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Истоки предпринимательства на Руси

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Niaea?aeaiea

I?aaeiinueee e ca?iaeaeaiea a ?innee.

Aioo?aiiyy e aiaoiyy oi?aiaey a Ae?aaiae ?one

Noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea eoia/anoaa.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

I?aaeiinueee e ca?iaeaeaiea a ?innee

Aic?ano ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aeaeaei ia?aaaeee ca ouny/o eao.
Ia oa??eoi?ee Ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa ia?aua ?inoee i?inoaeoeo
oeeaeeecaoeee iiyaeythony a ?aeiiao n oia?aiiui eeeiaoii. Ia?auaynue e
enoieai ?inneeneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iu ?aoaai caaea/o ia oieueei
iienaiey enoi?ee, ii e iuoaainy ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea i?ioeannu
niinianoaiaaee eee i?aiyonoaiaaee aunieiio ?acaeoeth oi?aiaee e ?aianae.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeoeaiinoue ieaiai, ianaeyaoeo eiaaea-oi
oa??eoi?eth ?innee neeaaeuaaeanue iiae aeeyieai ianeieueeeo oaeoi?ia.
I?aaeaea anaai oia?aiiinoue eeeiaoa o?aaiaaea aeoeaiinoe a inaiaiee
i?e?iaeu. Aeayoaeueiinoue iaoeo i?aaeeia aeieaeia auea auoue aieaa
aeoeaiie e i?aaei?eei/eaie /ai aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae a no?aiao n
aea?eei eeeiaoii. I?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu iicaieyee a?aoue io i?e?iaeu eeoue
i?e oneiaee ecaioiaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey i?oaeee. Iiyoiio
ia?aiia/aeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iaoeo i?aaeeia auea aeiauaathuay.
Oaeiio ninoiyieth aeaea niinianoaiaaei e oi, /oi ei/othuea ieaiaia /anoi
aiaaaee ae?oa n ae?oaii e ni naieie ninaaeyie, a neaaenoaeai aieiu
yaeyaony aeiau/a eioi?ay nieaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aieaa aeoeaiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?aau-aiaiiiieaiiua, caoaa/aiiua a
n?aaeaieyo e eniieuecoaiua eae oiaa?, aua iaiueoa ?acaeaatho
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu e i?aaei?eei/eainoue, oae eae a aith o?aaoaony
i?aeiouanoaaiii neea, a ia niaeaeea e ?an/ao. I?iaeaaea ?aaia (/aeyaee)
aeaao oi?ioee aeioiae, ia o?aaoy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo oneeee.

Aeeyee ia ?acaeoea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo niiniaiinoae iaoeo i?aaeeia e
iniaaiiinoe eaiaeoaooii-aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu. Naiaiaeiia ?annaeaiea
ae?aaieo neaayi ii Ainoi/ii-aa?iiaeneie ?aaieia ia nicaeaaaei aeaoeoeeoa
caiaeue e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaeaai?aaeeaaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth oa??eoi?eth e
auaeeaaoue ia iae /a?ac iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe
o?oaea.

Naiay ae?aaiyy i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue ia oa??eoi?ee iaoae
no?aiu – yoi iaiai aeiauouie o i?e?iaeu i?iaeoeoaie. Ia oa??eoi?ee iaoae
no?aiu iaiai i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii ia/eiaaony a yiioo o?eiieueneie
eoeueoo?u (IV – III oun. aei i. y.). Iaiai iauaeoeaii niinianoaiaae
?inoo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea, oae eae ii i?aaeiieaaae
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth, a eiaiii aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, a ia o?aaeeoeeiiiinoue
aeaeaaee /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai aia?aae. Aeeyiea yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia
ieacuaaaony a yoi a?aiy ne?uoui a aeoaeia i?ioeannia, aaea iie
aeaenoaotho iaaeeaiii, ii aa?ii. ?acoeueoaou eo aeaenoaey i?iyaeythony
ia /a?ac aiaeu e aeaaea iieieaiey, a /a?ac aaea e aaea ?acaeoey
iauanoaa. Yoe e ae?oaea oaeoi?u iaeaieeaathony e aeatho iiaia ea/anoai
aeecie.

Eiaiii onoie/eainoue naiiai i?ioeanna, neiaeeaoeany nayce anaaaea ea?aee
a oi?aiaea e iiaeaea?aeeaathuai aa i?iecaiaenoaa i?eioeeieaeueioth
?ieue, ii iaoei i?aaeeai ia auiaei niieieiiai oa/aiey yoiai i?ioeanna.
E?iia iai?iiu io aan/eneaiiuo a?aaia, iaoe i?aaeee naie caieiaeenue
eieiiecaoeeae naaa?iuo e ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia Ainoi/ii-aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu,
/oi iiae?uaaei noaaeeueiua oi?aiaua iooe e ?aianeaiiua o?aaeeoeee.
Iiaa?oiinoiia inaiaiea ana iiauo aiaaonoa caaea?aeeaaei ?acaeoea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo niiniaiinoae ainoi/iuo neaayi.

Ainoi/iua neaayia inaaeaaee Ainoi/ii-aa?iiaeneoth ?aaieio a iniiaiii aac
i?aiyonoaee. E, ia iuouay nii?ioeaeaiey, ia o?aie?iaaee naith
aeeciaiioth neeo, naith i?aaei?eei/eainoue, oioy iaae?aee iiuue a
ae?oaii aeaea – ono?ienoaa ia?iiiiai ainoaea?noaa. ?onue iaoiaeeeanue ia
ia?ae?anoea oi?aiauo iooae e i?e ae?oaeo oneiaeyo iiaea nin?aaeioi/eoue
ie?anoioth oi?aiaeth, iieo/ay aeioiae oieueei ia o?aiceoa (a aoaeouai
Iiaai?iae eniieueciaae oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue).

Iaeeaeaiiia oi?aiaia aeaeaeaiea iaei aeeyei ia iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai neaayineiai ianaeaiey, oae eae o iaai ia auei ie eceeoeia
i?iaeoeoia, ie aeaiaa, ie aiciiaeiinoe eiaoue /oi-oi naa?o naiiai
iaiaoiaeeiiai. Iaiiiai/eneaiiay aa?oooea – noa?aeoeiu, iioii eiycuey,
aiy?a e eoioeu – i/aiue aei?iaeeea aiciiaeiinoueth o/anoaiaaoue a
oi?aiaea: eiycuey nauaaee aeaiue, aiy?a i?iaeaaaee aiaiioth aeiau/o e
ia?iee, eoioeu oi?aiaaee i?iaeoeoaie e oiaa?aie, i?eia?aoaiiuie ii
neo/ath.

Iniiaaiey aeey ia?aoiaea e aieaa aunieie oaiaeaeueiie oi?iaoeee
iiyaeythony n aicieeiiaaieai a iauanoaa aeeooa?aioeeaoeee: ioaeaeaiey
?aianea io naeueneiai oicyenoaa, iiyaeaiey iinaeaiee ai?iaeneiai oeia,
iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Ii naiia aeaaiia, /oi eaaeaei a
iniiaa yoeo i?ioeannia -yoi eciaiaiea ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe, aa?iaa,
iiyaeaiey aiiaua i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai ia caieth,
e iieo/aiea i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa a aeaea caiaeueiie ?aiou -ieaou ca
caieth. Nioeeaeueii iaeii?iaeiue ?iaeiaie no?ie aaeaie iaeaieeaae a naaa
e?oieoeu oaeeo eciaiaiee e, iaeiiaoe, noae yaii oi?iiceoue iauanoaaiiia
?acaeoea. Nia/aea iiyaeeanue ee/iay nianoaaiiinoue ia iaeioi?ua i?oaeey
o?oaea, i?aaeiaou oe?aoaiee e o. ae. Iioii nianoaaiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo
aieaa iaeeeo iauei, naiae ia caieth e i?oaeey o?oaea. Iaeiiaoe, ee/iay
/anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth aoaeoueo oaiaeaeia. Iiyaeythony iaiai,
aeaiueae, i?ioeaio, ?inoiaue/anoai, a oeaeii yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue
iauanoaa – yoi ia/aei oeeaeeecaoeee. Ia?aiia/aeueii oi?aiaey aicieeaea
ia iaeeeo nai?iuo ianaeaiiuo ioieoao, iacuaaaiuo iiainoaie (io neiaa
“ainoueaa”, “ainoeoue”).

Naiue oa?aeoa?iue aioo?aiiee yeiiiie/aneee i?ioeann a Ae?aaiae ?one –
nai? aeaie (iiethaeuey) e nauo aa /a?ac iaaeaeoia?iaeioth oi?aiaeth.
Iniiaioth ?ieue a niaea?aeaiee iiethaeuey ea?aee iaoa, aine, iaae,
iaeioi?ua i?iaeoeou ieoaiey (?uaa, ioeoea). A naiue ia/aeueiue ia?eiae
aicieeiiaaiey oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee ia?aua i?aaei?eieiaoaee – yoi
auoiaeoeu ec iecoeo neiaa ianaeaiey, iaeaieaa aeoeaiua aai
i?aaenoaaeoaee, aeey yoie aeayoaeueiinoe o?aaiaaeenue oi, niaeinoue,
aeoeaiinoue.. Iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia aua iaeei iiiaio,
aeeythuee ia ?acaeoea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, aa?iaa, i?aiyonoaothuee aai
?acaeoeth. ?a/ue eaeao i o?aaeeoeeyo e iau/ayo iaueiiie aeecie.

Ie/oi ia ia?auo ii?ao ?acaeoey i?ia?anna ia iiaeao iieiiaoue
i?eieoeaioth i?eau/eo n/eoaoue eieoeeaoi?a eaeiai-eeai iiaiaaaaeaiey
ia/anoeaoeai e a?aaii. A ?acoeueoaoa yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u aeieai ia
i?iyaeytho naay. A Ae?aaiae ?one yoa neea iau/ay yaeyaony e i?e/eiie, e
neaaenoaeai ia?aie/aiee i?aa ee/iinoe ia nianoaaiiinoue, iniaaiii
nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth.

Aioo?aiiyy e aiaoiyy oi?aiaey a Ae?aaiae ?one

Ianaeaiea n eoeueoo?ie neaayineiai oeia, aeaaiaea?y iiyaeaoaiony a
eiioea II oun. aei i. y. ieoaeiiio caieaaeaeeth, aeiaeeinue e ecaanoiuo
oicyenoaaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia. E VI – V aa. aei i. y. ec yoiai ?aeiia aue
iaeaaeai ?aaoey?iue auaic ca?ia a A?aoeeth /a?ac /a?iiii?neee ii?o
Ieeaeth. Oi?aiaey oaeiai oeia yaeyaony aaaeiui iieacaoaeai o?iaiy
?acaeoey iauanoaa, oae eae, aoaeo/e naycaia n i?iecaiaenoaii, ieacuaaao
ia iaai ia?aoiia nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea.

Ianoa, aaea aeeee neaayineea ieaiaia – Iiaeiai?iauea, Ii-eeueiaiuea,
Ienei-Aieaeneee aannaei, – a aeieeaaneea a?aiaia auee ianoaie
iaeeaeaiiiai oi?aiaiai iaiaia. A V – IV aa. aei i. y. oi?aiaaee n
Eaaeacii, a?a/aneeie i?e/a?iiii?neeie eieiieyie, a I – III aa. i. y. – n
?eieyiaie, n III – VI aa. – n aioaie. Iicaeiaa, a V – VI aa.,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae aicieeiiaaieai Eeaaneiai ainoaea?noaa, ainoi/iua
neaayia aiaeaeaeenue a oi?aiaeth n Oaca?neei Eaaaiaoii, /a?ac iaai n
Aceae, n ei/aauie oth?eneeie ieaiaiaie ia ainoiea, n ieaiaiaie Neae?e,
naaa?iuo ?aeiiia (oeiiaie), n naaa?i-caiaaeiui, Neaiaeeiaaneei ie?ii.

Yoe iai?aaeaiey oi?aiaee iiaeoaa?aeaeathony ioieciaoe/aneeie iaoiaeeaie.
N VIII a. ioia/aiu nayce n A?aaneei Oaeeoaoii. Iooue “ec aa?ya a a?aau”
aue oi?ioi inaiai ?onneeie, oae eae a?aau ia auee ii?aieaaaoaeyie.
Aeaaiie naycothuae aei?iaie ?onneeo e a?aaia auea Aieaeneay nenoaia,
yoei iooai aeaeaaeenue ia thai-ainoie iiaai?iaeneea, nocaeaeueneea,
?inoianeea, aeaaeeie?neea e ?ycaineea eoioeu (e eo i?aaeee) ni naieie
oiaa?aie. Nouanoaiaaei aeaa iniiaiuo oeaio?a oi?aiaee Ainoiea n ?onueth
– noieeoea Oaca?ee Eoeeue e Aoeaa? ia Aieaa. E. I. Eiceianeee n/eoaao,
/oi Aieaa auea ae?aaiaeoei iooai n naaa?a ia tha e oieueei iicaeiaa
onooieea naia cia/aiea Aeiai?o. Iniaaiii eioaineaii Aieaeneee iooue, oae
aea eae e Aeiineie, noae eniieueciaaoueny ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu IX a.,
eiaaea oai a ianniaii eiee/anoaa iiyaeyaony ?onneia ianaeaiea. A
i?aaenoaaeaiee a?aaia ?onnu auee oi?aiaui ia?iaeii. ?onneea aaue
iaeaeaiu a Aieaeneie Aieaa?ee, a a?aaneeo caieyo. I?eia?ii a na?aaeeia
IX aaea Eai-Oi?aeaaeaao – ainoi/iue enneaaeiaaoaeue ioia/ae, /oi
eoioeu-?onnu n iaoaie aia?ia e eeneoe acaeyo ii ?aeai, a eiiaaea aicyo
oiaa?u ia aa?aethaeao a Aaaaeaae..

N IX a. iinoaiaiii i?aaiecoaony oi?aiaey n Ei?noiai, a caoai n
Eiinoaioeiiiieai. Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyee ?acaeoia *a?iiii?neia
iiaa?aaeuea e Aecaioey. Ianoiiieiaeaiea Eeaaa, iniiaaiiiai a eiioea V –
ia/aea VI aa., auei naycaii n eiio?ieai aeaeaeaiey a Aeiai?ianeia
ieciauea, a oaeaea ia?ai?aau /a?ac Aeiai?. *oiau i?iieuoue ieii Eeaaa,
iaaei auei ieaoeoue ai?iaeo iioeeio. Iauaynue n a?aeaie, iaoe i?aaeee
auno?i ia?aiyee oi?aiaeth ii?ai, au?aaioaee onoie/eaua oi?aiaua ia?o?oou
?a/iuie iooyie. Eiaii Yoanneee aiai?ee i neaayiao VI aaea, /oi iie
“noaee aiaaou”, /oi iie aeaaeaee ia oieueei cieioii, na?aa?ii e
i?oaeeai, ii e oaaoiaie eioaaeae. Eiinoaioei Aaa?yii?iaeiue,
aecaioeeneee eiia?aoi?, ienae a O aaea, /oi “?onnu noa?athony aeeoue a
ie?a n ia/aiaaaie, iie iieoiatho o ieo aueia, eiiae e iaaoe e io yoiai
aeeaoo eaa/a e i?eaieueiaa…”1.

Noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea eoia/anoaa

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai naycaii ia n eaoaai?eae “iio?aaiinoue”, a n
eaoaai?eae “eioa?an”. I?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a ia i?iaeaaeo e aeaaea ia
caeac i?iaoaeaeaao yoio eioa?an. Iiyaeythony ia?aua ae?aaiea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee – oi?aiaoeu-neoiueee, /uey aeayoaeueiinoue ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueia, ii aanueia iieacia, naycaia n auaiaeie. *ai aieueoa
iiyaeythueany nianoaaiieee e oiaa?iaeaaeaeueoeu auee iainiaeaiu ae?oa io
ae?oaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoueth e nenoaiie iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea, oai aieueoa iie auee naycaiu iaiaiii. Nia/aea nai
i?iecaiaeeoaeue-?aianeaiiee aue oi?aiaoeai, nai ?aaeeciauaae naith
i?iaeoeoeeth. Aai ecaeaeey /a?ac iaeeeo oi?aiaoeaa-ei?iaaeieeia
auoiaeeee ca i?aaeaeu ai?iaea, oee a aea?aaith.

Eco/aiea iaoa?eaeia a?oaieiae/aneeo ?aneiiie iiiaeo ai?iaeneeo oeaio?ia
Ae?aaiae ?one iieacuaaao, /oi iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaiaae iinoiyiiue iaiai
?aianeaiiie e naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae. Oi?ioi
ainnoaiaaeeaathony yeiiiie/aneea iniiau oi?aiaee. Ii a enoi/ieeao iao
/aoeinoe a ii?aaeaeaiee nioeeaeueiiai noaoona ai?iaeai, caiyouo a
oi?aiaea. Iaeiaei, auaeaeaiea eoioeia a ioaeaeueiia nineiaea ia aucuaaao
niiiaiey. Eaaeaony, /oi ia?aue ?onneee naiae caeiiia “?onneay i?aaaea”
i?iiecai aeooii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Eiaaea /eoaaoue aai noaouee, oi
oaaaeaeaaoueny, /oi oaeea i?aaiaua ii?iu iiaee aicieeiooue a iauanoaa,
aaea aaaeiaeoei caiyoeai auea oi?aiaey, a eioa?anu aeeoaeae oanii
naycaiu n ?acoeueoaoii oi?aiauo iia?aoeee. Ii ia?aie noaouea “?onneie
i?aaaeu” aeeciue eoioea oeaieeanue a 40 a?eaai, oae aea eae e aeeciue
aieia, oiaaea eae ?aa noiee 5 a?eaai. Ii, noaey ii anaio, nioeeaeueiue
noaoon naiiai eoia/anoaa e eo i?iiunea ia iniaaiii oeaieeny a
ae?aaia?onneii iauanoaa. Eoioeu noiyee ia oanoie nooiaie a 8-nooiai/aoie
ea?a?oee, ia aa?oeia eioi?ie noiye aaeeeee eiycue, a ieaea eoioeia
oieueei nia?aeu e ?aau.

Ii?aaeaeaiiie nooiaie ?acaeoinoe oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai aeinoeaaao a
ia?eiae Eeaaneie ?one, eiaaea ia/aeanue /aeaiee nianoaaiiie ?onneie
iiiaou. Aeaiueae, e a oeaeii oi?aiaue eaieoae, yaeyeenue iiuiui
onei?eoaeai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a i?eioeeia, ii i?e oaiaeaeecia
aeaiueae a iniiaiii auee n?aaenoaii ia?auaiey, ieaoaaea, a iicaeiaa
iaeiieaiey nie?iaeu (iiiaou ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia). Eoioeu aea
eiioeaio?e?iaaee a naieo ?oeao e?oiiua noiiu aeaiaa, eioi?ua ioneaee a
iai?io e ?inoiaue/anoai. A Iiaai?iaea iaoee aiaaooth eoia/aneoth
onaaeueao XII aaea, a n?aaee aauae -aeaa a?aiiou, niaea?aeauea
?inoiaue/aneea caiene.

A oeaeii iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a ae?aaiaeoea a?aiaia ia
oa??eoi?ee iaoaai ainoaea?noaa oaea i?iyaeyee naay iniiaiua oaeoi?u,
eioi?ua oi?ie?iaaee /a?oi/ee aoaeouae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e iieiaeaiey aa a ?aieao niiauanoaa. Niinianoaiaaee
?acaeoeth i?aaei?eei/eainoe oia?aiiue eeeiao, oaeiaiia aaia?aoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea aeey o?aiceoiie oi?aiaee, naiaiaeiue aeoo ethaeae, aeeaoueo
ia iaiaic?eiuo i?ino?ainoaao iaiaaeeouo aua oa??eoi?ee. Oaeea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa niinianoaiaaee oaea/eeaui ?onneei iaiyeai e eoioeai,
caieiaaoeiny aiaoiae oi?aiaeae aeaeaei ca ?oaaaeaie naieo caiaeue.
Eiaeny e oiaa? aeey auaica, aeiauaaaiue o i?e?iaeu iaoeie i?aaeeaie:
iaoa, aine, iaae. Ia aieueoeo naiaiaeiuo ieiuaaeyo aani?aiyonoaaiii
aicieeaee oeaio?u aioo?aiiae e iieiou aiaoiae oi?aiaee: oi?aeee,
y?ia?ee, ai?iaeee. Aieaa nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ea?aee oaeoi?u,
iiieaeathuea i?e?iaeioth i?aaei?eei/eainoue neaayineeo e ae?oaeo
ia?iaeia: iaoe?iinoue aiaaoie ?ano?naie e ia inaiaiiie oa??eoi?ee
noeioee?iaaea a?aoue io i?e?iaeu, a ia i?iecaiaeeoue. Eieiiecaoeee ia
iiiu?yee eioaineaiiai iaono?ienoaa ia eiie?aoiie oa??eoi?ee. Aiaiiua
iioiaeu e caoaaou /oaeeo aiaaonoa e ?aaia i?aaenoaaeyee aieaa eaaeee
iooue iaiaauaiey, /ai i?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Ionoonoaea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe noeioee?iaaei
ianneaiue oei iiaaaeaiey e iiae/eiaiey iaueiiui o?aaeeoeeyi e iau/ayi.
Eeaaneay ?onue a iaeioi?ua iiiaiou naiaai nouanoaiaaiey auea
i?ioeaaoathuei ainoaea?noaii e eiaea i?aaeiinueee e aiciiaeiinoe aeey
?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ii ia ?acaeoea yoeo aiciiaeiinoae ia
auei ioiouaii aeinoaoi/ii enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aii?inu yeiiiieee e eeanniauo ioiioaiee a ?onneii ainoaea?noaa 12-17
aa.I.-E.,1960.

2. Aoieeaa E.I. Ae?aaiyy ?onue e Aaeeeay Noaiue. I., 2006

3. Ei?aei A.A. Aeanoue e nianoaaiiinoue a n?aaeiaaaeiaie ?innee.I.,
2005.

4. Naaeia A.A.Ainoi/iua neaayia a 6-13aa.I.,2002

5. Nie?iia E.E.I/a?ee nioeeaeueii yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ?one
12-13aa.I.-E.,1963.

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