.

История архивного дела

Язык: русский
Формат: шпаргалка
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1479
Скачать документ

1. O?aiiaua a?oeau ain-a Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea

O?aiu ia?yaeo n eoeueoiauie caaea/aie, ana aieueoa ni/aoaee a naaa
ooieoeee iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey. I?eia?ii o?aiiaiai e
iaeiia?aiaiii a?oeaa iieena yaeyeny Iao?iii – o?aieeeua ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeieoiaioia Aoeineie ?anioaeeee, iino?iaiiue i?e Ia?eeeaa V a. aei i.y.
A Iao?iiia o?aieeenue aaaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua aeou, oi?aiaua aeiaiai?u
n ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaie, ?iniene ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia e
?anoiaeia, iaoa?eaeu ii oi?aaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiui eiouanoaii, io/aou
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.

Ianiio?y ia naie eoeueoiaua ooieoeee, Iao?iii noae a?oeaii
oeaio?aeueiiai aiia?aoa ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey.

Any io/aoiay aeieoiaioaoeey iai?aaeyeanue ia ?anniio?aiea e
ooaa?aeaeaiea Niaaoa iyoenio, eioi?ua caoai ia?aaeaaaee aa ia o?aiaiea a
oaeouee a?oea aoeaaoa?ee, eioi?ue iaoiaeeeny iiae eiio?ieai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai nae?aoa?y. Iaoa?eaeu a a?oeaa ?aniieaaaeenue ii
oa??eoi?eaeueii-o?iiieiae/aneiio i?eioeeio. Ii caaa?oaiee ?aaiou n
aeieoiaioaie a aoeaaoa?ee iie ia?aaeaaaeenue ia iinoiyiiia o?aiaiea a
Iao?iii. *anoue oeiainiaie aeieoiaioaoeee eiioeaio?e?iaaeanue a ae?oaii
o?aiiaii a?oeaa Aoei- o?aia aiaeie Aoeiu-Aeaau (iie?iaeoaeueieoeu
ai?iaea) a Ia?oaiiia, aaea iaoiaeeeanue ainoaea?noaaiiay eacia. O?aiu
ea?aee ?aoathuoth ?ieue a nio?aiaiee ia oieueei iaueo oicyenoaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia, ii e iao/iuo iaoa?eaeia, iineieueeo auiieiyee ooieoeee
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneeo, enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
oeaio?ia.

Iniaua ae?aoeu, eniieiyee iaycaiiinoe /eiiaieeia ii o?aiaieth yoeo
a?oeaia. Eo ia?aiia/aeueiua ooieoeee ninoiyee a niaa?oaiee ?aeeaeiciuo
ia?yaeia, caoai — a ?aaoee?iaaiee nioeeaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e
i?aaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiie iaueiu. Iinoaiaiii ae?aoeu
nin?aaeioi/eee a naieo ?oeao e iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ciaiey, iaaeinooiiua
aeey aieueoeinoaa ethaeae. Ano?iiiie/aneay neoaeaa, aeeth/ay
no?ieoaeuenoai iana?aaoi?ee, iieiinoueth aoiaeeea a eiiiaoaioeeth
ae?aoeia. AE?aoeu noaee au?aceoaeyie i?aaiauo e yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania
auoanoiyuae aeanoe, aicaeaaeyee oi?aaeaiea ia ianoao. Eiaiii iiyoiio
ae?aaiea yeiiiie/aneea a?oeau eae iaiouaieaiay /anoue iaueo a?oeaia
(?aeeaeiciuo, aeeieiiaoe/aneeo, aiaiiuo, noaeaaiuo) aicieeee i?e
aeai?oeao e o?aiao.

2. Oicyenoa. a?oeau ain-a Ae?.Ainoiea

Aicieeiiaaiea ca/aoeia ienueiaiiinoe auei naycaii i?aaeaea anaai n
oaeiaeaoai?aieai oicyenoaaiiuo ioaeae. Aia/aea aeey iaicia/aiey
ecaioaaeeaaaiuo i?aaeiaoia e eiee/anoaaiiuo aeaiiuo, oaeeo, iai?eia?,
eae eiee/anoai ca?ia eee neioa, i?eiaiyeenue ieeoia?aiiu. Iicaeiaa
i?eieoeaiua ?enoiee noaiiaeeenue ana aieaa noeeeciaaiiuie e auee
caiaiaiu eeeiiienueth e ea?iaeeoeeie, eioi?ua iaiineeenue ia eaiaiiua
iineoaee e aeeiyiua oaaee/ee. Iie niiauatho iiae?iaiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo
?aaio, i?iiuneia, ?aianae, iao/iuo ciaiee, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio,
oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey ia?auo i?aaeiaoia iaiaia e eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Ec
oicyenoaaiiuo oaenoia ae?aaiaai Aeao?a/uey ecaanoii nouanoaiaaiea oai
?ac?aaioaiiie nenoaiu oicyenoaaiiuo ii?i: cao?ao o?oaea ia i?iaaaeaiea
?acee/iiai aeaea ?aaio, ii?i auionea i?iaeoeoeee, iinaaa ca?ia ia
aaeeieoea ieiuaaee e o.ae. Oae, iai?eia?, nio?aieeenue ninoaaeaiiua ai
a?aiaia i?aaeaiey aeeianoee O?a nienee auaea/e aeiaieuenoaey (ca?ii,
oeaa, ?uaa, ieai, ianei, oeieee, iyni, oa?noue) ?aaioieeo, caiyoiio
iieiue aeaiue. Auaea/e yoe auee aaeaaeiaaiuie. Aeieoiaiou ninoaaeyeenue
niaoeeaeueii iao/aiiuie ienoeaie, eioi?ua n oa/aieai a?aiaie
i?aa?aoeeenue a aunieiiiea/eaaaiuo /eiiaieeia, ?aaioaaoeo i?e o?aiao,
aeai?oeao, ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo.

Cia/eoaeueiua oicyenoaaiiua nia?aiey o?aieeenue a aeai?oeiauo a?oeaao,
aeeth/ay aeieoiaiou i ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao e ia
oi?aaeaiee aeai?oeiaui oicyenoaii.

3. Aeai?oeiaua a?oeau Ae?. Aaeioa

A aeai?oeiauo a?oeaao o?aieeenue cia/eoaeueiua oicyenoaaiiua nia?aiey,
aeeth/ay aeieoiaiou i ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao e ia
oi?aaeaiee aeai?oeiaui oicyenoaii. Yeiiiie/aneea aeieoiaiou iaoiaeeeenue
eeai a nie?iaeuieoea (oea?neie eacia), eeai a ioaeaeueiii iiiauaiee,
i?aaenoaaeyaoai niaie /anoue iauaai eee niaoeeaeueiiai a?oeaio?aieeeua.

I?eia?ii aieueoiai niaoeeaeueiiai aeai?oeiaiai oicyenoaaiiiai a?oeaa
iiaeao neoaeeoue oea?neee a?oea, iaeaeaiiue i?e ?aneiieao ae?aaiaai
ai?iaea Neiia?a (XVIII a. aei i.y.). A iai auei iaia?oaeaii aieaa 70
oun. oaaee/ae aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. A aeai?oeiaii
a?oeaa oea?y ainoaea?noaa Ia?e ec 40 oun. iaeaeaiiuo oaaeaoie (oaaee/ae)
aieueooth /anoue ninoaaeytho aeieoiaiou yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey,
i?e/ai anoue iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi oicyenoaaiiue a?oea
nouanoaiaae ioaeaeueii io iauaai aeieoiaioio?aieeeua. Ii iaoiaeeeny
aaeece aeai?a n oicyenoaaiiuie caianaie.

Yeiiiie/aneea a?oeau nicaeaaaeenue o oea?neeo iaianoieeia, eioi?ua
oi?aaeyee oaie eee eiuie aeaeaie oicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio. I?e ?aneiieao
ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa a Ae?aaiai Aaaeeiia auee iaeaeaiu inoaoee oaeiai
a?oeaa, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai iaianoieeo oea?y Oaiio?aie a Ea?na
Neieaeeiiaio. A iai ooeaeaee ienueia-?anii?yaeaiey naiiai oea?y,
eanathueany oi?aaeaiey e?aai, iino?ieee e niaea?aeaiey eaiaeia, nii?ia
yeiiiieei-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a iaaeaeo aeeoaeyie.

Yeiiiie/aneea a?oeau oi?ie?iaaeenue a aeayoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee e ai?iaeneeo iauei. A eo ninoaaa auee aeieoiaiou ii
oi?aaeaieth eaeie-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiie io?aneueth oicyenoaa eee ii
aii?inai iauaai oi?aaeaiey ia ianoao. Eae i?aaeei, oicyenoaaiiua
iaoa?eaeu o?aieeenue aianoa n ai?iaeneie eaciie e auee iaeaeaiu i?e
?aneiieao ai?iaeia Aia??oe, Eaieoa, Eaeueoo. Aiai?y i ae?a/aneeo e
aeai?oeiauo a?oeaao, nouanoaiaaaoeo a ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa ae?aaieo
ainoaea?noa Aeao?a/uey, iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue eo aaaeiiai cia/aiey e eae
o?aieeeu ia?auo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeieoiaioia, eioi?ua oaeaea
ninoaaeyeenue ia eaiaiiuo, aea?aayiiuo, aeaeaciuo e aeeiyiuo iineoaeyo.

Naiuie e?oiiuie auee aeai?oeiaua a?oeau e a?oeau ae?aoeia. Oai aianoa n
eaciie o?aieeenue ?acee/iua aeieoiaioaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, n?aaee eioi?uo
iaeaieaa aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaee oeiainiaua e i?aaiaua. I?aaeaea anaai
yoi aeieoiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaoea i?aaa ia aeaaeaiea ?aaaie e
iaaeaeaeeiinoueth eee ianeaaeiaaiea. Iineieueeo i?aaeinoaaeaiea oaeeo
i?aa iiaei auoue iieo/aii (iiaeoaa?aeaeaii) io aeaau ainoaea?noaa
(oa?aiia), aeaiiua aeieoiaiou i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ioeoeeaeueiua oea?neea
«oa?oee», ninoaaeaiiua a aeaeea?aoeaiie oi?ia e oaeinoiaa?aiiua
ia/aoueth.

Oa?oee o?aieeenue a a?oeaa eaioeaey?ee aeai?oea, iiieii eioi?iai
nouanoaiaaee oaeaea a?oeau aeaia?oaiaioa ia/aoae, neoaeau ienoeia e
iaeiaiaie neoaeau. A?oea eaioeaey?ee ea?ae iaeaieaa nouanoaaiioth ?ieue
i?e noaeaaiuo i?ioeannao, naycaiiuo n auyniaieai caeiiiinoe aeaaeaiey
oai eee eiui eiouanoaii.

4. *anoiua a?oeau iaiye e oi?aiaoeaa Ae?.Ie?a (ianiiio, Ae?. A?aoeey,
Ae?. ?ei)

Aaiee eae iniaua yeiiiie/aneea einoeooou aicieeee ec iaiyeueiiai aeaea,
naycaiiiai n ia?auaieai iiiao ?acee/iiai aana e niaea?aeaiey cieioa,
na?aa?a e iaaee. A Ae?aaiai Aaaeeiia ia/eiatho naia ia?auaiea aaieianeea
aeeaou ia i?aaeuyaeoaey «ooaeo», eioi?ua ?aciaieaaeenue ia iaeeoth
iiiaoo. A yoio ia?eiae oi?ie?othony iniiaiua aeaeu oeiainiauo
aeieoiaioia (/anoiua aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa, caaiiua ienueia,
?anienee, aaenaey, aaieiiou aaiee?ia), eioi?ua ouaoaeueii o?aieeenue a
/anoiuo a?oeaao ae?aaieo oeiainenoia. Iaeei ec i?eia?ia — oaieeueiue
a?oea aaieianeiai aeiia a Aaaeeiia – Yaeaeeae. Iauaeoaie aeaaeaiey,
iaiaia, oi?aiaee yaeyeenue naeueneioicyenoaaiiay i?iaeoeoeey, i?oaeea,
i?oaeey o?oaea, i?aaeiaou auoa e oe?aoaiey, iaaeaeaeeiinoue, ?aau,
oneoae e caiey, A aeeaeiaainoi/iuo ainoaea?noaao aieueoia ?acaeoea
iieo/eea a?aiaea. Iia?aoeee n a?aiaeie iiaeeaaeaee iaycaoaeueiiio
aeieoiaioe?iaaieth e aeaaea cae?aieyeenue a aeaenoaothueo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaao, iai?eia?, a Eiaeaena Oaiio?aie. A caeiiao Oaiio?aie
aeathony oaeaea ia?acoeu iaaiiuo eiio?aeoia noa?iaaaeeiineiai ia?eiaea.

A?oeau aaieia, eioi?ua, iiaeiaii a?a/aneei, iineee eae ainoaea?noaaiiue,
oae e /anoiue oa?aeoa?. Ainoaea?noaaiiua aaiee noaee ea?aoue aieaa
cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea iinea Ioie/aneeo aiei, eiaaea iiae
eiio?ieai ?eieyi ieacaeanue ia?iiiay oi?aiaay naoue e ia/aea iinoaiaiii
neeaaeuaaoueny aaeeiay oicyenoaaiiay nenoaia e aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea. Ai
II a. aei i.y. aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoueth caieiaeenue aanieaoii
naiaiaeiua ethaee, /anoi – ia iniiaa i?eaeeaaee, aeaiiuo ei
a?enoie?aoeae eee naiaoi?aie. Iie ?aaioaee a eaaeao (aaieao) ii
ii?aaeaeaiiiio ?anienaieth e auiieiyee ainoaea?noaaiiua ooieoeee,
naycaiiua n ioe?uoeai n/aoia, ia?aaiaeia, iaiaiii aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.
Aaiee?u ciaee aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, aaee ?aaeno?aoeeth
eeeaioia, ninoaaeyee i?ioieieu, ?anienee auaea/e nnoae e iieo/aiey
aciinia.

Ia?yaeo n ainoaea?noaaiiuie aaieaie nouanoaiaaee e /anoiua iaiyeueiua
eiioi?u.

Yoi o?aaiaaei iin?aaeie/aneeo oneoa eae a neeo o?oaeiinoae e ?enea eo
aeinoaaee, oae e ii oie i?e/eia, /oi ?eineea a?aaeaeaia n/eoaee
iaaeinoieiui aeey naay ee/ii caieiaoueny oi?aiaeae eee i?aaiecaoeeae
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oeacaiiua i?e/eiu niinianoaiaaee auno?iio ?acaeoeth a ?eia /anoiie
aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe. Inouanoaeyy ?acee/iua oeiainiaua iia?aoeee,
?eineea aaiee?u aaaee iiiaea ec ecaanoiuo e naaiaeiy oi?i o?aiaiey
aeaiaa, auaea/e nnoae, inouanoaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo ia?aaiaeia.
Aeayoaeueiinoue eae ainoaea?noaaiiuo, oae e /anoiuo aaieia iniiauaaeanue
ia ?aciiia?aciie oeiainiaie aeieoiaioaoeee, eioi?ay iinooiaea nia/aea a
oaeouee, a caoai e enoi?e/aneee a?oea. O a?oeaia ae?aaia?eineeo aaieia
auee niaoeeaeueiua eieae o/aoa anao aaieianeeo iia?aoeee. Eaaeaeiio
aeeaae/eeo ioaiaeeeanue iniaay no?aieoea, aaea oeacuaaeinue aai eiy,
a?aiy ioe?uoey n/aoa, auaea/e e?aaeeoa, aeaiiua i aeaaaoa. Oaeay nenoaia
o/aoa aeaaaea aiciiaeiinoue eeeaioai aaieia i?iecaiaeeoue oo eee eioth
iieaoo ii /aeai, eiiee eioi?uo oaeaea o?aieeenue o iaina?eaa.

Niaoeeaeueiiai o/aoa aeieoiaioia a a?oeaa aaiee?u ia aaee, iineieueeo
aooaaeoa?neay aeieoiaioaoeey aeaaaea iaiaoiaeeiua aeaiiua aeey iienea
aeae, eioi?ua o?aieeenue ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e eiie?aoiui eeeaioai
(eiaiiie i?eciae nenoaiaoecaoeee). Eaaeaeiio ec ieo i?enaaeaaeny
ii?aaeaeaiiue iiia?. E?iia iia?aoeee /enoi aaieianeiai oa?aeoa?a
iaina?ee caieiaeenue eiiaaea ioaee/iie eoieae-i?iaeaaeae ianeaaenoaaiiuo
i?aa. Aeou i niaa?oaiee iiaeiaiuo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea naie aeieoiaiou i
ianeaaenoaa o?aieeenue a a?oeaao aaieia. Aeaaiaea?y oiio aeiaa?eth,
eioi?ui iaina?ee iieueciaaeenue a iauanoaa, eo /anoi i?ineee noaoue
iiaa?aiiuie a noaeaaiuo aeaeao eee naeaeaoaeyie i?e niaa?oaiee a?a/iuo
eiio?aeoia. Eae e a A?aoeee, iie i?eieiaee ia o?aiaiea io /anoiuo eeoe
aeieoiaiou i niaa?oaiiuo naeaeeao ethaiai oa?aeoa?a, yaeyeenue
o?aieoaeyie iioa?eaeueiuo e noaeaaiuo aeoia. Aooaaeoa?neea e o/aoiua
eieae e auienee ec ieo /anoi iiiiaaee noaeo a ?ac?aoaiee eiouanoaaiiuo
nii?ia. Neo/aeinue, /oi iaina?ee iiiiaaee eee naie caieiaeenue
iiaeaeaeeie caaauaiee.

5. Iniaaiiinoe o?aiaiey oic. Aeieoi a ae?aaiai ie?a

Aeeiyiua, a iicaeiaa iaie?oniua aeieoiaiou, iiiaaeay a a?oeaio?aieeeua
(a ioee/ea io aeaeeioae), iiaee auoue eniieueciaaiu a aeaeueiaeoai
oieueei iinea niaoeeaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey o?aieoaey a?oeaa eee
iacia/aiiiai ioaaonoaaiiiai ca nio?aiiinoue a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeia;

A?oeaiua aeieoiaiou o?aieeenue a niaoeeaeueii ecaioiaeaiiuo aeey a?oeaia
aeeiyiuo yue/eao, ia eeoeaaie noi?iia eioi?uo oeacuaaeenue iniiaiua
i?eciaee ooieoeeiiaeueiie i?aaeiaoecaoeee

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a?oeau, niaea?aeauea aioo?eo/?aaeaeai/aneoth
neoaeaaioth eioi?iaoeeth e naeaeaoaeuenoaa eiioeaeaioeeaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a, nio?aieee naith naiinoiyoaeueioth ?ieue e ooieoeeiie?iaaee
eae iaiouaieaiay /anoue ethaiai ainoaea?noaaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
ia?aciaaiey. A?oeau nicaeaaaeenue eae iaycaoaeueiua neoaeau,
iaania/eaathuea auiieiaiea anaai eiiieaena aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo ooieoeee
ainoaea?noaa, aai einoeoooia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey.

A ae?aaieo ainoaea?noaao Aeao?a/uey yeiiiie/aneea a?oeau auee oi?ioi
iai?oaeiaaiu (noaeeaaeaie, iieeaie, eiioaeia?aie n oiiia?aoe/aneeie
oeacaoaeyie e o. ae.) e iaaeaaeii io?aiyeenue. Auaeaeyy oeiu
yeiiiie/aneeo a?oeaia e o?iaie, ia eioi?uo inouanoaeyeinue o?aiaiea
ae?aaieo oicyenoaaiiuo aeieoiaioia, neaaeoao, iaeiaei, ioiaoeoue
ia?acaeoinoue e iaioi?ieaiiinoue oaoie/aneeo e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
a?oeaia, /oi iaoneaaeeaaeinue i?aaeaea anaai ia?acaeoinoueth
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, /oi ia noeioee?iaaei oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann.
Iaeie e oa aea i?oaeey o?oaea nio?aiyeenue ouny/aeaoeyie. Eo nicaeaiea
ia o?aaiaaei ieeaeeo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia. Iaei/eneaiiinoue
eniieuecoaiuo ecaeaeee ii?aaeaeyea iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai aeaeia e
?aciiaeaeiinoae niaoeeaeueiuo oaoie/aneeo aeieoiaioia e ia nicaeaaaea
oneiaee aeey au?aaioee iniauo iaoiaeia (ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei oeiai
aeieoiaioia) eo o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey.

6. Ca?iaeaeaiea naaoneeo aina?oeaia a Ae?aa.?eia

Aunoei ainoaea?noaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieai ?eineie ?anioaeeee yaeyeny Naiao,
eioi?ue i?eieiae aieueoeinoai aaaeiaeoeo yeiiiie/aneeo e i?aaiauo
?aoaiee, naycaiiuo n oi?aaeaieai ?eiii e ?eineeie oa??eoi?eyie.
Aeieoiaiou ii aai aeayoaeueiinoe (caeiiii?iaeou, io/aou, i?ioieieu e
ae?.) o?aieeenue a Y?a?ee — ainoaea?noaaiiii a?oeaa ?eineie ?anioaeeee.
Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ii iaoiaeeeny a o?aia Naoo?ia, yoi aue naaoneee
a?oea, aaea aeieoiaiou o?aieeenue aianoa n eaciie, aiaiiuie o?ioayie,
iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie.

Y?a?ee eae a?oea niaoaiiiai oeia aeeth/ae aeieoiaiou ?aciiai oa?aeoa?a:
aeeieiiaoe/aneea, iieeoe/aneea, aiaiii-aeiaiai?iua,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiua e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiua.
Iineaaeiea auee i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aaeaea anaai iaoa?eaeaie, naycaiiuie n
i?eiyoeai e eniieiaieai caeiiia, ?aaoee?othueo aii?inu oi?aiaee e
eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa. Yoi ?a/e, ienueia, naiaoneea e ai?iaeneea
aaaeiiinoe, caeiiii?iaeou, yaeeeou, niaeaoaiey, ii?o/aiey, aeae?aou,
io/aou i ninoiyiee aea?aeaau. Iai?eia?, yaeeeo Oeaa?ey THeey Aeaenaiae?a
(68 a.) eiae oeaeueth iaania/eoue eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea eeoea, eioi?ui a?iceea eiioeneaoeey eiouanoaa, iiaee iiiuoaoueny
nianoe aai, i?iaeaa, caeiaeea eee ia?aaeaa eiio-eeai a n/ao aiciauaiey
aeieaia. Yeiiiie/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey (aeiaiai?u eoiee-i?iaeaaee,
eiioa/iua caeiu, a?a/iua eiio?aeou), eioi?ay nio?aieeanue a nayce n
aaaaeaieai a aeaenoaea yoiai yaeeeoa, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
?eineia ainoaea?noai no?aieeinue eiaoue aeaiiua i oa?aeoa?a, eiee/anoaa
e noieiinoe aeaeaeeiiai e iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, ia?aoiaeeaoaai ec ?oe
a ?oee. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?aeoe/anee ana ienueiaiiua aeieoiaiou,
iinooiaaoea ia o?aiaiea a a?oea, auiieiyeenue ia aea?aayiiuo oaaee/eao,
iaie?ona e ia?aaiaioa, oaenou caeiiia au?acaeenue ia iaaeiuo aeineao e
oieueei iinea yoiai naeaaaeenue a ioaeaeaiea eaciu Y?a?ey.

Oanii naycaiiua n iaoa?eaeaie ii oicyenoaaiiui caeiiii?iaeoai
noaoenoe/aneea ienueiaiiua aeaiiua oaeaea auee oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu a
Y?a?ee.

Iicaea Y?a?ee aue ia?aeiaiiaai a Oaaoey?ee. A Oaaoey?ee ?aaoey?ii
iinooiaee io/aoiua oeiainiaua aeieoiaiou io iaianoieeia i?iaeioeee
(naiaoi?ia, eiinoeia, i?ieiinoeia), ai?iaeneeo oi?aaeythueo,
iaaeno?aoia, i?e eioi?uo nicaeaaaeenue oaeouea oicyenoaaiiua a?oeau,
iai?aaeythuea ii enoa/aiee a?aiaie iaeaieaa aaaeiua niiauaiey e
aeieoiaiou a Oaaoey?ee, eioi?ue auiieiye i?e yoii ?ieue oeaio?aeueiiai
enoi?e/aneiai a?oeaa. I?e THeee Oeaca?a, eiaaea ia canaaeaieyo Naiaoa
noaee aanoenue aianoi ei?ioeeo caienae iiae?iaiua i?ioieieu, iiceoeee
Oaaoey?ey nouanoaaiii oe?aieeenue, e ii ieii/aoaeueii noae naiaoneei
a?oeaii. Iaoa?eaeu, iinooiathuea a Oaaoey?ee a aeaea aea?aayiiuo
aeioa/ae, o?aieeenue a nayceao, iaie?ona – a naeoeao, ia?aaiaioa — a
oao?aaeyo e eieaao. Aeieoiaiou nenoaiaoece?iaaeenue ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
e ii?aaeaeaiiui o/?aaeaeaieyi e ii aeaeai iaoa?eaeia, iai?eia? «Eieae
naiaoneeo iinoaiiaeaiee», eioi?ua ?aniieaaaeenue a o?iiieiae/aneii
ii?yaeea. Neoaeauea a?oeaa, eioi?uo iaae?aee eaanoi?u, iacaaeenue
«aiia?eoi?aie». Iie ii nouanoao yaeyeenue o?aieoaeyie oiiaeia e
aeaeeeenue ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: ne?eaia (ienoeia-eiieenoia, caieiaaoeony
?aaeno?aoeeae iinooieaiee, auaea/ae ni?aaie) e oaaoey?eaa,
i?iecaiaeeaoeo eeanneoeeaoeeth e nenoaiaoecaoeeth a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeia.
Nenoaiaoece?iaaiiua aeieoiaiou o?aieeenue a niaoeeaeueiuo yueeao e
oooey?ao (aaioaaoo).

Iiieii Oaaoey?ey, a ?eineie eiia?ee nouanoaiaaei iiiaeanoai
?aaeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo a?oeaia – o iaianoieeia
i?iaeioeee, oeaici?ia, eiinoeia, i?aoi?ia, i?ieo?aoi?ia e o. ae. Iie
ooieoeeiie?iaaee eae oaeouea a?oeau, aaea a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea
o?aieeenue a?aiaeiua aeiaiai?u, aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa, eiio?aeou n
ioeoiueeaie e iiae?yae/eeaie, oeiainiaua aeieoiaiou, io/aou ii
yenieoaoaoeee ?oaeieeia e ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiaeue, iia?aoeaiua
iaeiaiaua naiaeee

7. I?iecaiaenoa. a?oeau ain-a Ae?aa.Ie?a

Ionoonoaea i?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao Ae?aaiaai Aeao?a/uey /anoiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo (?aianeaiiuo) a?oeaia iauyniyeinue neaaui ?acaeoeai
?aianae. E??eaaoeeiiiia caieaaeaeea, a?aiaeeiciia no?ieoaeuenoai, ai?iua
e iaoaeeo?ae/aneea i?iaeou inouanoaeyeenue aeaaiaea?y oeaio?aeeciaaiiiio
oi?aaeaieth. Iiyoiio oaoie/aneea e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaoa?eaeu a no?aiao
aeeaeiaainoi/iie oeeaeeecaoeee o?aieeenue aianoa n iaueie oicyenoaaiiuie
aeieoiaioaie. Ai anao ae?aaiaainoi/iuo ainoaea?noaao oe?iei
i?iaiaeeeenue no?ieoaeueiua e aeae?ioaoie/aneea ?aaiou, ?acoeueoaou
eioi?uo iaoiaeeee naia io?aaeaiea a oaeeo aeieoiaioao, eae oaoie/aneea
iienaiey, ieaiu, ?enoiee, ea?ou. Nio?aieeenue iao/ii-oaoie/aneea
enoi/ieee, iiaanoaothuea i nicaeaiee a X—XI aa. aei i.y. a Ianiiioaiee
e??eaaoeeiiiuo nenoai e iiaecaiiuo eaiaeia, ieaiu no?ieoaeuenoaa
e?aiinoiuo noai, oicyenoaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo iino?iae a Aaaeeiia. Yoa
/anoue yeiiiie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee ioeeaaeuaaeanue eae a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?oeaio?aieeeuao, oae e a /anoiuo oaieeueiuo a?oeaao,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ioaeaeueiui eeoeai, i?aaieciaaaoei eee oeiaine?iaaaoei
oio eee eiie aeae ?aaio. Yiea?aoe/aneea a?oeau, eioi?ua inoaaeee iai
ienoeu-eaiia?acu, caia/aoeaaoea aaaeioth aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiioth
e i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth ia noaiao aeai?oeiauo e
o?aiiauo nii?oaeaiee, noaeao, a?iaieoeao, noieaao e o.ae.

8. Aicieeiia. ioieoeei. A?o. A Cai.Aa?iia

N ?inoii ai?iaeia (oeaio? ?aianea e oi?aiaee) ia?aciauaaeenue ?acee/iua
oeiu oicyenoaaiiuo a?oeaia. Iaeiaei ia?aia ianoi ii naiae cia/eiinoe e
iauaiai caieiaee a?oeau ai?iaeneie aaeieieno?aoeee, eioi?ua iaeaieaa
iieii io?aaeaee iniiaiua oicyenoaaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiua ooieoeee
n?aaeiaaaeiauo ai?iaeia. Ai?iaeneea a?oeau, eioi?ua nia/aea iiiaoaeenue
a iiianou?yo, a caoai a ?aoooao, ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieeenue a nayce n
ia?aciaaieai i?aaiia ai?iaeneiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Oeneaeueiay e
oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ai?iaeneeo aeanoae ii?iaeaeaea
iiiai/eneaiioth oeiainiaoth, noaoenoe/aneoth e yeiiiieei-oi?aaeai/aneoth
aeieoiaioaoeeth, eioi?ay o?aieeanue i?e eaioeaey?ee ai?iaeneiai niaaoa.
I?eia? –a?oea AEaiaau. 1 yoai oi?aae. – aeooia-ai oi?aaeyao ai?iaeii,
ianenoaiaoece?iaaiiia iaeiieaiea e o?aiaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee
aianoa n aeeieiiaoe/aneie, th?eaee/aneie e o.ae. Yeii. aeieoiaiou
o?aieeenue a naieo iiianou?yo eee oaiaeaeueiuo iiianoueyo aianoa n
iaoa?.oeaiiinoyie.

Aoi?ie yoai oi?ie?iaaiey a?oeaa – n ?inoii ai?iaea e oe?aieaieai aai
iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo iiceoeee iiiaea aaaeiua aeieoiaiou,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea i?aaa oea?eaae e naaoneeo oaiaeaeia ia aeaaeaiea
eaeie-eeai nianoaaiiinoueth, iaoiaeeaoaeny a /a?oa ai?iaea eee aaeece io
iaai, aeee ia?aianaiu a ai?iaeneie niai? Na. Iao?a (n/aoiua eieae,
caiene i iinooieaieyo i?iaeiaieuenoaey a ai?iaeneea neeaaeu e iiianou?e,
ia?ae/iua noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua i ianaeaiee ai?iaea, niae?aaiua a
oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ieaiu ai?iaeneeo iauanoaaiiuo caeaiee e
oea?eaae, naaaeaiey i aeioiaeao ai?iaea, iieo/aaiuo io oi?aiauo naeaeie
e nai?a oao eee eiuo iioeei.)

O?aoee yoai – oi?aaeaiea ai?iaeii a niaoeeaeueii iino?iaiioth aeey yoiai
?aoooo, eoaea aianoa n niaaoii ii ioieoeeiaeueiiio oi?aaeaieth aue
ia?aianai e ai?iaeneie a?oea. Anee a aiia?aoa i?aaeiaai i?aaeaiey
auaeaeyeenue oieueei aeaa aaeieieno?aoeaiua no?oeoo?u — nae?aoa?eao e
ai?iaeneia eacia/aenoai, oi oaia?ue oicyenoaaiiua ooieoeee auiieiyeenue
oaea ianeieueeeie iiae?acaeaeaieyie Niaaoa, aaaeiaeoei ec eioi?uo noaei
eiio?ieueii-oeiainiaia iiae?acaeaeaiea, i?iaiaeeaoaa nenoaiaoe/aneea
i?iaa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe aaaeaiey oeiainiauo aeieoiaioia.

Oi?ie?iaaiea oicyenoaaiiuo aeieoiaioaeueiuo eiiieaenia ii
ooieoeeiiaeueii-aeaeiaiio i?eciaeo iai?eia?, «Iaeiaiaua eieae», «Eieae
n/aoia», «Ieaiu noieoaeuenoaa».

Aeieoiaiou a ?aoooa o?aieeenue aei XVI a. a ?acee/iuo ath?i
oeaio?aeueiie aaeieieno?aoeee, /oi, anoanoaaiii, io?aaeaeinue ia eo
nio?aiiinoe. N ?aaiou iaae iienyie, eioi?oth, ia/eiay n XVI a., noaee
i?iaiaeeoue eneeth/eoaeueii a?oeaenou, i?eieiaaoea niaoeeaeueioth
i?enyao, ia/eiaaony oii?yaei/aiea aeae a a?oeaa, aaiaeeony o/ao e aieaa
eiae/iay nenoaiaoecaoeey aeieoiaioia.

Aiaeece?oy iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee ioieoeeiaeueiuo a?oeaia, iaeuecy ia
ioiaoeoue eo ?ieue a eioaeeaeooaeueiie yaiethoeee n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ie?a,
a eioi?ie ai?iaea oaeaea caieiaee oeaio?aeueiia ianoi

9. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua a?oeau no?ai Cai.Aa?iiu a n?aaeiea aaea (a?o iaioo,
oeaoiaua, ?aianeaiiua)

Iniaaiiinoue – a naiaeiinoe, «naiaeiua a?oeau», ia?aaeaaaeenue ii
ianeaaenoao. ?aianeaiieee iauaaeeiyeenue a aeeueaeee, aeieoiaiou
o?aieeenue ia ?oeao o aeaaeaeueoea aeeueaeee. aeieoiaiou, naycaiiua n
iieoieie eeoeaicee. oeaoiauo a?oeaao o?aieeenue a?aiaeiua aeiaiai?a e
eaeoaioeee ia oieaoa oeeou, ii /aoa iie ?aaioaee a nianoaaiiuo aeiiao e
aea?aeaee o/aieeia e iiaeianoa?ueaa. O ?aianeaiiuo ianoa?ia eiaeenue
aeiiaoiea a?oeau, a eioi?uo o?aieeenue ienueiaiiua caeacu ia
ecaioiaeaiea oiaa?ia, n/aoa ca iieoieo nu?uey, ?anienee i i?iaeaaea
oiaa?ia, aeiaiai?u n oi?aiaoeaie — iinoaaueeaie nu?uey e neoiueeaie
aioiauo ecaeaeee.

Iaioo-?u -15-16 aa, ?o/iie o?oae+iaoeiu. Anee ?annayiiay – aeiee o
iaeiiai /aea, anee e?oi.oeaio?aeec., oi aeiee o?aieeenue a a?o. iaioo.

Ii ia?a ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee iaeioi?ua
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea aeieoiaiou (/anoue
naiaeiiai a?oeaa) noaee o?aieoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ianoa?neeo a
niaoeeaeueiuo yueeao eee oeaoao. I?e yoii aeieoiaiou a?oiie?iaaeenue ii
oi?iaoo eee ii aeaeo, a eiiaaea ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio i?eciaeo, a
caaeneiinoe io iaeiaiiaaiey ecaeaeee. Ioaeaeueii o?aieeenue noaooou e
onoaau oeaoia. ?aciauaiea a?oeaia iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia i?iecaiaenoaa
?ani?ino?aieeinue a nayce n iiyaeaieai e ?acaeoeai iaiooaeoo?, a caoai
oaa?ee. Iaeiaei oeiainiai-aooaaeoa?neea iaoa?eaeu i?iaeieaeaee
inoaaaoueny a naiaeiuo a?oeaao ?aianeaiieeia.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey oaoieee e oneiaeiaiey oaoiieiaee ana aieueoaa cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaee oeaio?aeeciaaiiua iaiooaeoo?u n oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie a?oeaaie,
/aua anaai i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeie. Iaee/ea oaeeo a?oeaia
noaiiaeeinue iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.
*anoi eacia/ae-aooaaeoa? aeey oeiaeae i?aaei?eyoey.

A?oeau /anoiuo iaiooaeoo? iineee iieonaiaeiue oa?aeoa? e auee aeiaieueii
aeaeaee io nia?aiaiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo, io?aaeathueo a iieiii
iauaia anth noa?o oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii.

10. Ainoaea?noa. e aaaeiinoaaiiua a?oeau NOA a 19 a

?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneeo e oicyenoaaiiuo a?oeaia, ioeiaeeaoeony ia o?iaia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo? a NOA a eiaeono?eaeueiue ia?eiae,
inouanoaeyeinue a ?aieao i?ioeanna aeaeueiaeoaai noaiiaeaiey e
oe?aieaiey iiaie aia?eeaineie iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, ioi?ieaiey
niioaaonoaothuae nenoaiu i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiia. Iinea aieiu ca
iacaaeneiinoue a Naaa?iie Aia?eea 1775—1783 aa. a ia?aciaaaoainy
ainoaea?noaa auei aaaaeaii oaaea?aeueiia ono?ienoai, i?e eioi?ii ia
aaeieieno?aoeeth ooaoia aiceaaaeinue o?aiaiea e eniieueciaaiea
aeieoiaioia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ai?iaeneeo
oi?aaeythueo i?aaiia a niioaaonoaee n ianoiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Yoi
ii?aaeaeeei iiiaiia?acea iiaeoiaeia a i?aaiecaoeee a?oeaia, iaee/ea
na?ueaciuo ?acee/ee a i?aeoeea ?aaiou n aeieoiaioaie, o?oaeiinoae a
eii?aeeiaoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee a oi?aaeaiee a?oeaaie ia oieueei ia
o?iaia oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ii e a i?aaeaeao ioaeaeueiuo
ooaoia. A eiaeono?eaeueiue ia?eiae cia/eoaeueii oneeeeanue ?ieue
oaaea?aeueiiai oeaio?a. Iauaaeeiaiea Naaa?a e THaa a 60-o aiaeao XIX a.
nicaeaei iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeiai ?yaea
oaaea?aeueiuo einoeoooia n iauaoaaea?aeueiuie oeaeyie e caaea/aie,
noaaoeie nicaeaoaeyie aeinoaoi/ii iaoe?iuo e ?aciiia?aciuo ii
niaea?aeaieth oaeoueo a?oeaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai cia/aiey. Ianiio?y ia
i?aiaeaaeaiea a yeiiiieea NOA /anoiiai aeciana, nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eaoaai
naie iiceoeee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia i?ioeiai noieaoey, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
no?ieoaeuenoai oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u
(aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie, yia?aaoe/aneie nenoaiu, eiiieaena oyaeaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe) inouanoaeyeinue eeai iiae eiio?ieai i?aaeoaeuenoaa eee n
aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiui o/anoeai, eeai ca n/ao athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee.
Yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee iaoneiaeee iaee/ea
a eo aeaeii?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neoaeaao aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aeieoiaioia
oicyenoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey. I?aaeaea anaai yoi eanaaony eiieoaoia e
eiiennee Eiia?anna e aai aeaia?oaiaioia. A aeayoaeueiinoe Eiia?anna NOA
e aai eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia ioeeaaeuaaeenue aeieoiaiou ii ?ac?aaioea e
i?eiyoeth yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia, ?aaoee?iaaieth o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui caeacai /anoiui eiiiaieyi, ia?aienea n
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie, i?iaeou ii ?acaeoeth, ?aeiino?oeoeee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, no?ieoaeuenoao ?acee/iuo iauaeoia. Iai?eia?, a?oea
Eiiennee o?oaea e ia?aciaaiey, nicaeaiiue a 1867 a., ninoaaeyee
iaoa?eaeu ii iaoeeiiaeueiie eiaeono?eaeueiie iieeoeea,
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiio iao/aieth, o?oaeiaiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao,
ca?iaeaeaieth i?ionithciiai aeaeaeaiey ?aai/eo. A a?oeaa aeaia?oaiaioa
Eiiia?oeee e eiaeono?ee, ia?aciaaiiiai a 1903 a., ioeiaeeeinue iaiaei
i?ia?aii ii oi?aaeaieth aecianii a NOA, no?ieoaeueiui niaianoii n
/anoiuie oe?iaie i?iaeoai, a /anoiinoe, ii nii?oaeaieth Iaiaineiai
eaiaea. Any io/aoiay aeieoiaioaoeey ii eiio?ieth ca oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea iaeiaiaua iaoa?eaeu iinooiaee
ia o?aiaiea a aeaeii?iecaiaenoaaiioth neoaeao Aeaia?oaiaioa
eacia/aenoaa. Noaoenoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu, eioi?ua aua n 1810 a. noaee
aeeth/aoue a ioeoeeaeueioth aia?eeaineoth noaoenoeeo aii?inu,
eanathueany ?aaeno?aoeee iaiooaeoo?, oaa?ee n oeacaieai naaaeaiee i
auioneaaiuo eie ecaeaeeyo, eiio?iee?iaaeenue a Ath?i ii ia?aiene e
noaoenoeea, eioi?ia aei 1902 a. nouanoaiaaei i?e aeaia?oaiaioa
Eiiia?oeee. A ia/aea XIX a. a NOA aia?aua a ie?a noaea eniieueciaaoueny
aeaeiaay noaoenoeea, eioi?ay i?eiaiyeanue aeey ioeaiee ?aciuo
i?aaei?eyoee ii oaeei oa?aeoa?enoeeai, eae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue,
yooaeoeaiinoue e o.ae. Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee NOA
nua?aee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua i?ia?aiiu a iaeanoe nicaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie
nenoaiu aiaeiiai e iacaiiiai o?ainii?oa, iaania/eaoeo oniaoiia e
yooaeoeaiia inouanoaeaiea eiaeono?eaeecaoeee a iauaainoaea?noaaiiii
ianooaaa. Iaoa?eaeu, io?aaeathuea auiieiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia
eiiiaieyi ia no?ieoaeuenoai ei?aaeae, i?iaeoia o?ainii?oiuo e
aeae?ioaoie/aneeo nii?oaeaiee, ninoaaeyee oaeouea aeaeii?iecaiaenoaaiiua
eiiieaenu O?ainii?oiiai ioaeaea, eioi?ue aue nicaeai a 1862 a. i?e
Aeaia?oaiaioa aioo?aiieo aeae33. A nayce n ionoonoaeai a no?aia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiiieaeoiaaiey e
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aeieoiaiou /anoe/ii
inoaaaeenue a oaeoueo a?oeaao eee aeaeii?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neoaeaao ii
ianoo eo nicaeaiey (aeaia?oaiaioao, eiieoaoao, eiienneyo), eeai (yoi
eanaaony iaiauaiiuo eoiaiauo iaoa?eaeia) iinooiaee ia o?aiaiea a
aeaeeioaee, iai?eia?, a Aeaeeioaeo Eiia?anna NOA. Oaeia ?acae?iaeaiea a
o?aiaiee ioeoeeaeueiuo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aeieoiaioaeueiuo enoi/ieeia ia
iiaei ia aaniieieoue aia?eeaineeo enoi?eeia, eioi?ua, ia/eiay ni aoi?ie
iieiaeiu XIX a., ia/eiatho aunooiaoue ca nicaeaiea iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai
o?aieeeua enoi?e/aneeo iaoa?eaeia oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Iiiai
naeaeaea aeey nai?a e nio?aiaiey a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia Aia?eeaineay
enoi?e/aneay annioeeaoeey, iniiaaiiay a 1884 a. Ia?aciaaiiay i?e iae
Enoi?e/aneay eiienney iaione?eioia iiaeaioiaeea ia?aua ni?aai/ieee ii
a?oeaiui enoi/ieeai. A 1899 a. i?e annioeeaoeee auea ia?aciaaia A?oeaiay
eiienney, i?iaiaeeaoay na?ueacioth ?aaioo ii ianeaaeiaaieth a?oeaia
ooaoia n ioaeeeaoeeae iiae?iaiuo io/aoia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a aunoeo e
oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo e ianoiuo i?aaiao, nicaeaiiuo n?aco iinea
i?eiyoey eiinoeoooeee NOA 1789 a., ca i?ioaaeoaa n oao ii? noieaoea
neiieeenue cia/eoaeueiua iauaiu aeieoiaioaoeee. Eiiennee Eiia?anna,
iacia/aaoeany a 90-a aiaeu XIX a. aeey ianeaaeiaaiey ninoiyiey a?oeaia
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiia, i?eoee e auaiaeo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe a?oeaiie
?aoi?iu. A 1909 a. ii eieoeeaoeaa A?oeaiie eiiennee ninoiyeanue ia?aay
eiioa?aioeey a?oeaenoia, a eioi?ie i?eiyee o/anoea i?aaenoaaeoaee iiiaeo
ooaoia. A 1913a. Eiia?ann NOA i?eiye ?aoaiea i iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoa aeey
nicaeaiey Iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa, eioi?iio noaeaeaii auei ?aaeeciaaoueny
oieueei a 1935 a.

11. A?o.?aoi?ia ai O?ai. eii 18-19 a

Yeiiiie/aneea aeieoiaiou ?aiueoa ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeia noaee iauaeoii
a?oeaiie oeaio?aeecaoeee e oii?yaei/aiey eo o?aiaiey niaeanii aaeeiui
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaeeai. Iai?eia?, ai O?aioeee aua aei ?aaiethoeee
1789-1794 aa. aue nicaeai oeaio?aeeciaaiiue ainoaea?noaaiiue
yeiiiie/aneee a?oea. Ia/eiay n 1715 a. no?aia ia?aaeeaaea caoyaeiie
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea e yoiio a?aiaie
ninoaaee 2,5 iei eea?ia, /oi a 32 ?aca i?aauoaei aiaeiaua aeioiaeu
ei?iey io nai?a iaeiaia. I?aaeoaeuenoai anoaei ia iooue auionea
aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa n i?eioaeeoaeueiui eo?nii ii i?iaeoo aaaioth?enoa
Aeyiiia. Ec-ca eioaineaiie yiea?aoeee ?aianeaiieeia e oi?aiaoeaa (ieiei
2 iei /aeiaae) iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai auei i?aeoe/anee
ia?aeeciaaii.

A 70-a aiaeu XVIII a. ei?ieaaneia i?aaeoaeuenoai naeaeaei iiiuoeo aueoe
ec e?ecena iooai i?iaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ;oi?i. Eo /anoueth noaei
?aoaiea ieieno?a oeiainia i nicaeaiee a Ia?eaea Aaia?aeueiiai
eioi?iaoeeiiii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai ath?i, noaaoaai ianoii
eiioeaio?aoeee anao enoi?e/aneeo e iaeioi?uo oaeoueo a?oeaia, eiaaoeony
i?e oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo iaeaoao a ?acee/iuo ?aeiiao e ai?iaeao
O?aioeee. Anaai ca aiaeu nouanoaiaaiey yoiai o/?aaeaeaiey auei nia?aii
aieaa 100 oun. ?oeiienae yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey. Iooai eco/aiey
aeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia i?aaeoaeuenoai O?aioeee iuoaeinue inouanoaeoue
i?aeoe/aneea oaae ii icaei?iaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiieee. Yoio
a?oea aue oie/oiaeai Aaeeeie O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeeae, eioi?ay, ii
e?iiee noaeueau, iieiaeeea ia/aei ioi?ieaieth iiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie
nenoaiu, a eioi?ie a?oeau e a?oeaiia aeaei aia?aua iieo/eee naia
nia?aiaiiia ioi?ieaiea.

Iniaaiiinoe:

auaaaeaiea a?oeaia ec eneeth/eoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia aeanoe e i?eaeaiey ei noaoona iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeinoiyiey;

i?iaicaeaoaiea i?eioeeiia iauaaeinooiiinoe («ioaee/iinoe»)
ainoaea?noaaiiuo enoi?e/aneeo a?oeaia;

oeaio?aeecaoeey a?oeaia ia iauaainoaea?noaaiiii o?iaia iooai
oi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, iino?iaiiie ia aaeeiuo iao/iuo
i?eioeeiao;

eiioeaio?aoeey aeieoiaioia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee a
ii?aaeaeaiiie naoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?oeaia;

ca?iaeaeaiea nia?aiaiiuo a?oeaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e iiaie a?oeaiie
aaeieieno?aoeee, neeaaeuaaiea ea?a?oee eiiieaeoiaaiey;

onoaiiaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?eioeeiia ?aca?aie/aiey oaeoueo e
enoi?e/aneeo a?oeaia;

oi?ie?iaaiea nia?aiaiiie oai?ee e i?aeoeee a?oeaiaaaeaiey eae
niaoeeaeueiie io?anee ciaiey;

au?aaioea e oi?ioee?iaaiea iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia a?oeaiaaaeaiey,
onoaiiaeaiea iaueo eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo i?eciaeia aeey a?oeaiuo
iaoa?eaeia;

?ac?aaioea iniia a?oeaiiai ia?aciaaiey e nicaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo
o/?aaeaeaiee.

29 ethiy 1789 a. niaoeeaeueiui aeae?aoii aue nicaeai ia?aue
ainoaea?noaaiiue enoi?e/aneee a?oea — A?oea Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey.
Aai onoaa, i?eiyoue a 1790 a., e aeae?ao io 25 ethiy 1794 a. iauyaeee i
aeaaiii iacia/aiee a?oeaa — o?aieoue aeieoiaiou, cae?aieythuea i?aaa e
caaiaaaiey iaoeee, e i?iaicaeaneee aai aeinooiiinoue aeey anao a?aaeaeai
no?aiu. Yoei ii i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aeny io nouanoaiaaaoeo a Caiaaeiie
Aa?iia ei?ieaaneeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?oeaia. Aia?aua ooaa?aeaeaeenue
iniiaiua i?aaeea oeaio?aeecaoeee o?aiaiey e aaiaeeeinue /aoeia
?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo a?oeaiuie aeieoiaioaie iauaenoi?e/aneiai oa?aeoa?a
e aeieoiaioaie ii enoi?ee iaoee e eneonnoaa. Aeaaiaea?y ?aoi?ia
ia/aeanue ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee o/aoa, eeanneoeeaoeee e iienaiey a?oeaiuo
iaaeaeia, auea nicaeaia e no?oeoo?a naiiai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa
O?aioeee a oeaeyo iaania/aiey eo nio?aiiinoe e iineaaeothuaai oe?ieiai
eniieueciaaiey

12. Nicae. oeaio?aeecia. ainoae. a?oeaia a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a
18-19 a

A Aaeueaee, eae e a ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao, a?oeaiay ?aoi?ia iiaiai
a?aiaie i?aaeoniao?eaaea nicaeaiea ia oieueei oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey a?oeaaie e iaoeeiiaeueiiai enoi?e/aneiai a?oeaa, ii oeaeie
nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaaeiinoaaiiuo, ioieoeeiaeueiuo e ianoiuo
a?oeaiuo neoaea. Aaaeiinoaaiiua a?oeau oi?ie?iaaeenue ia?aeeaeueii n
i?aia?aciaaieai ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey. A
na?aaeeia XIX a. a ?acoeueoaoa iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo ?aciiaeanee iiaeaei
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia ?acee/iuo aaaeiinoa.
Yeiiiie/aneea a?oeau, nicaeaiiua a 1830-1880 aa., eeoue /anoe/ii
io?aaeaee i?ioeann eiaeono?eaeecaoeee aaeueaeeneie yeiiiieee, iineieueeo
iiiaea aeieoiaiou aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX a., naycaiiua n iiyaeaieai e
?acaeoeai i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa,
oaeaoiiiie e oaeaa?aoiie naoe, nio?aieeenue neaai.

A oiaea a?oeaiie ?aoi?iu ia?ano?aeaaeanue naoue ianoiuo a?oeaiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee. N 1845 a. ana i?aaeiea a?oeaio?aieeeua aeaia?oaiaioia
noaee eiaiiaaoueny ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?iaeioeeaeueiuie a?oeaaie. E 1851
a. eo ian/eouaaeinue 7, a ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. e iei i?eaaaeeinue
aua aeaa: a Oannaeoa (1869 a.) e a Aioaa?iaia (1898 a.). Iineaaeiee
yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei enoi?e/aneei a?oeaii, a eioi?ue iiiaei iaiaei
aeieoiaioia ii aeayoaeueiinoe ae?ae e oeaoia.

Eae i?aaeei, aaeueaeeneea ai?iaeneea a?oeau aeaeeeenue ia aeaa naeoeee:
enoi?e/aneoth, o?aieaooth aeieoiaiou ioieoeeiaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee aei
XIX a., e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiua eiiieaenu oae iacuaaaiuo iiauo
i?aaiia ai?iaeneiai naiioi?aaeaiey. E a?oeaiie ?aoi?ia, iee eioi?ie
i?eoaeny ia aoi?oth iieiaeio XIX a., i?enooieee e inoaeueiua no?aiu
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu: Aa?iaiey, Aano?ey, Aiaeey, Eoaeey, Ieaea?eaiaeu e
Eniaiey. A Aa?iaiee e Eoaeee ?aoi?ia a?oeaiiai aeaea inouanoaeyeanue
ia?aeeaeueii n ia?aciaaieai oai aaeeiuo oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo ainoaea?noa, e
oeaio?aeueiua a?oeau nicaeaaaeenue ia aaca a?oeaia ioaeaeueiuo
ei?ieaanoa, a?aonoa e eiyaeanoa.

A Aaaa?ee i?aia?aciaaiey a iaeanoe a?oeaia ia/aeenue aua a ia/aea XVII
a. e i?eaaee e nicaeaieth oai a 1812a. oeaio?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
a?oeaa. Aio auei iiae/eiaii 8 ie?oaeiuo a?oeaia. A?oeau ia oieueei auee
iauyaeaiu ioaee/iuie, ii e noaee iacuaaoueny «enoi?e/aneeie oeaio?aie»,
nicaeaiiuie aeey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo, aaeieieno?aoeaiuo e noaeaaiuo
oeaeae, a oaeaea ioaa/aaoeie eioa?anai ei?ii?aoeee e /anoiuo eeoe. (ii
aeinooi aue ia?aie/ai)

Aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii i?ioiaeeea oeaio?aeecaoeey a?oeaiiai aeaea a Eoaeee.
Aei ia?aciaaiey aaeeiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa a 1870 a. iia
inouanoaeyeanue a ?aieao ioaeaeueiuo ?acae?iaeaiiuo ei?ieaanoa e aeaaea
ai?iaeia.

Oeaio?aeecaoeey a?oeaiiai aeaea, nii?iaiaeaeaaoayny oi?ie?iaaieai
iiiaio?iaiaaie nenoaiu a?oeaiuo einoeoooia – ia iauaainoaea?noaaiiii,
ainoaea?noaaiii-aaaeiinoaaiiii, i?iaeioeeaeueiii, ai?iaeneii e ianoiii
(eiiioiaeueiii, iaueiiii) o?iaiyo, nicaeaaaea noaio iaycaoaeueiiai
eiiieaeoiaaiey, i?e eioi?ie yeiiiie/aneea aeieoiaiou, auoaaeoea ec noa?u
aeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey, iiaeeaaeaee iaycaoaeueiiio nio?aiaieth. I?e
yoii, ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu XVIII a. oeaiiinoue aeieoiaioa eae
enoi?e/aneiai enoi/ieea noaea ii?aaeaeyoueny e n o/aoii aai cia/eiinoe
aeey eco/aiey yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee.

A?oeaiia ia?aciaaiea, neiaeeaoaany a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e eiioeo
XIX – ia/aeo XX aa. auei i?eaioe?iaaii aeaaiui ia?acii ia i?aiiaeaaaiea
iniia ?aaiou ni n?aaeiaaaeiauie enoi/ieeaie e ia i?aaeoniao?eaaei
eco/aiea aeenoeeieei, naycaiiuo n enneaaeiaaieai iniaaiiinoae o?aiaiey e
eniieueciaaiey iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeia aeieoiaioia, e eioi?ui i?aaeaea
anaai ioiineeenue iaoa?eaeu, naycaiiua ni niaoeeaeueiuie yeiiiie/aneeie
nthaeaoaie, oaeeie eae i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ianiio?y ia iiiuoee i?aaeoaeuenoa ?yaea no?ai Aa?iiu i?e i?iaaaeaiee
a?oeaiie ?aoi?iu iieo/eoue ia o?aiaiea oicyenoaaiiua a?oeau ioaeaeueiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, /anoiuo eiiiaiee, aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e aaieia,
aieueoeinoai ec ieo inoaeinue o aeaaeaeueoeaa. Yoi o?aaoao
niaoeeaeueiiai ia?auaiey e neiaeeaoaeny nenoaia /anoiuo a?oeaia.

13. Iiyae. e ?aca a?oeaia aaieia a N?aaeiea aaea e Iiaia a?aiy

Oe?aie. eaieoae. oeeaaea, iiyae. iaioo, ?aca. oiaa?-aeai.ioiio.,
iaiyeueiua eiioi?u. Ii ia?a ?anoe?aiey ianooaaia aeayoaeueiinoe, iaiyeu
i?aa?auaeenue a ?inoiaueeia e aeaaaee nnoaeu ei?ieyi, e?oiiui oaiaeaeai,
eoioeai e ?aianeaiieeai. Ia ?oeao o ieo inoaaaeenue oaeea oeiainiaua
aeieoiaiou, eae aeieaiaua ?anienee, ii?o/eoaeuenoaa e eaeoaioeee. A
i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe aaiee?ia niaa?oainoaiaaeenue oaoieea n/aoa e
ioi?ieaiea ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia.

O aaiee?ia – e?aaeeoii-aeaiiceoiua eaeoaioeee, ?anienee eeeaioia,
aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa., e?aaeeoiua niaeaoaiey. Ana eeeaiou aaieia
?aaeno?e?iaaeenue a niaoeeaeueiuo eieaao. Iniiaiui i?eciaeii
nenoaiaoecaoeee iaoa?eaeia a a?oeaa yaeyeanue i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
aeieoiaioa eee aeieoiaioia eiie?aoiiio eeoeo, a aioo?e aeaea eaaeaeiai
eeeaioa iaoa?eaeu ?aniieaaaeenue ii o?iiieiae/aneiio i?eioeeio.

I?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu aaiee auee /anoiuie, e eo
a?oeau ia?aaeei yaeyeenue naiaeii-neoaeaaiuie. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyea
eeoue Aiaeey, aaea ?aciaiii aeaiaa caieiaeinue ainoaea?noai. A 1576 a. a
Aiaeee auea o/?aaeaeaia ei?ieaaneay no?aoiaay iaeaoa, i?e eioi?ie
nicaeaaony a?oea, i?aaenoaaeythuee eiiieaeo aooaaeoa?neeo e
?aaeno?aoeeiiiuo eiea58. Eieae nenoaiaoece?iaaeenue ii aeaeai
no?aoiaaiey, eioi?ia i?iaiaeeea iaeaoa – ii?neia, oi?aiaia,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiia e o.ae. Ia?aue aiaeeeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie (1663)
oaeaea eiae naie a?oea, a eioi?ii o?aieeenue eiiieaenu oeiainiauo e
?aaeno?aoeeiiiuo aeieoiaioia. Aiai?y ia yaiethoeee aaieia, iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi aei na?aaeeiu XVI aaea iie auee /enoi eiiia?/aneeie, a
aiineaaenoaee noaee auaeaaaoue nnoaeu aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

14. A?o.?aoi?ia ia i?iiuoe. eiaeono?-uo a?o. Caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai

Ninouanoaiaaiea i?aaeieo oeiia oicyenoaaiiuo a?oeaia (naiaeiuo,
eoia/aneeo, ?aianeaiiuo, aaieianeeo e ae?.) aeiiieiyaony n?aaieoaeueii
iiauie eo ?aciiaeaeiinoyie – oaeeie eae oaa?e/iua e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea ianaiaeiua aeaeiaua a?oeau. Iaeiaei e oa, e oa
iiaeaa?aeenue eciaiaieyie, oae eae eciaieeny i?ioeann i?ieca-aa.
Naiaeiua a?oeau ia?anoatho auoue eeaee?othueie, a ?aianeaiiua ii/oe
en/acatho.

Ei?aiiia eciaiaiea ?iee e noaoona a?oeaa i?aaei?eyoey. Aei?iaia
iai?oaeia. – ioaeai i?aaieciaa.oaoie/.a?oea. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue a?oea
i?aa?auaaony e a iao/ii-oaoie/aneee. Ioi?ieyaony oaa?e/iue a?oea
(i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiue). Ioaeii ieaie?iaaoue aecian.
I?aaei?eiei.a?oea iiaiai oeia, o?aiaiea ia oaa?eea. ia iiauoaiea eo
noaoona – /anoi eeeaeae aac ia?aaea/e a aino?ai.

?ac?aaaouaaeenue iniiau oai?ee e i?aeoeee eeanne/aneiai a?oeaiaaaeaiey.
a ?aieao iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee yeiiiie/aneea a?oeau oi?ie?othony eae
/anoue iaueo aeieoiaioaeueiuo nia?aiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, ia?a:oiaeeaoeo e oeaio?aeecaoeee naieo a?oeaia iooai
i?iaaaeaiey niioaaonoaothuae ?aoi?iu Neeaaeuaathony e?oiiua
oeaio?aeueiua a?oeau.

N oaaee/aieai ianooaaia nauoa e iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa i?eiaiaiea
oaoie/anee aieaa niaa?oaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey o?aaiaaei nicaeaiey oeaeuo
eiiieaenia aeieoiaioia. Caaea/a nicaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiiai a?oeaa, –
aeaaiay caaea/a oaeiai a?oeaa ninoiyea a.aeieoiaioaoeeiiiii iaania/aiee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia?aiin anao oeiainiauo ?an/aoia ii i?iecaiaenoao ec
eaaeiaoa i?aaei?eieiaoaey-iaeeii/ee a aooaaeoa?eth, eiaaooth naie
oaeouee a?oea — eae iaycaoaeueioth /anoue yeiiiie/aneiai a?oeaa
eiiiaiee. Oae a a?oeaao i?aaei?eyoee ia/aee ioeeaaeuaaoueny aeieoiaiou,
auiieiaiiua a niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaiiuie oieoeoee?iaaiiuie
o?aaiaaieyie, /oi nouanoaaiii iaeaa/aei eo o/ao e o?aiaiea. E?iia oiai,
a a?oeaao oe?i noaee o?aieoueny ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneea aeieoiaiou a
aeaea ii?iaeae, oaoiieiae/aneeo eino?oeoeee e oneiaee. A na?aaeeia XIX
a. a ninoaaa a?oeaia iiiaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee iiyaeeenue oaeea
aeieoiaiou, eae ?aai/ea eiio?aeou, a eioi?uo oeene?iaaeenue oneiaey
?aaiou, aa aaeaaeiaaiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, ca?aaioiay ieaoa.
Naiaeiua a?oeau aua ia ooee a i?ioeia.

A yoie nayce a?oeau i?aaei?eyoee (Aia) a naiii ia/aea i?iiuoeaiiiai
ia?aai?ioa ii/oe ia niaea?aeaee oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee. Iaeiaei e
ia/aeo XIX a. ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oaa?e/iiai oeia noaee nicaeaaaoueny
oaeouea e, eae i?aaeei, aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiua a?oeaiua iiaenenoaiu:
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneay, aooaaeoa?neay, oeiainiai-eiiia?/aneay,
aaeieieno?aoeaiay e eaae?iaay. N eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX a. e oeacaiiui
a?oeaai i?eniaaeeiyaony a?oea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo iiae?acaeaeaiee
e iaoaioiia ath?i.

Ninoaa iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa oaa?e/iuo a?oeaia aieioue aei eiioea
XIX a. iaei /ai ioee/aeny io iaiooaeoo?iuo. Yoi aeieoiaiou,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiua n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai i?iecaiaenoaa (oaa?e/iua
oaoiieiae/aneea ieaiu, ?aaeaiaiou, /a?oaaee e ?enoiee, iaoaiou,
oaoie/aneea e iaiyoiua caienee, i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu); ?acee/iua
aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeieoiaiou (?ac?aoaiey e oeacaiey ei?ieaaneie
aaeieieno?aoeee ia i?iecaiaenoai, auione e i?iaeaaeo i?iaeoeoeee,
aeieeaaeu e io/aou ii iauae aeayoaeueiinoe oaa?eee, i?iaa?ea ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey, auienee ec o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eino?oeoeee,
?aaoee?othuea oneiaey i?eaia e oaieueiaiey ?aai/eo e o.ae.);
eiiia?/aneea aeieoiaiou, naycaiiua n caeoieie nu?uey, i?iaeaaeae
i?iaeoeoeee, naaaeaiey i iinoaaueeao e iieoiaoaeyo e o.ae.;
aooaaeoa?neea aeieoiaiou, ?aaoee?iaaaoea ana oeiainiaua iia?aoeee,
oieaou iaeiaia, auieaoo ca?ieao, iiaen/aou cao?ao e aeioiaeia.

15. Yaiethoeey i?iecaiaenoa.a?oeaia a NOA a 17-19 a

A ?aiiaeiaeono?eaeueiue ia?eiae niaoaiiue oa?aeoa? niae?aiey
aeieoiaioia. Ionoonoaea eaeie-eeai yaiie niaoeeaeecaoeee e i?ioeeueiinoe
ii aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe, io?aneaaui i?eciaeai eee ooieoeeyi. Iniiaie
anaio ii-i?aaeiaio yaeyeny naiaeiue a?oea oa?ia?a n niioaaonoaothuei
ninoaaii e niaea?aeaieai o?aiyueony a iai iaoa?eaeia. E 40-i aiaeai XIX
a., eiaaea ioaeaeueiua oa?ia?u ec aeiiaoieo i?iiuneia nicaeaaaee
iaiooaeoo?iua i?iecaiaenoaa n eniieueciaaieai nia/aea o?oaea oieueei
/eaiia naiuee, a caoai e iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, a oa?ia?neii a?oeaa noaee
i?enoonoaiaaoue e iaiooaeoo?iua ?aaeaiaiou, e aeiaiai?u ii iaeio, eoi/ea
ia nu?uea e i?inoua i?oaeey o?oaea, caeacu ia ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee.
Nicaeaoaeyie oaa?ee auee auaoea oa?ia?u, eiiia?naiou, caeioa?aniaaiiua a
nio?aiaiee aeieoiaioia, io?aaeaaoeo aii?inu, naycaiiuo n iieo/aieai
?acee/iuo caeiia iiae ioe?uoea caaiaeia, i?iaeaaeaie aeoeee,
acaeiiioiioaieyie n iinoaaueeaie e iieoiaoaeyie, no?aoiaaieai aeecie
?aai/eo e iaaeaeaeeiinoueth i?aaei?eyoee. N oe?oiiaieai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e eiiia?/aneeo oe?i au?anoaao ?ieue a?oeaia.

1) niaoaiiue oei a?oeaia oa?ia?nei-iaiooaeoo?ii-oaa?e/iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ionoonoaea eaeeo-eeai naiinoiyoaeueiuo
no?oeoo?ii-i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i – 50-80 19 a.

2) iinoai. ?aca. I?ii. a?oeaia iiae aeeyieai i?ioeannia oe?oiiaiey
oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneeo i?aaei?eyoee, oneiaeiaieai nenoaiu eo oi?aaeaiey,
eniieueciaaiey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee – 80a aiaeu-1914.

Aic?anoaao cia/aiea io/aoii-ieaiiauo e ?an/aoii-aooaaeoa?neeo
aeieoiaioia a iauai aeaeii?iecaiaenoaaiiii eiiieaena oe?iu, noaiiaeony
iaiaoiaeeiui eo nio?aiaiea e eniieueciaaiea eae enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea
aeey aiaeeca neooaoeee ia oe?ia, anooiathuae a iiaue oeiainiaue aiae.
Aiaae?aiea iniia iaiaaeaeiaioa a i?iiuoeaiiinoe nooioee?iaaei ?acaeoea
enneaaeiaaiee e nianoaaiii oaoiieiae/aneie iaoee iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi naeaeaei iao/ioth aeieoiaioaoeeth iaiouaieaiie
/anoueth a?oeaa i?aaei?eyoey.

E ia/aeo XX a. ii?aaeaeeeenue i?eaiu eeanneoeeaoeee, nenoaiaoecaoeee e
o?aiaiey aeieoiaioia a a?oeaao oe?i. I?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao caiaoeoue,
/oi oiio?aaeyaiue iaie oa?iei «a?oea» i?aeoe/anee ia oeao?e?oao a
aeieoiaioao, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo ?aaioo n oaeoueie e onoa?aaoeie
aeieoiaioaie ia aia?eeaineeo i?aaei?eyoeyo ia?eiaea eiaeono?eaeecaoeee,
a ea/anoaa iacaaiey aaeeiie neoaeau, i?aaiecothuae i?eai e o?aiaiea
enoi/ieeia n ?ao?iniaeoeaiie aeieoiaioiie eioi?iaoeeae. Ionoonoaea
i?aeoeee auaeaeaiey ec iauaai aeieoiaioiiai?ioa iaoa?eaeia, iioa?yaoeo
iia?aoeaiia cia/aiea, e ioeaiee eo enoi?e/aneie oeaiiinoe ii?iaeaeaei
niaoeeoe/aneoth iaoiaeeeo eo iinoiyiiiai niaianoiiai o?aiaiey ii
no?oeoo?iui iiae?acaeaeaieyi, aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiii. Anee ia i?aaei?eyoee
neaieeaaeinue aieueoia eiee/anoai onoa?aaoae aeieoiaioaoeee, iia
/anoe/ii oie/oiaeaeanue, /anoe/ii iai?aaeyeanue a iao/ii-oaoie/aneea eee
yeiiiie/aneea aeaeeioaee, i?aaiecaoeey eioi?uo ia aia?eeaineeo oe?iao a
eiioea XIX a. noaea ianniaui yaeaieai

16. Iaoeeiiaeueiay a?o.?aoi?ia a NOA a ia?aie iie. 20 aaea

Iaoeeiiaeueiue A?oea e naoue aina?oeaia – nicaeaiea e 1935, i?aaeiinueee
– 10 aii?in.

Ia?aciaaiiue a 1934 a., iaoeeiiaeueiue a?oea ecia/aeueii i?eieiae
enoi/ieee ia oieueei ii enoi?ee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, iinooiaaoea a
iniiaiii ec ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, ii e ii
enoi?ee oe?i /anoiiai naeoi?a. Iieeoeea iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa
iauyniyeanue naiie enoi?eae ?acaeoey NOA: ainoaea?noai auei iino?iaii ia
i?eioeeiao naiaiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, i?iiecuaathueo anth
nenoaio iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Eiaiii aecian-enoi/ieee io?aaeaee
i?ioeann neeaaeuaaiey aeaeiauo naycae, iaoaieci iinoiyiiiai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?uii/iie e aeaeiaie eio?ano?oeoo?u Yeiiiie/aneay
/anoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa oi?ie?iaaeanue iin?aaenoaii eiiieaeoiaaiey
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oicyenoaaiiie, i?iecaiaenoaai ii-oi?aaeai/aneie,
oeiainiaie e noaoenoe/aneie aeieoiaioaoeeae niioaaonoaothueo
oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia. Eiaiii a enoi/ieeao eiiieaeoiaaiey e aai
iaycaoaeueiinoe eae oaeiaiai ninoiyei ia?aia ioee/ea i?ioaiiu
iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa io i?ioaiiu Aa?aa?aeneiai oieaa?neoaoa.
Ia?aiia/aeueiia eiiieaeoiaaiea i?iaiaeeeinue ii ca?aiaa ninoaaeaiiui
nieneai enoi/ieeia eiiieaeoiaaiey e ia?a/iyi aeae aaaeiinoa. Aeieoiaiou,
nicaeaiiua aei 1895 a., a ia?a/ie ia aeeth/aeenue, eo ia?aaeaaaee a
iaoeeiiaeueiue a?oea. Iiieii oaea nouanoaothueo oaaea?aeueiuo neoaea e
ieienoa?noa yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeey — oaeeo, eae aeaia?oaiaio eiiia?oeee,
noaoenoe/aneia ath?i eee ieienoa?noai yeiiiieee — a /enei enoi/ieeia
eiiieaeoiaaiey aeeth/aeenue oaeaea auai?iua eiieoaou e eiiennee Naiaoa,
nicaeaaaaiua ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo yoaiao ?acaeoey aia?eeaineiai iauanoaa a
oao eee eiuo iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneeo oeaeyo. Eae i?aaeei, eiaiii eo
aeayoaeueiinoue auea naycaia n /anoiuie eiiia?/aneeie e i?iiuoeaiiuie
eiiiaieyie. Eiieoaou aaee n ieie ia?aaiai?u, caeeth/aee eiio?aeou ia
auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia. *a?ac yoe eiiennee e
eiieoaou, a ia ai?yioth ec oe?i, a iaoeeiiaeueiui a?oea e iinooiaee
enoi?e/aneea aecian-iaoa?eaeu. E a yoii ninoiyei aoi?ia ioee/ea i?ioaiiu
iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa ii eiiieaeoiaaieth yeiiiie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeeae
io i?ioaiiu Aa?aa?aeneiai oieaa?neoaoa.

17. Enoi?eee e aecian-enoi?eee e nicaeaieth aecian-a?oeaia. Ia?.iie. 20
a

A 20-o aiaeao 20 aaea eioa?an e aecian-enoi?ee (eaeaieiaey yeiiiie/.
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia n eaeaie.?aoeeiiaeecia) – enneaaeiaaoue no?oeoo?o
ioaeae.oe?i, eco/eoue ?acaeoea eiiiaiee.

1 yoai – 20-30 aa. ia/eiaiey Aa?aa?ae.oieaa?a a aecian-a?oeaiaaaeaiee,
Iauanoai enoi?ee aeciana, ia?aua iiiia?aoee, ioaeeeaoeee. Ia?aay
i?ia?aiia ii aecian-a?oeaai.

A 30-40 nicaeaiea i?e Iauanoaa aia?eeaineeo a?oeaenoia eiieoaoa ii
aecian-a?oeaai. A yoi a?aiy ana ?ac?aaaouaaaoeany iaoiaee/aneea
iaoa?eaeu i?eaioe?iaaee /anoiua eiiiaiee e ainoaea?noaaiiua oe?iu ia
nenoaiaoecaoeeth nianoaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey ia?aaea/e eo a
iaoeeiiaeueiue a?oea NOA e i?aaiecaoeee oai eo o?aiaiey ii iauei n
o?aiaieai aeieoiaioaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee i?aaeeai. A 1944
noeiaiaeee aeey iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia ii aecian-a?oeaai.

Ia?eiae eiioea 30-o — na?aaeeiu 40-o aiaeia iiaeii n/eoaoue ia/aeueiui
yoaiii oi?ie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a ioiioaiee nio?aiaiey
aecian-enoi/ieeia. Iaeiaei auee i?iaeaiu n e?eoa?eyie ioai?a
aecian-a?oeaia. Aeey nio?aiaiey aecian-enoi/ieeia ia iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii
o?iaia iio?aaiaaeinue ?aoeoue ?yae n?i/iuo aii?inia, eanathueony
i?aaeaea anaai iaoiaeeee eo nenoaiaoecaoeee, iienaiey, eeanneoeeaoeee e
o/aoa. Iaiaoiaeeii auei a e?ao/aeoea n?iee ?ac?aaioaoue i?aeoe/aneea
eino?oeoeee, o/aaii-ni?aai/iua iiniaey.

A ia/aea 40-o aiaeia a aeaeaeaiea ca nio?aiaiea aecian-enoi/ieeia
aeoeaii aeeth/eeanue Iocaeiay annioeeaoeey NOA, iiaeaea?aeaaoay
iaaeaeoia?iaeioth i?ia?aiio nicaeaiey ia /anoiuo oe?iao iinoiyiii
aeaenoaothueo yeniiceoeee ii enoi?ee ?acaeoey aecian-yeiiiieee.
Yeniiiaoaie noaiiaeeenue iaoaiou, oiaa?iua ciaee, aioiaua ecaeaeey,
aeaiiino?e?iaaaoea yaiethoeeth eiaeaia?iie iunee. I?aaiecoy iocae ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo, ono?ieoaee aunoaaie i?e iiiiue e iiaeaea?aeea
aecian-enoi?eeia auae?aee ec a?oeaia eieeaeoeee iaoa?eaeia ii enoi?ee
?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee a oeaeyo eo
eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa iocaeiuo yeniiiaoia. A aieueoeinoaa iocaaa
ioeeaaeuaaeenue ia o?aiaiea cia/eoaeueiua nia?aiey enoi?e/aneeo
aeieoiaioia, /oi iicaieeei ei a ia/aea 40-o aiaeia ?aaeeciaaoue iiiaea
a?oeaiua i?iaeou. Oai naiui ianeieueei caiaaeeeeinue oi?ie?iaaiea
aecian-a?oeaia eae naiinoiyoaeueiuo no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee ia
/anoiuo oe?iao

18. ?acaeoea a?o. i?ioannee a NOA a 20 a

Aic?anoaiea iauaia i?eieiaaiie ia ainoaea?noaaiiia o?aiaiea
yeiiiie/aneie e aeaeiaie aeieoiaioaoeee o?aaiaaei i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee aecian-a?oeaenoia. A nayce n yoei a 1939 a. i?aaenoaaeoaee
iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa ia?aoeeenue a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua e iauanoaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee n i?inueaie i auaeaeaiee n?aaenoa aeey aaaaeaiey a
iaeioi?uo oieaa?neoaoao niioaaonoaothueo a?oeaiuo niaoeeaeecaoeee. Oai
naiui auee caeiaeaiu iniiau aeey nicaeaiey nenoaiu niaoeeaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey a aeaiiie iaeanoe. A 1944 a. Iauanoai aia?eeaineeo
a?oeaenoia auaeaeeei ia?aua noeiaiaeee aeey iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia
aeey ?aaiou a aecian-a?oeaao.

A 40-o aa. a NOA ia oaaoaei i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eaae?ia aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo a?oeaia a iaainoaea?noaaiiie noa?a aeciana – a
1946 a. a Iueth-Ei?eneii e Eieoiaeeneii oieaa?neoaoao auee ioe?uou
niaoeeaeecaoeee ii aecian-enoi?ee e aecian-a?oeaai n i?iaaaeaieai
i?aeoeee a niioaaonoaothueo o?aieeeuao.

Ianiio?y ia iiiuoee i?eaeaeaoue e a?oeaiie ?aaioa ia /anoiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo oi?aaeythueo aeieoiaioaoeeae, iocaaaaaeia e enoi?eeia, a
iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae ia oe?iu i?eoee a?oeaenou. A ?yaea aia?eeaineeo
oieaa?neoaoia ioe?ueenue niaoeeaeecaoeee ii aecian-a?oeaai. Oae, a
ia/aea 60-o aiaeia i?e Aa?aa?aeneie oeiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa auee
ioe?uou eo?nu aeey iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe oi?aaeaiey
aecian-aeieoiaioaoeeae

19. Oai?ey e iaoiaeeea a?o. ?aaiou a NOA a 40-80-a aa 20 a

A ia/aea 50-o – eiioea 60-o aiaeia ia ?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneeo a?oeaia
cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ieacuaaee oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea e
i?aeoe/aneea oniaoe aia?eeaineeo a?oeaenoia a iauai e niaoeeaeueiii
a?oeaiaaaeaiee. Oae, ia/aee eniieueciaaoueny iiaua oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa
e a?oeaiua oaoiieiaee; niaa?oainoaiaaeanue nenoaia ioai?a aeieoiaioia n
iinoiyiiuie n?ieaie o?aiaiey, ooi/iyeenue nienee enoi/ieeia
eiiieaeoiaaiey, a oaeaea noaia nenoaiu ioai?a; aeaeaeenue iiiuoee
?anoe?eoue i?iaeaio aeinooia e a?oeaiie eioi?iaoeee. A eiioea 40-o
aiaeia nio?oaeieee iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa NOA eco/aee n i?eiaiaieai
«aa?oeeaeueiiai oaeea» e «oiaiueoaiiiai oioia?aoe?iaaiey»
(iee?ioeeueie?iaaiey) neiaeeaoeany a eiioea XIX a. a noa?a /anoiiai
aeciana i?eioeeiu nenoaiaoecaoeee oaeouae aeaeiaie aeieoiaioaoeee e aa
iineaaeothuae eaoaeiaecaoeee. Yoi aeaeaeinue n oeaeueth eniieueciaaoue
oeacaiiua i?eioeeiu i?e nicaeaiee iao/ii-ni?aai/iiai aiia?aoa e a?oeaiui
aeieoiaioai. N na?aaeeiu 40-o aei eiioea 60-o aiaeia NOA ia?auie a ie?a
?ac?aaioaee au/eneeoaeueii-ia?oi?aoeeiiiua iaoeiu «», eioi?ua noaee
i?eiaiyoue aeey iiaeaioiaee eaoaeiaia e iooaaiaeeoaeae a ioaee/iuo
a?oeaao. A yoe aea aiaeu eioaineaii i?iaiaeeeinue iee?ieiie?iaaiea
enoi?e/aneeo iaoa?eaeia aeey iiiieiaiey a?oeaia e aieaa iia?aoeaiiai
ianeoaeeaaiey enneaaeiaaoaeae. E 1970 a. iaoeeiiaeueiue a?oea NOA oaea
iia i?aaeeiaeeoue enneaaeiaaoaeyi 150 oun. iee?ioeeueiia21.
I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua e iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, a oaeaea /anoiua
eiiiaiee aeinoaoi/ii auno?i noaee eniieueciaaoue iiaua a?oeaiua iaoiaeu,
oaoiieiaee e n?aaenoaa aeey naieo oaeoueo e ?ao?iniaeoeaiuo aeieoiaioiuo
nia?aiee. Eiiiuethoa?iue iaoiae ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee oe?iei i?eiaiyeny
a iaoeeiiaeueiii ath?i noaiaea?oia, ia noaeino?ieoaeueiuo oe?iao, a
aaieao.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, aia?eeaineea a?oeaenou aiineee i?eioeeieaeueiua
iii?aaee, aeiiieiaiey e eciaiaiey a aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiioth a
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneii a?oeaiaaaeaiee aei na?aaeeiu 50-o aiaeia oai?eth
yenia?oiuo ioeaiie ii ioiioaieth e aeieoiaioaoeee, iioa?yaoae naia
i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. Oae, ecaanoiue oai?aoee a?oeaiiai aeaea NOA O.
Oaeeaiaa?a a oeaeii i?eciaaae aaaeioth ?ieue
aaeieieno?aoeaii-aeaeii?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neoaea a ioai?a ia iinoiyiiia
o?aiaiea eee a au?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e oie/oiaeaieth oiai eee eiiai
aeieoiaioa, enoiaey ec aai cia/aiey aeey iaania/aiey oaeoueo ooieoeee
o/?aaeaeaiey. E oai ia iaiaa ii ii?aaeaeye yoio yoai eae ia/aeueiue yoai
yenia?oecu, eiaaea i?eiaiythony e?eoa?ee oae iacuaaaiie ia?aiia/aeueiie,
i/aaeaeiie, aeieacaoaeueiie oeaiiinoe eiie?aoiiai enoi/ieea. Aoi?ui
yoaiii Oaeeaiaa?a iacuaae ioeaieo aeieoiaioa n oi/ee c?aiey aai
i?aoiaeyuae, eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeaiiinoe, eioi?ay ia i?ineaaeeaaaony ia
aeoeaiii eee aeaaea iieoaeoeaiii aeeciaiiii oeeeea aeieoiaioa, ii iiaeao
eiaoue ia?iiiia cia/aiea i?e aai eniieueciaaiee eae enoi?e/aneiai
enoi/ieea. Aia?eeaineea a?oeaenou (e ia oieueei aia?eeaineea) i?eiaiyee
iieiaeaiea Oaeeaiaa?aa naiui aeaenoaaiiui ia?acii i?e i?iaaaeaiee
yenia?oecu oeaiiinoe IOAe, a oii /enea e yeiiiieei-oi?aaeai/aneie,
oeiainiaie aeieoiaioaoeee niioaaonoaothueo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo einoeoooia
— aeaaiuo enoi/ieeia eiiieaeoiaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai a?oeaa. A yoe aiaeu
a?oeaenou NOA, eniieuecoy iiaua iaoiaee/aneea ?ac?aaioee, i?iaeieaeaee
caieiaoueny ninoaaeaieai oeiiauo ia?a/iae aeey ?acee/iuo aaaeiinoa.
Iai?eia?, a ia?a/aiue ieienoa?noaa oeiainia e aeaeai n iinoiyiiuie
n?ieaie o?aiaiey auee aeeth/aiu oeiainiaua niaou e iaoa?eaeu ii
oi?ie?iaaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Ec aeieoiaioaoeee
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiuo aaaeiinoa iinoiyiiiio o?aiaieth
iiaeeaaeaee eeoue ioaeaeueiua eiiieaenu n o/aoii oiai, /oi aiaeiae/iay
aeieoiaioaoeey ioeeaaeuaaeanue a ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe ieienoa?noaa
oeiainia, oeaio?aeueiiai oeiainiaiai oi?aaeaiey, eiiennee ii aeaeai
a?aaeaeaineie neoaeau.

20. Oieaa?neoao.a?oeau NOA a 20 a.

Oae eae /anoiua oieaa?u nicaeaaaeenue ia aeaiueae i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, iie
ioeeaaeuaaee e eo /anoiua a?oeau, a oaeaea oao, eoi aunooiae. O?aiaiea
aeieia – a aeaeeioaea. Ec-ca yoiai – ecieyoeey yoeo a?o io iauaa?oeaiuo
i?ioeannia. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea enoi/ieee a aeaeeioaeao ieeiaaea ia
auaeaeyeenue ec i?aaiecaoeeiiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiuo eiiieaenia
aeieoiaioia, /oi ia iicaieyei ii?aaeaeeoue eo aeaeiaie ninoaa e
enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea. iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey
a oieaa?ao NOA anaaaea eiaee i?eeeaaeiia cia/aiea, eioi?ia
ii?aaeaeyeinue oeiainiai-eiiia?/aneeie ?acoeueoaoaie. Ie a iaeiii
oieaa?neoaoa NOA ia nouanoaiaaei niioaaonoaothuae niaoeeaeecaoeee eee
eo?nia ia?aiiaeaioiaee a?oeaenoia aeey ?aaiou n IOAe.

21. Nia?aiai. nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo a?oeaia a NOA

N na?aaeeiu 80-uo ia/eiaaony nia?ai. yoai ?aca. Yeii.a?oeaia. I?aaeaea
anaai ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony caaa?oaieai a oeaeii ioi?ieaiey nenoaiu
a?oeaiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo e aecian-enoi/ieeia. Aeinoaoi/ii
/aoei i?iniao?eaathony aa iniiaiua o?iaie: 1) iaoeeiiaeueiue; 2)
ianoiue; 3) ?aaeiiaeueiue; 4) eieaeueiue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue; 5)
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee

1 o?iaaiue – iaoeeiiaeueiue a?oea, oaaea?aeueiue oeaio? aeieoiaioaoeee,
aeaeeioaea Eiia?anna

2 o?iaaiue – a?oeau ooaoia

3 o?iaaiue – yoi aeaeeioaee e a?oeau ?acee/iuo aia?eeaineeo
oieaa?neoaoia

4 o?iaaiue – aeaeeioaee, a?oeau oieaa?neoaoia, iocae (eae iao/iua
oeaio?u) – naiue aieueoie

5 o?iaaiue – oieaa?neoaoneea a?oeau

Ia?eiae na?aaeeiu 20-o – eiioea 30-o aiaeia iiaeii n/eoaoue ia?aui
yoaiii a ?acaeoee nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo a?oeaia a NOA. Eo
i?aaiecaoeeiiiia ioi?ieaiea e ia/aei au?aaioee iaoiaee/aneeo iiaeoiaeia
e ioai?o, i?aaiecaoeee o?aiaiey, iienaieth, o/aoo aaeaeaaoiuo ii
niaea?aeaieth i?ioeeueiuo enoi/ieeia ii/oe iieiinoueth naycaiu n
eieoeeaoeaie aia?eeaineeo o/aiuo Aa?aa?aeneie oeieu, ia?ooeaoeo iao/ioth
oeaeinoiinoue yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee i?aaeiaoii-no?oeoo?iui e
aeenoeeieeia?iui auaeaeaieai a iae aecian-enoi?ee aa eiai eiioaenoa.
Aecian-enoi?ey, noaaoay iniiaie aecian-a?oeaiaaaeaiey, – yoi aeaaiia
caaiaaaiea aia?eeaineie en-oi?eei-a?oeaiie iaoee a ia?aie iieiaeia XX a.

A 50-60-a aa neeaaeuaaaony nenoaia iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
aeieoiaioaoeee.

A noa?a aeciana nicaeaiea a?oeaia ia/eiaao annioeee?iaaoueny n
aini?eyoeai eo a ea/anoaa aeaaiiai caeiaa i?eciaiey oe?iaie enoi?e/aneie
cia/eiinoe, aaeaeaaoiinoe e niunea nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iaieoanoaoeee naieo caneoa ia?aae iauanoaii. I?aaei?eyoey eae au
aeaiiino?e?otho iiiaiia?iinoue /aeiaa/anoaa, eaeaioeoeoee?oy naay n
aaaeiui caaiii «iaeie iaiyoe», aac eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii nio?aiyoue e
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue no?oeoo?ii-niaea?aeaoaeueioth oeaeinoiinoue yoie
nenoaiu. I?aaiecaoi?u aecian-a?oeaia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue niae?atho
iaoa?eaeu, io?aaeathuea iniaaiiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee, niaoeeoeeo eo i?ioeai?a/ee e no?aoaaee,
noauaeoeaii-iauaeoeaiua oaiaeaioeee aacinoaiiai/iiai ?acaeoey. Aeey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aecian-a?oeaa a ia i?aaei?eyoee iaiaoiaeeiu oeiiaua
eiiiiiaiou: iiiauaiea, iai?oaeiaaiea, eaae?iaia iaania/aiea, iaoiaeeea
i?aaiecaoeee o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey aeieoiaioia. I?eiaiaiea oie eee
eiie a?oeaiie oaoiieiaee caaeneo io oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae
i?aaei?eyoey, eaaeeoeeaoeee nio?oaeieeia, ianoa e ?iee naiiai a?oeaiiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey a no?oeoo?a oe?iu. Eae i?aaeei, ?aoaiea nicaeaoue a?oea
aicieeaao /a?ac 25—30 eao iinea ia?aciaaiey oe?iu. N na?aaeeiu 80-o
aiaeia iiiaea aia?eeaineea oe?iu, i?enooiay e oi?ie?iaaieth e ?acaeoeth
a?oeaiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, ecia/aeueii i?eaioe?othony ia
oeaio?aeeciaaiioth noaio eiiieaeoiaaiey aeieoiaioaie, iioa?yaoeie
i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea, n i?eaeaieai ei noaoona enoi?e/aneeo. A?oeau oe?i
— yoi iau/ii eiiieaen iiiauaiee, aeeth/athueo o?aieeeua, /eoaeueiue cae,
eiiiaoo aeey nio?oaeieeia, ath?i aeey a?oeaiuo iia?aoeee e ia?aaioee
iaoa?eaeia.

Ioia?aiiua aeieoiaiou n iiiaoie «a?oeaiue aeieoiaio» eee «enoi?e/aneee
aeieoiaio» aeieaeiu ia?aaeaaaoueny a oeaio?aeeciaaiiue a?oea. Eae
i?aaeei, iie iinooiatho ec ?aciuo no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee. Ia?aaea/a
inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee ni n?ieaie, onoaiiaeaiiuie aeey eaaeaeie
eaoaai?ee aeae e oeacaiiuie a iiiaieeaoo?a aeae eee iiene.
Aeaeii?iecaiaenoaaiioth iienue eee eeno ieaiiaie ?aaeno?aoeee
aeieoiaioia ninoaaeyao oi?aaeythuee aeieoiaioaoeeae. Iienue aeeth/aao:
naaaeaiey i no?oeoo?iii iiae?acaeaeaiee, a eioi?ii aue ?ac?aaioai
aeieoiaio (n oeacaieai eiie?aoiiai aaoi?a aeieoiaioa, noaoona
iiae?acaeaeaiey, a eioi?ii ii ?aaioaao), oeaeyo e caaea/ao aeaiiiai
aeieoiaioa, aai aeaea e oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee; aeaiiua i
aeeth/aiee aeieoiaioa a ea?oioaeo eee eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaco,
?aaeno?aoeeiiiue oaeouee iiia?, aiciiaeiinoe aai aeieaia?aiaiiiai
o?aiaiey, ioiioaiee aeieoiaioa e ae?oaiio eiiieaeno iaoa?eaeia.
Ia?a/aiue eee nienie ia?aaea/e aeae iiaeao ninoaaeyoue eae oi?aaeythuee
aeieoiaioaoeeae i?e o/anoee a?oeaenoa, oae e iaiin?aaenoaaiii a?oeaeno.
Iauoth eiaaioa?ioth iienue iau/ii aioiaeo a?oeaeno, eioi?ue, i?eieiay
iaoa?eaeu, nenoaiaoece?oao eo, o/eouaaao, iienuaaao, nicaeaao na?ee.
Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo i?eioeeiia nenoaiaoecaoeee e oi?ie?iaaiey aeae
yaeyaony i?eioeei i?ienoiaeaeaiey, Yoi icia/aao, /oi ?aciua aeieoiaiou,
nicaeaiiua a ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe iaeiiai no?oeoo?iiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey, aeieaeiu o?aieoueny a iaeiii ianoa.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019