? ??????? ??ue, a ??o
??, ??? ? ??yo O??? ???e ???e ??e ???? A??e A??e ?????? e ??e, ?i e
????? a ???? (a ?aea ???th?? A???), ?????o ?n??e ????e.

I??????i ??a ?????ey ???-E?e???u ??ue ??i ? ?? ??? y??oe. E?? ???????ey
??a ? ?????ey ?????o ??o A??????? ????, ???th?? ????? O???? E.A.I???o,
e??? ? ?i??? ?????o a A???? ???? (a ??? n 1916 ? 1918 ??) ???e ???????a
???e E????? ? E????? ??.

E??ey y?o ???? ????. A? a 1921 a. (???? ???? E??) ??i A???i E???? ?e
?uy?? ????? ??????, a ??i ???y? OeEEa e A??????i ?????? y?o ??i ?e ????i
? A?????? ????i-y??????? ??ai. C?? ?????ue ?? ???? ??, ia ???y ? i
??????a. Ii ???a ????ey E???? ????ue ?eth??? a ??o ????y ?EEA e n??
??????y. A ??????ny a 60-70 ?? ????? Oe?????i ???? ????y I?????a I???,
??????y ?c ???? ?????ey e ???e ??? ?????, a ????e ?c ???? ??ithth
E??i??o. E, ??? ???ue, ???? ? ???u, a y?? ? ???? ?????e e ? eth?e e ?oyi
?????a eth?.

I???? ?? ? ?i ???? ??ae n ????? ??i 2 ?ny/ ???e y?y?y ??? ???? ???i,
????eyth?i ????a e y?????? ?y? ???a Y??u e I?? A?e n ???? ????i
I?????uey.

I?????? ????? y?y?ny ??????ue ???? ???-?????. I?? ??????, ?i ?y ?i ??
E???n (???? – E?????) – e ? ??e ??? i????y ??? ???e ?? ??? eiy.

I???a ??y?e, ??a ?????ue ??th, ???? ????? e ??????o ??a, a ???? ??c 70
?o ??a ????y, ??a ????a ??? ?????ue ? ?? ??????i ???? e ?????ey ??a; ??
???a? ??????? ??u. A???ay ????a ??? ??? ???? ???y?oth ?????.

I???i ?iy?? ???e E????? ?ei, ???i, ?????: ??ue ????? ???o e ????, ???
??, ????? ??????i, ???e ??. E?? ?? ??e? ????? ??? ???. A ??? ???? ??
??????: ????u e ????e. E?????e ?e ?? ??ue ????e, /? ?e ??????a ??a ?
?????ue ???yth?a ????.

E????? ?? ???oth ???eth, ??o???, ? ?? ???? ??i. A ??? ????i ???a ?? e
????a ?n?, ???? ??a, ??? e ???? ???e. Ec ???e ???? ??i, ??, ??ioth ??,
?nth? a A??th ????e ??, ??????a o ???. A ??? n 5 a. ? i.y. ????? ?iy
?aeiay ???.

E ???? ? a. ? i.y. ??ae ?? ???ue 5,3?, ????a ?i ???ey? 1800 ???e. Y? ?e
???? ??ae-?????i ? n?? ?????? ???th, ??e y????e.

Ca ????e ??????? ??u ??? ???? ??e ??? e ???a ??? ???i ???ueth 4-5? ???.
A ??i ?????y????y ??? ?e ?? E????? ???ey? ???? 20?2, o.a. ?? ?/? a 40 ?c
??? ???e ???.

I???????? ??e ??? E????? ??e ???? ??? ???i ?????? e y?????? ???iy????e.
E??i ?????y????a ??uey ????e ???? ?i ???e, e, ??? ??i, O???? (?????e
N?????).

E?????y ???? ????tho, ?????e A???? ? ????ey? ? ?ay, ?e ???, ????a ???i
??e. I??????a ??e e ??e ?? ???? ??i????? ???, ??iy?? ? ???, ay?, ??e,
??ey, ??a, ??y???i ???, ??????a. I??? ?? e ???? ??. A ??o a ???? ????
??? ??e, y?y??ny ????i ??u: ??e, ???, ???e, ???, ???e, ??e, ??u e ???e e
?.

Y?????? ???? O????, ???e ??? ????e ????e ????? ?????y????e ?? ???, ????i
???e E????? ?????y ? ?thc n Oa????. Y? ????i ? ??? ?? a. ? i.y. A ??????
??a ??? E????? ???? ?????? ?????i a O????, ? y?????e ??ae ??ye ??i ????e
????. A ? ? ??y E????? ?? ??? ???i ? ???? e ???eth ?n? O????.

N??? ??e, a ??i ??y?u ??? ????? ?i a ??? ???? ???, ??????e ?? n ???e E??
– O???? (E??). A??u A?????a e A?oyc?? ??u ???? ????a e ????i ????? A????
e ? ?????. A?oy??a ???e a ???? I??????, ?????a ???? ??? ??y??o ???
?????? ?????i a 13-15 ?. A?e ?n?????th ???eth ? ???? C???e e A???? A??u,
a o. /. a ???o ?ieyo. A 1475 ????u e ?????u O???.

N???? ??e o E????? ? ?? ???a. A 4-3 ??o ? i.y. a ????e ??e ?????a ????o
??????? oe??? n ???i ???i I???i ???? (a ??? ?????? N????ey). I?? n?????i
N????ey ? ?o ?? a ?? ???? ????tho ??????a ??n???ey y?? ???: ????ey, ??a
e ?cy????a ????e, ????, ???? ??? n ???y? e ?. Ae???i ???a ???? ?????i
???? ???? ???oth ????eth ? ???? Ae??a ? ??? ? E???o ?? ? th?, ? ????y
*??? ??y ? ??? ? Oa??? ? ???a.

I???ey y??? ? ???e ??cy a?i ???ue ???th??e. ????? ?a ????iy ?????y ??a.

Ia ??? 3-2 a. ? i.y. ??ae ???e ?? ? ????o ??y??e: ??? e ????? ?i ???e.
I???ey N??i-C???? E?? ?????ue ? ????th a 10-? ??e 3 ?? ? i.y. A?? O????
? ???e ?? ?oy??. ?????a ?? ????a ??? ??? o A???n?? ???a, ???????ny ?
E????i e O???? ????. Oe?ue A??? I???o ? A??? ???? ? ???o O???? ?????
Ae???a.

A??? – ???? ?????i ??y (n ??. – «??????), A ?? ?y????e ???? ??? E?????.
E?? ? 3-2 ??o ? i.y. ??u ????e ????a ????a N??i-C???? E??, a ?i ??a
E?????, ??e ????u ?? ?????y ? ???th e I???? A???o, e??? ??? ??? ?ae
????????i ????? Ae???a. I???e ??? (e 2 a. ? i.y.) a ??ue Ae???a, «??
A?????a, N????, ????? ?????i ??y I???? ?» (????y a A??????? Y???a, a.
N??-I????) ???? ? ?????? E?????: «E?? ? ??u ????? ????? ? a?????, ?????
? ??y e ???? ????a ?e, e ??a ?? Ie??? A??? ? y?e ???a ??a ??? n ???
Ae???a, ?oy ??y ??iy?nue e ??. Ae??? ? ??? ???e e ?????e ? ???i ???ny
??? n?? ????e ???, ?, ??? ?ae??i ????? e ????a a ????? ????e, ???e
E??????». Ai ??y ??? ? ???a Ae??? ???e ????, ????th A????i a ??ue I????
A???a, ???y a ??iy?a ??y ??????y? ?????? n ??/i? ?????, ???? ? ???a
E?a-O?a (?? no. I????a).

I?????ay ? 2 ?? ? i.y. E????? ?e e ? ??? ??y?ny ? ??i?i ??iy e ??????
????? ?? ??????a a ??? ?? ??e y?.

A 110 ?? ? i.y. ??u ?i? ????e e ????e E????? e ????ue ? ?? O????. I? ???
??y ???? I?? I???? ? Aa???, ????i ? ??? O???? ??? e ??, ??u ?? ???u o ??
O????.

I??? ??u ??a ????e E????? e ????e?ue e O?n??o, ? ??ue ?? ?????u n ???th
????? Ae???a. Ia ??? ??e y? I???o ? A??? ???? ????a a ??a n ???, a E?i
??e ???a ???u, a a O???n ?? ? ???i ???i ? ?????a.

A ?y? n ?????i ?e??e ???e nth? ??ue ?????? ??u e ?? ?o, ??y?i, ? 3 ??,
??a ??ae ???? ?????? a ????? ????y ??a (????? ???), ??????o ? tha n ???a
A???. A?u ????e ?a ? ?? ??, a ?i ??a e E?e??e?. Ia y?i ??y?i ?????ue
???ay ???y E?????. E??e ??? a ?y? n ?????i ??? E?? a ??ue ???a ???a,
????ay ???ea (?a a 20 ??) ?????a E?i ?e ??oth ????eth. E?i ?a ? ?e
????th ???? ???ia??e ????, a ?a a ??a 1941 ?? ????? ????y e A??? n
?????? ??????ue E?i a A????, a N????? – a Ai???a.

A ??oth?a ????i ??a ? ????a ???e ?a ? ??e e ??u, a ??? ???, ??y ? ???e
??y?? ?? ??a, – ???, ????, ???u.

A 20-21 ??o ? ???? ????a E?? ?y??? ???u ? E???e ??e.

A 13 ?? ?ae E??i ???ny ??/ ???-?????? ????y. Ii ?e ????tho ??????e,
???-?????a ?????e, ??ny??y e ??th n ???e, ? i???? ???a ? ???ey??.

A y?? ???i ??????y ??ue a?? ???? ????…

N ??a 13 ?? e ? 1475 ??, ??a ??e ????e E?i, ???? ????a ??????? ??y?u. A
th?-???? ??e i???uey ?????? ?y??? O??? ni ???? I??i. C?? ?? ??e, ?iyia,
???u. Ia ??uey??o ??? 14-15 ??a ??? E????? ???i ?ae ????i «Chrichiniri».
A?iy?? ??i e y?? ???e ??ny?y ????a ??????? ????? a ?? ??i, ?? e ???????
????o ??a. I?? ??, ???a ??????? ?????, e ?? a ????? ???? ??? ???e.
«A???? – ??? ????uea. I ??? ??? ???ey ??? – ???i ??. E???i, ?i e ???y a
A???? ?????ue ???a ???n?i ?????. A??yo, ?i ??ue ? ?o ??o ? ?? ????i
???a, ??? O?-Ae?? e ???? ??yi e ????. N??? ? ??? – ?????.

A??a ??a ????ey E?? O??? a 1475a. N??i I??ae ? ?ue-O?? (C?????;
1432-1481 ?.) ??ye ???a ???? ???? A???a. O???e ????a??e Y?ey *??e a
1666a. N??? ? yo? ???e: «N????-?? (??? ???a I??? ?) ???e ? y?o ?????e
??a e ???, ?i y? ??i – ??o?ue, ? ???e ??o ??… Ia ?? y?? ?????? ??a ????e
?????. A?iae A???a ???a ??y?o a 1478a. (?oy e?th?y ???ey i ??a ???
????eyo A????) a ???? ??o I????? I??e e E???i ????, ????? ?ith ?c????? ?
O??e. N???i yo?o ???? ??? I??ae ? ?? ??i ????ue ???? a A????. I????i
?????y a ???a E???? ???a, A???a, i?? ????ey O??? A???e e ?????a A?????e
E???, ????o ?ae ??? ???? e ????ny e ?i a ????? ????y. O?u ?? a ????o
??ayo ??e ????ue ?? n A????. C?? ? ?? ????? ?? ???a, ???y?? A????e.

N????? ????e a A???? ? E????? ?? (?? ????ey ????ey II O???) ???tho ?
????a ??o? ???? ???. A ??? ????? ??? e ???ath?o e ?? ?? ????y ????ue –
???? ???e E?????.

Eth????oth?a ???u ??o ???ue ?a??oth ??ue ??? – ???e th?? ??????? ??u a
??? ????? ?. I.A???i e ????th ??ue N??i-????i ????a E????? ? ?. Ae?????.
A ??a-? ??????ay ??a ????a ??? 6-8 ???, ???? 3-5 ???, n ???? a?iy?,
??????? ??c ??? 150 i??a. N?? ????? ??ae ?????o??i ?????i, ???? e ??th.
N ???, ??? e ???a ? ??? ?e ?e?? ???? (? 9 ??? ????) ?????ue ??? ?a,
?????e ???e ??e.

I?y??e ??????? A???? ??a ?y??u, ?e ?e y?, ?????e, ?y ????y ??ue ????
A????.

E?e, A???a – ??? ???? ???, ???th?? ?? 2500-??a.

I??a ????? ????? i A???? ????y, ? ?????th O????, e 1106 ?aeo e ????? ?i
? ????? ???? *?? E?a, ?a ? ??e ? ?ae???o ?? ??? ???ue i ?????e ??ue ???,
???? a A????.

I ??????e ???ey ??? o ?a????a ?o ? ???i ??ey. N????o ????i ??? ????. Ii
??e ? ?o «A???? ???ao «?i ??». Ii ???, – ???? ??? ????? ? ???a «??? a
??????i ????? e ?????y, ?e «??y???, «??th??. Ii ???e ??? ??????a y??
???? ?uy?y?ny ????? ?? ?? «?? – «??» e «?» – «?? e? «??th????e ???.
I???? ?a ??? ??e a ??i ???? e ? ????e ???e ?????otho ???eth A???? ?e
???, ? ???? ?????ue ?e??a ????i ???a ?y E???? ???a. A ???e ??????, a
???o ????? ??ae ??? ???? «E???. E???i, ?i ??e ???? ??ae E???a. Ia ?nth?
? ????i ???a, ????a y?? ??o, ???? ??? E??a?

Ei ???e ???a ??? a E?i, e 1475 ??, ????y ???ay ????a, ???a??ayny e ???o
? ???? E???o?u a ??? ???i ??????y, ????e?ue a ???iy???e ??ae.

???? A???? ????ny ??a ??, ?e ??y ?????a ????a I???ay ???y. A?? ????ny
??i ? ???? ???o ???a ?????a O??e ia ?????a. N???i ???? 1478 ?? ??? ??? a
A???? ???? ???? ? 3000 ???e.

E??i a y?o ??? ???e ??ae ????y ????? ???, ?i ???e ???? ?a, ?????e a
????.

Iu ?a ????, ?i a 1666 ?? ??ae i??? ???? ??????? Y?ey *??e. Ii ???e ????a
???? ? ??? A????, ? e ?i ??????? ???u: «Ni ?? ??? ???? ?ny?y ???? ???
???o ???????o ????, ???? ???e ????e, a ???y?a ??o ?? ????o 150 ???? ??a.
Y? ???ay ???ey ????a ? ???? ??y. I? ??o iy? ???o e ??? ???. I??????a y?e
???? *??e ?y?y? ?e: «O? ?e ??? ? ?c ????? ?? ? ??? e a ??o ?????e ??».

O ????o ??o ?????ny ?? ? ??o ???o ? ?????a ????o ???. A???a y?y?y ???i
???i ??????e. I???th ??o ??a ???ey? ???a ? ???o e ????? ???, ?????a a ??
???a. A ?ae ??i ?????a aei???i 50-60 ?ny/ ???e. Y? ?e ???e ???, ???e
???? a O??th ? E?? ??c A???a. N?? ? ?????a a O??e ?e ????: ??? ???ey? ?
??? e a ?????e, ? ?????a e ?????y????a ???, a ???e e ???o ??? – a ???.

A ????? ???? ??o, ????th?o i ????yo ????a, ???i ?????y A???a-E???a-E??a.
A «I?? ????? o ??e i ???», ????, ????ny:

sse ??a *??? ?? ????e,

Oa ? ???a ??ue, ??? ???,

O ???? ???? ???:

*e o ???? E?????,

*e o ??? Oe???? ? ???.

E??????? ???? ??? ?? y?y?ny ?? ????a-???a, ????? ???? ???e ? ??a E???.
N?e ??ae a ??? n ???i-????? ????aey? ??? ?????a e ???a ?c?e. ?????ay ???
? E?i, ????u ?????? ????? e ?????e E??a, ?????e ? ??? ????a.

A 1588 ?? ??? ????e ??a ? ???? ????a E?? – ? I???a ? A????. A 1589 ?? ?e
???i acy? A?????th ???? e ????? ??i ?????a. A ??oth?i ?? (a 1675 ??)
?????ny?? ??? ???? ???a E?? N?? ????? A????e e A???a, ?a??? ?e y?i ?ny?
?????a.

E?? «??? ???» ?nth? ???? ?? e ???, ??? e ??, ???, ???i, ??. A?????y ???
??a ?????? ????ue ? 200 ??a, ???a ????e ? N???a, A?????, ??? N????????
???a e ??i. A 17 ?? A???a ?e ??i ? ????? o???o ??? E??.

E??? ? I?? A?e, E??????ey, ???o ??? ????e nth? ??e e ??e, ?? e ??e, ?? e
?????oth ???, ????a ?y??e. Y? ?e ???e ????? ??ae.

E 1790-i ?. a ??? A???? ??????ue ??a 300 ??e, 17 ???o ??a, ?i? 50 ??? e
???? ??a, 18 ???i, ??a 40 ????o ?????.

A?? ? ?????ny ???y??i ????? ???, ???i ??????e ? ?? ???? ???? e ???e. Ia
??o e??o ??? ? ?? ? ??a?.

Io ??????? ??? ?????ue ????? ?? ????e ??e A????, ??o, ?????, ???, ???o e
??? E?i??i ???a O?-Ae?? (Ae??-Ae??), ?????e a 1552-1564 ?. ??i
Ae??o-A??i ? ???o ??th??ny ????i ?????a O?? N??a, a ??a ey??ay ?e
??????y ???a ???.

Ii ??? ????a e ???e ???e? ??? O?-Ae?? ? ?a y?i ? ?o ??. A?ue ??????a, ?i
???e y?ai ?????i ??ey ?a ?? ?????? ??. A ????e ??a??e ??????? Y?ey *??e
???ay y? ???, ?o? i ????? ????, ?????i N???, ? ??e ? ???o i ??i ???. Y?
? ????? ?y *??e. A?ue e ??? ??? e ?????? ????e, ?o?? ??yo ???? ???u.

A? /? ???? ? y?? ?a?o a ???e «AE????y ???y ????i ?? a ?i ????i, ??????,
????i, y?????? e ???i ????» ?ae i?? ???? I.I.N???a a 1898 ??:

«I??a ???ey i A???? ? ??/?i ? A????? e ??i ? ?y???a E??a, ???i a
1634-1635 ??o a E?? (o.a. ?a ? *??e), n ???i ?????i A??? Ae??y????, ???e
????o ? y?i ??? ??? ???, ?i a ? ?? ??? ???ue ???ay, ?? ??? e ????, ?
????? a ??o?.

I ??e ?????? ??? ????y a ??? ???? ? ??? y?i (???u A.O e I.A.).

Ii ???eyi, ?????o ?i ??a ??? ???o, a 1736 ??, a E?i, ??i, ?i a A???? ??
????, ?????y ii ???o ??a I??a, a ??ae ??iye «? 5 ?ny/ ??a, ????? ??o?
??? e ?????? ???». N?y ? ??? e ??ayi, ?????y ??i ???i, ??i ????, ?i ??ae
?e ???e e ??? ????? ????e ???e n ????e a?iy?, ??? ???o ?e ???? ?a.
O????y y?, ?aey ? ???? ????o ? ?o e ??? ??????y ?o?e ??? ? A???e ??a, ??
???i??u ? ??y ????i ????? a y?e ????e.

A?? ???y ? ??th e ?????-???oth ??e, a ??a ? y????? ??i?o. E ?oy ???oth
??o ????y ???ey? ??? e ??e, a ??? ae?e ?iy?, ???u, ??e, ???a, ???. E
??ay ? y????o ??i ???? ?ie ???e e ??i. Oe??? ???i ? y?o y??? ?e ??.

A???a ?e ???i ????? ??? ? ?? e ?????a, ??y????th ??i ?? ?????. A??a
???ey? 6-8 ?o?a, ???a – 3-5 ???.

N??, ?????y a ??a iy?????a, ??a iy? ??o:

– I???a ??? ? ???a ??a ??? ??y ?i, ?a ??? – ?????? ???,

– ??? Ae?ay?? ???, ? th?-?n??,

– ??? A??i ??u – ? ??? (a ??a ?????y ???y?? ?? Ae.O?y??, E????e e
A?????i),

– C?ey?a ??? ? ??a ????iey ???y?? ?? E???????? e A????e,

– E???? ??? ? ??? ?i, ?a ????th?y ??u I????y e Ae???a.

Iy????? ????? ??u ????, a?e ? ????i ?i ???e E???????ie – E??? – ???th?e
– I????e – Ae.O?y??.

A ??? ???ue 12 ???? ???e, ????ue ????.

Aei ??o ?? ?????ue ?? ?iyi-a?????a ? ??a E????????, ????ue?? ???? ???a a
1817a ?? ????i a 30-40-a ?. 19 a., a ??a ???? ?????o ??n ? ?. E????e,
?????e a 1808-1815?. ? ???o ???a N??? e N???a A????. A ????i ???a ??n
?????a ???a, ?????ay ????, a ??ue ????y ??a ?????i A????? ? 1 ?y?y
1825a.

O? ?e ???u y?yth?y ??i ? ???? ???a E?? ??? e A???? a ????e, ?????y ?
????e??a y?? ??? ??a ????.

???e ??u ??? a ??a.

I??e ?? e ????e ??,

Ii ??yo ??e a Ae??-E?a

N?ae ????, ? ???i ???.

I?? ?? ??? ???? ???e,

E????, ?i ???a ????, ? ?a ??? ?a ? e ???

O? ??e ?ae ????? E??.

A.A??a.

E???a ???u (??e) – y? ???e ??ae, ?????ue ???? ??? ? ?? ??? ?? ? ????o ??
?ny/. E?? ???u ?y??? a A???? ??i ?????. I???? ?????? ????e ???tho ae?a
13 e 19 ??. A?iy?i, ??a ?? (a ??a 17 – ??? 19 ??a) ?e ?e ???? ???? ??ae
*??-E?a, ???????y ??a A????y, a A???eth ??????ue ? ???? e ????? ???. Ai
?y?i ??aa, ?????a a 18 ?? ?i?u ????ue ? ??a ??a ???????i ???? ??a.

E?? – ????e ???e ???? oth???i ???e ??? (a 18-20 ??o ???e a ??? O????i
????) ??? ??? ???, ???e a ?????e ???i ?????e ???e ?e ?????? ?e «????.

E??? (??. «??th??), ????y ??a, ????y a 8 ?? a A???.

E??? ???tho A??th ?????? ?????? ?????, ???y ???eth O??? e ???????? ??ey.
O.a. ???i – ???????a, a ??? ???? ??o A??e C?? a ?i ?????e ???a.

E???u ???u ? ???????th, ? ?ath?a ??? ??? n ????e ????e a y????i ????e, a
????e ??u, ??e, ???a.

E??? – ????u E?? – ????i??? a ????? ???ey ?????i ????y ?ay n oth???e
????e (?i?, ??? e ?.).

N????ay ??a ???o ???? e oth??? ??? ????e ??e ???a, a ? y?e – e ????? ???
y??a. A???????? y??: ????????, ????e, ?????i-?????. Oth??? ??a ???ath?y
? ?iy??? ???? ????? ???? n ??? ??a ??e y?.

Ia ??e ?????? ??? a E??, ???u ?? a ???? a E?e-E?a, Ae?? (*??)-E?a, I???
e A????. I???? ?iy?y? ???? ?? ?????i, ?????i, ???a ??, ??c, ???i e
???ey.

O??? ??????otho i ???o ???neyo: «??» – ???e, «???» – ????, «??? – ??i,
«???» – ?????, «??? – ?iy? e o.ae. ???i ?i?? ?????otho ???eth ???o
oth??? ??a e ???: E??, E?e, O?i, I??i, *??n, A?c, E??e e ?. I?? ????i ?e
?ae E??a (???? ,?i E?e-A? – ??? ??y E??a).

A ???i ???u ?? a ???? a ??o e ????yo E??. E?e-A? (*??-E?a) – ??? ???e
???i n ????th a ???. N?y ? y??? ?u??o ??a, ???u ??? ?????? ? ????a
TH?o-*??e e O?-E???a.

A 1246 ?? ??ue ???? ???? ??ea ? ??ae O??? (E?e, A??) ? ?e???eth Ae??a
A????, ???????i ? ??th e ???, a a 1398 ?? A??ei ?y?i A???? – a E??, ?a
???? ??iy? ?y??? ??e.

A 18 ?? ???i ??y? ???? ???. C?? y? ??? ???????? e ?a? oth??? ??? ?????
????, a ?i ??a e a E??. I?? ???y ???? a 11 a. ???u ??e a E?? ??????? e
?????th ???iy????ue a ??? E?e-A?. Ae???i ??? ???ia ?e A?? (A??), ???? –
N? ?e ?e (?y?), ?y???e – ???u.

A E???i ???a ???u ???y? ??????? e ????? e ?????i???o ???eth ????. I??a
?????y?? ???, ???? ????? ??????e e ???????i. N?? ???? ???ue ??u ????
???, ????? ????i ??a, ea???. Io ???? ???a «?? e «???» ??a ?????? ???e.

A ???e ???y ???? ?? ???? ???iy???e, ???e e ???o ???a??o.

A ???? 19 ?? ??? ???? ??e ???? ?????ny a A???eth. A A?a??e ?????: ????
?? – ?i?a, ????ey A??a, ?????ay ?????, ?? ???i A??????? ???? ????? ???a.
A ??? ???o a ??? ?????i ????ey ???? ?????? ?????a ??u e ????. E??? ???i
???ia?e a ??e E??. N?? ?o ???ue ????a ???, ?????? ???o ????, ???a e
????? ??e, ??? ???u, ????u, *?? ?????a??i ??? e ??. A????? ? ??yae??
?????i ???e ????i ???? e??? A?i??i ???e, ???e ??? e ?ae ???e ???????e
Ae??a e O?ay.

A ????o ???? «???????y ??????». A 1914 ?? a ???e ?? 14 ?ny/ ????, a E??
– 5 ?ny/. Ae????? 20 ??? – ??n, ? ?o 11 a E??; 40 ?????o ??i, 9 – a E??;
???o c???? a E?? ?? 13, ?eth?y A??????ia ????? ???? ???a, ????y a ??ue
??y e n ?i ???ey. Ii ????e 1989 ?? a ??? N???? Nith? ????ue 2809 ???e.

A ????? ??e ???e a 19 – i??a 20 ?. ???oth ?? ??? ??????e ????? ??????e.
E???i ?e ??? O??????? ???, a ??i ???? Ae??????i ??? E.Ae??-O??a, ?????
N.I????, ????? ????? I.A???e, ???? I.E??, ???e ee??? A? e A?, ??? ????
??? A?a I??? (?? ?, ??????e ??? O??? O??) e ?. ????ay ?y????ue ???? ?
??? ??y???? ????? a ??? 20 ?? ?? ??ue ?????e. I???ue ???o? ????? ?????
1208 ???e, ?i ???? ?????i, ?y ??????? ???. E???u ???? ????? ??e ?a
i????ey ?????? ?y????e.

E??? ??? ???? ???oth ?? a ???i-?????? ??e E?? e ???e a 19 – ??? 20 ?. a
I??a ??e? ???e ??? ???, ?????????e ????, ???i y?????????, ?????i.
E?????e I.O??e, ???e ?? ???? A??a ???? N.O???, ?e ????? ????? ??? ????e
??? E???, ?????i «E??ueth ???ey».

E???i ?????? ??e ?y ???ay ??????? a E??, I??a, I????a e E??. A I??a
????i ??e ???? ???e ????e ????e «Ae??», «ss?», ???? ????a ??? ??? ??? ?
E??, O??e, n ???a ss?. A A??a ???y ???? ??? ??i ? ???o ???? ????e, e a
y?i ? ??y ???a ????, ??i???? ????i ??????. A ??? 20 ?ea a ???e ??e ????
??????ue 12 ?????a (? ??oth ?ny? – ?? ?????). E??i A???e ?e ??? ??????i
????? ???e a I??a.

I???i ????? ???? ? ?a a??? – ???y ???a – ? ????i???e ??e O??? ? ??iy?o
??. N?? ???? ?? ??? ???a. Y?yo E????/ ?? ??? ????? ????? ???a C????? ??,
a ??i – ??? A???, ? ?e ?? eth?? A??? O?????i a ??? ? ???. A? ????? ??,
???y n A???? A???, ???e a E?? (? ???eth) ?? ??ue ??? E.Ae??o, ????y a
E?i, ??oth ??? ???? ??? ? ??e?a. I?????ue ???u a ???????e a?? ? A???o
(1877-1878?.), a ???a N???i?y (1854-1855 ?.) ? ??? ???? ?? ???ae?u
N.E??e e A.O?e e ?. ? ??y ???-y???e ??u ?????? ??ea ???u e ???? ???, ? ?
y?i n ????e ?????? ??a ? ??y? ????ue. A 1904 ?? ? ?? ???e e ? ???? ??
???? ?y ???a ???? I.O???? (1872-1904?.). O???? ??e?e ??a a ?th. ss??u,
??y??? ?i ??n??, ??? ?? ??y n ?ey ?y e ???? ???i ? ??e ???? ???y?. Ii
???o y???? ????? ?? ???a ??y n ??e ??iy e ???? a ???e ??e a O??, a ????y
????? ???? ?????eth.

I???? ??? ??? ?i?? ???tho ???? ss?? E??e (1876-1962a.). A?? I?o-A??a,
??? ????, ???e e ????e ??????ue ???e ???e a ??????e ?????e (I??????
????? N?? ?y A???i A??? – ???? a 1923 ??) a ??? ??aea??e ??u e????e
???-????? ??e a E???????. A I??a ss.E??e ????ye ???? ???? ??a, ????? a
??e ??? ???? ???? e ??e ?yae ??o ? ???e ?????? ??a, ????, ?oy???i ?????
e ?.

A?i??, ????i ??????i ?a?o ???? ???? ?e e ??? N??n?? Nith? ???i ss????
I????? (1889-1967?.). ?, ?e e ?i ??, ???e ??o ? ?eyo ????. A 16-? ???
???oa ???oy a I??e ???e ??a, ???eny a ?yo e ?e ????i Aa????? ???i 4
???e. A ?? I????i?e ??u ??? ?e ????i ???i Aa?y N????i Nith?, ??? ????
???i – I??a, ????? ???a e ???e. I???? 10 ?o (1957-1967?.) ?.ss.I????? ?e
????i i??? NNN?.

A?ath??y ???, ?????, ????i A??? – o.a. ???? e ???? ??? ???? ?e O?? N?ay
O? O??e (N??e I???/, 1873-1961?.). ???? I?????? O????? ????o ????o y??a.
Ii ??????th ???? ?????o ?e ??n?, ?? I??? ? ???i??e N. O??? ?????? ?????
???? ???ea E????e ????, ????e ??a a E??. N 1901 ? 1908 ?ae ? ?e ?????i
I???? A?-O?a e ???? ????a ???????a ??? ???e. I??y ??? N. O??? i ???? ??a
a N??-I????a 1896 ?? «E??? a *??-E?a e E??». A? ???oth?a ?? ??e ? ??e
????th, ??a?th ???e ????. A 1915 ?? ??????e 20-? ????? ??i ???tho N.
O??? A??? ????a E??. A 1919 ??, ? ????a ???, ? ??? a O??th e ??ee a
????? ????? ???a. *?? a????y n ???? A??-A???. N??i ???e N. O??? ?i???
???? e ???, ???a ? ??i? ???e a Y???, I?????oth ????? ?.N????-U??? a 1927
?? ? ??aea ???? E?? e I??e N. O??? ???th A??? e ? ????? a A??thn. A 1930
?? E???? ?????o ? ??? «Oth?i – ???u E??» ????tho N. O??? ???ue ??i?
?????o ??. Ii ??? ??? a E????i, E????, A????i ?????o?, ?????e ??i ??a
100 ??o. Ia ?i?a ????o ? ?????? e ???? ????e ?????i ???, ??? a a.O??a
??e ????. N.O??e ?e ??th??y ??? ???e – oth????.

N?? ??th??y ???? ?? ???ue ?y N??a Y???a Ae??a (1870-1957), ??? ? y??
??????? ????? ??????ey O????? ????. N 1906 ?? ??e ? ??e ??eth?e ? ?e
A?????? A???ei A???. A ?iy?? ???a i N.Ae?a?, ?????? «a ?????e A?
E??????i A????? ???y?e ????yth?y ?i ???e ??ae I????i: « N????i ??????
??ae A???eth ??e ?????e, o????? y??????i ????y e ???y, ????? n?????
??iy?y ?i, ???????? ?y?e, ????e ?????, ????i ????? ??e ??ue ???? e
???????e ??e ??? e o.ae. A?o?? ?yae ????? ??, ????… I?? e n ???e ???e ?
???????o, ?i ??o ???i?a ???? ?cy??? O??? ? ??o A??????o ??o ????oth ?y??
N. Ae?? a A?????? ??a ?e ????? ????i ??????i. A? ?????? ??i iy? ?ny/
?ny?i ??e. C??ay? ?????? ?y????ueth, ? ??? ? ?aee ????y, a ? ???y ????
?e ??i ??? i??u ???o ??? e ???a. I?? ??eth?e N.Ae?? ??? ? O??eth. Ia y?i
???a ?i ??e (1917-1957 ?.) ? ??i ??. Ii ????, ?i ??? N.Ae?? a ?ioy?a
1938a. I???iye ???o a Aa?? e ????y e ???? ????? ?e ?????o ? ??? ?????y
y????? ??????y e ???????y ???ia. A? ???e ????? ???a y?????a ath? e ???i
A????e e A????e N???. 5 y??y 1939 ? ?y N.Ae?? ? Ai??????? ????i Ath?
A???e ??? ??y???, a ?????? n ???i ????? y?? ? ?????y?y n ??y? ? ?
???????th, ? ? ??. A ????a ?? ??e ? ??? ?c????y ? ???. «??th, ?i ?? ?e
??? ???y e???ny ? ??o??? e a y?i ??? ??o ??????a ?e ????? ??????.

A?ath??y ????? ??????i, ????i e ?y?i ?e E?y E?? E?? (1833-1912). Ii ???e
A???? ????o I??????i o?????a, ???e ???ue e???? ?oe e ?? ??? ???? n ???
??????i e ???e ???ueth. E.E?? ?e ????????? ????i – ?? 11 y??a, ? ?o 4 –
???o, ???e a ???a 18 ?o a N??????? ???e ????, ??a? ????i ????? ?? a
Ne????a, ?????? ????? a I??a e????e ??? «Ae??» («A???») e N??????oth ???
«O???».

E???? ?????? e ???????i ?y??i ?e ??? N??? N????/ E?i (1867-1936).
O??e-???i, ??????? e ??eio, ? ??i ??? ?y ???ey y???? e ???? E??. N.E?i
?e ??? Ai??????? N??a, e A??????? Ae?u ?????e ???e, ????ye O????? ?????
???i. N.E?i ?e ?????i ???ey e ?????i ?????i O???n?? ??????. A ????e ???e
i N.E?? ?????y ??? ?e i ??a ???? I?????? a ??? ?????e ??u, ???????
????i, ??? e ????i. A? ?? a ???? O?????i ?????? ?? ???? a ???
A.I.I?eaa?a a 1919a. C?? ? y?i ?e ? ??? e ??? a 1993a. «I??? ???e
N???????i ???????? ??????» a ??? a ???a «N???a O??/??? ??????», ?????
I.E.A??a ??? ?????a ????u, ???th?a ?y????ue N.E?? ? ???eth ??????.

N.E?i ???e I????e ?????o e I??-?????oth ?????y????th ???eth, ???a
????th ???i-????. A???eyy ?e???cy????? ???? a E?? ,? ??i ??? ?y ???ey
?????a e ???????. A? ?????? ????? i ?i ?e i ?????i ??i, ????i e ??i
??oy?i ????. Ii ????? ? ??? ????????o ???, ????e ????e, ?????? ?y????ue
E????ie ???e ???e, ???????a ?n??e ? ?????a, ?????oth ?y????ue. Ii ???i
??i ??e ??e ? ??? ???? ?????? a E??. ?????e y?e ?? 1916-1918?. ? ??e ??o
o??, y??? e ??? ???a. ??????? ? a ???a 1916a. ?????? ? ??u?e a E??
?????? ????? e ????e ??i 30 ??? A???????i N??a: ?y? A.O????, ?? A.O???,
a???? A.A????e e N.I????a e ?. A eth? 1918a. N.E?i A????i ???? ?e ???
??????i e ??iy?? ??? Ii??????i ??? ??????. 14 ?oy?y 1918a. a Ae??y??i
??? N????ey ??iy?? ??????a ???? ??????. A? ?????th?a ????e ?y??? ? ???a
N.E?? ?iy, ??????? a ?? ????y ?i ??? a ???? ??a???a. I??, ????? a ?????e
y????, ? ? ???ye ????i ?????o – ???e ????e, ???y?, e?????. I????? e ?.
???a ????ey E??. A 1928a. a I??a ?? ????a?a ????ey, ? ? ?i ???a – a E??
i i? ?e ? ???. I?a ? ??? ?o ???a, ?? ?a ?i ? ???, ?????? ? ??-??????
????, a ???? ????i ??i ????y E??, ?c ???ey ???????e e ???????y. A y?i,
????, ?? ec ??o ??? e ????ue?o /?o ????? ?????i ???.

E ???y ??e ???? ?? ??th?any ???, ??e, ?y?? ????a, ?????y. A E?? ??? ????
???e ??? N??e, E??, ??????? ????e ??n?e A???o. I????ue ???? – ????e a
E?? ??-???? I.N.A??a (1887-1967) ????e ????? ????e ????, ????? a ?ae.
????a. A.I.A??a – ??? ?????o ??, ????? e ???th?e ????? ? ???u ????e
E???? ?ae. ????a. A ??a A???o – 9 ???: 2 ???a ??, 2 ????a, 2 ?????o ??a
O???, ? ???a a ??? ? ?y????e – ??????? ?????a ?c?u ????a. E???i ??a
????? E.A.A??a – y????, ????e 15 ??o ??a i????, ??? ??????e e?? «A???
E??». A?ue ??e ???? e ?yo?e ????a.

I??y?? ???i ???i-????? Ae???/??? ??? ?e A.Ae. I??e (1903-1972?.), ??????
? y?y?y ??????? ??????i e ???a?i ??????? ??? ?e ???? i????? ????? ??i a
20-a ??. I?? ??u ? ????? a ????e ??? N???????i ??? *?????? ??a. I???? ??
??e – ????-?????e Ae??????i ????? ss????i ?? ????. A ?i ??a ?e ????a
ia?: ?????o, ??????? e ????n?o. I?? ???ue e ?a ??a: ??? ????? E. O???
(1881-1961), ?????a ????? N. E??a (1893-1979), ????e E.I??e (1894-1965),
??????, ??e ???? N. TH??? (1904-1985) e ?.

A ?iy? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??? E??a, Ae??o. E??i ???a A.E .E??a ???a
?? ? ?? ???.

N??a ??? a ?i ??? ?????aeyo. *? ??? ? ??ae a ???????ioth ???? ???, ?i
??? ??o ??ae, ?? ??e ??????e ?e ???ea ???u.

Ia ???y?? ?? a ???o NIA, I????a e I??a ???? ??i ??i 2 ?ny/ ????. I???y
??ue – ??i 1100 ???e ??o ? O???, 820 ? ?o a E??o.

3 ??y?y 1999 ?? ??a ???i ???? e ???/??? ???ey ??ue ????ue ????ay ???,
y?yth?yny ????? ??i ? ???o ???a ?????. I??a ?????u e ??e ??? ??? ?atho
???? ????? ??n – ????? ?iy?? ?????u 18 ??.

C?? a ?? ??y ???? ?????a ????? A???? 1 e I??? ?, ?? A?i I???/ e ?. ?????
eth?. E???n ??n e ??? ????? ??? ???, y?yy? ?????? a ?? ???othu? ????
????? ???? ????.

E?? ??? O?-Ae?? a A???? ?o????ue ?a ????i ?iy??? ???i-????e ?????u: ????
??a-???? ? ???e E??-??? ???? ? ???o a?? «I?i-???, ????? a 60-a ?. 16 ??
e, ?e ?????, ???? ??, ?????a a ??a 16 a., ??aey??y ia ??a ???????e.

O??-??? (????ue) – ?????? e ?????e ?????? ??? y?? «A????ey» ????i
??????? ????a, ???? ????ny a ?????? ??iy?e ? ?????a ?e ????. A ?i
?????a? ???, o?? e ???a. I?????? ??a ?? ??ay??, ???? ? ?i ? ????? ?e ??a
????i ???? ??a.

O? ?i ????e Y?ey *??e, ????? E?i a 1666 ?? e ????? a A????, a ??i
«Nay???? (E?? ?????e) ??e, ?i «… ?? ?i ?e ???u?y ?????? e ?????i ??a.
I???a ???th?? ? ?o y?y?ny ????ue, ?a ??iy?? – A??-y??e ? E???», y?i
???th?? ?e ??a ? « I?i-????, ?o- ???e ????ny.

O?? ????ey? ??e ????i? ????a ????? ? ??y-?????a, ???? ????e ????e ????
??????, n ?ay????th ??y?. E??-? ? ??a n th?? ???u ?? ????, ?a ?? ?????
?????a ?????, ??e, nay???????, ????? ?e?-???e. Y? ???? ??? a 1933a. A
y?i ? ?? ?? ???i ??a ??? ???i??? ???? (??? ?????a ?? ????? 847 ??i,
????a- 1932a.), ???a ??????ue a ???? ??e A???? (?-? ??o?o ?? O??a,
I???aa, O???i, E????, ? ???? ???e «Ae? ???»). Y? ???? ??i ? ??????? a
??a ??a ??? 1908 ??.

A ??? ?????ue iy???a ???u. I??????y ??? ? ?????ue, ? ? ??a a 17a. ??
????a ??y ???: ?iiy??ay n ??uy??? ?????e? ?? – ???ay ?y ???? ???e a E??.
E ????eth ??? ????o ???????e (a ? ??????) ???o, ?????e a ??a 17 ??,
????e ? o??? ??? ??y-???iy? ???o ?????i. Ca???i ???o ??????? ???? ? ???.

E ?i ?? ??o *??e. Y? ?? ???? ??, ??o *??e: «E??? ?n????, n ??? ?ey??
???? e ?ae?, ?e ???ytho ???? ???ueth e ??????.

A?o ??ae ???e ? ?????o, ?????? ? ?????? ??, ? ?????, ??????o ??a ?i ?
10? ? ???.

A E???i ???a ????? ????y e ????? A???a ???e ??? ???a E???? ???a A????th.
A ???? 18 ?? ? ???th ???????? A?c?a ?? ??i 2500 ???? ??a, ??i ????? ???e
e ???i, ???i ???i, o???e, ???e, ???e, ?iy??, ????e e ??y?.

300 ?o ????e e ????ny ?????a? A???a. Ni ??e ???????? E???o?? ? ? ?e ?y?i
??i, ? e??i ? ???e ??? ?????e A????.

Ai ??y ???-???? ??u A???a ?e ??? ?yo ???? ????. A 1736a. – ???e-??????i
I??? e a 1771a. – ??? ???? Ae?????. A ?oy?a 1778a. ???e ???e ?????
A.A.N??ia, ???e a A???? ?ith ??-????, ???ny ? ? A????y. A ? ??y No??a,
???e ??????? ?????e ??e, ?e «??i ??» ???e-????i e ????? ???? ???? a E??
e ? E??e.

A???ey a ???a ?????e E???

8 ??ey 1783a. E?i ??e a ??? ?????e E???

N????? ???? A???ey ???? a 1784a. ?e ????? ?i???? A???? ? (1729-1796?.).
a ??? ????y A???? ? O??i ? 8 ???ue1784a. ?????ue O????ay i??? e ???a ? ?
?? ???, a ?i ??a – A??????. A ??a?a n ????? «A???» ????? – «??????. 24
??ey 1784a. A???ey ?? ????a ???i ???i O????? ???e. N 1786a. ??????y ????
??????ue ? 5 ?o ? ???a ????? ?o?i. Ii ??ae ?a ??i ????? ???a? E???i,
?y?? 28 ??a 1826a. ?? ????: A???eth ? ????ue ??? E???i, ? ??? – A????th.

?????a ???? 18a. ????, ?i ?? ????? ??? ?i a???a ???? «A?????, ?e ??????e
E?a – «O???th». Ii ?????a ?????ey ????tho A????i ? ??a ???a E?a-O?a.

*?? ?????ny ??i ???e ????i e ???ath?? ??i ?-a????? ??? i????i ??i ??
????a ??????? ??? A???? ? ?????a 1912a.:

I???? ???o ? 13616 ??? e 12911 ???, ??i 26527 ?o ??? i?a, ? ?o: ??????
???? ?iy?-??i??, ???-????a, ?????? e ????aa – 13447 ?o ??? ??, ????i –
6190, ???? – 3606 e ??? – 3284.

*?? ??? ?? ????i – 322; ???? – 1264, ???e – 980. ?????-????o – 834
/???a.

AE?? ???? ??a 3327 e ???o ???? 940. Ia ??? ??a ????a ????ny ? 8 ???e.
O??? ????e – 30, a ?o ??e?y i.i. 1573 e ae.i. 1025.

Oe???: ???i-?????? – 3, ??i-?????? – 1, ?iy?-??????o – 1, ?iy?-?????? –
1, ??????o – 1, ???e – 13, ??n – 2, ???a – 2.

I?????a ?????a ??? ??iy?ny 73 ??? ?????? ????a 12 ???o e ??y?o ???oe
?iy? ??????i ??, a 30 ?????? e 15 ??? iy? – ???????i.

A ???a ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? e ??e 39600 ??? ? ??o 335538 ?a. A ??a ???
48748 ?o a ???e 1911a. a??e ??? e ??e 23055 ???, ? ??o 194172 ?a.

A???i ? ???o a 1911a. y????? ????e: ???u ??i 7?i., y??y – ??a 2i?., ?? –
255?n., ?e – 60 ?n., ?iy?? ??? – 3 ?n. ??a.

A???i ?? y??????? ????e a ??u Aa????i ??y: a ??o ??i 2?i., ???ue – ??a
1?i., E??o – 600?n., Ae??a – 800 ?n., I??a – 6?i., e I???? – 550?n. ??a.

A???i ???e ??? ??a 48 ?n. ??a.

I???? a 1911 a. a A???eth ? ???o ??? ??a 4 ?i. ??a: ???u, ?e, ??, ??u,
??, ???e, ??, ??, ???, ???, ???a, ??, ??, ??a, ??, ??, ?ey, ????, ??,
???a, ??y ?y ????, ???a, ????a, ???, ?th, ????y, ????, ???? ????, e?a,
???, ???, ?????y????o ???e e ??.

A?ue ?????o a 1911 a.????y a 22215309 ?ae. Ii ???e ???? ??a: ????i
283774 ?ae., ?a??i 9575995 ?ae. Ii ????? ???? ??a: ????i 4197667 ?ae.,
???? 8157873 ?ae.

I????? ? A?????i? ??o ??a ??iy? – 229, ????a – 1, ???? – 168, ?th?e –
130.

I???? a A?????oth ???th: ? ???u ? ???? ?? e ???? – 75?. 60e., n ???a
????i ??a – 22402?. 20e., ????? ??? – 18748?., ?????? ??a – 1094?. A??
77669?. 40e.

E????o ??a ? 1911a. a ???a 1550, a ??? 1534. ????i ??a – 4197667 ??a,
???? ??? – 2283565 ??a.

I ???a e ??? n?? ?????ai ???ey: A???? – 21, A????o – 33, I????o – 7,
Ae??? – 3, E??y??o –2, O???o – 2, A????o – 2, A????? – 3, O????? – 1,
O???o – 13.

«Ia ?e ?i A? ?? a y?? i???» – ? y?? ???i e ?????th.

I?a ??a i ??? ?? ? ? ???, ?? ? ? ? ?????? a ?e i ?????e A????, ? ????o e
??????.

«Ia ?e ?i A? ?? a y?? i???», – ??? ????y ????, ??? a ??th y?? ??? ???y
?? ?i, ??????.

A 1990 ?? ?a?a n ???? N?a??? Nith? ????ny ??????e ??? ??????y A??th??
???e ????u. I??? ??y ??e ?? ???????o ???, ????i ?oy??i y??????i ???a,
???e, a ??oth ???ue, ??? ??? ? ???o.

Ii??? ?????? ?????o a ??? ?? ??? ?????y ???i ?i?? ????, ?i ????a. N??y
????-a???????y ???a ???a, ??y – ?e?i ?????ue a ??o ???.

90-a ?. ?? ???? ?y A????: ??????? ?a???? ???, ??a ???a ???ey?a – ??ae
«A???, ????? ? ????, ???ny ????????. A????? ???? ??e ????e, ?????oy ???
3 ?ny? a ??.

Iiy??ayny ???y ?????y ??o ????? ???? ? a ??? A????. I?? ???a e ????
?????? ??? ????? ????? y?????a ?????, ???? e ????a ???u. N??? ??n, ???e
?????i ???e a A????, ??? ?????ny.

I?? A???? ???e A.Ae????, ???ythu? ???i n 1990a., a ? ??y ?iy? ????y ???:
????ue ?, ?i ?a ?? ???i, ???? a ????e ??a, ? ????ue ???ey ath???o ?????
e ???? ?????u. Ii ?? ??, ?? ?a ? y?????i ????e ??? e ???a.

I??i ???i a ????a ??i ???? ???? ???u ??????y e ?????e. O?????, ? ??: a
80-a ?., ??a ?i ???? ??????i ???? e ??o ????a, ?i «?????» ?e ? ???. A??e
? ?????a, ??a ??ae ? ?ne??i ?? ???y ?c ??, ?? ???i y???i. I???a ????ey
???? e ??y?y? ??.

I?ay «??? ??????, ???? ??o??y, ?????oth?a ?????i ?????, ?i?a ????o ????
?????i ??????i?i ????? ?????i ???? y???/??th ???eth e ??e ???? ???e aeey
????? ??? ???a.

N??iy A???ey – ??e y?????e ??? ??ae E??. I???y ?? ???ny ? ????o ??????
???i, ????a?? a ????? ????? ? ???, e ????y ? n ???th ??a, a o??????. Y?
?????y ????ey ???yao ????ue ???? ???? ?? e ????ny ? ??????? ????.

«I??e ???e ?y?? ??a ?e ??a ?????i ??? ??? y??ny ??? i c???e ??. ? ?? ?
????y e ?????eth ??? ???, ? ?ii ??th, ????ny, ?i ??? ????ay ?????y,
????i n ??i ? ?????ii, ??a ?i ????? ???? ?i y? ???».

Y? ??a A????i ??? N.Y.Ae??a, ???e ???ye A????e ??e 100 ?o i??. E??i a y?
??y, a ??? 20 ?ea, ??ae ?????? ??????y, ????y? a ????e ????? ???.

E????, ?i ??? ?????y N.Y.Ae??a i ?????? ????? e y??????i ???ey ??? ??e
????ey a ?????e A???? e ????ue ????? n ??y? e ?ay? ????i A????i ???
A.Ae????.

??? ? ?? e ? ? ???? ???? ??a e ????

Ae?? ???, ?i «????a ??????ea ?y?? ??????ue ?? ???, ?e a ??e, ?e, a
?????e, e a ??? ???. N??iy ?????e ?? ???ey ??? ??????ny n ???i ??? i????
?y. ?????ny ??????i ??o ??o ????a e ?????? ???y ?e????ey ??? ??e A????.

??????ey ???, ???y ???? a 2000 ?? ? ????? A.Ae????, ??a ??iy?i ???? ?
???a e a ???e ??o ?o e ?????a ????th ??ue A????.

N????i, ?i ??? ?????? ??? ??a ??? Ae????ay. E??-? Ai???? ??? N.Y.Ae??
??a ???? ??ue ???? ??? a ??????ue ???. C?? ????a ???e ?? ???u ?ae ?/e,
???a ??e ??iy?i ????? ??? ???. O? ?y??y e ??e ??e n ????e ????e «??e ???
– ?i?oth??y ??y ???????o ???e?? ???a ?? ???e.

N??iy ??a Ae????ay ??? ?? ????????? ???? ????o ???, ?ae?a ? ???o – ?????
???oe ????a ??? 20-? ??.

E? ?????i ?????ue a A???? ??y ???a e ??????ue! Ai ??y ??????e Ae?????,
?y? ???? ??????? ??y ???a ????e ???e ????? ??u e ??i ???e E?????. Ii
???? A????i ??? A.Ae???? ??? ?e ???? e ??? ????? ?i??. O??ue ??ey?ay
???aea ?????ay «?th??? Ae?????, ?a ?e ? ???yth?y ???i ?????, ??? ??? 20
?? e ???yy ?????.

I?? Ae????? ?? ???????? i????y ??e A???i, ??u O??a, I????ay, ???th?e.

A ?? ??y Ae?? ??? ?????i ???ue ?y ???? ???? e ?????y ?????i ???, ????,
????, ?u?o ???.

N??iy a ??? ????ue ??????? ???. E?? a ????e ?? ???tho ????a ???a ?? e
????u, ???e ??????. A?? ? ???? ????uey ????tho ?? ????oth n ????e E??? e
O???.

Ia ????? A???? ?????i 11 ??ia. I???y ? ?, ?i ?? ??i ??ue ??? ??o, ?e ??
? ??, ?i a ??? ???o E??.

A??a A???ey – ??? ?y eth?e ???? ????. Nth? ?????tho ???a? ??y?, e y?
?????o ????e ? ???e ??o.

E??o – ???y ??????y ??? ??? e ??? ????? ?cy??a. A????y ???ath?i ? ??o e
???a a?oyi ???y?ny ????y ??a, ???e?? ???u ???y ???y ???????.

O? a ??? 20-? ?? Ae?? ??e, ?i A???ey ? ???? ??? ???th?a ? ??i ? ??? ??e
???o, ? e ?????o ????.

O????? ????u e n????u ??? ??e Ae??a: «E???? ??a ???ia ??? ????y ??iy??
??i ????o?, a ? ??e ???e ????? ???a, e ??? i ???? ??o ????? ???, ?????,
??e ?a ????a ?????a, ???a ? ???th?y».

Ia ???? a 1915a. A?????? ??ae ? ????th ??????o ???? ????? ???? ? A????e
??? ???a ?????????? ???ey.

I??e ??, e ??? i ????e e??? ??ue ??e ?????.

30 ?y 1997a. 15-y ??ey ??i?? A???? ??y? ???a «i ????e ?????. O?a ???
????ey? ??e ????a ????? ??u, ??iy?e ? ?? ??????uo ??n: ???e, ??? e ???e.
C??ay e ???y ??? ???eytho ? ? ??e ??? ????a. E? ??i ????ny ?????a ???
??n ?????? n ?? A? E?i. A ??? ???e ??? ????i ?? ??? A????.

I???e y??? ??a – ??: ?o, ?????e e ????th. A ??? ?? ???y ???y ???, ? ???
??ay c?y, ???th?y ???? ?? e ?th?y ? ??? ??. Y? ?????? ?? a??a. A??uey
??? ??????o « ???ai O????? ?? e ????eth ??», ?ay, ?th?y ? ?? – y???
????, a a ??a ??i ??? – ??? ???? ?y?e A???? e ? ????a.

I?? ???e ???????? ??? ?e???? ??? a 1997 ?? I???? O??? E.E?? ?????o O?c i
???? A???? ???a A?????? ???e ????u. Y? ??o ??? ?yae ??o e ?????e
???????i ??????ey.

18 ??ey 1998 ?? I???? O??? E.E?? ???e ?o ??ae n ?????i ???i. Ai ??y ???
E.E?? ???e I?????e ??? ????ey e ????e ?????o ???a, ???? ?i ?????oth ??.
????o ??a ???e ????e ????a?, I?????? ???e ?????e ??? «A???ey», ? ???e ?i
???i-???????th ??. I??, ? ???e a I??i???i ???i ?????i ????a «C??? ?th??.

Ii ???ny e ?????e ??e ???.

Ae?? ??ye ???a ???? ???? ?????y. Ii ????th ??a ?a?? ????e e ????? ????y
A???ey ???? ??e ???o ???a ??e ec ??? ??.

N??iy a ??? ???tho17 ??, 22 ??e? ????? ????ey, 3 ???????i-?????o ???a,
14 ???ia ??? ???o ????e. Ia ???y ? ?a ????? ???iu a 2002a. a A???? ????u
e ??u a y?????th ??a a ?????a E??e-A? e ????? e ??a ?1.

I??e ???e Ae??a ?? ???????i ???. Ii ????e ??? ????? ??i, ???, ???, ????.

E???, ?? ath???? ???? ????ue ? ???i ??y? ???. Ii ?a a 2001a. ?? ???? ??i
12?n. ???? e ?????a.

A???ey ????? ?????ny ? ????? ????ey e ??ue ????ny ???????e. ???o ??e
???th?o, ???th?y y?????? ?????. A ????a ?aiy a ??ae ????e ????u. A?????y
???e a ??????, ??atho ?????, ??? ?? ? ????. A? y? ?????a ????? ??, ?i
??ae ??o ia ??? ????? ???a.

15 ???y a ?? ??? ??e ? A????? ?e ??? ??e (A???? ??u), a ??a ????? ?? n
?????i ??i, ??????i ?y ?iy?e ????a-«?a???). N?? ???? ???a a ??????a ??y
A??n?e ??u, a ??a ????? ??ye A???? ??? A.Ae????. ??u Nith? ????a A?????
??i ??ii ???e ????y ??th e ????? ????a-«????» e y?e ??.

Ai ??y ??? ???? a A????? ???e 12 ???i A????. 15 ???y 2003 ?? ?e ??? I??
A???? ??u, a ???i ???i ???a ????? y????a, ????th?o ??? ??e ??? –
????e????a.

A a. A???? ???atho ??a 500 ????a A???? ??u e ????? ??? e???? ?????.

I???? e ??a Nith? ????a A?a???a a. A???? ?ae ?????? ???ae??y C??? A.I.
???? ??????oth ?a?o ??e ???? e ???e.

A???? ??o ? ????. O ?ey ???, ?e ???i, ?????y ???e ?o??. N???? eth? ??ue
? ???ath?y. I.I??a, N.??i, E.I??, I.E???, A.E??ee – ?o ??? ? ??? ??? ?o,
?i ???????i ???ye ???i e a???eye ????a ???????.

I???? ?????i A???? ???e i?? ??eth?? ?e N.Ae??. y? ????ue ?? ????? ?? a
1997 ??. Ei i?? ??? ???? a ???e ???, y?? ???i. ???a eth?, ??? ???. Eo
??? ???a: eth?? e ???o ???, ??? ????i e ?????? ???ue, a ???a, – ????ue
?? ??e a ?????.

E? ?o ? ????ue ?????a ??a Ae??a: « ss eth?th ??, ???? y ??? e ??o, y ???
a ?? ?ith ??, ? y ????e ??? ?, ?i ??i ???? e ??? ??e ????????e, ??i ??a,
?e ????tho ?i o??ue, e ?ae? ????? ?? ???e».

I????? ???ey ???

Au ???a ? ???? ????. Ii ??i ???? – ????a ???e a ????i ??a, ???? ????e
????a ??? ??a, ?????e, ???? ?? n ????e ???. Au ????a ?? /??? ??? e ??c
???ue ??????ue e ????i ???i. Oa ?n ???atho ?????? e ??u, ??y?a ??? e
????u.

I?, y? ? ???? ? ??????? ???? ???? A????. Y? – ???io ????? ???? A????,
????? e ?????e ???? ? ??? ??ue a ????a iy? ?o. Io, a ??????, ??u e ???e
– ????e ????a?? ????????i ??????y, ???a ?a??tho ????ue a ??? ???.

N??iy a ??? ???y ??????y, ???y ???o ??? ??e ?????? ???o e ???? ???? nth?
?a ???a ????? ???th?o.

25-???y ???y ???? ??? ????e ? ??????e ??e A????. I????a ????a ???????
A???? ?????ue ??ue a ?????? ??. I???ue e ????a ??a 19- ??? 20-? ??a –
?y?? ?? e ??a ??, ?????a ????? ??????e ?? ???e.

Ie a ??i ??? E?? ?o ??? ???? ??????? ???ey.

A ??? ????y 124 ??ey, ????eyth?a ??e ????-??????th ????. N?? ?o 74
?iy??a ???????? ???ey e 4 ?iy??a ?????u ??????i ???ey.

A? ??? ??? ??????e ??? ?????? ????ny ? ????yo ????a. ??????ey ???y ???i.

I???ue n ????ey ??u Ae??i??, ???y ???y ???? ??e ? ??o ???? ?? ? ??? ???,
? e E??. C?? ?? ???????u ??? ????o ??a, ???o ???? ?????ay ???. O??e a
??a «??? e ??iy??? ????? a??? ??a i?????e ???o ??? 20-? ??.

I????y ?. A???i – ???ay ???? ??? ???a – ?? ???????ia a 2001-2002 ??o.
N?e ?????? ??ue ???e ????? ?e ???u – ????a i???e, ? ???o ??? ??i ???yo
?????y e ????.

O?? A??y ?????ny ???o ???e? ??? 19 ??. Y? ????? ??? ?e?, ?i ? Ae?????.
Aeey y???e a ??? ??y ?????y ????ue ??ue ?????e ?ae «????.

I????? ?????ny ?? ei. O??a. Ia ?????e ??a ????? ??? ? ???o ??uey??o
????: ? ??ai ???? ? ??? ?????. A?? e ??th ???i ??y ???ay?. N??n
?i??ath?y ?????? ??? a ???a ??a e ??i, y? ??o eth??a ??i ?aeu? ?????? e
??????? ??? ??? ???a.

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