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Enoi?eia?aoey, enoi/ieeiaaaeaiea, iaoiaeu enoi?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey

Caeinoaiaaiea caaeaaey ciaiaieoiai nai?ieea “Ec-iiae aeua” naycaii n
nouanoaiaaieai aeaoo “oaeoiie/aneeo” ieanoia. I/aaeaeii, /oi ia?aue
ieano — yoi oi, /oi eiaee a aeaeo ninoaaeoaee, eiaaea eniieueciaaee
aeaiioth iaoaoi?o, /oiau ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiia ninoiyiea
eiiioienoe/aneie nenoaiu ai a?aiaia eaaeouaainy naa?oiiaouanoaa
Niaaoneiai Nithca. Aoi?ie ieano aeua, auaeaeyaiuo n iiiiuueth oie aea
iaoaoi?u, ioiineony e iaeanoe ia einoeoooeeiiaeueiie, a
eioaeeaeooaeueiie – e ninoiyieth caiaaeiie niaaoieiaee iinea e?ooaiey
aueiai i?aaeiaoa aa enneaaeiaaiee e, ?acoiaaony, e iiaeeeiiiio
iieiaeaieth aauae a yoie aeenoeeieeia a ia?eiae aiia?aaeaaiie
iaoycaeiinoe eiiioienoe/aneiai no?iy. ?anniio?aieth yoiai aoi?iai
iaa?iiiaeaeaiey aeua e iinayuaia i?aaeeaaaaiay noaouey.

A ea/anoaa i?aethaeee aeaaaeoa aniiiiei, ia?aoynue e ae?oaie iaoaoi?a,
neieue iaoe?iui e aani?aoeaaeaioiui auei iionoioaiea, i?e/eiaiiia
naiuethaeanyoueth /aou?ueiy aiaeaie niaaoneie aeanoe. A caeaoiua eaoa
niaaoneie nenoaiu iieo/eea oiaeaeaiea ino?ioa, ianoieueei oi?ioi
oa?aeoa?ecothuay no?oeoo?iua i?iaeaiu ooiaea ec eiiioiecia, /oi aa
aaoi?noai i?eienuaaee oi E. Aaeaina, oi thii?enoo I. AEaaiaoeeiio:
“Iao?oaeii i?eaioiaeoue ?uaiue noi ec aeaa?eoia, ii ieeoi aua ia iaoae
?aoeaioa, eae ec ?uaiiai noia naeaeaoue aeaa?eoi”. Eai aniiiiei e oi,
/oi eiiioieci aue oioaeueiie nenoaiie, ioaaouaaaoae ana noi?iiu aeecie –
io iieeoeee aei yeiiiieee e eoeueoo?u – a iaeiii aaeeinoaaiiii
o/?aaeaeaiee – ainoaea?noaa-ia?oee. E aiieia eiae/ii, /oi nenoaia
iiyoiio ?ooioea iieiinoueth e oioaeueii, n?aco ai anao noa?ao, inoaaea
iinea naay oioaeueioth i?iaeaio ?aeiino?oeoeee oaeaea ai anao noa?ao
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Neooaoeey ieacaeanue noieue oieeaeueiie, /oi
?innee, aac niiiaiey, iio?aaoaony oeaeia iieieaiea, /oiau iooai
eii?iaecaoeee ia?aeoe ec ninoiyiey “?uaiiai noia” iacaae – e
“ii?iaeueiiio iauanoao”.

Eiaiii ia yoii oiia iai e neaaeoao noaeeoue i eiioeaioeeyo e eaoaai?eyo,
eioi?ua, enoiaey ec aiciiaeiinoae nia?aiaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo iaoe,
?ac?aaioaea caiaaeiay niaaoieiaey, /oiau iauynieoue oiaaeaoiee niaaoneee
oaiiiai. Eai oaia?ue enoi?ey inoaaeea io yoiai iaeiaaea iaoe?iiai
eiiieaena o/aiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaeie eiioeaiooaeueiua ?oeiu:
niaaoieiaey ia oieueei ia niiaea ?acee/eoue i?eciaee a?yaeouaai e?ooaiey
eiiioiecia, ia aiai?y oaea i oii, /oiau i?aaeneacaoue aai, ii e a iauai
e oeaeii ieacaeanue ianiiniaiie iauynieoue i?e/eiu yoiai e?ooaiey,
eiaaea iii oaea i?iecioei. Oa?aeoa?enoeea auoaoiiiyiooiai iao/iiai
eiiieaena, a oaeaea iiiuoea iaeoe iauyniaiea ioiineoaeueiie iaoaea/e,
eioi?oth ii i?aoa?iae, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oeaeue aeaiiiai i/a?ea. A
aai ?aieao enneaaeiaaieai aoaeoo ioaa/aiu /aou?a iniiaiua
iauanoaaiii-iao/iua aeenoeeieeiu: yeiiiieea, iieeoieiaey, nioeeieiaey e
eo iauee i?aaeie -enoi?ey.

E?eoeea niaaoieiaee, ?acoiaaony, iayaeao aaoi?a caiyoue ii?aaeaeaiioth
iiceoeeth e ii aii?ino i naiii niaaoneii oaiiiaia. Noaouey caaa?oeony
i?aaeeiaeaieai aaoi?neie “iiaeaee” oiai, /ai, ii aai iiaieth, yaeyeanue
a iniiaiii niaaoneay nenoaia. Ii ?aaii aaaeiui aoaeao a iaoai ia/eiaiee
e aiaeec nianoaaiii niaaoieiaee eae aeaau enoi?ee caiaaeiie
eioaeeaeooaeueiie iunee. Ii anae aeaeeiinoe, niaaoieiaey aiai?eo iai
noieueei aea i naaa naiie, eae e i auaoai Niaaoneii Nithca, iioiio /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaeaniaaiiia oneeea i?eiaieoue ia
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iii o?iaia aieueoeinoai iiaaeoeo aeinoeaeaiee a iaeanoe
iauanoaaiiuo iaoe, noieone?iaaa eo ia aeaaiie i?iaeaia nia?aiaiiinoe –
eiiioiecia. A iauanoaaiiua iaoee, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie niaeaniaaiiia oneeea i?eeiaeeoue iiaeaeue anoanoaaiiuo iaoe ei
anae niaieoiiinoe /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee

Ioiineoaeueiay iaoaea/a niaaoieiaee iiyoiio aeieaeia iiaaaeaoue iai
ia/oi aaaeiia eae ia ooaaeoae niaaoneie nenoaia, oae e i iaoae caiaaeiie
eoeueoo?a, aa ia?aie/aiiinoe, ?aaii eae e aa aiciiaeiinoyo. Eiia/ii,
iiaeao auoue, auoiaeii ec iinoniaaoneiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai “noia”
ieaaeaony iooue, aaaeouee ian aniyoue e ninoiyieth iaaeiiinoe,
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaio aicieeiiaaieth iauanoaaiiuo iaoe. Eai o?ie, eioi?ue
neaaeoao auianoe ec ioiineoaeueiie iaoaea/e niaaoieiaee, aiieia iiaeao
ninoiyoue a oii, /oi iieeoe/aneea e eaeaieiae/aneea oaiiiaiu ia
naiaeyony e nioeeaeueiui oaeoi?ai, ii ?acaeaathony niaeanii nianoaaiiie
eiaeea.

NIAAOIEIAEss E IAOEA IA IAUANOAA

Oioy oi?iaeueiia eco/aiea iieeoeee e iauanoaa noa?i, eae ae?aaiea a?aee,
eaeay iauanoaaiiie iaoee n?aaieoaeueii iiaa e aicieeea a ?acaeoii aeaea
oieueei a XX a., o. a. a oi aea a?aiy, eiaaea e nai niaaoneee eiiioieci
iiyaeeny ia iauanoaaiiie a?aia Aei Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iaoe aunoea
o/aaiua caaaaeaiey eiaee eeoue aeaa iniiaiuo oaeoeueoaoa -aoiaieoa?iuo e
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe. Oieueei iinea aieiu auaeaeeeanue o?aouey aieueoay
iaeanoue ciaiee -iauanoaaiiua iaoee, aeey eioi?uo a oieaa?neoaoao
nicaeaaony iniaue, o?aoee ii n/aoo, oaeoeueoao. Iaeiia?aiaiii eciaieeny
e nai aeoo enneaaeiaaiee /aeiaaea a iauanoaa Oi, /oi o o?aioeocia auei
i?eiyoi iacuaaoue “les science humaines” (iaoea i /aeiaaea), a o iaioeaa
-“Geistewissenschaften” (iaoea i aeooa), a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
ieacuaaeinue i?iieeiooui aeooii aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe, a iie n/eoaeenue
/ai-oi ioee/iui io oi/iuo, eee anoanoaaiiuo, iaoe. Oi, /oi aia?eeaioeu
ie?anoeee “iauanoaaiiuie iaoeaie”, aunooiaei n i?aoaiceyie noaoue ii
aiciiaeiinoe eae iiaeii aeeaea e anoanoaaiiui iaoeai, naeaeaoueny oaeeie
aea, eae iie. Aei yoie “aeoaaei?enoneie ?aaiethoeee” ca?iaeaeaaoeany
iauanoaaiiua aeenoeeieeiu thoeeenue a oieaa?neoaoao a ea/anoaa
i?eaeaoeia e oaeei o?aaeeoeeiiiui i?aaeiaoai, eae oeeinioey e i?aai,
eee, /oi aiieia anoanoaaiii, iie aiiaua inoaaaeenue ca i?aaeaeaie
eo?nia. Oae auei a Eiiaeiineie oeiea yeiiiieee e ai o?aioeocneii
Einoeoooa iieeoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. Iaeiaei iinea 1945 a. a Aia?eea
ana iauanoaaiiua aeenoeeieeiu niae?athony aiaaeeii iiae iaeiie iaoe?iie
iiceoeaenoneie e?uoae – eo nianoaaiiie.

Niaaoieiaey aeinoeaea c?aeinoe oeaeeeii a y?o aeoaaei?ecia, a
einoeoooeeiiiii aea ieaia iia ?acaeaaeanue a i?aaeaeao o?aoueae, iiaie
io?anee ciaiee – iauanoaaiiuo iaoeao Iineaaeiea aea auee ?acaeou
niaaoieiaeae eae noa?a i?eiaiaiey iaueo iauanoaaiii-iao/iuo iaoiaeieiaee
e i?iaeaiai eiiioienoe/aneiai ie?a. Iiaay niaoeeaeecaoeey ia?aiia/aeueii
?anniao?eaaeanue eae /anoue aanueia thiie io?anee iauanoaaiiie iaoee,
eiaiiaaaoaeny “?aaeiiaeueiuie enneaaeiaaieyie”, o. a. enneaaeiaaieyie
ycueia e iauanoaaiiuo einoeoooia oiai eee eiiai ?aaeiia, i?eia?ii
eioi?uo iiaee auoue, neaaeai, Eaoeineay Aia?eea eee Aeeaeiee Ainoie. Ii
anei?a enneaaeiaaiey niaaoneiai “?aaeiia” iiiaie?aoii aic?inee eae ii
iauaio, oae e ii o?iaith iaoiaeieiaee, noaa ioaeaeueiie noa?ie
niaaoieiaee, i?e/ai oaeiio eo ?acaeoeth aeoeaii niinianoaiaaee
niaoeeaeueiua enneaaeiaaoaeueneea einoeooou, iiaeiaiua ?onneiio
enneaaeiaaoaeueneiio oeaio?o Aa?aa?aeneiai oieaa?neoaoa eee ?onneiio
einoeoooo i?e Eieoiaeeneii oieaa?neoaoa. Oaeay niaoeeaeecaoeey e
i?ioanneiiaeecaoeey aia/aea aicieeea a aia?eeaineeo oieaa?neoaoao,
iicaeiaa i?eia?o eo iineaaeiaaee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. E iaeiiaoe, a yiioo
ia?ano?ieee e aeaniinoe ?acoeueoaou yoiai ia/eiaiey aeinoeaee Niaaoneiai
Nithca, aaea o/aiua iaaeayeenue, /oi caiaaeiay niaaoieiae/aneay iaoea
iiiiaeao i?ieeoue naao ia oyaiou, ia?aianaiiua eo no?aiie. Ia?aae
caiaaeiuie o/aiuie oaia?ue aicieeea i?ioanneiiaeueiay iaycaiiinoue
i?ieioi?ie?iaaoue naieo eieeaa ia Ainoiea i i?e?iaea oiaa?a, eioi?ue oa
ia/aee iieo/aoue.

Nioeeaeueiay e aeoaaei?enoneay iaoea ia iauanoaa i?aoaiaeoao ia oi,
/oiau aeaoue ciaiey i eoeueoo?a e einoeoooao, nicaeaiiuo /aeiaaeii aeey
naay. A yoii niunea iaoea ia iauanoaa noa?a, eae “Iieeoeea” A?enoioaey.
E a naiie naiae iniiaa a?enoioaeaaneee aiaeec iieeoe/aneeo e
iauanoaaiiuo oi?i, a oaeaea iiuoa ?aaeecaoeee neeu iauanoaa oae ieeiaaea
e ia aue i?aacieaeai, eai ii?aaeaeaiiua aniaeou ciaiee i ian naieo,
eioi?uie iu iaeaaeaai, ia eiatho niaieoiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Ii nia?aiaiiua
iauanoaaiiua iaoee i?aoaiaeotho ia oi, /oiau iieoe aeaeueoa yoeo aa/iuo
enoei i /aeiaa/aneii anoanoaa e i?aaeeiaeeoue iinoiyiii ?anoe?ythuaany
niaieoiiia ciaiea i iaoai iaiythuainy iauanoaaiiii ie?a. Iauanoaaiiay
iaoea a yoii nia?aiaiiii e yeiau niaieoiiii ea/anoaa noaea aiciiaeiie
oieueei iinea “iao/iie ?aaiethoeee” XVII a. E i?iecioei yoi aeaaiaea?y
oiio, /oi /aeiaa/anoai oiaaea aia?aua ?ac?aaioaei oaeoth oi?io ciaiee,
eioi?ay auea iieiinoueth yiie?e/aneie e iaeiia?aiaiii
nenoaiaoece?iaaiiie a oieaa?naeueiua e /anoi iaoaiaoe/aneea caeiiu. E
eae oaeiaia yoi ciaiea n/eoaeinue iainii?eiui, /oiau ia neacaoue
iaiia?aoeiui. Oi auei ciaiea, eioi?ia aei oao ii? i?eienuaaeinue eeoue
Aiao. A ia?eiae I?inaauaiey a XVIII a. i?aaei?eieiaaony ia?aay iiiuoea
nenoaiaoe/anee i?eiaieoue yoo iiaeaeue ciaiee e aeaeai /aeiaa/aneei, n
oai /oiau nicaeaoue iaoeo i /aeiaaea e iauanoaa. Aaeeeei aa i?ioioeiii
noaea “Yioeeeeiiaaeey” Ae’Aeaiaa?a e Aeeae?i. Eoeueieiaoeey aea aeaiiiai
iai?aaeaiey a XIX a. -iiceoeaeci I. Eiioa, aia?aua oiio?aaeaoaai neiai
“nioeeieiaey” aeey iaicia/aiey iaoee, aicieeoae a ?acoeueoaoa yoeo
oneeee.

A noa?a i?aeoe/aneiai, yiie?e/aneiai i?eiaiaiey yoiai oa/aiey ia?aie ec
iiauo aeenoeeieei iiyaeeanue “iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey” – a oa/aiea
iieoaaea, i?ioaaeoaai iinea iioaeeeiaaiey “Aiaaonoaa iaoeee” A. Nieoa
(1776 a.). E enoiaeo XVIII a. iia ia?aea e oi?iaeueiue aeaaeaie/aneee
noaoon. Aoi?ie einoeoooeeiiii ioi?ieaoaeny aeenoeeieeiie noaei oi, /oi
iu oaia?ue iacuaaai iieeoe/aneie iaoeie, eioi?ay ia/aea au/eaiyoueny a
1880-a aa. Iineaaeiae iiyaeeanue nioeeieiaey, aicieeoay eae ioaeaeueiay
aeenoeeieeia a 1920-30-a aa. ec iaeiai nieaaa o?oaeia Iaena Aaaa?a e
Yieey Aeth?eaaeia (/oi oa?aeoa?ii, iai?eia?, aeey no?oeoo?iiai
ooieoeeiiaeecia O. Ia?niina); n eiioea 30-o aa. a iaa aioei iiiaia ec
Ia?ena, a eia-/oi ec aea Oi?eaaeee aeiaaaeeinue oaea iinea Aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieiu. Iinea aieiu e ai iiiaii aeaaiaea?y ae yoe iauanoaaiiua
iaoee i?iieeee e a aaeeeoth aeenoeeieeio-i?a?iaeeoaeueieoeo – enoi?eth,
eioi?ay ia aeaea auea ae?aaiaa A?enoioaey.

A oa/aiea 40 eao iinea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu ana /aou?a aeenoeeieeiu
yoiai iiaiai ie?a iaoee ia iauanoaa ia?aaeeee oaeoth aea ia?iiioth
“niaio ia?aaeeaiu” a iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiey eiiioienoe/aneiai no?iy:
“oioaeeoa?iay iiaeaeue” niaieeanue “oai?eae iiaea?iecaoeee”. Ia?aay
no?aieeanue enoieeiaaoue eiiioienoe/aneea nenoaiu a iniiaiii
“aa?oooa/ii” – eae i?iaeoeo eaeaieiaee e iieeoe/aneie aiee.
?annioa?eaaaiay iiae oaeei oaeii c?aiey niaaoneay nenoaia ?iaenoaaiia
iaoeecio e oaoecio, a iioiio ?aaeeeaeueii ioee/ia io caiaaeiuo
aeaiie?aoee. Aoi?ay iiaeaeue, iiyaeaoayny a 1960-a aa., no?aieeanue
iauyniyoue niaaoneoth nenoaio a iniiaiii “nieco” – eae i?iaeoeo
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe oieaa?naeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo e yeiiiie/aneeo nee, a
iioiio ioee/ioth oieueei a noaiaie, ii ia ii nouanoao e oeio, io ae?oaeo
“nia?aiaiiuo” eee “iiaea?iece?othueony” iauanoa. Ii eae, aea
?acaeaaeanue yoa aeaeaei eaeouay niaia ia?aaeeaiu a eaaeaeie ec /aou?ao
iauanoaaiiuo iaoe?

Yeiiiieea

Ia/iai n iniia, eee n oiai, /oi A?enoioaeue iacaae oi?aaeaieai aeiiaoiei
oicyenoaii (oa ieeiiey), /oi Ia?en iicaeiaa ii?aaeaeee eae aacen (a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iaaeno?ieea), e /oi a nia?aiaiiuo ycueao ecaanoii
eae yeiiiieea. A neo/aa n niaaoneie yeiiiieeie (1920 -na?aaeeia 1940-o
aa.) eiaea ianoi aeieaay enoi?ey aeiiauanoaaiii-iao/iiai,
iieoeaeaieiae/aneiai eiiiaioe?iaaiey oiai, i?aaeeueii eee iao
i?aoai?yaony a aeeciue “nioeeaeenoe/aneee yenia?eiaio” a iiaii
?aai/a-e?anoueyineii ainoaea?noaa.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, a 1922 a. E. aai Iecan, iineaaeiaaoaeue aano?eeneie
oeieu yeiiiieee, ooaa?aeaeae, /oi caiaia ?uiea oae iacuaaaiui “ieaiii”
ecia/aeueii iaaiciiaeia, iioiio /oi iineaaeiee enoiaeeo ec ioeai/iiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey, /oi oeaiu yaeythony ia /ai eiui, eae i?iaeoeoii
eaieoaeecia, e iioiio yoi ia/oi oaeia, /oi ieaiiaee iiaeao ono?aieoue,
ia ia?ooea nenoaio yooaeoeaiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia. Aai Iecan
cayaeye, /oi a ethaii neo/aa eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa oiaa?a e oeaiu neeoeii
neeueii acaeiinaycaiu, a /enei i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee neeoeii aaeeei, /oiau
?an/aou ia ia?niaeoeao noaee aiciiaeiuie. Oaeei ia?acii, oieueei ?uiie
iiaeao ni?aaeoueny n oeo?inieaoaieai i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
?ani?aaeaeaieai ?ano?nia e eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ii i?aaaea aiai?y, aai Iecan ia aae?anoaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii e ?acaeoeth
niaaoneie neooaoeee. Nei?aa, ii iieaiece?oao n aioe?uii/iuie oai?eyie
oaeeo aano?i-ia?enenoia eae ?. Aeeueoa?aeeia, e e?eoeeoao aa?iaineoth
aiaiioth yeiiiieeo aaia?aea Ethaeaiaei?oa e A. ?aoaiao. Ii iaa aai
ieoaie, eae anei?a oaeaeei, iineoaeeee iiaeoiaeyueie iiaeii?eaie aeey
eaieiecia.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaiiiai iicaea i?eaa?aeaioeu nioeeaeecia, iiaeiaiua
I. Aeiaao, aeieacuaaee, /oi yenia?eiaio iaauae auoue oniaoiui. Niaeanii
Aeiaao, oioy aiaiiue eiiioieci 1918-1921 aa. e aue /a?an/o? iiniaoiui
ia/aeii, a iyi 1921-1929 aa. neeoeii ai iiiaii aue ionooieaieai,
noaeeineea iyoeeaoee 30-o aiaeia i?aa?aoeee Niaaoneee Nithc a
nia?aiaiioth i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeooth no?aio iiaiai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
oeia.

Aaea-oi iina?aaeeia iaoiaeeeenue oaeea ?uii/ieee-nioeeaeenou, eae
iieueneee yeiiiieno I. Eaiaa, eioi?ua ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi niaaoneia
ieaie?iaaiea a oii aeaea, eae iii inouanoaeyeinue ia aeaea, auei
ioeai/iui. Oai ia iaiaa, aeieacuaae ii, anee iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiioth
nianoaaiiinoue ni/aoaoue n ?uieii, iiaeao iieo/eoueny iiaeeeiiue
nioeeaeeci4.

Iiieii yoeo caiaaeiuo oi/ae c?aiey nouanoaiaaea aua iaeia – niaaoneiai
yeiiiienoa-yiea?aioa I. ssniiai, eioi?ue a eiioea 1940-o – ia/aea 1950-o
aa. aeanoei e?eoeeiaae e naio niaaoneoth yeiiiieeo, e anao aa
ca?oaaaeiuo aiaeeoeeia. Oioy aio, aiciiaeii, ia oaaoaei
iaoiaeieiae/aneie ooii/aiiinoe yeiiiienoia, iao/aaoeony a iaieo
Eaia?eaeaeao, ii a ?aaeueiinoe ciae no?aio, i eioi?ie aiai?ee, oae eae
“ii oai aue e ieai iee”. ssniue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eae eieeaeoeaiia
oicyenoai NNN?, oae e aai ieaiiai-oi?aaeyaiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue noaee
i/aiue aei?iainoiyueie i?iaaeaie, e /oi caiaaeiua yeiiiienou
i?aaenoaaeyee iauanoaaiiinoe oeaeeeii auiuoeaiiue ie? niaaoneiai
nioeeaeecia. E a yoii ?aiueoa a?aiaie ?acaeaoainy ianneiecia ssniue aue
aaeeiiaeooai n aieaa aeaaiae, aieaa oai?aoe/aneie ioeaieie aai Iecana.

Eiaiii n yoiai a?aiaie, aaea-oi a 1960 a., aiaeec niaaoneiai
yeiiiie/aneiai iiuoa noae aace?iaaoueny ia i?i/iie iauanoaaiii-iao/iie
iniiaa. Caeanue aieueooth iiiiuue ieacaea oae iacuaaaiay “oai?ey AII”
(aaeiaue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo), eioi?ay a neo/aa NNN? iie?aeanue ia
“iiaeaeue ?aaoee?iaaiey oaeoi?a noieiinoe”. Aii?aee auoothuaio iiaieth,
AII – yoi ia ?aaeueiue oaeo, a eiioeaioeey eee, oi/iaa, nenoaia
ecia?aiee, eioi?ay ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac oai?aoe/aneeo
i?aaeiinueie. ?acia? niaaoneiai AII caaenae io oiai, eaeoth oai?eth
eniieueciaaee aeey aai au/eneaiey. E caeanue aicieeaao aeaaiay i?iaeaia,
oae eae ana iaoe oai?ee, eanathueany ?aaeueiiai iauaia yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, enoiaeyo ec caiaaeiiai iiuoa e aeaiiuo.

Iaeiaei niaaoneee iiuo e aeaiiua aaniethoii ia niioaaonoaiaaee caiaaeiui
iiaeaeyi ecia?aiey. A /anoiinoe, niaaoneea oeaiu ia neaaeiaaee
yeiiiie/aneie eiaeea. Eo eiaeea, anee aeaiiue oa?iei i?eiaiei caeanue,
yoi iieeoe/aneay, eee aaeieieno?aoeaiay, eee “eiiaiaeiay” eiaeea.
Ionthaea “?aaoee?iaaiea oaeoi?a noieiinoe” iio?aaiaaeinue aeey oiai,
/oiau aaanoe niaaoneea “oeaiu” a nenoaio aeaiiuo, eioi?ua iiaee au auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey iiaeaeae ecia?aiey, i?aeoeeoaiuo a iaieo
Eaia?eaeaeao. Yoi oaeaeinue eneonii inouanoaeoue A. Aa?aniio a aai
iniiaiiieaaathuai o?oaea “?aaeueiue iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae Niaaoneie
?innee n 1928 a. “, ecaeaiiii a 1961 a. Aai auaiae ninoiye a oii, /oi n
1928 ii 1940 a. niaaoneee AII au?in aieaa /ai ia 60%. Anee eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi ca oa aea aiaeu AII a NOA oiae a oeaeii ia 33%, oi niaaoneea
iieacaoaee (ii Aa?aniio) i?aaenoaioo iaeieie ec naiuo aia/aoeythueo a XX
a.

Iinea ioaeeeaoeee eieae A. Aa?aniia, nua?aaoae ?ieue naiaai ?iaea
“iieiaeioai?eoaey”, a caiaaeiie iaoea /aoaa?oue aaea ainiiaenoaiaaee
noiaeiua iioeienoe/aneea ioeaiee niaaoneeo oniaoia; ei aoi?ee e eo
aeoeaioe?iaae oaeie aeanoyuee o/aiue, eae A. Eaiioueaa, eo aea
iiioey?ece?iaae Ae. E. Aaea?aeo. Noieue aunieia iiaiea i niaaoneeo
aeinoeaeaieyo iiaeeyei e ia ioeaiee Oe?O NOA, aaea iii, eiia/ii,
?anniao?eaaeinue eae ia?eei niaaoneie oa?icu. Oae, e 1970 a. noaei
iauai?eciaiiui e aannii?iui, /oi niaaoneee AII ninoaaeyao ieiei 60%
aia?eeaineiai.

Iaeiaei, eae e a i?aaeoanoaothuea aiaeu, ?acaeaaaeenue ianiaeaniua
aieina. Iie enoiaeeee a iniiaiii io auaoeo niaaoneeo a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua,
ianiio?y ia ionoonoaea iaoiaeieiae/aneiai einea, iaeaaeaee
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iiuoii aeecie a niaaoneie nenoaia ia?eiaea
a?aaeiaaneiai “?acaeoiai” eee “?aaeueiiai” nioeeaeecia. Iaeaieaa caiaoai
n?aaee ieo aue E. Ae?iai. Iaeiei ec aai aeaaiuo a?aoiaioia auei oi, /oi
aia?eeaineia aeaaeaie/aneia niiauanoai e Oe?O ia i?eiyee ai aieiaiea ia
oieueei iaiaaeaaeiinoue niaaoneie noaoenoeee, ii e, /oi aeaaea aieaa
aaaeii, ieceia ea/anoai anaai niaaoneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Caoai, a eiioea 1980-o aa., eiaaea aeaniinoue aeaea niaaoneei
yeiiiienoai e aeo?iaeenoai naiaiaeo auneacuaaiey, ianneienoe/aneee, eee
oi/iaa ?aaeenoe/aneee, aa?aeeeo Ae?iaia iieiinoueth iiaeoaa?aeeeny. I.
Oiaeaa, A. Iiiia, A. Naethiei, A. Oaiei, E. Ieyoaaa, I. Aa?aa?, a
aiineaaenoaee A. ssaeeineee e A. Aaeaea? a naieo auneacuaaieyo
i?aaeeiaeeee iai ii?o?ao niaaoneie yeiiiieee, iieiinoueth
niioaaonoaiaaaoee acaeyaeai Ae?iaia, ssniiai e, eiia/ii, aai Iecana, a
eieaa eioi?iai ia i?enoonoaiaaea ie iaeia oeeo?a, e ia auei ie neiaa i
AII. Iaeiiaoe, yoa iaoiaeieiae/aneay “niooa” iieo/eea iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
i?eciaiea ia eiioa?aioeee ii niaaoneie “eaeanoaoenoeea”, i?iaiaeeaoaeny
a ai?aea 1990 a. a Ye?ee Oaoc iiae yaeaeie Aia?eeaineiai einoeoooa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa n o/anoeai eae niaaoneeo, oae e caiaaeiuo
niaoeeaeenoia. A ?acoeueoaoa yoie “aeaienoeoeeaoeee” noaei i/aaeaeiui,
/oi iai i?inoi iaecaanoiu ianooaau niaaoneie yeiiiieee eee aa AII, eaeie
au ia?eiae iu ie acyee. A n e?ooaieai ia?ano?ieee a 1991 a. noaei oaeaea
ynii, /oi nioeeaeeci aue iaeiei ec aeaaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo aaaenoaee XX a.

Eaeie aea auea enoeiiay i?e?iaea niaaoneie nenoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa, eee
“ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa”, eae aa eiaiotho a ?innee? Naiui iiaeoiaeyuei aue
au oa?iei ieeeoa?ece?iaaiiay yeiiiieea, oae eae i?ioioei
eiiaiaeii-iieeoe/aneie yeiiiieee aia?aua iiyaeeny ai a?aiy Ia?aie
ie?iaie aieiu. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a Aa?iaiee aaia?ae Y. oii Ethaeaiaei?o,
eniieuecoy i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oaeaiou A. ?aoaiao, iino?iee nenoaio,
iacaaiioth “Kriegssozialismus” (“aiaiiue nioeeaeeci”), eioi?ay, ii aai
iiaieth, yaeyeanue eeoue yeiiiie/aneei eiiiiiaioii “der totale Krieg”
(“oioaeueiie aieiu”). Ii aeey Eaieia yoa aieia auea
“eiia?eaeenoe/aneie”, i?iaeoeoii “aunoae noaaeee eaieoaeecia”. Aieia
aeieaeia auea caeii/eoueny nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeeae, e oiaaea
ieeeoa?ece?iaaiiay yeiiiieea Ethaeaiaei?oa eiae/anee noaea au
i?a?iaeeoaeueieoeae iiaie “nioeeaeenoe/aneie” yeiiiieee.

A 1920 a. a eiioea A?aaeaeaineie aieiu a ?innee O?ioeeee oaeaea
eiae/anee aeieacuaae, /oi “ieeeoa?ecaoeey o?oaea” anoue n?aaenoai
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia a ie?iia a?aiy. Niioaaonoaaiii, e ai a?aiy
/anoe/iiai ionooieaiey e ?uieo i?e iyia ainoaea?noaaiiue, eee
nioeeaeenoe/aneee naeoi? – oyaeaeay eiaeono?ey e oeiaine?iaaiea –
ii-i?aaeiaio iacuaaeny “eiiaiaeiuie aunioaie”. Iaeiiaoe, eiaaea Noaeei
i?ae?aoee yoi ionooieaiea a 1929 a. e ?eioeny a “iino?iaiea
nioeeaeecia”, aueeaoaany a auiieiaiioth ca /aou?a aiaea iyoeeaoeo, ii
niaa?oee caaeoiaiiia, nicaeaa ?yae “o?iioia” – i?iiuoeaiiue,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiue e eoeueoo?iue, aeaenoaoy iiae eicoiaii “iao oaeeo
e?aiinoae, eioi?uo ia niiaee au acyoue aieueoaaeee”.

Iicaea, eiaaea Aeoea? aa?ioe Noaeeio aeaaiee eiiieeiaio Eaieia a aae?an
Ethaeaiaei?oa, i?iaaaey nioeeaeecaoeeth iaiaoeeie yeiiiieee a oiaea
inouanoaeaiey naiaai /aou?aoeaoiaai ieaia, aa?iaineea yiea?aiou,
aaaeaaoea ec iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa-eaaeaoaia,
iacaaee iieeoeeo Aeoea?a Befehlswirtschaft (“eiiaiaeiay yeiiiieea”). A
iineaaeothuea 20 n eeoiei eao yoio oaea/iue oa?iei aue i?ioeaiiinoaaeai
ia Caiaaea aaiaeyuaio a caaeoaeaeaiea inaaaei?aoeeiiaeueiiio
ioeoeeaeueiiio iiiyoeth “ieai”. A ia?eiae aeaniinoe iaiaoeeee oa?iei
aa?ioeny ia caieth Eaieia eae “eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiay nenoaia”
-oa?ieiieiae/aneay eiiiaaoeey aeaiie?aoia, i?eoaaeoeo e aeanoe a Iineaa
e i?enooieaoeo e caiaia yoie nenoaiu iiaeeeiii yeiiiie/aneeie
einoeoooaie, oaeeie, eae ?uiie e /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue, eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo ioaeaeaaony a oi?aeanoaa caeiia.

Ia ia?aioeaie Caiaae aeinoeaeaiee Niaaoia a iaeanoe yeiiiieee, ia auei
au e caauoaiiie ioeaiee eo aeinoeaeaiee a noa?a inoaeueiuo o?ao
aeenoeeieei. Eee oi/iaa aiai?y, eiaiii ia?aieaoaiea yoeo caaeoaeaeaiee,
eanathueony yeiiiieee, n oyaeaeie enoi?e/aneie o?aaiie, iaianaiiie
Aaeeeie aeai?anneae e Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiie, nua?aei ia ?oeo
iieeoe/aneiio e iauanoaaiiiio no?ith a NNN?. Iioiio eae a oi a?aiy, eae
Noaeei no?iee nioeeaeeci a Niaaoneii Nithca, Aaeeeay aeai?anney
niinianoaiaaea aicieeiiaaieth iaoeecia ia Caiaaea, a aiineaaenoaee e
Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia aaeanue eae au “ia?iaeiui o?iioii” -nithcii
aeaiie?aoia e eiiioienoia i?ioea oaoecia. Oaeei ia?acii, iinea 1930-o
aa. a caiaaeiii eeaa?aeueiii niciaiee oei?aieeanue eaeay iaeie nayce
eaieoaeecia n yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii e aieiie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
iaaeaeo ieaie?iaaieai, yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii e ie?ii – n ae?oaie. E ana
iiiuoee aeanoaeeiecaoeee iineaaeiea 40 eao ia niiaee enei?aieoue yoe
annioeeaoeee. Aeey yoiai iio?aaiaaeny yeiiiie/aneee e?ao ia?ano?ieee…
eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, oae eaaeaony.

Iieeoe/aneay iaoea

A iieeoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo eiiioienoe/aneie nenoaiu iniiaiua nii?u
?acai?aeenue aie?oa “oioaeeoa?iie iiaeaee” e aa e?eoeee. Yoa ai?ueaa
cao?iioea iaiin?aaenoaaiii e ae?oaea “iyaeea” nioeeaeueiua iaoee –
nioeeieiaeth e enoi?eth. Iniiaiua oaeou ianoieueei oi?ioi ecaanoiu, /oi
aeaeatho eceeoiei /oi-eeai, e?iia e?aoeiai ?acthia. Oioaeeoa?iay
iiaeaeue auea auaeaeiooa X. A?aiaeo a aa “Ei?iyo oioaeeoa?ecia” (1951
a.) aua a i?aaeaiea Noaeeia. Aa oai?ey aeaneea, /oi a na?aaeeia XX a.
iiyaeeanue ea/anoaaiii iiaay, oieeaeueiay oi?ia aeaniioecia, iniiaaiiay
ia ianniaie, anaia?iaeiie iiaeeecaoeee iauanoaa eaeaieiaece?iaaiiie
iieeoe/aneie aeanoueth, e /oi aunoeie i?iyaeaieyie aa noaee iaoeeci e
eiiioieci. A 1956 a. E. O?eae?eo e 3. Aaeaceineee i?aa?aoeee oai?eth
A?aiaeo a iiaeaeue, niaeanii eioi?ie oioaeeoa?eci oa?aeoa?ecoaony
ioeoeeaeueiie eaeaieiaeae, ianniaie ia?oeae, aicaeaaeyaiie aiaeaeai,
ocaeiiaiiui oa??i?ii, iiiiiieeae ia eioi?iaoeeth, iiiiiieeae ia
aunieioaoiieiae/iua aii?oaeaiey e oeaio?aeeciaaiii oi?aaeyaiie
yeiiiieeie.

Ia/eiay n 1960-o aa. oioaeeoa?iay iiaeaeue noaea iiaeaa?aaoueny ana
aieueoei iaiaaeeai. Oiio auei iiiai i?e/ei, ii caeanue oiiiyiai eeoue
naiua aaaeiua. Ai-ia?auo, iaiyeenue a?aiaia a Niaaoneii Nithca – nenoaia
noaiiaeeanue aieaa iyaeie. Ai-aoi?uo, a?aiaia iaiyeenue e ia Caiaaea, e
eaaua neeu, aei oiai i?aauaaaoea a aeeeoaeueiii oiaaeea, aica?auaeenue e
aeanoe. Ni/aoaiea yoeo oaeoi?ia oiaiueoeei iianaiey ii iiaiaeo niaaoneie
oa?icu, e iioiio neaaeiaaei ?acaai/aoue oioaeeoa?ioth iiaeaeue eae
o/aiia iainiiaaiea “oieiaeiie aieiu”. Aieaa oiai, n onoaiiaeaieai
“?aaiiaaney no?aoa” a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo aeaoiy naa?oaea?aeaaaie
neiaeeeanue ooieeiaay neooaoeey, e eacaeinue, /oi NNN? naeaeaeny
iinoiyiiie neeie a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeaeao, e /oi iiyoiio i?eoei a?aiy
oniieieoueny e aiaeece?iaaoue aai o?acai, aac yiioeee ia?eiaea iicaeiaai
noaeeiecia. Yoi icia/aei ia?aaioeo niaaoneeo aeaiiuo iin?aaenoaii
“aacioeaii/iuo” eaoaai?ee iiauo iauanoaaiiuo iaoe. Oae, aeaaeaie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey iieiaeaiey a NNN?, ia/aaoeany a aeaea i?inouo
“?aaeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee”, iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaaeenue
aiaeeoeeaie, i?eaeaeaaoeie aeey yoie oeaee ana aieaa neiaeiua
iauanoaaiii-iao/iua iiaeaee. ?acoeueoaoii auei oi, /oi enoi?e/aneay
niaoeeoeea Niaaoneiai Nithca eae eiiioienoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa-ia?oee
noaiiaeeanue ana aieaa ooiaiiie ec-ca neiaeeaoaainy ni a?aiaiai
eaeneeiia iieeoe/aneeo e nioeeieiae/aneeo oa?ieiia. E yoio i?ioeann aue
oneeai ec?yaeiie aeicie iaaaaeanoaaiiie iaeaiinoe a i?aaenoaaeaieyo
Caiaaea i aeaenoaeoaeueiie neooaoeee a NNN?.

E 1970-i aa. yoio “?aaeceiienoneee” iiaeoiae ii?iaeee iaoe?ioth
eeoa?aoo?o, eioi?ay no?aieeanue iaeoe ii/ao aeey nouanoaiaaiey
niaaoneiai no?iy a aeeiaieea niaaoneiai iauanoaa e iiae/eiyea iieeoeeo e
eaeaieiaeth nioeeaeueiui e yeiiiie/aneei oaeoi?ai i?e ?acuyniaiee
i?eioeeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yoie nenoaiu. Yoio ?aaeceiieci ia nicaeae
aaeeiie aeiieie?othuae iiaeaee; nei?aa, iiaua aan/eneaiiua iiaeaee
iiyaeyeenue ia naao iaaeieaiaa/iuie, eae inaiiea eenouey, ia/eiay n
eiioeaioeee “aa?oooa/iie ai?ueau” (“e?a-ieeiieiaey”), o?aeoiaee
niaaoneie nenoaiu eae iaio?aaeeoeeiiaeecia (a aaaa?ianeii iiieiaiee
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai), oai?ee ei?ii?aoeaecia, e eii/ay acaeyaeii ia
a?aaeiaaeci eae ia aaoi?eoa?eci yiioe “aeaaininoiyiey”. Ii iaeaieaa
aeeao/eie ec anao ieacaeenue o?e iiaeoiaea, oa?aeoa?ecoaiua o?aiy
eeth/aauie neiaaie — ?acaeoea, aaoi?eoa?eci, ieth?aeeci.

Ia?aue iiaeoiae ia aeaea aue iieeoe/aneei yeaeaaeaioii iiaeaee AII. Aai
eeanne/aneia iieiaeaiea auei noi?ioee?iaaii ?. E?aaioaeai a aai
“?acaeoee i?ioea ooiiee a eiiioienoe/aneie iieeoeea”, ecaeaiii a 1970 a.
E?aaioaeue ia/ae n oioaeeoa?iie iiaeaee, eioi?oth ii ni/aoae n aieaa
naaaeeie acaeyaeaie, ii/a?iioouie ei a oai?ee iiaea?iecaoeee, a naith
i/a?aaeue caeinoaiaaaoae iiiaia eae o Aaaa?a, oae e ec no?oeoo?iiai
ooieoeeiiaeecia, i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia i?eiaiaiea e ionoaeui eee
o?aaeeoeeiiiui iauanoaai. Aeey iaai eiiioieci yaeyeny iniaie oi?iie
iiaea?iecaoeee eee “niaoeeoe/aneei oeiii ?acaeoey iiae aeaaeaieai
iieeoeee”, iniiaaiiui ia ia?enenonei-eaieineie eaeaieiaee. Iaeiaei
oioaeeoa?iay iieeoeea iaecaaaeii aaea e iai?aaeneacoaiui iineaaenoaeyi.
Oae, ai a?aiaia O?ouaaa, “iineaaeiaai ooiienoa” niaaoneie nenoaiu,
eaeaieiae/aneay oeaeue “iino?iaiey eiiioiecia” onooieea ianoi aiieia
caiiie iiaiia ca ?acaeoeai yeiiiieee eae naiioeaee. Ae?oaea
enneaaeiaaoaee n iiiiuueth iiaeiaiuo ?annoaeaeaiee aeaeaee auaiae, /oi
niaaoneia yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea, ecia?yaiia yeiau ?anoouei AII, iiaeao
neoaeeoue iiaeaeueth aeey aieaa ionoaeuo no?ai o?aoueaai ie?a, io Eoau
aei Eiaeee e Aueaoiaia – iiaiea, n eioi?ui i?aaeoaee yoeo ainoaea?noa
auee niaeaniu. Ae?oaie auaiae aeanee, /oi iineieueeo yeiiiie/aneia
?acaeoea iianaianoii auei noieaiaie aei?iaie e nia?aiaiiinoe, oi e nai
Niaaoneee Nithc aeaeaei i?iaeaeioeny ii iooe “eiiaa?aaioeee” n
auniei?acaeoui “ia?aui ie?ii”. Oaeei ia?acii, niaaoneay nenoaia
iiaeaiiyeanue iiae oieaa?naeueioth iiaeaeue i?ia?anna.

Aoi?ia ec “i?ic?aiee” iieeoe/aneie iaoee ia ioaeii naycuaaoue n
eaeei-eeai eiaiai eee eieaie, oae eae any yoa io?aneue auea aoeaaeueii
i?iieeiooa ei: ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi oioy niaaoneay nenoaia, aiciiaeii, e
auea oioaeeoa?iie i?e Noaeeia, ii i?e aai ianeaaeieeao iia niya/eeanue,
noaa iau/iui “aaoi?eoa?eciii”. Oaeei ia?acii, eiiioieci ieacuaaeny
iaeiia?aiaiii niiniaiui e ?aoi?ie?iaaieth e ii naiie nooe naiae ioee/iui
io oaoecia. Iiyoue-oaee, iaeuecy io?eoeaoue oaeoe/aneoth iainiiaaiiinoue
?acee/ee, i?iaiaeeiuo iaaeaeo noaeeieciii e aieaa iaaaooaeui ?aaeeiii
aai i?aaiieeia, eae yoi oi?ioi ciaee ana, eoi aeee i?e Noaeeia. Ii yoi
ia cia/eo, /oi ineaaeaiea oa??i?a a eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee iiaeii
i?e?aaiyoue e ea/anoaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee nenoaiu, eee /oi i?aaiia?ii
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ?aoi?ie?iaaiiue nioeeaeeci iia yaiethoeeiie?iaaoue a
iiaeeeiioth aeaiie?aoeth aac ?aaeeeaeueiiai neiia nenoaiu.

Oaeoe/anee ?aoi?ie?iaaiea eiiioiecia a aeaea ia?ano?ieee e caeii/eeinue
i?i?uaii a aaaonoa 1991 a. Ia auei ie/aai iioiaeaai ia yaiethoeeiiiue
“ia?aoiae e aeaiie?aoee”, iiaeiaiue oiio, /oi noieue ieiaeioai?ii
aiaeece?iaaee X. Eeioe e ae?oaea a Eaoeineie Aia?eea e Eniaiee. Eneiiiay
ianiiniaiinoue eiiioiecia ?aoi?ie?iaaoueny noaea aeaaiui ioieoii
ecaanoiiai (e aeey iiiaeo aiaiooeueiiai) ?aca?aie/aiey iaaeaeo
oioaeeoa?eciii e aaoi?eoa?eciii, eioi?ia auaaea Ae. Ee?eiao?ee a eiioea
1970-o aa. Nooue aa caeeth/aiee ninoieo ia a oii, /oi oioaeeoa?iua
?aaeeiu aiiaua ieeiaaea ia iiaoo eciaiyoueny – yoi auea au ea?eeaoo?a ia
aa oi/eo c?aiey, – a a oii, /oi iie ia iiaoo o?ainoi?ie?iaaoueny a
aeaiie?aoee naiinoiyoaeueii, a oi a?aiy eae iau/iua aaoi?eoa?iua ?aaeeiu
iiaoo yoi naeaeaoue, eae e neo/eeinue ia aeaea a Eniaiee.

Iineaaeiei eiioeaiooaeueiui iiaoanoaii iineanoaeeineie iieeoe/aneie
iaoee noaei ioe?iaaiea, /oi anee niaaoneoth nenoaio neaaeoao iiieiaoue
eae “aaoi?eoa?eci a ?acaeoee”, oi aai niinia iieeoe/aneiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey neaaeoao iacuaaoue “einoeoooeeiiaeueiui ieth?aeeciii”,
i?iecaiaeiui io oai?ee “a?oiiu, iauaaeeiaiiie iaueie eioa?anaie”.
Iaeaieaa caiaoiui noi?iiieeii oaeiai iiaeoiaea aue Ae. Oio. Nooue eaeae
ninoiyea a oii, /oiau i?aaenoaaeoue NNN? eae aua iaeii iiiaiiiey?iia
ainoaea?noai, /oi ai iiiaii niaiaaeaei n oai, eae n iiiiuueth iiaeaee
AII aeieacuaaeinue, /oi niaaoneay nenoaia auea eeoue ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
oieaa?naeueiie nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee. Yoio iinooeao aeinoea naiae
eoeueieiaoeee a ?aaioa Ae. Oioa “Eae oi?aaeytho Niaaoneei Nithcii” (1979
a.)1, eioi?ay neiaiee/anee ecie/oiaeeea aunoaa aeinoeaeaiea
“oioaeeoa?iiai iiaeoiaea” – eieao I. Oaeioi “Eae i?aayo ?inneae”,
auoaaeooth ia?aui ecaeaieai a 1953 a. Eoae, eae ii ioiioaieth e
iieeoe/aneie nenoaia, oae e e yeiiiieea, iai iaauaee oeaeue eeaaeacue
eiiaa?aaioeee a eiioea niaaoneiai iooe, ii iiyoue-oaee enoi?ey iioea ii
ae?oaiio iai?aaeaieth. Iiaeeeiiue ieth?aeeci naiuo ?aciuo o/?aaeaeaiee –
io oaa?ee aei Aeaaeaiee iaoe e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe – niia aicieeiooue
oieueei iinea oie/oiaeaiey “naa?oo/?aaeaeaiey” – einoeoooa
ia?oee-ainoaea?noaa, eee, eae aai iacuaaee, “oeaio?a”.

Nioeeieiaey

Ioaeii ee aeieacuaaoue a aeaoaeyo, /oi oaeie aea naeaea ia?aaeeaiu,
aeinoeaiooue iooai i?iaoee?iaaiey caiaaeiuo iiaeaeae ia niaaoneoth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, i?iecioae e a nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo
nenoaiu eiiioiecia? Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue neaaeothuaa: eae e a neo/aa n
yeiiiieeie e ainoaea?noaaiiui no?iai, ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi niaaoneay
nenoaia yaeyaony aiieia oieeaeueiui i?ioeannii no?ieoaeuenoaa
nioeeaeecia, ia aini?eieiaeinue ana?ueac, a ?anoeaieaaeinue eae
eaeaieiae/aneia i/eiaoe?aoaeuenoai. Niaaoneee iiuo n/eoaeny
?aciiaeaeiinoueth anaiaueo iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia.

Ei?i/a aiai?y, nia/aea e niaaoneiio iauanoao iiiuoaeenue i?eeiaeeoue
eaiiiu no?oeoo?iiai ooieoeeiiaeecia. Eeanne/aneee o?oae a ?aieao
aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey iiyaeeny a 1956 a. iiae iacaaieai “Eae ?aaioaao
niaaoneay nenoaia” a ?acoeueoaoa eieeaeoeaiiai oai?/anoaa ineoieiaia,
nioeeieiaia e aio?iiieiaia aieiaiiai einoeoooa aeaaeaie/aneie
niaaoieiaee, Oeaio?a ?onneeo enneaaeiaaiee a Aa?aa?aea. Aai aaoi?u
niaeaoaeenue n iieiaeaieai ia oieeaeueiinoe niaaoneie nenoaiu e
aini?eieiaee aaciaua i?aaeiinueee oioaeeoa?iie iiaeaee, ii ianuoeee
iineaaeithth eiie?aoiui aiaeecii aa iiiai/eneaiiuo no?oeoo? e eo
“ooioeeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae”. A eoiaa iineaaeiaaoaeyie aeaeaeny
auaiae, /oi niaaoneea no?oeoo?u ooieoeeiie?iaaee oniaoii, e /oi nenoaia
?aaioaea iioiio, /oi auea iiaeeeiiie nioeeaeueiie nenoaiie, a ia i?inoi
iieeoe/aneei ?aaeeiii.

Ii a yiioo ?aaeeeaeecia 1960-o aa. yoa iiiuoea i?eaianoe ithainu a
oioaeeoa?ioth eiioeaioeeth, eae e ana i?i/aa a niaaoieiaee, onooieea
ianoi iiaeoiaeo, eioi?ue a eiia/iii eoiaa naae eiiioieci e aa?eaioo
anaiauaai iauanoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Aeaiiue iiaeoiae i?aaenoaaeye niaie
eiiaeiaoeeth oai?ee iiaea?iecaoeee n ?aaeceiienoneie oi?iie
ia?enenoneiai eeanniaiai aiaeeca, e aai aeaaiui aeaoeuai noae o?oae A.
Io?a “Nioeeaeueiua oi?iu aeeeoaoo?u e aeaiie?aoee” (1966 a.). Aeey Io?a
aeaaiie ieoueth anae nia?aiaiiie enoi?ee aue ia?aoiae io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
e eiaeono?eaeueiiio, eee ?acaeoiio iauanoao. Ii yoio ia?aoiae
inouanoaeyeny aanueia ii-?aciiio, a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeie
iauanoaaiiue eeann aeiieie?iaae a ?aaiethoeee, iai?aaeaiiie i?ioea
noa?iai ii?yaeea. A Aiaeee, O?aioeee e NOA aa aicaeaaeea ao?aeoacey, e
?acoeueoaoii aue eaieoaeeci e aeaiie?aoey (i/aiue oua?aiay). A Aa?iaiee
e ssiiiee eaieoaeeci onoaiaaeeaaea a?enoie?aoey, i?iaaaey “?aaiethoeeth
naa?oo”, e a ?acoeueoaoa oai aiciee oaoeci. I?eiaieoaeueii e ?innee A.
Io?ii aue einaaiii eniieueciaai eeoaeneee aa?eaio, ii a iaaeo yoeo
no?aiao “aaeeeie aa?a?iie ath?ie?aoee” noa?ue ii?yaeie aue naa?aioo
e?anoueyiaie e eoiaii noae eiiioieci, eioi?ue caoai ia/ae inouanoaeyoue
eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth aeaniioe/aneeie ath?ie?aoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie. Ii a
yoii eeanne/aneii aiaeeca iiuoa Eeoay e ?innee o A. Io?a ia iaoeinue
ianoa aeey ia?oee eee ia?enenoneie eaeaieiaee eae iaiaoiaeeiuo
eaoaeecaoi?ia eiiioienoe/aneiai oeiaea. A enneaaeoaiuo ei ?aaiethoeeyo
ii ia iaia?oaeee e oiai, /oi iieeoe/aneea neeu ea?aee a ieo ?ieue
naiinoiyoaeueiuo aaee/ei. Niaeanii A. Io?o, iie aiiaua ia ea?aee ieeaeie
?aaeueiie ?iee; a aai ie?a i?ienoiaeeee eeoue /enoi nioeeaeueiua
i?ioeannu.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi o/aieoea A. Io?a, O. Nei/iie ii/oanoaiaaea naay
i?ecaaiiie niaa?oeoue “aieueoie eiioeaiooaeueiue nea/ie”, “aa?ioa
ainoaea?noai” a aeeneonneth ia “aa?a?iuo ?aaiethoeeyo” i?ioea
ath?ie?aoee ai O?aioeee, ?innee e Eeoaa14. Niaeanii aa auaiaeai, ai anao
o?ao neo/ayo ?acoeueoaoii yeiau e?anoueyineie ?aaiethoeee aue o?eoio
iiaie aeaniioe/aneie “ath?ie?aoee ?acaeoey”. Iaeiaei o. Nei/iie ia
caiaoeea, /oi a ?innee e Eeoaa yoa ath?ie?aoey auea eiiioienoe/aneie e
oioaeueiie, a oi a?aiy eae ai O?aioeee ath?ie?aoey auea eino?oiaioii ia
neoaeaa o eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ath?ie?aoe/aneiai ii?yaeea, iniiaaiiiai ia
anaiauai ecae?aoaeueiii i?aaa. Aieaa oiai, iia ia caiaoeea, /oi
nioeeieiaey, eioi?ay ianoieueei aeaeaei caoea a nioeeaeueiii
?aaeooeeaecia, /oi “aica?auaiea ainoaea?noaa” noaiiaeeinue aeey iaa
aaeeeei iaoiaeieiae/aneei naa?oaieai, i?aa?auaeanue a nioeeieiaeth,
iai?eaiaeioth aeey iiieiaiey eiiioienoe/aneeo ia?oee-ainoaea?noa.

Enoi?ey

E iaeiiaoe, /oi aea i?ienoiaeeei n i?a?iaeeoaeueieoeae anao iauanoaaiiuo
iaoe – enoi?eae? Aea i?eia?ii oi aea naiia, iioiio /oi noa?aeoay
nioeeaeueiay aeenoeeieeia auea a “aeoaaei?enoneoth y?o” aeoaiei
iiaea?iece?iaaia iiauie iauanoaaiiuie iaoeaie. Enoi?e/aneea o?oaeu
ii-i?aaeiaio niaethaeaee o?iiieiae/aneoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a
eceiaeaiee niauoee ii ia?a oiai eae iinea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu
enneaaeiaaoaee ia?aoiaeeee io aiaeeca 1917 a. e noaeeineie yiioa;
iaeiia?aiaiii yoi iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea ia/eiaei ni/aoaoueny ni
ciaeiiui iaoiaeieiae/aneei naeaeaii io oioaeeoa?iie e ?aaeceiienoneie
eiioeaioeee. Oaeei ia?acii, ia aeieth enoi?ee auiaei noiie?iaaoue eoiae
anaai i?ioeanna “ii?iaeecaoeee” niaaoneie nenoaiu a caiaaeiie iaoea.

A iineaaiaiiua aiaeu caiaaeiue iiaeoiae e niaaoneie enoi?ee aue
i?aeiouanoaaiii iieeoe/aneei e eaeaieiae/aneei. Iniiaiiieaaathuae eieaie
aeiy noaea ?aaioa E. Oaie?i “Ei?ie eiiioienoe/aneie aaoie?aoee” (1955
a.)15, ecia?aaeaaoay niaaoneee ?aaeei eae iai?aaeaiiue oaea i?e Eaieia
ia oie/oiaeaiea anao nee, iiaoueo niia?ie/aoue n iei a ai?ueaa ca
aeanoue e oioaeueioth aa eiioeaio?aoeeth a ?oeao ia?oee; yoa oaia auea
iicaea ?acaeoa ei a “Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee Niaaoneiai Nithca” (1960
a.). E yoio acaeyae ia NNN? eae ia oioaeeoa?iue iiiieeo ia?aeeeeaeny n
eeanne/aneeie oi?ioee?iaeaie Oaeioi, auaaaeaiiuie a aai eieaa “Eae
i?aayo ?inneae”.

Iaeiaei aeaaea aeaaiue i?ioeaiee E. Oaie?i Y. O. Ea??, aeaaiaeaeaoaeueii
iano?iaiiue e niaaoneiio yenia?eiaioo, i?aaeeaaae a iniiaiii
iieeoe/aneia enoieeiaaiea aieueoaaecia. Ii ia aic?aaeae e i?ioea oiai,
/oi iineaaeiee yaeyeny aeanoeie aaoie?aoeae, iauyniyy yoi oai, /oi
aeanoeinoue auea iaiaoiaeeia aeey naiiai auaeeaaiey nioeeaeecia7. A
nithciee Y. O. Ea??a ii niaaoieiaee, o?ioeeeno E. Aeie/a? oaeaea
i?aaeeaaae iieeoe/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth i?aaeiaoa, oioy e aeaeae
cia/eoaeueii aieueoee oii? ia eaeaieiaeth, /ai Ea??. Iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi iaa yoe aaoi?a auee iniaaiii iiioey?iu a ?acaa?
“oieiaeiie aieiu”, eiaaea, ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio iiaieth, a niaaoieiaee
ainiiaenoaiaaea oioaeeoa?iay iiaeaeue.

?aaiethoeey a enoi?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo, iinayuaiiuo niaaoneie
oaiaoeea, naa?oeeanue a 1964 a. a noaouea E. Oaeiniia, iioaeeeiaaiiie a
aeo?iaea “Neaaee ?aaueth”, a noaouea, i?e oiiieiaiee eioi?ie n oao ii?
iaeciaiii e caneoaeaiii oiio?aaeyeny yieoao “iniiaiiieaaathuay”. A oa
a?aiaia, eiaaea iia iiyaeeanue, ioiineoaeueii 1917 a. ainiiaenoaiaaei
iiaiea, /oi ?aaiethoeey auea eaoaeeeciii, aicieeoei iiae aeeyieai Ia?aie
ie?iaie aieiu, ?anoaoaaoae iaonoie/eaua iieeoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea
no?oeoo?u eiia?aoi?neie ?innee, aei oiai ?acaeaaaoeany a iai?aaeaiee
eiinoeoooeeiiaeecia caiaaeiiai oeia. Iaeiaei Oaeinii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi
?aaiethoeeth neaaeoao iiieiaoue eae ii?iaeaeaiea aeaieiie “iiey?ecaoeee”
?onneie aeecie, ai-ia?auo, iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e iauanoaii e,
ai-aoi?uo, iaaeaeo ?aai/eie e ao?aeoaceae. Ii oaeaea ooaa?aeaeae, /oi e
eaoo 1914 a. yoio i?ioeann iiey?ecaoeee oaea aeinoea ?aoathuae noaaeee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiae?acoiaaaeinue, /oi Ieoya?ue ia aue “ian/anoiui
neo/aai”, aucaaiiui aieiie, a yaeyeny eiae/aneei neaaenoaeai
nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia, i?ioaeaaoeo a ?innee, e aue oai, /oi ?onneea
iacuaatho “caeiiiia?iinoueth”, a aa?iaineea ia?eniaaaaeueyioeu –
“Gesetzmassigkeit” .

Iiaeiaii oiio, eae eeanne/aneee ?onneee ?iiai, ii ecaanoiiio au?aaeaieth
Aeinoiaaneiai, aiciee ec aiaieaaneie “Oeiaee”, oae e iineaaeothuea
aia?eeaineea enneaaeiaaiey ii nioeeaeueiie enoi?ee niaaoneie nenoaiu
ac?inee ia ii/aa ia iaiaa ieiaeioai?iuo oneeee Oaeiniia. Yoa o?aaeeoeey
a nioeeaeueiie enoi?ee, anee e ia iaycaoaeueii a aa yiie?e/aneeo
?ac?aaioeao, oi a iniiaa naiae, iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia eae
iaiiaiueoaaenoneay. Eee, oi/iaa, iia aaaeao naith eioaeeaeooaeueioth
?iaeineiaioth io eaauo iaiueoaaeeia-eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoia, oaeeo eae TH.
Ia?oia, eioi?ue aue aeaenoaeoaeueiui aaoi?ii oai?ee iiey?ecaoeee.
Niaeanii iaiiaiueoaaeeai, aieueoaaeci, i?e anao aai yenoeannao,
i?aaenoaaeye niaie iiaeeeiii ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
niaaoneia ainoaea?noai auei aeaenoaeoaeueii nioeeaeenoe/aneei, oioy aai
ea/anoai e ieacaeinue aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui iineaaeothueie e?aeiinoyie
noaeeiecia. Aneaaenoaea yoiai niaaoneay nenoaia iaeaaeaea niiniaiinoueth
e naii?aoi?ie?iaaieth, aaaeouaio e nicaeaieth oiai, /oi /aoe e neiaaee a
1968 a. iacaaee “nioeeaeeciii n /aeiaa/aneei eeoeii”. I?eieiay ai
aieiaiea yoio iau/ii ioe?uoi ia aeaeea?e?oaiue, ii anaaaea
iiae?acoiaaaaiue iinooeao, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a iniiaiii caiaaeiay
enoi?eia?aoey enoi?ee Niaaoneie ?innee, ianiio?y ia ana aa yiie?e/aneea
iaoaoacu, a ?aaeueiinoe iiaeaea?aeeaaea eaeath eiia/iie yaiethoeee
eiiioiecia a ii?aaeaeaiiue oei nioeeaeueiie aeaiie?aoee.

Yoa iiiuoea enoi?e/aneie ?aaaeeeoaoeee niaaoneie nenoaiu i?ioea /aou?a
iniiaiuo noaaeee. Aeey ia?aie oa?aeoa?ia aieia enneaaeiaaiee niauoee
1917 a., i?ecaaiiuo aeieacaoue, /oi Ieoya?ue aue ia ainoaea?noaaiiui
ia?aai?ioii, eae ooaa?aeaeaea oioaeeoa?iay oeiea, a iiaeeeiii
i?ieaoa?neie ?aaiethoeeae, e /oi aieueoaaenoneay ia?oey yaeyeanue ia
iiiieeoii, ?oeiaiaeeiui naa?oo, a ioe?uoie, “aeaiie?aoe/aneie”
i?aaiecaoeeae, aeaeaeeiie ?aaeeeaeueiuie eiioeuenaie “nieco”20. E oioy
yoa oi/ea c?aiey aa?ia ai iiiaii, /oi eanaaony naiiai 1917 a. e
eneeth/eoaeueii ?aai/aai eeanna, iia iieiinoueth eaii?e?oao ana
inoaeueiia iauanoai, yeno?ai?aeeia?iua iieeoe/aneea oneiaey, nicaeaiiua
aieiie, a oaeaea aeieain?i/iua eaeaieiae/aneea oeaee ia?oee, eioi?ua a
oeaeii auee ianiaianoeiu n eaeei-eeai aeaiie?aoe/aneei ?acaeaeaieai
aeanoe n ae?oaeie a?oiie?iaeaie eee aea n i?eioeeiii aa niaiyaiinoe. Oai
ia iaiaa, yoe oaeoi?u iieiinoueth eaii?e?iaaeenue iaiiaiueoaaenoneeie
aiaeeoeeaie, e eo enneaaeiaaiey oieone?iaaeenue ia iienea
aeieacaoaeuenoa “i?ieaoa?neie eaaeoeiiinoe” Ieoya?y, oae eae ei auei
iaiaoiaeeii iiaeoaa?aeeoue eaaeoeiiinoue niaaoneie enoi?ee a oeaeii.

Ia aoi?ie noaaeee yoiai iaiiaiueoaaenoneiai ia/eiaiey iiyaeyaony
ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi enoeiiui aeinoeaeaieai Ieoya?y aue ia aiaiiue
eiiioieci, a eaieineee iyi a oii aeaea, eaeei ii ?acaeaaeny I. Aooa?eiui
aieioue aei 1929 a. Yoi auei ?aciiii, iineieueeo yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea
ia ?aeuenao iyia i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iaiueoaaenoneoth i?ia?aiio nianaiey
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo caaiaaaiee ?aaiethoeee a aeaaaeoeaoua aiaeu.
Niioaaonoaaiii ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi anee au iyi ia aue a?oai i?a?aai
Noaeeiui, ?inney niiaea au “a?anoe” a nioeeaeeci, iiieiaaiue eae
iieo?uii/iay, eaaceniaoaiiay yeiiiieea. E iiyoue aea, oaeay
oa?aeoa?enoeea 1920-o aa., ionoue e a ieieiaeueiie noaiaie, ii
yiie?e/anee i?aaaeiiiaeiaia, ii i?aaaeiiiaeiaea yoi aeinoeaaaony
aiaeeoeeaie oeaiie eaii?e?iaaiey ia oieueei nio?aiyaoaeny aaaaiiiee
ia?oee iaae yeiiiieeie, ii e no?aieaieai eiiioienoia ?aii eee iicaeii
nioeeaeece?iaaoue ana aniaeou iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Oai ia iaiaa, ia
i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe 20 eao o o/aiuo nio?aiyeanue i?eau/ea eaeaaeece?iaaoue
iyi – yeiiiie/aneee, iieeoe/aneee e eoeueoo?iue – eae cieioie aae
niaaoneie nenoaiu, i?e/ai iiae?acoiaaaeinue, /oi aoaeouei ?aoi?iai auei
i?aaeia/a?oaii n oniaoii aa?iooueny e yoiio enoi/ieeo.

O?aouey oaca nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneie ?aaecee oioaeeoa?iie iiaeaee
iciaiaiiaaeanue auoiaeii ca ?aiee iaiiaiueoaaecia e ae?aeoii a noi?iio
oiai, /oi iiaeao auoue a eo/oai neo/aa iacaaii “iyaeei noaeeieciii”.
Niaeanii aai aaeaioai, ia?aay iyoeeaoea auea aucaaia eiioeuenii “nieco”
a aeaea “eoeueoo?iie ?aaiethoeee” ?aai/aai eeanna e ia?oaeoeaa. Aa
?acoeueoaoii noaei eioaineaiia “auaeaeaeai/anoai” ?aai/eo-aeoeaenoia ia
?oeiaiaeyuea e ia?oeeiua iinou, eioi?ia a eiia/iii n/aoa nicaeaei eaae?u
“a?aaeiaaneiai iieieaiey”. Eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei Caiaaea aa?iyoii
i?eciaao oaeie iinooiaoaeueiue i?ioeann aeaiie?aoe/aneei iauanoaaiiui
i?iaeaeaeaieai. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, “auaeaeaeai/anoai” i?ienoiaeeei a
ianniauo ianooaaao. Ii yoei aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaaeanue any nooue
noaeeineie ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ay, e?iia oiai, yaii oea “naa?oo”. Yoa
eiioeaioeey niaa?oaiii eaii?e?oao eieeaeoeaecaoeeth e /enoee.
Cia/eiinoue iineaaeieo naaaeaia e ieieioio caia/aieai, /oi /eneaiiinoue
eo aea?oa naiaeeeanue e “iaiiiaei nioiyi ouny/”. Yoo /anoe/ioth
?aaaeeeoaoeeth niauoee noaeeineie yiioe /aua anaai naycuaatho n eiaiai
O. Oeooeiao?ee; iia oaeaea yaii ia?aeeeeaaony n eiioeaioeeae iiceoeaiie
yaiethoeee c?aeie niaaoneie nenoaiu, eioi?oth i?eaian a iieeoe/aneoth
iaoeo Ae. Oio.

Ii ia yoii aeaei ia eii/eeinue, ianooieea /aoaa?oay oaca ?aaeceiiecia,
eioi?ay ia caiaaeeeea ?aaaeeeoe?iaaoue e ana inoaeueiua “iiaeaeae”
Noaeeia. Noaeeineay eieeaeoeaecaoeey auea ioia?aaeaia a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie eae i?iaeoeo yiooceacia o?oaeyueony a aeaea iino?iaiey
nioeeaeecia, a aai /enoee i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaoii ai?ueau “oeaio?a”
ca onoaiiaeaiea eiio?iey iaae yeiau aia?oe/aneie “ia?eoa?eae”, ai?ueau,
a eioi?ie Noaeei i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii ea?ae ?ieue o?aoaeneiai noaeuee.
Aeieacuaaeinue oaeaea, /oi eiee/anoai aea?oa ia iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii
iiaeeeiii iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, iineieueeo nia?aiaiiua niauoeyi, o. a.
ioeoeeaeueiua, enoi/ieee o?aiyo ia yoii iie/aiea. Ii ieeaeie “iiaeeeiii
nioeeaeueii-iao/iue iaoiae” ia niia au caooiaieoue niaaoneoth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue neeueiaa, /ai yoe oooaeee.

Yoi einaaiiia ii?aaaeaiea c?aeiai noaeeiecia i?eaiaeeo i?ioeann
?aaeceiiecia e ii?aaeaeaiiie eoeueieiaoeee: eaaeaeie oaca ?acaeoey
niaaoneie nenoaiu ni a?aiai Ieoya?y aei ieii/aoaeueiiai iino?iaiey
nioeeaeecia a 1930-o aa. i?eaeaaony iooaiie oeaeaniia?aciinoe, ionoue e
ia eaaeaeay aai ninoaaeythuay, ii i?ioeann a oeaeii neeaaeuaaaony a
aeinoeaeaiey e oniao. ?acoiaaony, aaeaiou aooa?eineiai iyia y?inoii
ioaa?aatho iinooeaou caueoieeia eoeueoo?iie ?aaiethoeee eae “e?aeiea” e
oae aea aeaeaeea io i?aaaeu, eae nai noaeeieci – io iiaeeeiiiai
eaieiecia. Oai ia iaiaa e oa e ae?oaea ?aaioatho a iaeiie e oie aea
no?oa nioeeaeueiiai ?aaeooeeaecia, a ?acoeueoaoii a iaieo neo/ayo
yaeyaony ioia?aaeaiea niaaoneiai yenia?eiaioa a oeaeii eae niiniaiiai e
?aoi?ie?iaaieth. Aieaa oiai, e oa e ae?oaea naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie oai
i/aaeaeiui oaeoii, /oi 25 eao noaeeiecia caieiatho neeoeii aaaeiia ianoi
a niaaoneie enoi?ee, /oiau eo iiaeii auei nienaoue ni n/aoa eae
“ioeeiiaiea”, ia eiaaoaa niioaaonoaothuae “nioeeaeueiie aacu”. Oaeei
ia?acii, aieaa niaeia oa/aiea ?aaeceiiecia, i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia 1930-a
aa., ia aeaea eiae/anee ?acaeaaaony ec aieaa inoi?iaeiiai
iaiiaiueoaaecia e yniaa iineaaeiaai iaiaaeaao iaoaea/e ?aaeceiienoneiai
ia/eiaiey a oeaeii. A nooue yoeo iaoaea/ ninoieo a iaaiciiaeiinoe
aeinoiaa?ii aeieacaoue, /oi eaieieci e noaeeieci ia iaeaaeaee eaeie au
oi ie auei eeanniaie eee nioeeaeueiie iniiaie. Niaaoneee ?aaeei
ii?aaeaeye nioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu, a ia ii?aaeaeyeny eie.

Eoae, a na?aaeeia 1980-o aa. e e ia/aeo ia?ano?ieee ?aaeceiienoneea
enoi?e/aneea o?oaeu n iiiiuueth eiie?aoiie oa?ieiieiaee “?aceiaeeee ii
iiei/eai” ia?eiae ca ia?eiaeii ana niaaoneia i?ioeia e auaaee a iniiaiii
iiceoeaioth ioeaieo niaaoneie nenoaiu a aa ?acee/iuo eiinoanyo –
yeiiiieea, iieeoe/aneie iaoea e nioeeieiaee. Ec anaai yoiai niaianoiiai
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iiai ia/eiaiey aeaeaeny auaiae, /oi c?aeue eiiioieci,
iineieueeo ii ii?iaeee eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeooth o?aaiece?iaaiioth
naa?oaea?aeaao, aue aioia e eeaa?aeueiie “?aoi?ia”, eioi?ay i?aa?aoeea
au ?inneth a iieiinoueth “nia?aiaiiia” iauanoai. Eoae, ai?aa/aaneay
ia?ano?ieea auea aini?eiyoa aieueoeinoaii niaaoieiaia n yiooceaciii;
i?iiouaiiay /a?ac ai?ieei i?iaiice?othueo iiaeaeae, iia aeaaiiieo/ii
i?aa?aoeeanue a ciaiaiea oniaoa. Ii, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ia?ano?ieea
ia iaiiaeea eiiioieci; iia oaeea aai. Iiyoiio aeey oiai, /oiau
?ano?oeoo?e?iaaoue iaoe “aieueiua” aeenoeeieeiu, iai, aiciiaeii,
neaaeoao ia?aoeoue naie acaeyae ia Ainoie a iienea anee e ia aioiauo
iiaeaeae, oi oioy au iiieiaiey e eiooeoeee.

AINOI*IAss IA?NIAEOEAA

Ia Ainoiea iu iaaethaeaai ea?oeio, i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeioth neooaoeee a
caiaaeiie niaaoieiaee. Aieioue aei na?aaeeiu yiioe ia?ano?ieee
ioeoeeaeueiie ioeaieie niaaoneie nenoaiu oai auea ia?enenonei-eaieineay
aeiaia, /oi oaiioiee no?ie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie “?aaeueiue” eee
“?acaeoie” nioeeaeeci. Ii a eiioea 1970-o aa., eiaaea a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia
nenoaia ia/aea aeaa?aaee?iaaoue, aeenneaeaiou-oai?aoeee acyee ia
aii?oaeaiea oa?iei “oioaeeoa?eci”. ?acoiaaony, yoe iuneeoaee oaeaea
aini?eiyee e iaeioi?ua iino?iaiey caiaaeiie nioeeaeueiie iaoee ia
iauanoaa, ii iie ii/oe anaaaea iie?uaaee yoe eiino?oeoeee eoiieii
oioaeeoa?iie eiioeaioeee. E 1988 a., n i?eoiaeii aeaniinoe yoio oa?iei
ioe?uoi auieuaaao a Niaaoneii Nithca, e ei iieuecoaony aeaaea nai
Ai?aa/aa, a a 1991 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai Aeueoeeia i?iaicaeaoaao naiae
iieeoeeie aioeeiiioieci e “auoiae ec oioaeeoa?ecia”. Noieeioaoenue n
oaeei anaiauaiethuei aaeeiiaeooeai a “ainoi/iuo” i?aaenoaaeaieyo i
i?e?iaea nenoaiu, caiaaeiay niaaoieiaey ni a?aiaiai oiaea aeieaeia auea
e iei aaeaioe?iaaoueny.

A ia?eiae io ia/aea ia?ano?ieee aei 1989 a. caiaaeiue iaiiaiueoaaenoneee
?aaeceiieci aue i?eaieaiie iiceoeeae aeey niaaoieiaee e ia Ainoiea, e ia
Caiaaea. Yoi auei eiae/anee ii?aaaeaiiui, oae eae iieeoeea Ai?aa/aaa
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ?aciiaeaeiinoue iaiiyia; auee ia?aecaeaiu eca?aiiua
o?oaeu Aooa?eia e ia?aaaaeaia eieaa N. Eiyia i Aooa?eia. Aeaaea aieaa
niaeua caiaaeiua iaiaae?enou niaaoneeo 30-o aiaeia ieacaeenue iieaciuie
a yoie neooaoeee, e aanue niaeo? aia?eeaineeo ?aaeceiienoia /eoae
eaeoeee a Enoi?eei-a?oeaiii einoeoooa TH. Aoaianueaaa. Ii yoio ia?eiae
ieiiaae. *aoineiaaoeeee ieieno? oeiainia A. Eeaon ia/ae aunooiaoue n
cayaeaieyie, /oi oaia?ue “aeaaiay iianiinoue aeey Ainoiea – yoi
eaeaieiae/aneia i?iieeiiaaiea n Caiaaea”. Eoae, aeey oiai, /oiau
i?iaeieaeaoue aanoe aeaea n Ainoieii e, aiciiaeii, aeaaea aianoe aeeaae
a aai “enoiae ec oioaeeoa?ecia”, caiaaeiay niaaoieiaey aeieaeia aoaeao
anooieoue a eioaeeaeooaeueiia niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea n iinoniaaoneeie
aeaiie?aoaie, aeaeaoaeueii a ea/anoaa eo ieaaeoeo ia?oia?ia. Einoeooo ii
eco/aieth i?iaeai aaciianiinoe a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo Caiaaeii e Ainoieii
oaea iioae ia yoi, caeeth/ea niaeaoaiea n o/aiuie ec Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu a
Ooe?eineii caiea a Aiaaiee -ianiiiaiii, /oi oaeea aea ia/eiaiey nei?i
?ani?ino?aiyony ia ?inneth e ae?oaea auaoea niaaoneea ?anioaeeee.

Eaeia aea i?aaenoaaeaiea i oioaeeoa?ecia neiaeeeinue a auaoeo
eiiioienoe/aneeo no?aiao a oa/aiea iineaaeieo 15 eao? I?aaeaea anaai,
aai iaeuecy iacaaoue iiaeaeueth a nioeeaeueii-iao/iii niunea. Nei?aa yoi
eiioeaioeey, iaiauathuay e aeaeay, ii a oi aea a?aiy aeinoaoi/ii oi/iay
a naieo iniiaiuo iieiaeaieyo. Aeaiiay eiioeaioeey ?anniao?eaaaony eae
i?inoia io?aaeaiea ?aaeueiuo aeeciaiiuo oaeoia, eiaaoeo ianoi iinea
Ieoya?y 1917 a. Aieaa oiai, yoa eiioeaioeey ia yaeyaony iiaoi?aieai eee
i?inoui iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai acaeyaeia A?aiaeo, O?eae?eoa e Aaeaceineiai,
eee Oaeioi, oioy iia e iniiaaia ia eo ?aaioao Iiaeaeue oioaeeoa?ecia,
i?aaeeiaeaiiay O?eae?eoii e Aaeaceineei, eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e
noaoe/iinoe e aano?aeoiinoe, e i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi eiaiii yoa aa?ney
i?eciaia a ea/anoaa oioaeeoa?iie iiaeaee eae oaeiaie. Ii iiaeoiaeu
A?aiaeo e Oaeioi auee aieaa enoi?e/iuie, e iioiio iie aeeaea e
nia?aiaiiie ainoi/ii-aa?iiaeneie iaoiaeieiaee, iaeiia?aiaiii enoi?e/iie
e aeeiaie/iie, /oi i?ienoaeaao ec iaiyaoaainy oa?aeoa?a oioaeeoa?ecia a
ia?eiae aai caeaoa eee oiaaeea. Yoa iiaeaeue ia eceiaeaia e ia
nenoaiaoece?iaaia a eaeii-eeai eeanne/aneii o?aeoaoa eee oi?iaeueiii
enneaaeiaaiee a ?aieao iaoee ia iauanoaa. Nei?aa, aa iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue
a aiaaouo aiia?aaeaieai iieaie/aneeo ni/eiaieyo aaoi?ia ec Ainoi/iie
Aa?iiu, oaeeo eae E. Eieaeianeee, A Ieoiee e O. Eiiaeneee a Iieueoa, A
Aaaae a *aoee, ss Eeo e ss. Ei?iae a Aaia?ee, a oaeaea a ?aaioao A.
Nieaeaieoeuia, A. Naoa?iaa, A. Neiyaneiai e A Ceiiaueaaa. Iia
i?iyaeyaony a oai?/anoaa ?inneeneeo nioeeieiaia A. Iea?aiyia, A. Oeeiei
e E. Eeyieeia, N. Eoeaoiaa, A. Oinoaeianeiai e ae?.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey yoie eiioeaioeee ia ioaeaeathony a iaycaoaeueiie
eiaeeoeeaoeee eee oai?aoecaoeee, ii aeey oaeianoaa eo iiaeii iaiaueoue
neaaeothuei ia?acii Ai-ia?auo, eiiioienoe/aneee oioaeeoa?eci ia yaeyaony
aa?eaioii, oioy au e aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui, iaeiaai anaiauaai i?ioeanna
iiaea?iecaoeee. Yoi enoi?e/anee naiinoiyoaeueiay, ea/anoaaiii iiaay
eeiey ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa. Eiino?aioeai auei o?oaeii iiiyoue yoi ec-ca
aa ?aaeeeaeueii iiaie i?e?iaeu. Eae aiai?ee A. Aacainii a 1970-a aa.,
eiaaea aai ?aaiou n/eoaeenue eeanne/aneeie n?aaee niaaoneeo
nioeeieiaia-aeenneaeaioia, i?iaeaia iiieiaiey Niaaoneiai Nithca
caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oiau “iiaa?eoue a iaaa?iyoiia”. Yoio ie?
ianoieueei ?aaeeeaeueii ioee/aeny io ii?iaeueiiai, /oi aeey aai
oa?aeoa?enoeee Aacainii niia iaeoe oieueei iaeii ii?aaeaeaiea: neiai
“nth??aaeueiue”.

Ai-aoi?uo, ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iniaaiiinoue niaaoneie nenoaiu a ieaia aa
i?aaiecaoeee ninoiyea a oii, /oi ana a iae iiae/eiyeinue iieeoeea, /oi
iieeoeea naiaeeeanue e “iino?iaieth nioeeaeecia” e /oi ?aoaiea yoie
anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneie caaea/e yaeyeinue iiiiiieeae ia?oee, eioi?ay naia
naay ia yoo ?ieue iacia/eea. Eiie?aoii yoi icia/aao, /oi oi?aaeaiea
ainoaea?noaii, yeiiiieea, eoeueoo?a e aeaaea /anoiay aeeciue yaeyeenue
iauaeoii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eiio?iey ni noi?iiu ia?oee. Yoi
aeinoeaaeinue n iiiiuueth ea?a?aoe/aneie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey iauanoaii
naa?oo aeiieco ia?oeeiuie y/aeeaie, caieiooie nenoaiu ia?oeeiie
“iiiaieeaoo?u”, iacia/aaoaeny ia ?oeiaiaeyuea iinou ai anao eeth/aauo
iaeanoyo, e iinoiyiiiai iioiea aaeoi?iia, i?ecaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaoue
neooaoeeth a no?aia a oeaeii. Ei?i/a aiai?y, niaaoneia iauanoai auei
oioaeueiui, eee oioaeeoa?iui iauanoaii, aaea ana i?aaiecaoeeiiii
eiio?iee?iaaeinue aacaeanouae ia?oeae-ainoaea?noaii, aai ieaiii e aai
iieeoeeae. Eiia/ii, oaeie aaniethoiue eiio?ieue ia aeaea ia
inouanoaeyeny ieeiaaea, aeaaea a ooaeoea noaeeineea aiaeu. Oai ia iaiaa,
n naiiai ia/aea ia?oeeiie aeeeoaoo?u nenoaiu iinoiyiii no?aieeanue e
onoaiiaeaieth eiaiii oaeiai eiio?iey, e iiaeiaiue oioaeueiue ii?yaeie
iianaianoii yaeyeny eaeaaeii eiiioiecia. Eiuie neiaaie, nenoaia eiaea
naith nouiinoue, eiaeeo, eee, anee oaiaeii, “aaiaoe/aneee eiae”, eioi?ue
anaaaea a iae i?enoonoaoao e i?iyaeyaony iacaaeneii io oiai, neieue
neeueii aa?uee?iaaeenue yiie?e/aneea e enoi?e/aneea neo/aeiinoe,
ii?aaeaeyaoeany oneiaeyie ianoa e a?aiaie25.

Ii yoa nouiinoue, eee eiaeea eiiioiecia ioithaeue ia auea noaoe/iie a
naieo eiie?aoiuo i?iyaeaieyo. Nenoaia eiaea naith enoi?eth, naie
aeeciaiiue iooue n aai ia/aeii, na?aaeeiie e, eae iu oaia?ue ciaai,
eiioeii. Oioy aa aaiaoe/aneee eiae inoaaaeny iaeciaiiui, ii ?ane?uaae
naie iioaioeeae eeoue iiyoaiii, n oa/aieai a?aiaie. Noaiaiue aea
i?eaeeaeaiey nenoaiu e iaeaaeaieth oioaeueiui eiio?ieai iaae iauanoaii
caaenaea io eiie?aoiie enoi?e/aneie noaaeee, ia eioi?ie iia iaoiaeeeanue
a eaaeaeue aeaiiue iiiaio.

Eoae, caiaaeiua e?eoeee oioaeeoa?iie iiaeaee ia eiatho aaniethoii
ieeaeeo iniiaaiee ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oioy niaaoneay nenoaia, aiciiaeii,
e auea oioaeeoa?iie i?e Noaeeia, iia yaiethoeeiie?iaaea a iau/iue
aaoi?eoa?eci i?e A?aaeiaaa, iineieueeo o?iaie oa??i?a e
ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey oiaiueoeeenue. Oaeia nieaeaiea,
eiia/ii, eiaei ianoi, e aeey ethaeae, auioaeaeaiiuo aeeoue a
eiiioienoe/aneeo no?aiao, yoi eciaiaiea eiaei aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia
cia/aiea. E ana aea caiaaeiua e?eoeee oioaeeoa?iie iiaeaee i?eiyee yoi
eiee/anoaaiiia eciaiaiea ca ea/anoaaiiia.

Nouiinoue nenoaiu inoaaaeanue i?aaeiae, oioy aa ioneoeu e aiey ia/aee
ao?ioe?iaaoueny Ana ooieoeeiiaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, io oaa?eee aei oeieu,
ii-i?aaeiaio iiae/eiyeenue ia?oee-ainoaea?noao, e i?e oaeeo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao “einoeoooeeiiaeueiue ieth?aeeci”, eae e ?aiueoa,
ia?aie/eaaeny iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie, ooieoeeiiaeueiuie aii?inaie. A
iineaaeiea a?aaeiaaneea aiaeu iu eiaee aeaei, ii au?aaeaieth A. Ieoieea,
n “oioaeeoa?eciii n auaeouie coaaie”, a ioithaeue ia n “ii?iaeueiui”
iauanoaii, a nicaeaiee eioi?iai aeaeaee naith eiia/ioth oeaeue
ainoi/ii-aa?iiaeneea aeenneaeaiou. Yoei e i?aaeii?aaeaeeeny ?aceee
?ac?ua a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia a 1989 a. e aai ianeieueei iaiaa ?aaeeeaeueiia
iiaoi?aiea a NNN? a 1991 a. Niaeanii “la these de la revolution” (oai?ee
?aaiethoeee), oieueei iinea yoeo i?i?uaia noaei aiciiaeii aeaeaeaiea io
?aoi?ie?iaaiiiai eiiioiecia (neieue i?ia?anneaiui au ii ie aue) e
iiaeeeiiiio enoiaeo ec nenoaiu.

Ia yoii iaiaoiaeeii ianoaeaaoue, oae eae oi, /oi aeieaeii auoue
naiii/aaeaeiui a nayce n eiioeii eiiioiecia, eiiaaea inia?eaaaony a
oi?ia iinia?oiiai i?iaeieaeaiey ?aaeceiienoneie eeiee. Iaeiei ec
iineaaenoaee “la these de complot” (oai?ee caaiai?a) e i?aoiaiueoaiey
cia/aiey i?i?uaa a aaaonoa 1991 a. noaea aa?a a oi, /oi ia?ano?ieea a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe auea ia?aoiaeii ?innee e aeaiie?aoee. Ooaa?aeaeaaony,
/oi Ai?aa/aa ?ac?aoee aeaniinoue, a oaeaea caaae ia?eaiaio e auai?u, e
/oi yoe ?aoi?iu noaee aiciiaeiuie aeaaiaea?y i?aaeiei oniaoai niaaoneiai
?aaeeia a aeaea eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, o?aaiecaoeee e ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey. Oaeay oi/ea c?aiey yaii aaaeao naith ?iaeineiaioth io
o?oaeia I. Eaaeia, /uey eiioeaioeey auea noiie?iaaia a aai “Oaiiiaia
Ai?aa/aaa” (1988 a.): ianiio?y ia ana iauai?eciaiiua oaeanu
eiiioienoe/aneie enoi?ee, nenoaiie aue nicaeai iioaioeeae
naiio?ainoi?iaoeee. E neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?aoiae ?innee e aeaiie?aoee aue
ia ?aaiethoeeiiiui, a yaiethoeeiiiui i?ioeannii.

Oioy i?eaiaeeiua a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoa i?aaiia?iinoe oaeeo
ooaa?aeaeaiee aeiaaaonoianeea ia?aiaiu a nenoaia auee aeinoaoi/ii
?aaeueiu, iieiinoueth eaii?e?oaony oio oaeo, /oi aaciaua aa eiiiiiaiou –
ia?oey, ieai, iieeoeaeneea no?oeoo?u e “Nithc” – ia auee eie cao?iioou;
iie auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai o?aoiany/iiai i?iiaaeooea
iinea aaaonoa. Ia?aae oai, eae ?inney niiaea ionoeoueny ia iienee
aeaiie?aoee, aeieaeiu auee auoue ?ac?ooaiu ana o/?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ua
aeaeaee eiiioieci oai, /oi ii niaie i?aaenoaaeye. Ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi
yoio ?aca?ii ia aeaea aue yaiethoeeae, a /ai-oi iioiaea ia iiiuoeo
aeieacaoue, /oi iineieueeo Ethaeiaee XVI nicaeae Aaia?aeueiua Ooaou, oi
niauoey 1789 a. ciaiaiiaaee niaie nei?aa yaiethoeeiiiue, /ai
?aaiethoeeiiiue iooiae io aaniethoecia.

NIOeEAEENOE*ANEAss EAeAss

Ii ?inneeneay ?aaiethoeey 1991 a. icia/aea ia/oi aieueoaa, iaaeaee
caiaio ?yaea einoeoooia, oioy au e aaciauo; a iniiaa o?ainoi?iaoeee
eaaeaei eciaiaiea ii?aaeaeythuae /a?ou aeecie, o. a. ioeac io Eaeae
Nioeeaeecia. Aeey iiieiaiey cia/eiinoe yoiai oaeoa aieaa iieacai
A?enoioaeue, iaaeaee any iaoea ia iauanoaa “yiioe aeoaaei?ecia” A
a?enoioaeaaneie “Iieeoeea” yeiiiieea e ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai
?anniao?eaathony eae /anoue yoeee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, yoeea ii?aaeaeyao
oeaeue e ?aoathuea i?e/eiu ?acaeoey — oi, /oi a ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
oa?ieiao iiaeao auoue iacaaii naaiaeiy nenoaiie oeaiiinoae iauanoaa,
eioi?ay ii?aaaeuaaao nouanoaiaaiea anao aai einoeoooia e aeaeaao
aiciiaeiie naio eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue. E yoa yoe/aneay oeaeue
aeieaeia auoue i?aainoiaeyuae ii ioiioaieth e ethaiio ec aa /anoiuo
i?iyaeaiee.

Eoae, nouiinoue eiiioienoe/aneie nenoaiu e aaeeinoai niaaoneiai iiuoa
ii?aaeaeythony aunoae oeaeueth – “iino?iaieai nioeeaeecia”. E eiaiii
iioiio, /oi caiaaeiay iaoea ia iauanoaa a oeaeii ioeacuaaeanue
aini?eieiaoue ana?ueac yoo eaeaieiae/aneoth oeaeue, niaaoieiaey
iioa?iaea noieue aeaeeia ii?aaeaiea a aa iiiuoeao iiiyoue i?aaeiao naieo
nianoaaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Ii /oi aea iiae?acoiaaaaony a aeaiiii neo/aa
iiae iaiai/eaui iiiaieeeei iiiyoeai “nioeeaeeci”?

A iniiaa naiae iii ninoieo ec aeaoo yeaiaioia. Ai-ia?auo, a iai
i?enoonoaoao yoe/aneay oeaeue – aunoaa iauanoaaiiia aeaai,
caeeth/athuaany a aeaiie?aoe/aneii ?aaainoaa anao ethaeae. Ai-aoi?uo,
iiae?acoiaaaaony nouanoaiaaiea i?ia?aiiu aeaenoaee – iineieueeo
ia?aaainoai a aeaaininoiyiee nicaeaao ia?aaainoai a oneiaeyo aeecie,
aaaeiui n?aaenoaii aeinoeaeaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ?aaainoaa yaeyaony
ioiaia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Oae, aeaenoaeoaeueii ii?aaeaeyeanue
nouiinoue eiiioienoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu, eae aa noi?ioee?iaae Ia?en a naiai
“Iaieoanoa”. Ii anee /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ioiaiaia, oi aa i?iaeoeo –
i?eaueue e n?aaenoai ?aaeecaoeee i?eauee – ?uiie oaeaea aeieaeiu oeoe a
i?ioeia. Oaeei ia?acii, ii?aeueiay oeaeue, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay ?aaainoai
ethaeae, aea/ao ca niaie aiaae?aiea i?ia?aiiu iieiiai eiio?iey
ainoaea?noaa iaae yeiiiieeie. A oi aea a?aiy n/eoaaony, /oi yoio
neii?aeeie?iaaiiue eiio?ieue yaeyaony aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiui e iioiio
aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiui, /ai yaienoe/aneea iioeau iieo/aiey i?eauee e
“?uii/iay aia?oey”. A ni/aoaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneie ii?aee n ieiaeioai?iie
?aoeeiiaeueiinoueth, niaeanii /ayieyi nioeeaeenoia, niiaeao iaania/eoue
yoe/aneia ii?aaaeaiea i?eioaeaeaiey a eioa?anao aeinoeaeaiey oaeeo,
aaconeiaii, aeaai?iaeiuo oeaeae.

Eiaaea aea aeaei aeioei aei ?aaeecaoeee yoie i?ia?aiiu, i?eioaeaeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueii ieacaeinue iaiaoiaeeiui. Niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee,
iaeeaeaeinue, /oi eiaeea enoi?ee, au?aaeaiiay eae a naiii eiioeuena e
aeaiie?aoecaoeee iauanoaa, oa?aeoa?iii aeey nia?aiaiiinoe, oae e a
iinoiyiiii ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, naia ii naaa iaania/eo ia?aoiae
io eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecio. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea eiaeea enoi?ee ia
n?aaioaea iiaeiaiui ia?acii. Aeey “iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia”
iio?aaiaaeinue eniieueciaaiea iniaiai iieeoe/aneiai eino?oiaioa
-eaieineie ia?oee. Ia “?acaeoea” eee iiaea?iecaoeey, a noa/aiea ?yaea
ianoiyoaeuenoa eaeaieiae/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai ii?yaeea aeaao eeth/ e
iiieiaieth eiiioienoe/aneie nenoaiu e i?e/ei aa i?aa?auaiey a
oioaeeoa?ioth no?oeoo?o.

E IIAIE O-IIAeAEE

Niaaoneee ?aaeei noa?oiaae a Ieoya?a 1917 a. caoaaoii aeanoe – aeoii,
i?ecaaiiui ianeeuenoaaiii iai?aaeoue oiae enoi?ee a ?onei
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee.

Eiaaea aea a noiyoeoea iaioa?aoeii iineaaeiaaaoae A?aaeaeaineie aieiu
nioeeaeenoe/aneee ii?yaeie ia aiciee nai ii naaa, enoi?eth i?eoeinue
iiaenoaaeaaoue aaaaeaieai ieeeoa?ece?iaaiiie yeiiiieee “aiaiiiai
eiiioiecia” e ia?auie iiiuoeaie “ieaie?iaaiey”. Iaeiaei yoe ia/eiaiey
i?aauneee i?aaeaeu oiai, /oi iiaei auaea?aeaoue ?aci?aiiia aieiie
iauanoai, e iioiio ia?aay iiiuoea iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia niaieeanue a
1921 a. a?aiaiiui ionooieaieai e iieo?uii/iie, iieoeaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieea iyia. A yoii /a?aaeiaaiee “nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ianooieaiey” e
/anoe/iiai ionooieaiey e aieaa ii?iaeueiiio iauanoao e niaea?aeeony
iniiaiie ?eoi niaaoneiai yenia?eiaioa.

Yoio ?eoi, iaeiaei, aaeaa ee iiaeii iacaaoue ?aaiiia?iui, oae eae ii
aeaeaao ?aceee anieane, aeinoeaay naiae eoeueieiaoeee a ia?eiae
?aaeueiiai “iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia” a 1930-a aa. i?e Noaeeia. Eiaaea a
eiioea 20-o aa. ieieiaeueiua onooiee ii?iaeueiinoe a ?aieao iyia noaee
oa?iaeaoue iiiiiieueiie aeanoe ia?oee iaae no?aiie, Noaeei ia?aoae e
iieiie ?aaeecaoeee ia?aiia/aeueiie i?ia?aiiu – ioiaia /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe e ?uiea a naeueneii oicyenoaa e a i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
iiae/eiaieth anae yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ieaio, a iauanoaa e eoeueoo?u a
oeaeii – ia?oee-ainoaea?noao e aai iieeoeee. Oaea e ia/aeo 30-o aiaeia
niaaoneee nioeeaeeci oniaoii oie/oiaeee ana naiinoiyoaeueiua neeu a
iauanoaa e iaoiaee/ii aoiiece?iaae aai. Eiaiii a yoie noaeeineie
“?aaiethoeee naa?oo” eiiioieci iiaeioae ii naiei aiciiaeiinoyi
iaeneiaeueii aeecei e aiieiuaieth a aeeciue eaeaaeueiiai oeia
oioaeeoa?ecia. Ianiio?y ia ecaanoiua iaiai?ee, yoiai ieacaeinue
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau nicaeaoue aeeneiioi?o aeey anao, eoi aeee i?e iai, e
inoaaeoue aia iiaeic?aiee caeiiiinoue i?eeiaeaiey e iaio iiiyoey
“oioaeeoa?eci”. Noaeeineee nioeeaeeci niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii i?aacioae e
iaoeeci, e oaoeci eae ii oioaeueiinoe eiio?iey iaae iauanoaii, oae e ii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?aauaaiey o aeanoe.

Aac niiiaiey, ana yoi aeaenoaeoaeueii i?aaenoaaeyei niaie “?acaeoea”,
o?aaiecaoeeth e ana inoaeueiia, i?eienuaaaoaany niaaoneie aeanoe oai?eae
iiaea?iecaoeee. Iaeiaei yoa “iiaea?iecaoeey” auea iiae/eiaia
iieeoe/aneei oeaeyi eiiioiecia. Iiyoiio iia e ieacaeanue aanieiaeiie. A
?aieao “iiaea?iecaoeee” iiaee eieoe?iaaoueny e oiiiaeaoueny ii eiiaiaea
ia?oee eiaeono?eaeueiua iiaeaee, caeinoaiaaiiua o Caiaaea, ii aoaeo/e
eiiaiaeiie no?oeoo?ie, iia ia iaeaaeaea niiniaiinoueth
oniaa?oainoaiaaoue caeinoaiaaiiua e ecia?aoaoue naie nianoaaiiua
iiaeaee. Yoi auei ia/oi a?iaea a?aiaeeiciiai ?iaioa ia neoaeaa
“no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia”.

Eiaiii yoi aanieiaeiia, naienoaaiiia ?acaa /oi ?iaioo, ea/anoai
niaaoneie nenoaiu noaei i?e/eiie oiai, /oi iinea ia?aiia/aeueiuo oniaoia
aa no?ieoaeuenoaa a 1930-a aa. e iiaaaeu ai Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia i?e
ianeaaeieeao Noaeeia ia/aeenue noaaiaoeey e oiaaeie ?aaeeia. Iiyoiio
iinea aieueoiai noaeeineiai ieea aaciaue ?eoi eieaaaiee io aeanoeiai
aiaiece?iaaiiiai eiiioiecia e aai “iyaeie”, ?aoi?ie?iaaiiie
?aciiaeaeiinoe e ia?aoii aiciaiiaeeny. Yoi i?iecioei, iaeiaei, oaea ia
ienoiaeyuae oaca nouanoaiaaiey nenoaiu. Ia yoie noaaeee neaaeiaaaoea
iaeia ca ae?oaie iiiuoee eeaa?aeecaoeee iinoaiaiii ?aceaaaee nenoaio,
oiaaea eae eacaeinue, /oi iie aa niaa?oainoaotho. Ii aianoa n oai yoe
oneeey ii?iaeaeaee eeethcee ioiineoaeueii niiniaiinoe eiiioienoe/aneie
nenoaiu naii?aoi?ie?iaaoueny, /oi ia a?aiy i?eaeaei i?aaaeiiiaeiaea
?anniio?aiiui iaie aa?eaioai ?aaeceiienoneie e?eoeee oioaeeoa?iie
iiaeaee.

Iiiuoea eeaa?aeecaoeee auea aia?aua naeaeaia i?e O?ouaaa. (A ia?eiae aai
i?aaeaiey niaaoieiaey oiaea aia?aua ia?aoeeanue e ?aaeceiiecio.) Iaeiaei
i?iaaaeaiiay ei aeanoaeeiecaoeey na?ueacii aeanoaaeeece?iaaea nenoaio, e
iioiio ii aue niauai. I?e A?aaeiaaa e Noneiaa niaaoneay nenoaia
aa?ioeanue e iyaeiio, eee ?ooeiece?iaaiiiio, noaeeiecio, i?aa?aoeaoenue
a eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaioth ia?oie?aoeth aac ianniaiai oa??i?a, ii n
iiaie “niieieiie” eaeaieiaeae. E yoa noaaeeueiay e caaieaathuay
niaaoneay nenoaia ianoieueei ioee/aeanue io naiae aaeeeie e a?iciie
i?aaeoanoaaiieoeu, /oi nioea ia Caiaaea ca aaoi?eoa?iue, n yeaiaioaie
ieth?aeecia, ?aaeei, iniiaaiiue ia oii, /oi iieo/eei ianeieueei no?aiiia
iacaaiea “anneiao?e/ii auaiaeiiai iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a” iaaeaeo
ia?oeae e ia?iaeii. Ii yoa caaieaathuay nenoaia aeaeaea niaaoneoth
naa?oaea?aeaao ana iaiaa eiieo?aioiniiniaiie ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia,
e iioiio iio?aaiaaeanue aua iaeia iiiuoea eeaa?aeueiiai, ?aoi?ienoneiai
eiiioiecia nicaeaoue iiaoth yoeeo, aic?iaeeoue yia?aeth e noeioee?iaaoue
iiaiaaaaeaiey. Oaeia aue niune ai?aa/aaneie ia?ano?ieee, aeaniinoe e
aeaiie?aoecaoeee.

A ?acoeueoaoa ana, ia?aaioaiiia ?aaeceiienoneie aia?eeaineie
niaaoieiaeae ca 25 eao, auei ioaeaii Ai?aa/aao a ciae oaaaeaiey: a iai
aeaeaee aoi?ia i?eoanoaea Aooa?eia, iieacaoaeue c?aeinoe nia?aiaiiie
niaaoneie nenoaiu, a?oeoaeoi?a ia?aoiaea io eiiioiecia e aeaiie?aoee. Ii
ia nae ?ac ?aoi?ia eiiioiecia caoea neeoeii aeaeaei, /oiau iiaeii auei
aa?iooueny iacaae. Aeaniinoue aeaea ethaeyi aiciiaeiinoue neacaoue
ioe?uoi, /oi nenoaia iaa?ioeanue iaoaea/ae e iaiaiii, a oi a?aiy eae
aeaiie?aoecaoeey aeaea aiciiaeiinoue a?ineoue aucia ia?oeeiie aaaaiiiee.
Iiyoiio eiaaea aiia?ao i?aaei?eiye a aaaonoa 1991 a. iaecaaaeioth aeey
iaai iiiuoeo iiaa?iooue ?aoi?io aniyoue, aai aeaenoaey iici?ii
i?iaaeeeenue, e any nenoaia ?ooioea a oa/aiea o?ao aeiae.

Oaeei ia?acii, aaiaoe/aneee eiae, caaeaiiue ieoya?ueneei ia?aai?ioii
1917 a., iaeiiaoe au?aaioae naie iioaioeeae aei eiioea, /oi i?eaaei e
aeaaee anaai i?aaiecia. Aoaeue niaaoneay aaaioth?a eeoue aeaeii
“?acaeoey e iiaea?iecaoeee”, oae au ia neo/eeinue. Ii caaea/a, eioi?oth
iia auea i?ecaaia ?aoeoue, iacuaaeanue “iino?iaieai nioeeaeecia”. Iiae
iineaaeiei iiae?acoiaaaaony eiiieaeniue, iieiue nioeeaeeci, a niunea “ia
eaieoaeeci”, eee iiaeaaeaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e ?uiea. Ii eiaao
iaei iauaai n iieiaei/aoie neaiaeeiaaneie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth,
nio?aiythuae ?uiie e /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue e eeoue iaeaaathuae eo
iaeneiaeueiuie iaeiaaie, /oiau oeiaine?iaaoue ainoaea?noai
naa?oaeaaininoiyiey.

Ii eiiieaeniue nioeeaeeci a eiia/iii n/aoa aaniethoii iaeniieiei e
naii?ac?ooeoaeai, oae eae anaii?aaeaeythuay i?ia?aiia
“iainoaea?noaeaiey” anae nianoaaiiinoe ia i?eaiaeeo e aeinoeaeaieth
ii?aeueiie oeaee – i?eoiaeo aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ?aaainoaa. Iai?ioea, a
?acoeueoaoa iiyaeyaony oioaeueiay oe?aiey ainoaea?noaa. Iiae/eiaiea
?uiea eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiio ieaio oaeaea ia ii?iaeeei
yeiiiie/aneoth ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue e iaoa?eaeueiia eciaeeea. Niiaa
neo/eeinue i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiia: iinea ia/aeueiie oacu no?aieoaeueiiai
?inoa i?eoee noaaiaoeey, ionoaeinoue e iianaianoii ?ani?ino?aiaiiay
aaaeiinoue. Ia?aae eeoeii oaeeo oaoaeueiuo aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee
nenoaia iiaea oaea?aeeaaoueny ia naiae ainoiaeyuae oaca, ia ?aniaaeaynue
oieueei aei oao ii?, iiea nioeeaeenoe/aneee ieo aua iieueciaaeny
aeiaa?eai, o. a. iiea aai ?aaeecaoeey aua auea aeaeii aoaeouaai. Iaeiaei
eae oieueei nioeeaeeci aue iino?iai, naie eoiae naeaeaiiiai
o?ainoi?ie?iaaee yoio ieo a eiaeue. Oaeay o?ainoi?iaoeey i?iecioea ia
ieea nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey i?e Noaeeia a 1930-a aa., e ia/eiay n
yoiai a?aiaie e aei aai nia?oe aeey nio?aiaiey “caaiaaaiee” nioeeaeecia
aue iaiaoiaeei ocaeiiaiiue oa??i?. Ii oaeay nenoaia i?aaeaiey iiae?uaaea
?aaioiniiniaiinoue naiie nenoaiu, e iiyoiio i?aaiieee Noaeeia niya/eee
aa, /a?aaeoy ?aoi?iu e iai?aeeiiiinoue, /oi ia?aaaei nenoaio a ?aaeei
aeeeoaeueiie ienoiaeyuae oacu. Oae /oi iinea Noaeeia noaei eeoue
aii?inii a?aiaie i?iyaeaiea aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee, ei?aieaoeony a
iaauiieieiie caaea/a “iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia”; yoi i?eaaei e iieiie
aeene?aaeeoaoeee nenoaiu, a ionthaea e e ?aceiio ioeaco io iaa.

Ei?i/a aiai?y, iao oaeie aaue eae nioeeaeeci, ii Niaaoneee Nithc aai
iino?iee. Eiaaea eaoano?ioe/aneay iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue “nioeeaeecia”
naeaeaea yoio ia?aaeien i/aaeaeiui, any ioeoeeaeueii ooaa?aeaeaiiay
oaioacey “?aaeueiiai nioeeaeecia” en/acea iieiinoueth e aac neaaea.
“Nth??aaeueiinoue” niaaoneie aeecie aiacaiii i?ae?aoeeanue, e ?inney
iiyoue noaea “ii?iaeueiie” no?aiie. Ii oaia?ue yoi no?aia, nouanoaothuay
n?aaee iaeiieia e aeua, inoaaoeony io aa aanieiaeiiai “?acaeoey”. Eiaiii
a oaeeo eaoano?ioe/aneeo oneiaeyo iia aeieaeia ia/eiaoue naie ia?aoiae e
iiaeeeiiie “nia?aiaiiinoe”, o. a. aeieaeia niiaa i?aa?aoeoue “?uaiue
noi” enoiueaoaainy nioeeaeecia a ieth?aeenoe/aneee ?uii/iue “aeaa?eoi”.

CAEETH*AIEA

Oaia?ue, eiaaea iu eiaai i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, eaeei ia?acii nioea ia
iao aeeiaieea niaaoneie nenoaiu, iai neaaeoao iiaa?iooue aniyoue e
aiiaue caiyoueny yeiiiie/aneeie, nioeeaeueiuie e enoi?e/aneeie
aueeaaeeaie, caiiai ioeaieaay eaaeaeue ia?eiae niaaoneiai yenia?eiaioa
io Ieoya?y e iyia aei naiie ia?ano?ieee. Oaeie iauee ia?aniio?
iaiaoiaeei e aeey iauanoaaiiuo iaoe a oeaeii, iioiio /oi i?iaae
niaaoieiaee, aiciiaeii, naiiai iaoe?iiai eiiieaena enneaaeiaaiee
ioaeaeueiie i?iaeaiu “yiioe aeoaaei?ecia”, yaeyaony oaeaea e i?iaaeii
iauanoaaiiuo iaoe eae oaeiauo.

Yoa iiiuoea eni?aaeaiey – ioithaeue ia i?inoi /enoue aeaaeaieci:
caaeoaeaeaiey niaaoieiaee eiaee naiua na?ueaciua i?aeoe/aneea
iineaaenoaey. Iai?eia?, ia?aioeaiea iieacaoaeae niaaoneie yeiiiieee
ieacaea i/aaeaeiia aeeyiea ia iai?iiioth iieeoeeo Caiaaea e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, – ia iao athaeaeao e aioo?aiithth iieeoeeo. Anoue
aeaaea iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi Niaaou aini?eieiaee ioeaiee Oe?O
ianoieueei na?ueacii, /oi naeaeaee auaiae i iaee/ee o ieo aieueoeo
?ano?nia aeey ieeeoa?ecaoeee, /ai oa, eioi?uie a ?aaeueiinoe ?aniieaaaea
eo yeiiiieea. Ia aeaea yoi iai?aaeeueiia noaeaeaiea iiaei noaoue iaeiie
ec iiai/iuo i?e/ei, niinianoaiaaaoeo aa aeaaee. Aeeaaeii Caiaaea a
niaaoneoth iieeoeeo, eae iu ciaai, noaei oi, /oi oai?aoee ia?ano?ieee
Aeaenaiae? sseiaeaa a auoiinoue naith aee?aeoi?ii EIYII -iicaiaiai
oeaio?a iauanoaaiiuo iaoe – iiciaeiiee naieo aiaeeoeeia n o?oaeaie Ae.
E. Aaea?aeoa i iinoeiaeono?eaeueiuo iauanoaao, A. Eaiioueaaa – ia
yeiiiie/aneii ?inoa e Ae. Aaeea – i eiioea eaeaieiaee, i?aaenoaaea eo
eae aeieacaoaeuenoaa oiai, /oi c?aeia niaaoneia iauanoai noaei aioiaui e
“eiiaa?aaioeee”. I?eia?ii neoaeeo e noaeueaa oacena E?aaioaey i oii, /oi
eiiioieci oaeoe/anee icia/aao ?acaeoea: neaaeiaaaoea aio
caiaaeiiaa?iaineea nioeeae-aeaiie?aou a iaaeaaeaea i?iaanoe iinoaiaiiua
?aoi?iu a AAe? oieeee e eaeayee eiiioienoia Ainoi/iie Aa?iaiee, /oi ia
aeaea i?eaaei i?inoi e iiaeaea?aeea eie ainoi/iiaa?iaineiai ?aaeeia.
I?aaeaoea a Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee o?enoeaineea aeaiie?aou ai iiiaii
?acaeaeyee eeethcee nioeeaeenoia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai e oa e ae?oaea
ieacaeenue aaniethoii ia iiaeaioiaeaiiuie e ?acaaeo Ainoi/iie Aa?iaiee.
Aeaenoaoy a oii aea aeooa aaniie 1991 a., ?yae i?ioanni?ia ec Oeieu
oi?aaeaiey ei. Eaiiaaee i?e Aa?aa?aeneii oieaa?neoaoa n aeaaineiaaiey
aacaou “Iueth-Ei?e Oaeia”, i?aaeinoaaeaoae a eo ?anii?yaeaiea naith
?aaeaeoeeiiioth iieino, i?aaeeiaeeee naiaai ?iaea “Ieai Ia?oaeea”
-ia?aaea/o i?eia?ii 30 ie?ae. aeieea?ia aaeaaiaeii a oa/aiea 5 eao (/oi
auei iacaaii eie “Aaeeeie naeaeeie”) niaaoneiio i?aaeoaeuenoao A.
Iaaeiaa, eioi?ia aioiaeeinue oiaaea e aaaonoianeiio ioo/o, i?ecaaiiiio
nianoe nenoaio.

Oai ia iaiaa, caaea/e ii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth niaaoieiaee ai?acaei eaa/a
inouanoaeoue, /ai ?aoi?io naiiai Niaaoneiai Nithca. Oaia?ue iu iieo/eee
iieioth aiciiaeiinoue iauaiey n ?inneeneei iauanoaii, a nei?i aoaeai
eiaoue oaeie aea aeinooi e e aeeciaiii aaaeiie eioi?iaoeee i iai. Iu ia
aeieaeiu aieaa iiae?acoiaaaoue eee oaioace?iaaoue, /oi niaoeeoe/anee
niaaoneea oi?iu e o/?aaeaeaiey eiatho naiioeaiiinoue e aoaeouaa, eioi?ua
iai neaaeoao oaaaeaoue. Oaia?ue iu eiaai aeaei n /ai-oi a?iaea “i?inoi
aua iaeiiai iauanoaa”, no?aiie, anee e ia oiaeaeanoaaiiie Caiaaeo, oi
eiathuae ?iaenoaaiiue aai n ae?oaeie o?aaiece?iaaiiuie eiaeono?eaeueiuie
iauanoaaie. Iaeioi?ua iaoe, iniiaaiiua ia iiuoa Caiaaea eee o?aoueaai
ie?a, iiaeaee e eiioeaiooaeueiua noaiu ?acaeoey, iiaea?iecaoeee,
ia?aoiaea e aeaiie?aoee e o. ae. aieaa eee iaiaa i?eaiaeiu aeey
o?aeoiaee ooaaeoae a i?ioeia niaaoneie neooaoeee. Ii iie i?eaiaeiu aeey
yoiai oieueei i?e oneiaee, /oi iu i?eciaai, /oi yoa aueay neooaoeey
ii-i?aaeiaio iaoiaeeony a aeacao aiaeeoeea eae au iiae /a?aie niaaoneiai
i?ioeiai, iiuoa, eioi?ue ?aaeeeaeueii e nth??aaeenoe/anee ioee/aaony io
iaoaai nianoaaiiiai ie?a. A aeey yoiai oieeaeueiiai iiuoa aaeeinoaaiii
i?aaeeueiie yaeyaony enoi?e/anee ei??aeoiay e aeeiaie/iay oioaeeoa?iay
iiaeaeue. Eca?aa oaeoth ia?niaeoeao eae iniiao e oii enneaaeiaaiee, iaoe
iauanoaaiii-iao/iua iaoiaeeee, aoaeue oi a iaeanoe yeiiiieee,
iieeoieiaee, iaoee, nioeeieiaee eee enoi?ee, niiaoo iaeiiaoe i?eianoe
ioaea/o, i?iii?oeeiiaeueioth oneeeyi, cao?a/aiiui ia eo ?ac?aaioeo. Iie
ianiiiaiii niiaoo oaeaea iiii/ue iaoei eieeaaai ia Ainoiea inouanoaeoue
“aica?auaiea a Aa?iio”, i eioi?ii iie ia/oaee n ia/aea ia?ano?ieee.

Niaaoieiaey e enneaaeiaaiey i?iaeai eiiioiecia ia aeieaeiu ?acaeaeeoue
noaeueao NNN? e eiiioiecia, ia?a/aiiuo ia caaaaiea. Aua a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo aeanyoeeaoee aoaeao nio?aiyoueny iaoe?iia e ieiaei?iaeiia
iiea aeey iinoniaaoneeo, iinoeiiioienoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ?aaeiia,
i?inoe?athuaainy io Ea?eaneiai aei Eeoaeneiai ii?ae, caiaeue, aaea
o?aoue /aeiaa/anoaa ia oio eee eiie n?ie noaiiaeeanue iauaeoii
ia?enenonei-eaieineeo oaioacee. E yoio aoaeoaeueiue iiuo aoaeao
i?aaeii?aaeaeyoue ioiioaiey yoeo ia?iaeia n inoaeueiui ie?ii aei oao
ii?, iiea iie, iaeiiaoe, ia eioaa?e?othony iieiinoueth a iiaeeeiii
nia?aiaiiue ie? e ia noaioo aai /anoueth.

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