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IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

1. Eneonnoai Eiaeee

2. Eneonnoai Eeoay

3. Eneonnoai ssiiiee

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

AAAAeAIEA

Eneonnoai no?ai THai-Ainoi/iie Acee ii?aaeaao aaeeeieaieai e
iaen/eneyaiui aiaaonoaii oi?i. Ca iiiaea aaea neiaeeeny iaiiaoi?eii
naiiauoiue ooaeiaeanoaaiiue iaeee Eiaeee, Eeoay e ssiiiee.

O?e aaeeeea ?aeeaee, eniiaaaeoaiua a Eiaeee, aeaee ie?o caia/aoaeueiua
iaiyoieee a?oeoaeoo?u e neoeueioo?u: aoaeaeeeneea iaua?iua o?aiu n
o?aneiauie ?inienyie, eiaeoenoneea o?aiu, oe?aoaiiua neoeueioo?aie, e
iaiyoieee eneaineie a?oeoaeoo?u.

Nayuaiiay eieaa eneaia – Ei?ai – ia niaea?aeeo aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iiaiaeo acaeiiioiioaiee ?aeeaee e eneonnoaa. Ii ia?a
?ani?ino?aiaiey eneaia a ?aciuo no?aiao – io Eniaiee aei Eiaeee, aai
eneonnoai aae?aei ianoiua o?aaeeoeee yoeo no?ai.

Aane?aeiee Eeoae – iaeia ec naiuo ae?aaieo e naiuo aeenoaoaeueiuo
oeeaeeecaoeee ie?a. Ia?aue enoi/iee eeoaeneie eoeueoo?u – i?e?iaea,
i?aaenoaaeaiiay a aeeaiiene e ioi?ieaiee ea?aieee.

Eneonnoai ssiiiee ?aniieaaaao ?yaeii i/aiue neiaeiuo e o?oaei?ieeo
oaoiee. Aeieaea aaea, e iniaaiii ieiei 1000 aiaea a i?eaeai?iuo e?oaao
ssiiiee auei iiaeii iiae?aaeaiea anaio eeoaeneiio; yoiai o?aaiaaee e io
ooaeiaeieeia. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi i/aiue aeieai i?eaeai?iia eneonnoai
ssiiiee inoaaaeinue eeoue neaaui ioaieineii eeoaeneiai. Ii ?aoathuaa
aeeyiea ia noaiiaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie yiiineie eoeueoo?u a eiia/iii
n/?oa ieacae ia Eeoae, a ae?aaiyy eoeueoo?a yiioe Aec?iii, eiaaea auea
ecia?aoaia ea?aieea e ?inienue ii iae.

1. ENEONNOAI EIAeEE

Ia?aie oeeaeeecaoeeae ia eiaeeeneie caiea auea Oa?aiineay eoeueoo?a a
aeieeia Eiaea, i?ioeaaoaaoay ca 2500 eao aei i.y. I?aaeaea /ai
en/aciooue iiae iaoeneii a?eeneeo ieai?i, iia oaaeiaa/eea naay ?yaeii
caia/aoaeueiuo oaaeaa?ia neoeueioo?u e a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa. Ni a?aiaiai
a?ee caaeaaeaee anae Naaa?iie Eiaeeae, ii ca ouny/aeaoiaa aeaaeu/anoai
ia inoaaeee iinea naay ieeaeeo iaiyoieeia eneonnoaa. Iniiau eiaeeeneie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie o?aaeeoeee auee caeiaeaiu eeoue a III aaea aei i.y.

Eiaeeeneia eneonnoai ecia/aeueii iineei ?aeeaeiciue oa?aeoa?, io?aaeay
ie?iaicc?aiey eiaeoecia, aeaeaeiecia e aoaeaeecia. Eiaeonu ecae?aaea
ioee/aeenue iaino??iiui aini?eyoeai ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, e aeaaiia ianoi
a eo eneonnoaa ii i?aao caieiaea a?oeoaeoo?a.

A ae?aaieo neoeueioo?ao, auoaaeoeo ec-iiae ?acoea i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aneaoe/aneiai aoaeaeecia, au? iao e neaaea auethuaai /a?ac e?ae
aeeciaethaey. Iaeii a?aiy auei aeaaea cai?auaii nicaeaaaoue ii?o?aoiua
ecia?aaeaiey Aoaeaeu. Iaeiaei iinea ioiaiu cai?aoa a naaa?i-ainoi/iie
i?iaeioeee Aaiaeoa?a ia/aee iiyaeyoueny ecaayiey Aoaeaeu a ia?aca
/aeiaaea, nicaeaiiua a yeeeie/aneii «a?aei-aoaeaeeeneii» noeea,
ieacaaoai caiaoiia aeeyiea ia eneonnoai anaai ?aaeiia.

A i?iaeioeee Aaiaeoa?a a ia?aua aaea i.y. iiyaeeanue iiaay
ooaeiaeanoaaiiay oeiea, niaaeeieaoay o?aaeeoeeiiiua aoaeaeeeneea eaiiiu
n iaeioi?uie /a?oaie a?a/aneiai eneonnoaa, i?eian?iiiai a Eiaeeth
aieneaie Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai (eiiaoe IV aaea aei i.y.). Oae,
aan/eneaiiua ecia?aaeaiey Aoaeaeu ec eaiiy e nooea (nianue aeina,
i?aii?iie e?ioee e eeay) i?eia?aee oa?aeoa?ii oaeeei?iiia eeoei, oe?iei
ioe?uoua aeaca e oiieee iin.

N?aaieoaeueii naea?aeaiiue noeeue i?aiaeaaeae e a eeanne/aneoth yiioo
Aoioia (320-600 aa. i.y.), oioy e yoiio a?aiaie aoaeaeeci aieoae iiiaea
yeaiaiou eiaeoenoneeo ieoia. E i?eia?o, yeoeie – eaniua aiaeanoaa
aeaineiai ?iaea – aoaeaeenoneeie aayoaeyie ecia?aaeaeenue a iaeeea
iuoiioaeuo oaioeiaueoe a iaia?a, aanueia aeae?eie io aneaoecia.

A ethaii ec i?iecaaaeaiee eiaeeeneiai eneonnoaa – aoaeaeeeneii eee
eiaeoenoneii – ecia/aeueii caeiaeaia a caeiaee?iaaiiii aeaea
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneay eioi?iaoeey. Oae, /?acau/aeii aaaeia iica, a
eioi?ie ecia?aae?i Aoaeaea: iaaeeoaoeey eee iio/aiey. Nouanoaotho
eaiiie/aneea iniaaiiinoe iaeeea Aoaeaeu: oaeeei?iiua ii/ee ooae,
aeaoi?ie?iaaiiua oe?aoaieyie, eioi?ua ii iinee a iieiaeinoe, eiaaea aue
i?eioeai; aieinu, nia?aiiua a nie?aeaaeaeiua io/ee ia aieiaa, e o.ae.
Oaeea aeaoaee aeatho c?eoaeth eeth/, iiiiaathuee ii?aaeaeeoue eaeath e,
niioaaonoaaiii, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey iauaiey n aiaeanoaii ?eooae.
Eiaeoenoneia eneonnoai oaeaea a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caeiaee?iaaii.
Caeanue aaaeia ethaay, aeaaea iaeeay, aeaoaeue – iiai?io aieiau
aiaeanoaa, iieiaeaiea e eiee/anoai ?oe, nenoaia oe?aoaiee. Ciaiaieoay
noaooyoea oaioeothuaai aiaa Oeau – oeaeay yioeeeeiiaaeey eiaeoecia.
Eaaeaeui i?uaeeii naiaai oaioea ii nicaea?o eee ?ac?ooaao Ie?u; /aou?a
?oee icia/atho aaneiia/iia iiaouanoai; aeoaa n ycu/eaie ieaiaie – neiaie
einie/aneie yia?aee; iaeaiueeay aeaineay oeao?ea a aieinao – aiaeiy ?aee
Aaia e o.ae. Caoeo?iaaiiinoue niunea naienoaaiia eneonnoao ?yaea no?ai
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, aoiaeyueo a a?aae eiaeoenoneie eoeueoo?u.

ss?eoth ea?oeieo aeecie Ae?aaiae Eiaeee ainnicaeatho iano?iaiea ?iniene
iaua?iuo o?aiia Aaeaeaiou, ii?aaeathuea e?ani/iinoueth e aa?iiieae
iiiaioeao?iuo eiiiiceoeee.

Aaeaeaioa – yoi naiaia?aciue iiianou?ue – oieaa?neoao, aaea aeeaoo e
o/aony iiiaoe. O?aiu Aaeaeaiou auoanaiu a 29 neaeao, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony
?yaeii n e?ani/iuie aa?aaaie ?aee Aaaoa?i. Oanaaeu yoeo neaeueiuo o?aiia
ioiinyony e Aoioo – ia?eiaeo ?ineioiuo aeaei?aoeaiuo neoeueioo?.

Neoeueioo?iua iaiyoieee Aaeaeaiou i?iaeieaeatho noa?ua o?aaeeoeee, ii
oi?iu iaiiiai naiaiaeiu, oniaa?oainoaiaaiu. Aioo?e o?aia ii/oe an?
enienaii. Nthaeaou aeeaiiene acyou ec aeecie Aoaeaeu e naycaiu n
ieoieiae/aneeie noeaiaie Noa?ie Eiaeee. Caeanue ianoa?nee ecia?aaeaiu
ethaee, ioeoeu, caa?e, ?anoaiey e oeaaou.

Eiaeeeneith a?oeoaeoo?o iiaeii iacaaoue ?aciiaeaeiinoueth neoeueioo?u,
oae eae iiiaea nayoeeeua ia aicaiaeeeenue ec ioaeaeueiuo i?iaiaioia, a
aunaeaeenue ec eaiaiiiai iiiieeoa e ii oiaeo ?aaio iie?uaaeenue
aiaaoaeoei eia?ii neoeueioo?iuo oe?aoaiee.

N iniaie neeie yoa /a?oa i?iyaeeanue a ouny/ao o?aiia, au?inoeo a
ia?eiae aic?iaeaeaiey eiaeoecia iaaeaeo 600 e 1200 aiaeaie i.y. Iioiaeea
ia ai?u iiiaiy?oniua aaoie iie?uou ?aciuie aa?aeueaoaie e noaooyie,
i?eaeathueie o?aiai Iaiaeeaio?aia e Yeei?u ia ?aaeeinoue i?aaie/iue
iaeee.

Aeeyiea aoaeaeeeneiai e eiaeoenoneiai eneonnoaa iuouaaony aeaeaei ca
i?aaeaeaie Eiaeee. Aiaei? Aao – e?oiiaeoee ec iiiaeanoaa eiaeoenoneeo
o?aiia, aicaaae?iiuo a Eaeaaiaeaea a O – OII aaeao. Yoi ia?iiiue,
iaian?iiue ?aii eiiieaen ec iyoe ?aciuo eiie/aneeo aaoai, oeaio?aeueiay
ec eioi?uo aciaoioeanue a aunue ia 60 iao?ia. N?aaee aoaeaeeeneeo o?aiia
ia ciaao naaa ?aaiuo oieeaeueiia nayoeeeua ia oieia. Ai?iaoaeo?, /oi ia
ino?iaa ssaa, a eioi?ii aiaaonoai neoeueioo?iiai aeaei?a iiae/eiaii
no?iaiio a?oeoaeoo?iiio caiuneo. A ae?oaeo e?ayo – Oeaaoa, Eeoaa e
ssiiiee – aoaeaeeci oiaea aeae ia/aei auniei?acaeoui e naiiauoiui
ooaeiaeanoaaiiui o?aaeeoeeyi.

Cia/eoaeueiua ia?aiaiu a o?aaeeoeeyo ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa
i?iecioee n ?ani?ino?aiaieai iiaie ?aeeaee – eneaia, i?eian?iiiai a
Eiaeeth a?aaneeie caaiaaaoaeyie au? a VIII aaea. Naiaai aiiaay aeeyiea
eneaineie eoeueoo?u aeinoeaei i?e Aaeeeeo Iiaieao, i?aaeaoeo aieueoae
/anoueth Eiaeee n XVI aaea. Aicaaaeaieai aaeeeieaiiuo ia/aoae e
onuiaeueieoe i?ineaaeeenue noeoai Aeaa? (1556 – 1605) e aai i?eaiieee –
Aeaeai-Ea? e Oao-Aeaeaoai.

Oaaeae-Iaoae – aeai/oaeeia eiaeeeneie a?oeoaeoo?u. Nei?ay ii oia?oae i?e
?iaeao noi?oaa, eiia?aoi? Oao-Aeaeaoai aica?e a Aa?a yoio aaeii?aii?iue
iaacieae, eneonii oe?aoaiiue iicaeeie ec ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae.
Ie?oae?iiay naaeii oea?neay onuiaeueieoea ?aniieiaeaia ia aa?aao ?aee
Aeaeaiiu. Aaeii?aii?iia caeaiea iiaeiyoi ia naieiao?iaii iinoaiaioa. A
ieaia iii i?aaenoaaeyao ainueie oaieueiee, oi/iaa eaaae?ao ni n?acaiiuie
oaeaie. Ana oanaaeu i?i?acaiu aunieeie e aeoaieeie ieoaie. Iaacieae
oaai/ai e?oaeui «eoeiae/iui» eoiieii, ca e?aeinoue e no?ieiinoue
n?aaieaaaoeiny iiyoaie n «iaeaeii, iie?athueiny ia aicaeooiue o?ii». Aai
aiooeoaeueiue iau?i iiae/??eeaaaony /aou?ueiy iaaieueoeie eoiieaie
ieia?aoia, noiyueo ii e?ayi ieaooi?iu. Aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai iaaaeeei
e caiyoi aeaoiy eaiioaoaie (eiaeiuie a?iaieoeaie) Ioioac e naiiai
Oao-Aeaeaoaia. Naie caoi?iiaiey a neeaia iiae caeaieyie.

I?e Iiaieao ianooiee ?anoeaao i?eoaaeoaai ec Ia?nee eneonnoaa
ieieaoth?u. Oa?ieiii «ieieaoth?a» i?eiyoi iacuaaoue aeeaiieniua eieaeiua
eeethno?aoeee ethaiai oi?iaoa. E eo nicaeaieth noeoai Aeaa? i?eae?e
ooaeiaeieeia ni anae Eiaeee, a oii /enea eiaeonia. A i?eaeai?iuo
ianoa?neeo neiaeeeny yia?ae/iue naaoneee noeeue, ai iiiaii ioee/aaoeeny
io aeaei?aoeaiie ia?neaeneie o?aaeeoeee. Naa?eathuea, neiaii naiioeaaou,
iieiua aeeiaiecia ieieaoth?u yiioe Iiaieia ioe?uaatho ia?aae iaie
ii?aceoaeueii aeeaoth ea?oeio eiaeeeneie aeecie aei aioea?aiey
oaiaoe/iiai Ao?aiacaaa (1658-1707).

2. ENEONNOAI EEOAss

Eeoaeneay oeeaeeecaoeey aaeeinoaaiiay ec anao nio?aieea iiiaiaaeiaoth
i?aainoaaiiinoue eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee. Iaeioi?ua oeie/ii eeoaeneea
/a?ou – i?eno?anoea e ea?a iieooiiia e oaeeiaenoie oaeoo?a iao?eoa –
ooiaeyo ei?iyie au? a aeienoi?e/aneea a?aiaia. Aaeeeia eeoaeneia
eneonnoai ca?iaeeeinue i?eia?ii ca 1500 eao aei i.y., a yiioo aeeianoee
Oai-Eiue, n aicieeiiaaieai ea?iaeeoe/aneiai ienueia e i?eia?aoaieai
aa?oiaiui i?aaeoaeai aiaeanoaaiiiai noaoona «nuia iaaa».

E yoiio aeeyuaiony 500 eao ia?eiaeo ioiinyony aaeeeia iiiaiia?acea
ianneaiuo, i?a/iiaaouo a?iiciauo ninoaeia aeey aea?oaii?eiioaiee
i?aaeeai, oe?aoaiiue ioaea/?iiuie neiaieaie. Ia naiii aeaea yoi
i?aaeaeueii noeeeciaaiiua ecia?aaeaiey ieoe/aneeo nouanoa, a oii /enea
ae?aeiiia. I?enouee iiiaei oeeaeeecaoeeyi eoeueo i?aaeeia caiye aeaaiia
ianoi a aa?iaaieyo eeoaeoeaa. Iaeiaei a eneonnoaa iicaeiaeoeo aaeia aeoo
iaae/aneie oaeinoaaiiinoe iinoaiaiii onooiee ianoi oieiaeiie
nica?oeaoaeueiinoe.

A yiioo Oai-Eiue ia/ae oi?ie?iaaoueny noa?ue iiaynuaathuee ieai ai?iaeia
(Aiueyi), a oeaio?a eioi?uo no?ieee aeai?aoe aeaaeuee e o?ai. AEeeua
aeiia e aeai?aoe no?ieee ec oa??aeie niane caiee (e?nn) e aea?aayiiie
aeiaaaee aac eaiiae. Iiyaeeenue ieeoia?aoey e ea?iaeeoe/aneea caiene,
iniiau eoiiiai eaeaiaea?y. Eiaiii a yoi a?aiy noi?ie?iaaeny noeeue
i?iaiaioa, nio?aieaoeeny au? aeieaea aaea. I?inoay a?iiciaay iinoaea
nia?oaee oe?aoaeanue neiaiee/aneeie ia?acaie, a aioo?e –
ea?iaeeoe/aneeie caienyie, n eiaiaie ciaoiuo ethaeae eee aea?noaaiiuie
iaaeienyie. A yoio ia?eiae neiaiee/aneea ia?acu aeaeaee io ?aaeueiinoe e
ioee/aeenue aano?aeoiie oi?iie.

O?aaeeoeee yiioe Oai-Eiue nio?aieeenue e n i?eoiaeii iiaie aeeianoee
*aeio, e a yiioo Aiththueo oea?noa (1027-221 aa. aei i.y.). E oiio
a?aiaie iiyaeeenue ?aaeenoe/iua a?iiciaua noaooyoee ethaeae e aeeaioiuo,
oniaa?oainoaiaaeinue eneonnoai eaeiaie aeeaiiene e thaaee?iie ia?aaioee
iao?eoa. ?anieniua e iao?eoiaua ecaeaeey oeaieeenue i/aiue aei?iai, o.e.
iao?eo aaiceeny ec-ca a?aieoeu e aue neiaeai a ia?aaioea, a eaeiaay
aeeaiienue yaeyeanue /?acau/aeii o?oaei?ieei i?ioeannii.

Nenoaia ?aeeaeicii – oeeinioneiai aeainecia e eiioooeeainoaa naeaeaee
aieueoie aeeaae a eoeueoo?o e eneonnoai. A na?aaeeia ia?aiai ouny/aeaoey
aei i.y. noi?ie?iaaeenue iniiaiua i?eioeeiu a?oeoaeoo?u e ieaie?iaee
ai?iaeia. No?ieee iiiai oi?oeoeeaoeeiiiuo nii?oaeaiee, ioaeaeueiua
caueoiua noaiu n naaa?a eiia?ee noaee iauaaeeiyoueny a iaeio nieioioth
Aaeeeoth eeoaeneoth noaio (3 aae aei i.y. – 15 aae; aunioa io 5 aei 10
iao?ia, oe?eia io 5 aei 8 iao?ia e aeeeia 5000 ei.) n /aou??ooaieueiuie
io?aiiuie aaoiyie. Oi?ie?othony ea?eaniua eiino?oeoeee, aea?aayiiay
(iicaea ee?ie/iay) oeiu i?yiioaieueiiai ieaia no?iaiey. Aeaoneaoiua
e?uoe iino?iae iie?ueenue nieiiie (iicaea /a?aieoeae). ?ani?ino?aiythony
iiaecaiiua aeaooyoaaeiua iaacieae. Eo noaiu e iioieee oe?aoaeenue
noaiiie aeeaiienueth, eie?onoaoeeae, ieiei noaaeeenue eaiaiiua noaooe
oaioanoe/aneeo aeeaioiuo. Iiyaeeenue oa?aeoa?iua aeaeu eeoaeneie
aeeaiiene.

Iinea iiiaiaaeiauo iaaeaeioniaeoe Eeoae aue iauaaeei?i eiia?aoi?ii
aeeianoee Oeeiue (ie. 221 – 209 aa. aei i.y.). I iaieaeaeueiie aeaaeaea
naiiaicaaee/aiey yoiai aeaaeuee aiai?eo oieeaeueiay a?oaieiae/aneay
iaoiaeea. Naeaeaiiay a 1974 a.: a a?iaieoea eiia?aoi?a iaia?oaeeee
oeaeoth a?ieth oa??aeioiauo (ec iaaeaco?iaaiiie ea?aieee) aieiia a
/aeiaa/aneee ?ino, i?ecaaiiuo neoaeeoue aio a caa?iaiie aeecie.

Ca aiaeu i?aaeaiey aeeianoee Oaiue (209 a. aei i.y. – 270 a. i.y.) Eeoae
i?aa?aoeeny a ia?iiioth eiia?eth ni neiaeiie nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?ie.
Eiioooeeainoai – yoe/aneia o/aiea, i?iiiaaaeiaaaoaa oia?aiiinoue e
aa?iinoue naiaeiiio e a?aaeaeaineiio aeieao, ieacaei aeoaieia aeeyiea ia
ie?iaicc?aiea eeoaeoeaa, iniaaiii ia eanoo o/?iuo /eiiaieeia,
noi?ie?iaaiioth nenoaiie yecaiaiia ia aeiione e ainoaea?noaaiiie
neoaeaa. *eiiaieee, /anoi aoaeo/e ooaeiaeieeaie e iiyoaie, ea?aee
caiaoioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee eeoaeneiai eneonnoaa. Iiaua yeaiaiou auee
i?eaianaiu aeaineciii – aeeceei e i?e?iaea eiooeoeaii – iaae/aneei
o/aieai, aicieeoei a yiioo Oaiue.

Oaiueneia eneonnoai aeioei aei ian i?aaeaea anaai a aeaea iia?aaaeueiuo
aea?ia – iaeaaeaeu, oe?aoaiee e einiaoeee, a oaeaea a?iiciauo e
ea?aie/aneeo noaooyoie, aa?aeueaoia e oeao?iie /a?aieoeu. I?eoaaeoae ec
Eiaeee aoaeaeeci aaeioiiaee eeoaeneeo ianoa?ia ia iiene iiauo oi?i e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?e?iia, i?iyaeaoeony a auna/aiiuo ia eiaeeeneee iaia?
iaua?iuo o?aiao e noaooyo THiuaaia.

Noaey ii iaiiiai/eneaiiui aeioaaeoei aei ian iaiyoieeai, a yiioo Oaiue
neiaeeeenue i?i/iua o?aaeeoeee aeeaiiene, ioee/aaoaeny oaeeaeoaeueiie
e?aeinoueth e naiaiaeie eenoe. Aiineaaenoaee aeeaiienue noaea iienoeia
ianniaui eneonnoaii, e ca iiiaea aaea Eeoae aeae ie?o iaiaei
auaeathueony ooaeiaeieeia, oeie e oa/aiee. Oiieia aini?eyoea e?aniou
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeu auaaei ia ia?aue ieai aeai? iaecaaea, iniaaiii
ai?iiai, cia/aiea eioi?iai a eeoaeneii eneonnoaa i/aiue aaeeei – aeaiiue
aeai? ia eiaao aiaeiaia a eoeueoo?ao. Ea?oeiu ia?aaeei nicaeaaaeenue eae
eeethno?aoeee e iiyiai eee ae?oaei i?iecaaaeaieyi, a aacoei?eciaiiay
eaeeea?aoey iaaeienae naia ii naaa ii/eoaeanue eae eneonnoai.

Oioy ea?aieea i?iecaiaeeeanue a Eeoaa ia iaeio ouny/o eao, a yiioo Oai
(618-906) aeaiiia ?aianei ia?aei /a?ou iiaeeeiiiai eneonnoaa. Eiaiii a
yoi a?aiy iiyaeeenue iiaua oi?iu e oeaaoiay aeaco?ue, i?eaeaaaaoay
ecaeaeeyi e?ani/iue aeae. E /eneo iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo iaiyoieeia yoie
aeeianoee i?eiaaeeaaeao iia?aaaeueiua ea?aie/aneea noaooyoee ethaeae e
aeeaioiuo, ia onooiaaoea ii au?aceoaeueiinoe e?oiiui no?oeoo?iui oi?iai.
Iniaie e?anioie e yeni?anneae ioee/athony i?ae?aniua eiiiua oeao?ee
yiioe Oai.

Ia ca?a yiioe Oai eeoaeoeu iaeaaeaee nae?aoii ecaioiaeaiey oa?oi?a. Yoio
oiieee, oa??aeue, iieoi?ic?a/iue, aaeiniaaeiue iaoa?eae ia eiae naaa
?aaiuo ii ecyuanoao, eioi?ia auei aeiaaaeaii aei niaa?oainoaa ecuneaiiie
ioaeaeeie a yiioo Noi (960-1260) e i?e iineaaeothueo aeeianoeyo.
Ciaiaieoue aaei-aieoaie oa?oi? ecaioaaeeaaeny a yiioo iiiaieueneie
aeeianoee THaiue (1260-1368).

Aieueooth ?ieue a enoi?ee eeoaeneie eoeueoo?u nua?aea ae?aaiyy eeoaeneay
eieaa ioae?inoe e i?aaeneacaiey noaeueau, iacuaaaiay «eieaa ia?aiai».
Caeanue ie? iiieiaaony eae naiaia?aciue ca?iaeuo, aioo?e eioi?iai
niaaeeiyeenue ioaeneay naaoeay neea – yiue e aeaineay o?iiay – eiue. Yoe
aeaa ia/aea ia nouanoaotho iaeei aac ae?oaiai. «Eieaa ia?aiai» eiaea
aieueoia aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ynoaoe/aneie iunee e
eeoaeneiai eneonnoaa.

A ia/aea yiioe Noi eeoaeoeu noaee eieeaeoeeiie?iaaoue i?iecaaaeaiey
eneonnoaa ieioaoeo aeeianoee, a ooaeiaeieee ia?aaeei aic?iaeaeaee noeee
ae?aaieo a?ai?i. Ai?i/ai, eneonnoai yiioe Iei (1368-1644) e ?aiiae yiioe
Oeei (1644-1912) oeaiii naii ii naaa, ianiio?y ia iinoaiaiiia oaanaiea
oai?/aneie yia?aee.

A ia?eiae aeeianoee Iei e Oeei oi?ie?iaaeenue neiiao?e/iua, i?aaeeueiiai
ieaia ai?iaea n aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae /anoueth. Ii/oe caiiai ia?ano?iaia
noieeoea Iaeei. I?eeeaaeiia eneonnoai aeinoeaei oaeiai o?iaiy, /oi
nicaeaei ia?ac Eeoay a Aa?iia.

3. ENEONNOAI ssIIIEE

Ec aaea a aae ssiiiey ?acaeaaeanue iainiaeaiii io anao oeeaeeecaoeee, ca
eneeth/aieai Eeoay. ?ino eeoaeneiai aeeyiey ia/aeny a V-VI aa., eiaaea
aianoa n iiaie nenoaiie ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaeaiey a ssiiieth n
eiioeiaioa i?eoee ienueiaiiinoue, aoaeaeeci e ?acee/iua eneonnoaa.
ssiiioeu anaaaea oiaee aieouaaoue eiicaiiua iiaoanoaa, i?eaeaaay ei
iaoeeiiaeueiua /a?ou. E i?eia?o, yiiineay neoeueioo?a i?eaeaaaea eoaea
aieueoaa cia/aiea ii?o?aoiiio noiaenoao, iaaeaee eeoaeneay.

?acaeoeth yiiineie aeeaiiene niinianoaiaaee eiioaeou n eiioeiaioii,
ioeoaea a ia/aea VII aaea auei iicaeinoaiaaii eneonnoai ecaioiaeaiey
e?anie, aoiaae e oooe.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey noaeaa yiiineie aeeaiiene, ?aaii eae e
neoeueioo?u, eiaei ?ani?ino?aiaiea a no?aia aoaeaeecia, iineieueeo
iio?aaiinoe aoaeaeeeneie eoeueoiaie i?aeoeee nicaeaaaee ii?aaeae?iiue
ni?in ia i?iecaaaeaiey yoeo aeaeia eneonnoaa. Oae, n O aaea n oeaeueth
?ani?ino?aiaiey n?aaee aa?othueo ciaiee i niauoeyo aoaeaeeeneie
nayuaiiie enoi?ee a ianniaii ii?yaeea nicaeaaaeenue oae iacuaaaiua
yiaeeiiii (aeeeiiua ai?eciioaeueiua naeoee), ia eioi?uo ecia?aaeaeenue
noeaiu ec aoaeaeeeneie nayuaiiie enoi?ee eee ec naycaiiuo n iath i?eo/.

ssiiineay aeeaiienue a VII aaea auea aanueia au? i?inoa e aacuneonia.
I?aaenoaaeaiey i iae aeatho ?iniene ia eia/aaa Oaiaione ec o?aia
Oi?thaece, ioia?aaeaaoea oa aea noeaiu, eioi?ua aini?iecaiaeeeenue ia
yiaeeiiii. ?iniene auiieiaiu e?aniie, cae?iie e ae?eoie e?aneie ia
/??iii oiia. Iaeioi?ua ?iniene ia noaiao o?aiia, ioiinyueany e VII aaeo,
eiatho iiiai iauaai n aiaeiae/iuie ?inienyie a Eiaeee.

N VII aaea a ssiiiee ia/eiaaony ?acaeoea aeai?iaie e iaecaaeiie
aeeaiiene. Aei iaoeo aeiae aeioea oe?ia iiae oneiaiui iacaaieai
«AEaiueia n ioe/ueeie ia?ueyie». Ia oe?ia ecia?aaeaia aeaiueia, noiyuay
iiae aea?aaii, aieinu e eeiiii a? oe?aoaiu ia?ueyie. ?enoiie eniieiai
e?aeeie, no?oyueieny eeieyie.

Ia?aiia/aeueii yiiineea ooaeiaeieee, io /anoe a nayce n oa?aeoa?ii
oaiaoeee, iaae eioi?ie iie ?aaioaee (aoaeaeeeneay aeeaiienue),
iaoiaeeeenue iiae neeueiui eeoaeneei aeeyieai: ienaee a eeoaeneii noeea,
eee noeea ea?a-y. Ii ni a?aiaiai a i?ioeaiaan ea?oeiai a eeoaeneii noeea
ea?a-y noaee iiyaeyoueny naaoneea ii oaiaoeea ea?oeiu a yiiineii neea,
eee noeea yiaoi-y (aeeaiienue ssiaoi). A X-XII aaeao noeeue yiaoi-y noae
ainiiaenoaothuei a aeeaiiene, oioy i?iecaaaeaiey noaoai ?aeeaeiciiai
oa?aeoa?a an? au? ienaeenue a eeoaeneii noeea. A yoio ia?eiae iieo/eea
?ani?ino?aiaiea oaoieea iaianaiey eiioo?ia ?enoiea iaeue/aeoae cieioie
oieueaie.

Iaeiei ec ia?acoeia enoi?e/aneie aeeaiiene yiioe Eaiaeo?a yaeyaony
ciaiaieoue naeoie XIII aaea «Oyeaece-iiiiaaoa?e», ia eioi?ii caia/aoeaii
ainnoaiea, iiaeiyoia a 1159 a. aeaaie e?oiiiai naio?aeneiai eeaia
?neiioi Ieiaiioi. Eae e ieieaoth?u a ae?aaia?onneeo eaoiienyo, naeoee,
iiaeiaiua «Oyeaece-iiiiaaoa?e», yaeythony ia oieueei auaeathueieny
iaiyoieeaie eneonnoaa, ii e enoi?e/aneeie naeaeaoaeuenoaaie. Niaaeeiyy
oaeno e ecia?aaeaiea, iie aini?iecaiaeeee ii ai?y/ei neaaeai ao?iua
niauoey eiyaeaneeo oniaeoe aoi?ie iieiaeiu XII aaea, ainiaaaee aiaiiua
iiaeaeae e aunieea ii?aeueiua ea/anoaa auoaaeoaai ia a?aio enoi?ee
iiaiai aiaiii-aeai?yineiai nineiaey – naio?aaa.

Aaee/aeoei ooaeiaeieeii ia?eiaea Io?iiaoe yaeyaony Nynnth (1420-1506),
eioi?ue nicaeae naie nianoaaiiue noeeue. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo auaeathuaany
i?iecaaaeaiea yiiineie aeeaiiene «Aeeeiiue iaecaaeiue naeoie»,
aeaoe?iaaiiia 1486 a., eiathuaa a aeeeio 17 i i?e oe?eia 4 i. Ia naeoea
ecia?aaeaiu /aou?a a?aiaie aiaea. Nynnth aue ioee/iue ii?o?aoeno, i /?i
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaienaiiue ei ii?o?ao Ianoaea Eaiyoaea.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ia?eiaea Io?iiaoe i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann
eioaineaiie i?ioanneiiaeecaoeee aeeaiiene. A ia/aea XVI aaea aicieeaao
ciaiaieoay oeiea Eaii, iniiaaiiay Eaii Ianaiiao (1434-1530), eioi?ue
caeiaeee iniiau aeaei?aoeaiiai iai?aaeaiey a aeeaiiene. Iaeiei ec ?aiieo
i?iecaaaeaiee aeai?iaie aeeaiiene oeieu Eaii yaeyaony ?inienue
ooaeiaeieeii Oeaec??e oe?iu ia oaio «Ethaiaaiea ee?iaie a Oaeai».

N eiioea XVI aaea iniiaiuie oi?iaie aeeaiiene noaiiayony noaiiienue,
ea?oeiu ia neeaaeiuo oe?iao. I?iecaaaeaiey aeeaiiene oe?aoatho aeai?oeu
a?enoie?aoia, aeiia ai?iaeai, iiianou?e e o?aiu. ?acaeaaaony noeeue
aeaei?aoeaiuo iaiii – aea-ie-y. Oaeea iaiii ienaee ni/iuie e?aneaie ia
cieioie oieueaa.

I?eciaeii aunieiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey aeeaiiene yaeyaony nouanoaiaaiea a
eiioea XVI aaea ?yaea aeeaiieniuo oeie, a oii /enea Eaii, Oina, Oieieo,
Niaa, Oanyaaaa, Eaeoi.

A oa/aiea XVII-XIX aaeia en/acaao ?yae iaeiaaea i?ineaaeaiiuo oeie, ii
eo ianoi caieiatho iiaua, oaeea eae oeiea a?aath?u ia aea?aaa oee?-y,
oeieu Ia?oyia-Neaeca, Iaiaa, aa?iiaeneie aeeaiiene. Oeaio?aie eoeueoo?u
e eneonnoaa iicaeiaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey (iii caoyioeny a ssiiiee
i?aeoe/anee aei XIX aaea) noaiiayony ia?yaeo n ae?aaieie ai?iaeaie Ia?a
e Eeioi iiaay noieeoea Yaei (nia?aiaiiue Oieei), Inaea, Iaaanaee e ae?.

Eneonnoai yiioe Yaei (1615-1868) oa?aeoa?ecoaony iniaui aeaiie?aoeciii e
ni/aoaieai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai. I?eia?ii oaeiai
ni/aoaiey yaeyaony aeeaiienue ia oe?iao. Eiaiii ia ia?iuo oe?iao
iaienaiu «E?aniua e aaeua oeaaou neeau» – naiia cia/eoaeueiia e
ciaiaieoia ec nio?aieaoeony i?iecaaaeaiee aaeeeiai ooaeiaeieea Iaaoa
Ei?eia (1658-1716), oaaeaa?, ii i?aao i?e/eneyaiue e eo/oei nicaeaieyi
ia oieueei yiiineie, ii e ie?iaie aeeaiiene.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo aeai?ia yiiineie iaeeie ieanoeee auee
iyoeey. A iyoeey i?aeiieeny ooaeiaeanoaaiiue eaiii n?aaeiaaaeiauey a
ni/aoaiee n ?aianaainiie ?aneiaaiiinoueth eneonnoa a yiioo Yaei. Yoe
i?iecaaaeaiey ieieaoth?iie ieanoeee eae au noieone?iaaee a naaa
ouny/aeaoey ieanoe/aneiai iiuoa ssiiiee: io aeeeiaaouo aeiao Aec?iiia,
oaieaa Iicaeieo Eo?aaiia aei eaiiie/aneie eoeueoo?u n?aaeiaaaeiauey,
eaiaiiuo aoaeae e aeeaiai aea?aaa Yieo. Ec eeanne/aneiai ianeaaeey
caeinoaiaaee ianoa?a iyoeey aiaaonoai yeni?annee, /oanoai ia?u,
caaa?o?iiinoue e oi/iinoue eiiiiceoeee, niaa?oainoai aeaoaeae.

Iaoa?eae aeey iyoeey aue naiui ?acee/iui: aea?aai, neiiiaay einoue,
iaoaee, yioa?ue, eae, oa?oi?. Iaae eaaeaeie aauueth ianoa? o?oaeeeny
eiiaaea oeaeua aiaeu. Oaiaoeea eo aa?uee?iaaeanue aaca?aie/ii:
ecia?aaeaiey ethaeae, aeeaioiuo, aiaia, enoi?e/aneeo eeoe, ia?niiaaeae
ia?iaeiuo iiaa?ee. ?anoeaao oiai /enoi ai?iaeneiai i?eeeaaeiiai
eneonnoaa i?eoiaeeony ia aoi?oth iieiaeio XVIII aaea.

A nai? a?aiy a i?ioeii noieaoee, Aa?iia, a caoai e ?inney eiaiii /a?ac
a?aath?o aia?aua iiciaeiieeanue n oaiiiaiii yiiineiai eneonnoaa. Ianoa?a
oee?-y aeiaeaaeenue iaeneiaeueii i?inoiou e aeioiae/eainoe eae a auai?a
nthaeaoia, oae e a eo aiieiuaiee. Nthaeaoaie a?aath? auee a iniiaiii
aeai?iaua noeaiee ec iianaaeiaaiie aeecie ai?iaea e aai iaeoaoaeae:
oi?aiaoeaa, a?oenoia, aaeo.

Oee?-y, eae iniaay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay oeiea, auaeaeioea oeaeue ?yae
ia?aieeanniuo ianoa?ia. Ia/aeueiue yoai a ?acaeoee nthaeaoiie a?aath?u
naycai n eiaiai Oeneeaaa Ii?iiiao (1618-1694). Ia?aui ianoa?ii
iiiaioeaaoiie a?aath?u aue Noaecoee Oa?aiiao, oai?eaoee a na?aaeeia
XVIII aaea. Aeaaiua iioeau aai oai?/anoaa – ee?e/aneea noeaiu n
i?aeiouanoaaiiui aeeyieai ia e aeaenoaeth, a e ia?aaea/a /oanoa e
iano?iaiee: iaaeiinoe, a?onoe, ethaae.

Iiaeiaii ae?aaiaio ecuneaiiiio eneonnoao yiioe Oyeai, ianoa?a oee?-y
aic?iaeaeaee a iiaie ai?iaeneie n?aaea naiaia?aciue eoeueo ooii/?iiie
aeaineie e?aniou, n oie oieueei ?acieoeae, /oi aianoi ai?iuo oyeaineeo
a?enoie?aoie aa?ieiyie a?aath? noaee ecyuiua aaeoe ec oaanaeeoaeueiuo
eaa?oaeia Yaei.

Ooaeiaeiee Ooaia?i (1753-1806) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, iiaeao auoue,
oieeaeueiue a enoi?ee ie?iaie aeeaiiene i?eia? ianoa?a, aac?acaeaeueii
iinayoeaoaai nai? oai?/anoai ecia?aaeaieth aeaiuei – a ?aciuo aeeciaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, a ?aciiia?aciuo iicao e ooaeaoao. Iaeia ec eo/oeo aai
?aaio – «Aaeoa Inaia».

Auni/aeoaai o?iaiy aeai? yiiineie a?aath?u aeinoea a oai?/anoaa
Eaoeoneea Oieonay (1760-1849). Aio naienoaaiiu iaecaanoiua ?aiaa a
yiiineii eneonnoaa iieiioa ioaaoa aeecie, eioa?an ei anai a? noi?iiai –
io neo/aeiie oee/iie noeaiu aei aaee/anoaaiiuo yaeaiee i?e?iaeu.

A aic?anoa 70 eao Oieonae nicaea?o naith naioth ciaiaieooth na?eth
a?aath? «36 aeaeia Ooaece», ca iath iineaaeiaaee na?ee «Iinou»,
«Aieueoea oeaaou», «Iooaoanoaey ii aiaeiiaaeai no?aiu», aeueaii «100
aeaeia Ooaece». Eaaeaeay a?aath?a – oeaiiue iaiyoiee aeeaiieniiai
eneonnoaa, a na?ee a oeaeii aeatho aeoaieoth naiaia?acioth eiioeaioeeth
auoey, ie?icaeaiey, ianoa /aeiaaea a i?i, o?aaeeoeeiiioth a eo/oai
niunea neiaa, o.a. oei?ai?iioth a ouny/aeaoiae enoi?ee yiiineiai
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iuoeaiey, e niaa?oaiii iiaaoi?neoth, a?aiaiaie
aea?ceoth, ii n?aaenoaai eniieiaiey.

Oai?/anoai Oieonay aeinoieii naycuaaao iiiaiaaeiaua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
o?aaeeoeee ssiiiee n nia?aiaiiuie onoaiiaeaie ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
oai?/anoaa e aai aini?eyoey. Aeenoaoaeueii aic?iaeea iaecaaeiue aeai?,
aeaaoee a n?aaeiea aaea oaeea oaaeaa?u, eae «Ceiiee iaecaae» Nynnth,
Oieonae auaae aai ec eaiiia n?aaeiaaaeiauey i?yii a ooaeiaeanoaaiioth
i?aeoeeo XIX-XX aaeia, ieacaa e ieacuaay aeeyiea ia oieueei ia
o?aioeocneeo eii?anneiienoia e iinoeii?anneiienoia (Aai Aiaa, Aiaaia,
Iaoenna), ii e ia ?onneeo ooaeiaeieeia «Ie?a eneonnoaa» e ae?oaea, oaea
nia?aiaiiua oeieu.

Eneonnoai oeaaoiie a?aath?u oee?-y yaeeinue a oeaeii i?ae?aniui eoiaii,
e, iiaeao auoue, aeaaea naiaia?aciui caaa?oaieai iaiiaoi?eiuo iooae
yiiineiai ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee ae?aaiaai Ainoiea. I., 1980

2. Eeoa?aoo?a Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea. E?ai, Eiaeey, Eeoae. I., Ecaeaoaeuenoai
IAO., 1984.

3. Enoi?ey Ainoiea. I.: Auno. Oe. 1994

4. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. Enoi?ey ie?iaie eoeueoo?u. O/aaiia iiniaea. Iiae
?aae. O.O. Eociaoeiaie. I.: Ecaeaoaeueneee oeaio? «Aeaaeaiey», 2003

5. Enoi?ey eneonnoaa: Eneonnoai Eneaia [yeaeo?iiiue ?ano?n] – ?aaeei
aeinooia : http://www.artprojekt/ru/Civilization/014/html.

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