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Империя Наполеона I

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee ?O

?onnei-oaoa?neay NIO ?97

Eacaiue

?aoa?ao

Eiia?ey Iaiieaiia 1

Auiieiee:

8 eeann

?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

O/eoaeue enoi?ee

Aoney?iaa I.I.

Eacaiue-2010

Aaaaeaiea

Iaiieaii I, – Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o (Napoleon Bonaparte) (15. 8. 1769,
Ay//i, Ei?neea, — 5. 5. 1821, i. Na. Aeaiu), o?aioeocneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue e iieeiaiaeaoe, ia?aue eiinoe O?aioeocneie
?anioaeeee (1799-1804), eiia?aoi? o?aioeocia (1804-1814 e ia?o – ethiue
1815). Ieii/ee A?eaiineia aiaiiia o/eeeua (1784) e Ia?eaeneoth aiaiioth
oeieo (1785). N ieoya?y 1785 aiaea a a?iee (a /eia ieaaeoaai eaeoaiaioa
a?oeeea?ee). N ia?auo aeiae Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee Aiiaia?o
aeeth/eeny a iieeoe/aneoth ai?ueao ia i. Ei?neea e a 1792 aiaeo anooiee
a sseiaeineee eeoa. Eiioeeeo n ei?neeaineeie naia?aoenoaie auioaeee aai
a 1793 aiaeo aaaeaoue n i. Ei?neea ai O?aioeeth. Caeanue Aiiaia?o noae
eiiaiaee?ii a?oeeea?eeneie aaoa?ae a Ieoeoea, a caoai iiiiuieeii
ia/aeueieea a?oeeea?ee ?anioaeeeaineie a?iee, inaaeeaoae a. Ooeii,
eioi?ue aue caoaa/ai iiia?oe/aneeie iyoaaeieeaie e aiaeeeneeie
eioa?aaioaie. I?aaeeiaeaiiue Aiiaia?oii ieai iaeaaeaiey Ooeiiii aue
i?eiyo, e 17 aeaeaa?y 1793 aiaea ?aaiethoeeiiiua aienea iaeaaeaee
ai?iaeii. A yiaa?a 1794 aiaea ca niaeoth eieoeeaoeao e o?aa?inoue,
i?iyaeaiiua i?e acyoee Ooeiia, Aiiaia?o i?iecaaae?i a a?eaaaeiua
aaia?aeu e iacia/ai ia/aeueieeii a?oeeea?ee Aeueieeneie a?iee.

Iinea eiio??aaiethoeeiiiiai ia?aai?ioa 9 oa?ieaei?a (27 ethiy) 1794
aiaea ca nayce n yeiaeioeaie iono?ai?i io aeieaeiinoe, a?anoiaai e 15
naioya?y 1795 aiaea oaieai ec a?iee. A ieoya?a 1795 aiaea /eai
Aee?aeoi?ee I. Aa??an, iacia/aiiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeai ai?ueau n
iiia?oe/aneei caaiai?ii, acye Aiiaia?oa a iiiiuieee. Ia yoii iinoo
Aiiaia?o i?iyaee yia?aeth e ?aoeoaeueiinoue i?e iiaeaaeaiee iyoaaea 13
aaiaeaiuea?a (5 ieoya?y) 1795 aiaea, ca /oi aue i?iecaaae?i a
aeeaeceiiiua aaia?aeu e iacia/ai eiiaiaeothuei aieneaie Ia?eaeneiai
aa?ieciia, a 23 oaa?aea 1796 aiaea — eiiaiaeothuei a?ieae, nicaeaiiie
aeey aiaauo aeaenoaee a Eoaeee. Ai a?aiy eoaeueyineie eaiiaiee 1796-1797
aiaeia i?iyaeeinue ia oieueei aai aiaiiia aea?iaaiea, ii e iiieiaiea
nioeeaeueiiai aniaeoa aieiu: a Eoaeee ii iie?aeny ia aioeoaiaeaeueiua
neeu, ai?iaoeany i?ioea aano?eeneiai ainiiaenoaa, ia eoaeueyineia
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, ?acaeaaaoaany iiae aeeyieai
o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee.

Iiaaaeu, iaea?aeaiiua o?aioeocneie Eoaeueyineie a?ieae iiae aai
eiiaiaeiaaieai, ii?aaeaeeee oniaoiue aeey O?aioeee enoiae aieiu n
Aano?eae. Aa?ioaoenue a Ia?eae iiaaaeeoaeai, Aiiaia?o aeiaeeny io
Aee?aeoi?ee ?aoaiey ia i?aaiecaoeee iioiaea aeey caaiaaaiey Aaeioa.
Iaeiaei Aaeiaoneay yeniaaeeoeey 1798-1801 aiaeia, ianiio?y ia
ioaeaeueiua oniaoe, iinea ?aca?iia aiaee/aiaie o?aioeocneiai oeioa i?e
Aaoee?a (a ?acoeueoaoa /aai o?aioeocneay a?iey a Aaeioa auea io?acaia io
iao?iiieee) e iaoaea/iiai iioiaea a Ne?eth auea ia?a/aia ia ii?aaeaiea.
Aiiaia?o, ainiieueciaaaoenue eae iiaiaeii aeioaaeoeie aei iaai
naaaeaieyie i ii?aaeaiee a?iee Aee?aeoi?ee e i iiaaaeao A.A. Noai?iaa,
inoaaee ca naay aaia?aea AE. Eeaaa?a e 24 aaaonoa 1799 aiaea naiiaieueii
iieeioe Aaeiao.

A ieoya?a 1799 aiaea i?eaue a Ia?eae, aaea oea?eea ianoaiiaea ino?iai
iieeoe/aneiai e?ecena. I?eoaaeoay e aeanoe e?oiiay ao?aeoacey
no?aieeanue e onoaiiaeaieth aiaiiie aeeeoaoo?u. Aiiaia?o,
iieueciaaaoeeny iiioey?iinoueth n?aaee ia?iaea e a a?iee, ieacaeny
iiaeoiaeyuae eaiaeeaeaoo?ie ia ?ieue «nianeoaey ioa/anoaa». A
?acoeueoaoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa 18-19 a?thia?a VIII aiaea (9-10
iiya?y 1799 aiaea) ii noae ia?aui eiinoeii, a 2 aaaonoa 1802 aiaea
aeiaeeny naiaai iacia/aiey iiaeeciaiiui eiinoeii. 18 ethiy 1804 aiaea
Aiiaia?o aue i?iaicaeao?i eiia?aoi?ii Iaiieaiiii I e o. i. caoaaoee anth
iieiioo aeanoe a no?aia. Naith aeeeoaoi?neoth aeanoue, i?ee?uaaaioth aei
1804 aiaea ?anioaeeeaineie auaaneie, Iaiieaii I iai?aaee ia caueoo
eioa?ania ao?aeoacee, e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia e oe?aieaiea ao?aeoaciiai
ainoaea?noaa a oeaeii. Noa?aeny cae?aieoue ioaeiua e auaiaeiua e?oiiie
ao?aeoacee caaiaaaiey ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee. Aianoa n oai ii
eeeaeaee?iaae ai O?aioeee iaoeeiiaeueiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai e auai?iia
naiioi?aaeaiea; i?e i?i auea onoaiiaeaia ae?noeay oeaico?a ia/aoe,
oie/oiaeaiu ae?. aeaiie?aoe/aneea caaiaaaiey ?aaiethoeee, onei?eeinue
nicaeaiea iiaiai ao?aeoaciiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, iniiaaiiiai ia
iieeoeaenei-ath?ie?aoe/aneie oeaio?aeecaoeee. A no?aia, oeacuaae A. E.
Eaiei, auea onoaiiaeaia eiio??aaiethoe. aeeeoaoo?a Iaiieaiia. I. I aue
oeie/iui i?aaenoaaeoa- eai ao?aeoacee a ia?eiae, eiaaea iia auea au?
iieiaeui, ainoiaeyuei eeannii. Ii iaeaieaa iieii aiieioee ana i?enouea
ae oiaaea neeueiua /a?ou, a oaeaea a? ii?iee e iaaeinoaoee —
aa?anneaiinoue, naiaei?unoea, aaaioth?eci.

Aiao. iieeoeea I. I ioaa/aea eioa?anai aa?anneaiie ao?aeoacee, eiaea
oeaeueth iaania/eoue O?aioeee iieeoe/. e yeiiiie/. aaaaiiieth a Aa?iia.
N i?eoiaeii I. I e aeanoe ia/eiaaony ia?eiae caoaaoie/. aiei,
i?iaeieaeaaoeeny iai?a?uaii aei aai naa?aeaiey (ni. Ia- iieaiiianeea
aieiu 1799—1815). O?aioe. a?iey iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii I. I aaea aieiu n
Aano?eae, ?inneae e ae?. ain-aaie (ni. ?onnei-aano?i-o?aioeocneay aieia
1805, ?onnei-i?onneio?aioeocneay aieia 1806—07, Aano?i-o?aioeocneay
aieia 1809). Aiaiiua oniaoe o?aioe. a?iee i?e Ia?aiai (1800) e a
Aonoa?eeoeeii n?aaeaiee 1805, Eaia-Aoy?ooaaeoneii n?aaeaiee 1806, iiae
Aaa?aiii (1809) i?eaaee e ?anoe?aieth iaiieaiiianeie eiia?ee. I. I noae
iiaaeeoaeai anae Cai. (e?iia Aaeeeia?eoaiee) e Oeaio?. Aa?iiu. Aiai.
oniaoe I. I niinianoaiaaee aai iaiau/aeiie neaaa. Aeinoeaioa ca 10 eao
aani?eia?iiai iiaouanoaa, ii canoaaee n/eoaoueny ni naiae aieae iiia?oia
Aa?iiu. Ii no?aieoaeueiia aicauoaiea iaiieaiiianeie O?aioeee e iiaaaeu
o?aioe. a?iee iauyniyeenue ia noieueei ee/iuie ea/anoaaie I. I e aai
ia?oaeia, neieueei oai, /oi a aieiao n oaiae.-aaniethoenoneie Aa?iiie
O?aioeey oiai ia?eiaea i?aaenoaaeyea enoi?e/anee aieaa i?ia?anneaiue,
ao?aeoaciue iauanoa, no?ie. Yoi neacaeinue e a aiai. noa?a, aaea
iieeiaiae/. ene-ai I. I eiaei ianiiiaiiue ia?aaan iaae ?ooeiiie
no?aoaaeae e oaeoeeie a?iee oaiae. Aa?iiu, e a i?aainoiaenoaa nenoaiu
ao?ae. nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, e-?ua aaiaeeeenue a no?aiao Cai. Aa?iiu
iaiieaiiianeei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, iaae ionoaeuie iao?ea?oaeueiioaiae.
ioiioaieyie.

Iaeiaei n oa/aieai a?aiaie iaiieaiiianeea aieiu oo?aoeee naienoaaiiua ei
?aiaa (ianiio?y ia eo caaiaaao. oa?aeoa?) i?ia?anneaiua yeaiaiou e
i?aa?aoeeenue a /enoi caoaaoie/aneea. A yoeo oneiaeyo ieeaeea ee/iua
ea/anoaa e oneeey I. I ia iiaee i?eianoe iiaaaeu. Aia?aua yoi
iaia?oaeeeinue ai a?aiy ia/aaoaainy a 1808 Eniaineiai iioiaea, aaea
iiioea o?aioe. caaiaaaoaeae iiaeiyeny ia?iae. A iieiie ia?a e n ea
oano?ioe/aneeie aeey iaiieaiiianeie eiia?ee iineaaenoaeyie yoi
iiaeoaa?aeeeinue ai a?aiy iioiaea a ?inneth (1812), aaea ii iioa?iae
nie?ooeo, ii?aaeaiea io ?on. a?iee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai I. E. Eooociaa.
Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1812 aeaea iiuiue oie/ie iaoe.-inaiaiaeeo, ai?ueaa
i?ioea iaiieaiiianeiai ai?oa a Aa?iia. A eaiiaiee 1813 I. I i?eoeinue
n?aaeaoueny ia oieueei i?ioea eiaeeoeee a?iee, ii e i?ioea iaiaeieeiie
neeu — ainnoaaoeo ia?iaeia Aa?iiu. Iaecaaaeiia a yoeo oneiaeyo
ii?aaeaiea I. I, caaa?oeaoaany anooieaieai nithciuo aiene a Ia?eae (ia?o
1814), canoaaeei aai io?a/ueny io i?anoiea (6 ai?. 1814). A iaeanoe
aiai. ene-aa I. I ?acaeaae e niaa?oainoaiaae oi iiaia, /oi auei ?aiaa
nicaeaii a?ieyie ?aaiethoe. O?aioeee. «I?aaeiinueeie iaiieaiiianeiai
niiniaa aaaeaiey aieiu yaeeenue au?inoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu…
Enoi?e/aneay caneoaa Iaiieaiia caeeth/aaony a oii, — ienae O. Yiaaeuen,
— /oi ii iaoae aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiia oaeoe/aneia e no?aoaae/aneia
i?eiaiaiea eieinnaeueiuo aii?oaeaiiuo iann, iiyaeaiea eioi?uo noaei
aiciiaeii eeoue aeaaiaea?y ?aaiethoeee…» (Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Ni/.
Ecae. 2-a. O. 7, n. 510, 513).

I. I iieacae naay aieueoei ianoa?ii no?aoaaee e iai?a?, oaeoeee. Aai
y?eay iieeiaiae/. aeayoaeueiinoue ieacaea aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
aiai. ene-aa a ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey e oe?aieaiey ao?ae.
nioeeaeueiiyeiiiie/. e iieeoe/. ioiioaiee, ii?iaeae?iiuo o?aioe.
?aaiethoeeae. Ii i?aia?aciaae e oniaa?oainoaiaae a?ieth, oii?yaei/ee
oi?aaeaiea aieneaie, oeo/oee ooaoioth i?aaiecaoeeth iao. e eaa.
aeeaecee, e-?ua naiaeeeenue a ei?iona, ?ai?aaieciaae a?o-th, /anoe e-?ie
noaee aeeth/aoueny a ninoaa aeeaecee e ei?ionia, i?aaeoniao?eaae
nicaeaiea a oiaea n?aaeaiee e?oiiiai a?o. ?aca?aa. No?aoaaey I. I iineea
?aoeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ii ioaa?aae ei?aeiiioth no?aoaaeth, oeaeue aiaauo
aeaenoaee aeaeae ia a iaeaaeaiee e?aiinoyie e oa?. i?-ea, a a ?aca?iia
aai a?iee, no?aieeny caoaaoeoue no?aoaa, eieoeeaoeao, iaaycaoue i?-eo
aiaaua aeaenoaey a iaauaiaeiuo aeey iaai oneiaeyo, aeiaeoueny iiaaaeu a
aai. n?aaeaiee. Aeinoeaiooue a aai. n?aaeaiee oniao no?aieeny
?acaeaaoue, i?aaiecoy ianoie/eaia i?aneaaeiaaiea iai?eyoaey. Aeey
no?aoaaee I. I auei oa?aeoa?iui inouanoaeaiea oe?ieiai iai?a?a, eneoniua
aeaenoaey ia aioo?. iia?aoeeiiiuo eeieyo, auno?ia nin?aaeioi/aiea
i?aainoiaeyueo nee ia ?aoathuai iai?aaeaiee e aiacaiiua aeaenoaey.
N?aaeaynue i?ioea /eneaiii i?aainoiaeyuaai i?-ea, I. I no?aieeny e
?acuaaeeiaieth aai nee e e oie/oiaeaieth eo ii /anoyi. Aoaeo/e
noi?iiieeii niaeiai e ?aoeo, ianooieaiey, i?e ii?aaeae?iiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao i?eciaaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue iai?iiu, e-?ay i?eiaiyeanue
ei ia aoi?inoaiaiiuo iai?aaeaieyo eae a?aiaiiay ia?a a oeaeyo
naea?aeeaaiey i?-ea e auea?uoa a?aiaie aeey i?aaiecaoeee ianooieaiey ia
?aoathuai iai?aaeaiee.

I. I niaa?oainoaiaae iiaoth iai?a?aiioth oaeoeeo eieiii a ni/aoaiee n
?annuiiui no?iai, ini. ia /?oeii acaeiiaeaenoaee ?acee/. ?iaeia aiene.
Nin?aaeioi/eaae a aith iaeneioi nee ia iai?aaeaiee ae. oaea?a, e-?ue a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iaiineeny o?iioaeueii a ni/aoaiee n iaoiaeii eee
ioaaoii oeaiaa i?-ea. Aeey auno?iai e ?aoeo, oniaoa, eae i?aaeei, iaoioo
e eaaaea?eth eniieueciaae a ieioiuo iino?iaieyo, iaania/eaay eo aeaeno-
aey ianne?iaaiiui iai?i a?o-e. A iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie I. I
i?iaeeeoiaae naie ainiiieiaiey e caiaoee ii aiai. ene-ao, aaea iienae
iaeioi?ua i?iaaae?iiua ei iioiaeu e n?aaeaiey, i?iaiaeece?iaae
aeayoaeueiinoue auaeathueony iieeiaiaeoeaa i?ioeiai, e?aoei eceiaeee
no?aoaa, e oaeo, i?eioeeiu aaaeaiey aieiu. A naieo o?oaeao I. I ioia/ae
naycue aiai. aeaea n ?acaeoeai oaoieee e aii?oaeaiee. A oi aea a?aiy ii
n/eoae aiai. ene-ai oaeaeii aaiey, i?iyaeaieai aaeioiiaaiey
iieeiaiaeoea. I. I iaaeiioeaieaae ?iee ia?. iann a aieia. Aiai.
oai?/anoai I. I ieacaei aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea aa?ii. aiai.
ene-aa, niinianoaiaaei ?ani?ino?aiaieth iiauo i?e?iia ai?ueau,
ioaa/aaoeo oa?aeoa?o aiei oiai a?aiaie. Iaeiaei iiiuoee iiiaeo ao?ae.
aiai. oai?aoeeia aicaanoe iaiieaiiianeea iaoiaeu aaaeaiey aieiu e
n?aaeaiee a noaiaiue «aa/iuo e iacuaeaiuo» i?eioeeiia i?eaaee e
ia?aioeaiea aiai. ene-aa I. I. Ia?enenoneay aiai. enoi?eia?aoey auniei
ioeaieaaao aeayoaeueiinoue I. I eae iieeiaiaeoea, aea?iaaiea e-?iai
i?iyaeeinue a ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey e oe?aieaiey ao?ae. ioiioaiee,
iiae/??eeaay aianoa n oai enoi?e/. iaoneiaeaiiinoue aiaiiiai ene-aa I.
I. A 1815 (ni. «Noi aeiae») I. I niiaa iieacae ia oieueei naie oaeaio,
ii a au? aieueoae ia?a iiieiaiea neiaeeaoaeny iieeoe/. ianoaiiaee.
«Caaiaaaiea» ca 3 iaaeaee I. I aac aaeeiiai auno?aea O?aioeee noaei
aiciiaeiui eeoue iioiio, /oi ia?iae n/eoae aai niiniaiui ecaiaoue ec
no?aiu iaiaaenoiuo ia?. iannai Ao?aiiia e a?enoie?aoia. I. I ia ?aoeeny
iieiinoueth iia?aoueny ia iiaeaea?aeeaaaoee aai ia?iae. Yoi i?eaaei e
ii?aaeaieth I. I i?e Aaoa?eii e aoi?e/iiio io?a/aieth. Nineaiiue ia i.
Na. Aeaiu, ii oia? /a?ac 6 eao ieaiieeii aiaee/ai. A 1840 i?ao I. I aue
ia?aaac?i a Ia?eae, a Aeii eiaaeeaeia.

Eniieueciaaiu iaoa?eaeu Niaaoneie aiaiiie yioeeeeiiaaeee a 8-ie oiiao,
oii 5.

Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneay aeia?aoey

IAIIEAII I (Napoleon Bonaparte, Buonaparte) (15 aaaonoa 1769, Ay//i — 5
iay 1821), o?aioeocneee eiia?aoi? a 1804-14 e a ia?oa — ethia 1815.
O?iaeaiaoe Ei?neee. Ia/ae neoaeao a aieneao a 1785 a /eia ieaaeoaai
eaeoaiaioa a?oeeea?ee; auaeaeioeny a ia?eiae Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee (aeinoeaioa /eia a?eaaaeiiai aaia?aea) e i?e Aee?aeoi?ee
(eiiaiaeothuee a?ieae). A iiya?a 1799 niaa?oee ainoaea?noaaiiue
ia?aai?io (18 a?thia?a), a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai noae ia?aui eiinoeii,
oaeoe/anee nin?aaeioi/eaoei a naieo ?oeao n oa/aieai a?aiaie anth
iieiioo aeanoe; a 1804 i?iaicaeaoai eiia?aoi?ii. Onoaiiaee aeeeoaoi?neee
?aaeei. I?iaae ?yae ?aoi?i (i?eiyoea a?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena, 1804,
iniiaaiea o?aioeocneiai aaiea, 1800, e ae?.). Aeaaiaea?y iiaaaeiiiniui
aieiai cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ee oa??eoi?eth eiia?ee, iinoaaee a
caaeneiinoue io O?aioeee aieueoeinoai ainoaea?noa Cai. e Oeaio?. Aa?iiu.
Ii?aaeaiea iaiieaiiianeeo aiene a aieia 1812 i?ioea ?innee iieiaeeei
ia/aei e?ooaieth eiia?ee Iaiieaiia I. Anooieaiea a 1814 aiene
aioeo?aioeocneie eiaeeoeee a Ia?eae auioaeeei Iaiieaiia I io?a/ueny io
i?anoiea. Aue nineai ia i. Yeueaa. Aiiaue caiye o?aioeocneee i?anoie a
ia?oa 1815 (ni. “Noi aeiae”). Iinea ii?aaeaiey i?e Aaoa?eii aoi?e/ii
io?aeny io i?anoiea (22 ethiy 1815). Iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie i?iaae ia
i. Na. Aeaiu ieaiieeii aiaee/ai.

Iieiaeinoue Iaiieaiia i?ienoiaeee ec iaaiaaoie ei?neeaineie aeai?yineie
naiuee Oa?ey e Eaoeoeee Aoiiaia?oa (anaai a naiuea auei 5 nuiiaae e 3
aei/a?e). O/eeny a ei?ieaaneie aiaiiie oeiea a A?eaiia e a Ia?eaeneie
aiaiiie oeiea (1779-85), eioi?oth ieii/ee a /eia eaeoaiaioa.
Ioaeeoeenoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey Iaiieaiia ia?eiaea ?aaiethoeee (“Aeeaeia
i ethaae”,”Dialogue sur l’amour”, 1791, “Oaeei a Aiey?a”, “Le Souper de
Beaucaire”, 1793) aiai?yo i oii, /oi ii ?acaeaeye oiaaea yeiaeineea
iano?iaiey. Iacia/aiiue ia/aeueieeii a?oeeea?ee a a?ieth, inaaeaeaaooth
caiyoue aiaee/aiaie Ooeii, Aiiaia?o inouanoaee aeanoyuoth aiaiioth
iia?aoeeth. Ooeii aue acyo, a nai ii iieo/ee a 24 aiaea caaiea
a?eaaaeiiai aaia?aea (1793). Iinea oa?ieaei?eaineiai ia?aai?ioa Aiiaia?o
ioee/eeny i?e ?acaiia ?iyeenoneiai iyoaaea a Ia?eaea (1795), a caoai
iieo/ee iacia/aiea eiiaiaeothuei Eoaeueyineie a?ieae. A eoaeueyineii
iioiaea (1796-97) ai anai aeanea i?iyaeeny iieeiaiae/aneee aaiee
Iaiieaiia. Aano?eeneee aaia?aeeoao ie/aai ia niia i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue
iieieaiiniui iaiaa?ai o?aioeocneie a?iee, ieuae, ieioi yeeie?iaaiiie, ii
aiiaeooaaeaiiie ?aaiethoeeiiiuie eaeayie e i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaoaiie
Aiiaia?oii. Iia iaea?aeeaaea iaeio iiaaaeo ca ae?oaie: Iiioaiiooi,
Eiaee, Ieeai, Eanoeeueiia, A?eiea, ?eaiee. Eoaeueyioeu ainoi?aeaiii
ano?a/aee a?ieth, ianouoth eaeaaeu naiaiaeu, ?aaainoaa, ecaaaeyaooth io
aano?eeneiai aeaaeu/anoaa. Aano?ey iioa?yea ana naie caiee a Naaa?iie
Eoaeee, aaea auea nicaeaia nithciay n O?aioeeae Oeecaeueieineay
?anioaeeea. Eiy Aiiaia?oa a?aiaei ii anae Aa?iia. Iinea ia?auo aea
iiaaae Iaiieaii noae i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia naiinoiyoaeueioth ?ieue.
I?aaeoaeuenoai Aee?aeoi?ee ia aac oaeiaieuenoaey ioineaei aai a
aaeiaoneoth yeniaaeeoeeth (1798-1799). Eaeay aa auea naycaia ni
no?aieaieai o?aioeocneie ao?aeoacee eiieo?e?iaaoue n aiaeeeneie, aeoeaii
ooaa?aeaeaaoae naia aeeyiea a Acee e a Naaa?iie Ao?eea. Iaeiaei
cae?aieoueny caeanue ia oaeaeinue: aithy n oo?eaie, o?aioeocneay a?iey
ia iaoea iiaeaea?aeee o ianoiiai ianaeaiey.

E?ecen aeanoe a Ia?eaea oai a?aiaiai aeinoea naiaai aiiaay.
Ei??oiie?iaaiiay Aee?aeoi?ey auea ia niiniaia iaania/eoue caaiaaaiey
?aaiethoeee. A Eoaeee ?onnei-aano?eeneea aienea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai A.
A. Noai?iaa eeeaeaee?iaaee ana i?eia?aoaiey Iaiieaiia e aeaaea aicieeea
oa?ica aoi?aeaiey ai O?aioeeth. A yoeo oneiaeyo aica?aoeaoeeny
iiioey?iue aaia?ae, iie?aynue ia aa?ioth aio a?ieth, ?aciaiae
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua i?aaiu e Aee?aeoi?eth e i?iaicaeanee ?aaeei
eiinoeuenoaa (9 iiya?y 1799). Niaeanii iiaie eiinoeoooeee,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue aeaeeeanue iaaeaeo Ainoaea?noaaiiui Niaaoii,
O?eaoiaoii, Caeiiiaeaoaeueiui ei?ionii e Naiaoii, /oi aeaeaei aa
aaniiiiuiie e iaiiai?ioeeaie. Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue, iai?ioea,
niae?aeanue a iaeei eoeae ia?aiai eiinoea, o. a. Aiiaia?oa. Aoi?ie e
o?aoee eiinoeu eiaee eeoue niaauaoaeueiua aieina. Eiinoeoooeey auea
iaeia?aia ia?iaeii ia ieaaenoeeoa (ieiei 3 ieeeeiiia aieinia i?ioea 1,5
ouny/) (1800). Iicaea Iaiieaii i?iaae /a?ac naiao aeae?ao i
iiaeeciaiiinoe naieo iieiiii/ee (1802), a caoai i?iaicaeanee naay
eiia?aoi?ii o?aioeocia (1804).

A iiiaio i?eoiaea Iaiieaiia e aeanoe O?aioeey iaoiaeeeanue a ninoiyiee
aieiu n Aano?eae e Aiaeeae. Iiaue eoaeueyineee iioiae Aiiaia?oa
iaiiieiae ia?aue. Ia?aeaey /a?ac Aeueiu, o?aioeocneay a?iey iaiaeeaeaiii
iiyaeeanue a Naaa?iie Eoaeee, ainoi?aeaiii ano?a/aaiay ianoiui
ianaeaieai. ?aoathuae noaea iiaaaea a aeoaa i?e Ia?aiai (1801). Oa?ica
o?aioeocneei a?aieoeai auea eeeaeaee?iaaia.

Aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea Iaiieaiia ninoiyea a oe?aieaiee aai ee/iie aeanoe
eae aa?aioee nio?aiaiey ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiethoeee: a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa,
i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e?anoueyi, a oaeaea oao, eoi eoiee ai a?aiy
?aaiethoeee iaoeeiiaeueiua eiouanoaa, o. a. eiioeneiaaiiua caiee
yiea?aioia e oea?eae. Iaania/eoue ana yoe caaiaaaiey aeieaeai aue
A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen (1804), aioaaeoee a enoi?eth eae eiaeaen
Iaiieaiia. Iaiieaii i?iaae aaeieieno?aoeaioth ?aoi?io, o/?aaeea einoeooo
iiaeio/aoiuo i?aaeoaeuenoao i?aoaeoia aeaia?oaiaioia e noi?aoaeoia
ie?oaia (1800). A ai?iaea e aea?aaie iacia/aeenue iy?u. Aue o/?aaeaeai
ainoaea?noaaiiue O?aioeocneee aaie aeey o?aiaiey cieioiai caiana e
yiennee aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa (1800), iaeo?aeeciaaia nenoaia nai?a iaeiaia.
Aaeieieno?aoeaiua e i?aaiaua iiaiaaaaeaiey Iaiieaiia caeiaeeee iniiao
nia?aiaiiiai ainoaea?noaa, iiiaea ec ieo aeaenoaotho e ii nae aeaiue.
Eiaiii oiaaea auea nicaeaia nenoaia n?aaeieo oeie — eeoeaaa e aunoea
o/aaiua caaaaeaiey — Ii?iaeueiay e Iieeoaoie/aneay oeieu, aei neo ii?
inoathueany naiuie i?anoeaeiuie ai O?aioeee. I?ae?anii niciaaay
aaaeiinoue aicaeaenoaey ia iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, Iaiieaii cae?ue 160 ec
173 ia?eaeneeo aacao, a inoaeueiua iinoaaee iiae eiio?ieue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Auea nicaeaia iiuiay iieeoeey e ?acaaoaeaiiay oaeiay
neoaeaa. Iaiieaii caeeth/ee eiiei?aeao n iaiie ?eineei (1801). ?ei
i?eciaaae iiaoth o?aioeocneoth aeanoue, a eaoieeoeeci iauyaeyeny
?aeeaeae aieueoeinoaa o?aioeocia. I?e yoii naiaiaea aa?ieniiaaaeaiey
nio?aiyeanue. Iacia/aiea aieneiiia e aeayoaeueiinoue oea?eae noaaeeenue
a caaeneiinoue io i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ninoiyea a iaania/aiee ia?aainoaa o?aioeocneie
i?iiuoeaiiie e oeiainiaie ao?aeoacee ia aa?iiaeneii ?uiea. Yoiio iaoae
aiaeeeneee eaieoae, i?aiaeaaeaiea eioi?iai iaoneiaeeaaeinue oaea
i?ienoaaeoae a Aiaeee eiaeono?eaeueiie ?aaiethoeeae. Aiaeey iaeio ca
ae?oaie neiea/eaaea eiaeeoeee i?ioea O?aioeee, noa?aynue i?eaea/ue ia
naith noi?iio e?oiiaeoea aa?iiaeneea aea?aeaau — a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
Aano?eth e ?inneth. Iia oeiaine?iaaea aaaeaiea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee ia
eiioeiaioa. Iaiieaii ieaie?iaae iaiin?aaenoaaiioth aunaaeeo ia
a?eoaineea ino?iaa, ii ia ii?a Aiaeey auea neeueiaa (i?e O?aoaeueaa?a
o?aioeocneee oeio aue oie/oiaeai aiaeeeneei, eioi?ui eiiaiaeiaae
aaeie?ae Iaeuenii (1805). Iaeiaei ianyoe nionoy iiae Aonoa?eeoeai (iuia
Neaaeia, *aoey) Iaiieaii iaian nie?ooeoaeueiue oaea? iauaaeeiaiiui
aano?eeneei e ?onneei aieneai. Enioaaaoenue ?inoa aeeyiey O?aioeee,
i?ioea iaa aunooieea I?onney, ii auea auno?i iiaaaeaeaia (aeoaa i?e
Eaia, 1806), o?aioeocneea aienea aioee a Aa?eei. ?onneea aienea iaianee
aieueoie o?ii o?aioeocneie a?iee a aeoaa i?e Yeeao (1807), ii iioa?iaee
ii?aaeaiea i?e O?eaeeaiaea (1807). A ?acoeueoaoa aieiu a ninoaa O?aioeee
aioee oa??eoi?ee Aaeueaee, Aieeaiaeee, naaa?iie Aa?iaiee, /anoe Eoaeee.
Ia inoaeueiie /anoe Eoaeee, a oeaio?a Aa?iiu, a Eniaiee (1809) auee
nicaeaiu caaeneiua io Iaiieaiia ei?ieaanoaa, aaea i?aaeee /eaiu aai
naiuee. Oa??eoi?eaeueii /?acau/aeii o?acaiiua I?onney e Aano?ey auee
auioaeaeaiu caeeth/eoue n O?aioeeae nithc. Yoi naeaeaea oaeaea e ?inney
(Oeeueceoneee ie?, 1807).

Iaea?aeaa iiaaaeo, Iaiieaii iiaeienae aeae?ao i eiioeiaioaeueiie
aeieaaea (1806). Ioiuia O?aioeey e ana aa nithcieee i?ae?auaee oi?aiaua
niioaiey n Aiaeeae. Aa?iia auea iniiaiui ?uieii nauoa aiaeeeneeo
oiaa?ia, a oaeaea eieiieaeueiuo, aaiceiuo a iniiaiii Aiaeeae, e?oiiaeoae
ii?neie aea?aeaaie. Eiioeiaioaeueiay aeieaaea iaianea oua?a aiaeeeneie
yeiiiieea: nionoy aiae n iaaieueoei Aiaeey ia?aaeeaaea e?ecen a
i?iecaiaenoaa oa?noe, oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe; i?iecioei iaaeaiea
ooioa noa?eeiaia. Iaeiaei aeieaaea oaea?eea e ii eiioeiaioo.
O?aioeocneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia a ninoiyiee auea caiaieoue ia
aa?iiaeneii ?uiea aiaeeeneoth. Ia?ooaiea oi?aiauo naycae n aiaeeeneeie
eieiieyie i?eaaei a oiaaeie e o?aioeocneea ii?oiaua ai?iaea: Ea-?ioaeue,
Ia?naeue e ae?. Ianaeaiea no?aaeaei io iaaeinoaoea i?eau/iuo
eieiieaeueiuo oiaa?ia: eioa, naoa?a, /ay…

Iieeoeea Iaiieaiia a ia?aua aiaeu aai i?aaeaiey iieueciaaeanue
iiaeaea?aeeie ianaeaiey — ia oieueei nianoaaiieeia, ii e iaeieioueo
(?aai/eo, aao?aeia). Aeaei a oii, /oi iaeeaeaiea a yeiiiieea aucaaei
?ino ca?ieaou, /aio niinianoaiaaee e iinoiyiiua iaai?u a a?ieth.
Iaiieaii auaeyaeae nianeoaeai ioa/anoaa, aieiu aucuaaee iaoeeiiaeueiue
iiaeuai, a iiaaaeu — /oanoai ai?aeinoe. Aaaeue Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o aue
/aeiaaeii ?aaiethoeee, a ie?oaeathuea aai ia?oaeu, aeanoyuea
aiaia/aeueieee, i?ienoiaeeee iiae/an ec naiuo iecia. Ii iinoaiaiii
ia?iae ia/eiae onoaaaoue io aieiu, aeeeaoaeny oaea ieiei 20 eao. Iaai?u
a a?ieth noaee aucuaaoue iaaeiaieuenoai. E oiio aea aiiaue ?ac?aceeny
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen (1810). Ao?aeoacey aea niciaaaea, /oi yeiiiie/anee
iiae/eieoue anth Aa?iio ae ia iiae neeo. Aieiu ia i?inoi?ao Aa?iiu
oa?yee aeey iaa niune, cao?aou ia ieo noaee ?acae?aaeaoue. Aaciianiinoe
O?aioeee aeaaii ie/oi ia oa?iaeaei, a ai aiaoiae iieeoeea ana aieueooth
?ieue ea?aei no?aieaiea eiia?aoi?a ?ani?ino?aieoue naith aeanoue,
iaania/eoue eioa?anu aeeianoee. Ai eiy yoeo eioa?ania Iaiieaii ?acaaeny
n ia?aie aeaiie AEicaoeiie, io eioi?ie ia eiae aeaoae, e aeaieeny ia
aei/a?e aano?eeneiai eiia?aoi?a Ia?ee-Eoeca (1810). Ianeaaeiee ?iaeeeny
(1811), ii aano?eeneee a?ae eiia?aoi?a aue e?aeia iaiiioey?ai ai
O?aioeee.

Nithcieee Iaiieaiia, i?eiyaoea eiioeiaioaeueioth aeieaaeo aii?aee naiei
eioa?anai, ia no?aieeenue no?iai aa niaethaeaoue. ?inea iai?yaeaiiinoue
iaaeaeo ieie e O?aioeeae. Ana aieaa i/aaeaeiuie noaiiaeeenue
i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e ?inneae. Iao?eioe/aneea aeaeaeaiey
oe?eeenue a Aa?iaiee, a Eniaiee ia oaanaea aa?eeuey. ?aci?aaa ioiioaiey
n Aeaenaiae?ii I, Iaiieaii ?aoeeny ia aoi?aeaiea a ?inneth.
Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1812 noaea ia/aeii eiioea Eiia?ee. Ia?iiiay
?aciiieaiaiiay a?iey Iaiieaiia ia ianea a naaa i?aaeiaai
?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeooa, aaeaee io ?iaeeiu ia iieyo ?innee iia auno?i
oayea e, iaeiiaoe, ia?anoaea nouanoaiaaoue. Ii ia?a aeaeaeaiey ?onneie
a?iee ia caiaae aioeiaiieaiiianeay eiaeeoeey ?inea. I?ioea ianiao
nia?aiiie iiaie o?aioeocneie a?iee a “aeoaa ia?iaeia” iiae Eaeioeeaii
aunooieee ?onneea, aano?eeneea, i?onneea e oaaaeneea aienea (16-19
ieoya?y 1813). Iaiieaii iioa?iae ii?aaeaiea e iinea anooieaiey
nithcieeia a Ia?eae io?aeny io i?anoiea. Ii iieo/ee ai aeaaeaiea
iaeaiueeee ino?iaie Yeueaa a N?aaeecaiiii ii?a (1814).

A iaica eiicaiiuo aiene ai O?aioeeth aa?ioeenue Ao?aiiu e yiea?aiou,
i?aaeaeooaaoea aica?ao naieo eiouanoa e i?eaeeaaee. Yoi aucaaei
iaaeiaieuenoai e no?ao ai o?aioeocneii iauanoaa e a a?iee.
Ainiieueciaaaoenue yoei, Iaiieaii aaaeae n Yeueau e, ano?a/aaiue
ainoi?aeaiiuie e?eeaie oieiu, aica?aoeeny a Ia?eae. Aieia
aiciaiiaeeanue, ii O?aioeey oaea ia a neeao auea ianoe aa a?aiy. “Noi
aeiae” caaa?oeeenue ieii/aoaeueiui ii?aaeaieai Iaiieaiia ieiei
aaeueaeeneie aea?aaie Aaoa?eii (18 ethiy 1815). Ii noae ieaiieeii
aiaee/ai e aue ioi?aaeai ia aeaeaeee ino?iaie Na. Aeaiu a Aoeaioe/aneii
ieaaia. Oai Iaiieaii i?iaae iineaaeiea oanoue eao aeecie, oaanay io
oyaeaeie aieacie e iaei/iuo ecaeaaaoaeuenoa naieo oth?aiueeia.

Iaiieaii iaeaaeae oaiiiaiaeueiie iaiyoueth e ?aaioiniiniaiinoueth,
ino?ui oiii, aiaiiui e ainoaea?noaaiiui aaieai, aea?ii aeeieiiaoa,
a?oenoa, iaayieai, iicaieyaoei aio eaaei ?aniieaaaoue e naaa ethaeae.
Yoio /aeiaae a iaeciaiiii na?ii nth?ooea e o?aoaieea caiye i?i/iia ianoi
a enoi?ee, aeaa naia eiy oeaeie yiioa. Eiia?ey Iaiieaiia ieacaeanue
iai?i/iie . Iaeiaei o?aae/aneay noaeueaa eiia?aoi?a aeoaiei iio?ynea aai
nia?aiaiieeia, a oii /enea ooaeiaeieeia, iocueaioia, iiyoia, aeaea
iaeeueioth ieuo ?iiaioecio, ?anoeaaooaio a aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a
iineaaeothueo aeanyoeeaoee. N?aaeaiey Iaiieaiia aioee a aiaiiua
o/aaieee. “Iaiieaiiianeia i?aai” eaaeeo a iniiaa a?aaeaeaineeo ii?i
caiaaeiuo aeaiie?aoee. ?anoaa?e?iaaiiay iiia?oey Ao?aiiia ia niiaea
oie/oiaeeoue cae?aieaiiua Iaiieaiiii ?acoeueoaou ?aaiethoeee..

Aeaaiue aeiiaiee “iaiieaiiianeeo aiei”

IAIIEAII, Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o (Napoleon Bonaparte) (15.8.1769, Ay//i,
Ei?neea — 5.5.1821, Eiiaaoae, ino?ia Nayoie Aeaiu), eiia?aoi?
o?aioeocia. 2-e nui iaaiaaoiai ei?neeaineiai aeai?yieia, aaeaieaoa Ea?ei
Aoiiaia?oa e aai noi?oae Eaaaoeee (o?iaeaeaiiie ?aiieeii). A 1775
iinooiee a /anoioth oeieo.

1.1.1779 iiiauai a Ioaineee eieeaaeae ai O?aioeee, 23.4.1799 aeaaiaea?y
iie?iaeoaeuenoao o?aioeocneiai aoaa?iaoi?a Ei?neee aai. aea Ia?aaoa
ca/eneai ia eacaiioth noeiaiaeeth a A?eaineia aiaiiia o/eeeua.
22.10.1784 oniaoii ieii/ee o/eeeua e ia?aoae eaaeaoii a Ia?eaeneoth
aiaiioth aeaaeaieth. 1.9.1785 auiouai noa-eaeoaiaioii ai 2-e
a?oeeea?eeneee iiee Ea Oa?, ?aneaa?oe?iaaiiue a Aaeaina (ia auioneiuo
yecaiaiao ii aue 42 ia eo?na). 10.4.1786 i?iecaaaeai a eaeoaiaiou. A
aaa. 1786 o/anoaiaae a iiaeaaeaiee aanii?yaeeia a Eeiia. A 1788,
iaoiaeynue a ioionea ia Ei?neea, ?ac?aaioae i?iaeou oe?aieaiee aeey
iai?iiu Nai-Oei?aia, Eaii?oe?u e caeeaa Ay//i. A aaa. 1789 ii aiiaue
eni?inee ioione e oaoae ia Ei?neeo. A 1791 I. ia?aaaaeai a 4-e
A?aiiaeueneee a?oeeea?eeneee iiee. Ainoi?aeaiii i?eaaonoaiaae
?aaiethoeeth; a 1792 anooiee a sseiaeineee eeoa. A aaa. 1791 ia?aoeeny n
i?inueaie i ia?aaiaea ia Ei?neeo, a iieo/ea ioeac, eni?inee 3-iany/iue
ioione. Iaoiaeynue a yoi a?aiy ia Ei?neea, ca/eneai 22.2.1792 a ninoaa
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee aaeuthoaioii a /eia eaieoaia, a 1.4.1792 eca?ai
2-i iiaeiieeiaieeii aaoaeueiia aieiioa?ia Ay//i. A oio aea aeaiue I. aue
eneeth/ai ec nieneia a?iee. Aai i?aeeiiaiea ia?aae ?aaiethoeeae ai
O?aioeee iinoaiaiii i?eaaei e eiioeeeoo n ei?neeaineeie naia?aoenoaie ai
aeaaa n Iaiee.

A 1793 I. i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo caoaaoeoue oeeoaaeaeue Ay//i, ii iioa?iae
iaoaea/o e aaaeae n Ei?neee. A oii aea aiaeo ii aiiaue aa?ioeny ia
Ei?neeo, o/anoaiaae a yeniaaeeoeee a Na?aeeieth. Aianoa n aeaiooaoii
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey Naee/aooe aoi?e/ii i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo caoaaoa
e?aiinoe Ay//i. Iinea iiaie iaoaea/e Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea Ay//i iauyaeei
Aoiiaia?oia eciaiieeaie ioa/anoaa. Naiuey auea auioaeaeaia aaaeaoue a
Ooeii, a I. iinooiee a a?ieth e aue iacia/ai eiiaiaee?ii aa?aaiaie
aaoa?ae a Ieoeoea. Ai aeaaa eaaeie aaoa?ae o/anoaiaae a ii aeaaeaiee
ainnoaiey a I?iaaina. Oiaaea aea I. iaienae iaioeao «Oaeei a Aiea?a»
(ecaeai ca eacaiiue n/ao), a eioi?ii aunooiee oaaaeaeaiiui noi?iiieeii
yeiaeioeaa. Ai a?aiy aeieaie e aaconiaoiie inaaeu ?anioaeeeaineie a?ieae
aai. Ea?ii Ooeiia, caoaa/aiiiai iiia?oenonee ie iyoaaeieeaie e
aiaeeeneeie eioa?aaioaie, I.

16.9.1792 caiaiee ?aiaiiai ia/aeueieea inaaeiie a?oeeea?ee Aeiiia?oaia e
i?aaeeiaeee naie ieai acyoey ai?iaea. Iaeiia?aiaiii 28.10.1793 iacia/ai
eiiaiaee?ii aaoaeueiia 2-ai a?oeeea?eeneiai, iieea. 17.12.1793 Ooeii aue
acyo ooo?iii, i?e/ai I. ee/ii i?eiye o/anoea ai acyoee oi?oa Itheuea?aea
e iieo/ee ooueiaoth ?aio. 22 aeae. eiienna?u Eiiaaioa i?iecaaee I. a
a?eaaaeiua aaia?aeu (ooaa?aeaeai 6.2.1794). N yoiai a?aiaie ia/eiaaony
no?aieoaeueiia ainoiaeaeaiea I. N 26.12.1793 einiaeoi? aa?aaiauo
oe?aieaiee, ninoaaee i?iaeo iai?iiu iiaa?aaeuey io Ooeiia aei Iaioiiu.
24.3.1794 iacia/ai ia/aeueieeii a?oeeea?ee Eoaeueyineie a?iee.
Iieuecoynue iiaeaea?aeeie eiienna?ia Eiiaaioa e iie?iaeoaeuenoaii I.
?iaaniuea?a (a?aoa Iaeneieeeaia), caiye a Eoaeueyineie a?iee aaaeouea
iiceoeee. N 29.3.1795 aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee a?oeeea?eae Caiaaeiie a?iee.
Ea?uea?a I. auea i?a?aaia ia?aai?ioii 9 oa?ieaei?a e iaaeaieai
yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u. I., iaaeiaiiue a oaeiuo niioaieyo n ?iaaniuea?ii,
aue a?anoiaai e iiiauai a oi?o Ea??a (aeec Aioe-aa), ii /a?ac 13 aeiae
inaiaiaeaeai e caoai iacia/ai a Caiaaeioth a?ieth, n?aaeaaoothny n
?iyeenoaie a Aaiaeaa. I?e yoii I. aue ia?aaaaeai a iaoioo, /oi auei
inei?aeoaeueiui aeey iaai eae a?oeeea?enoa. I. ia iiaoae e ianoo
iacia/aiey, a i?eaue a Ia?eae e 15.9.1795 aue eneeth/ai n
aeaenoaeoaeueiie neoaeau. I?e iiaeaea?aeea aee?aeoi?a Aa?-?ana, eioi?ue
ciae aai ii Ooeiio e Eoaeee, I. iieo/ee 4.10.1795 iacia/aiea 2-i
eiiaiaeothuei Aioo?aiiae a?ieae (aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei aue nai Aa??an).
I?iyaee yia?aeth e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiinoue i?e iiaeaaeaiee iiia?oenoneiai
iyoaaea 13 aaiaeaiuea?a (5.10.1795). Ca yoe oniaoe I. 16.10.1795 aue
i?iecaaaeai a aeeaeceiiiua aaia?aeu, 26 ieoya?y ii aue ooaa?aeaeai e
iacia/ai aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei Aioo?aiiae a?ieae. Iiioey?iinoue I. auea
i/aiue auniea, e Aa??an, aeaeay oaeaeeoue I. ec Ia?eaea, aeiaeeny aai
iacia/aiey 2.3.1796 aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei Eoaeueyineie a?ieae. 9.3.1796
aeaieeny ia auaoae ethaiaieoea Aa?-?ana AEicaoeia Aiaa?ia (o?iaeaeaiiie
Oooa aea ea Iaaea?e) (1763-1814). A Eoaeueyineie a?iee I. aue nia/aea
ianoi?iaeaiii ano?a/ai noa?uie aaia?aeaie, ii anei?a niia ooaa?aeeoue
naie aaoi?eoao. Iaea?aeae iiaaaeo i?e Eiaee.

Aeanoyua i?iaaaey eaiiaieth, I. caiye Eiiaa?aeeth, Ieeai, Iaiooth e
auioaeee aano?eeoeaa iiaeienaoue Eaiiioi?ieeneee ie? 19.10.1797. Oaea
ia?aay eoaeueyineay eaiiaiey nii?iaiaeaeaeanue eiio?eaooeeyie,
ia?aaeaieai no?aiu. N 26.10.1797 ii 12.4.1798 yaeyeny
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei A?iee Aiaeee. Aa?ioaoenue a Ia?eae iiaaaeeoaeai, ii
aac o?oaea i?iaae a Aee?aeoi?ee ?aoaiea ia i?aaiecaoeee iioiaea aeey
caaiaaaiey Aaeioa e 5.2.1798 iacia/ai aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei Ainoi/iie (n
2.7.1798 Aaeiaoneie) a?ieae. 19.5.1798 ii ioaue a Aaeiao. Iaeiaei
Aaeiaoneay yeniaaeeoeey 1798—1801, ianiio?y ia ioaeaeueiua iiaaaeu I.,
iinea ?aca?iia aiaee/aiaie o?aioeocneiai oeioa i?e Aaoee?a, io?acaaoaai
o?aioeocneoth a?ieth a Aaeioa io iao?iiieee, e iaoaea/iiai iioiaea a
Ne?eth, auea ia?a/aia ia ii?aaeaiea. Ainiieueciaaaoenue eae iiaiaeii
aeioaaeoeie aei iaai naaaeaieyie i ii?aaeaiee a?iee Aee?aeoi?ee e i
iiaaaeao A. A. Noai?iaa, I. 22.8.1799 ia?aaeae eiiaiaeiaaiea aai. AE.
Eeaaa?o e, naiiaieueii iieeioa yeniaaeeoeeiiioth a?ieth, aa?ioeny a
Ia?eae a ieoya?a 1799, eiaaea e?ecen ?aaeeia Aee?aeoi?ee aeinoea oaea
e?aeiae noaiaie. Neaainoue Aee?aeoi?ee, aa iinoiyiiua eieaaaiey,
iiaoaeeaoea o?aioeocneia iauanoai no?aieoueny e «oaa?aeie aeanoe»,
niinianoaiaaee inouanoaeaieth ee/iuo caiuneia I. 9—10 iiya?y 1799 (18—19
a?thia?a VIII aiaea) ii i?iecaae ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io,
onoaiiaeaoee ?aaeei eiinoeuenoaa. Ai aeaaa ainoaea?noaa anoaei o?e
eiinoea: I., Y. Neean e ?iaea Aethei. Iiaay eiinoeoooeey 22 o?eia?a
(13.12.1799) iauyaeea I. ia 10 eao ia?aui eiinoeii (2-i eiinoeii aue
iacia/ai AE. Eai-aana?an, 3-i — O. Eaa?ai). I. oie/oiaeee iacaaeneioth
io i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia/aoue e ieii/aoaeueii eeeaeaee?iaae auai?iia
naiioi?aaeaiea, caiaiea aai nenoaiie i?aoaeoia, iy?ia e eo iiae/eiaiiuo,
iacia/aaoeony naa?oo.

Caeeth/aiiue a 1801 eiiei?aeaoa iaiie ?eineei iaania/ee I. iiaeaea?aeeo
eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Au?aaioaiiua i?e ee/iii o/anoee I. a?aaeaeaineee
(o.i. «Eiaeaen Iaiieaiia»), eiiia?/aneee e oaieiaiue eiaeaenu
onoaiaaeeaaee i?aaiaua ii?iu ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa. Oe?aieyy e caueuay
iniiaiua caaiaaaiey ?aaiethoeee a yeiiiie/aneie noa?a e, a /anoiinoe,
i?iecaaaeaiiia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe. Ia?aoeoaeueii iiaeaaeye
anyeea iiiuoee (eae neaaa, oae e ni?aaa) eciaieoue yoio ii?yaeie.
Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ?aaeeia auea iai?aaeaia ia ?acaeoea
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee; a 1800 aue iniiaai O?aioeocneee aaie. Iniaui
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii I. iieueciaaeanue i?iiuoeaiiinoue, a ?acaeoee eioi?ie
ii aeaeae n?aaenoai oe?aieaiey iiue ainoaea?noaa.

A 1800 ai aeaaa a?iee ia?aoae /a?ac Aeueiu e ?aca?iiee i?ioeaieea i?e
Ia?aiai. Ethiaaeeueneee ie? 9.2.1801 iieiaeee ia/aei ainiiaenoao
O?aioeee ia oieueei a Eoaeee, ii e a Aa?iaiee. 23.3.1802 aue iiaeienai
Aiueaineee ie? n Aiaeeae, ii eioi?iio ae auea aica?auaia Iaeueoa. A
ethea 1802 aue i?iaaaeai ieaaenoeeo, ia eioi?ii aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey
auneacaeinue ca iacia/aiea I. iiaeeciaiiui eiinoeii, i /ai e auei
iauyaeaii naiaoneei aeae?aoii 14 oa?ieaei?a X aiaea (2.8.1802). Iinea
yoiai I. ia?aaoae a aeai?aoe Otheeue?e e noi?ie?iaae nianoaaiiue aeai?,
ii aeaneo ia onooiaaoee ei?ieaaneiio; aeaiue 15 aaa. iauyaeai
iaoeeiiaeueiui i?acaeieeii. 19.5.1803 o/?aaeee Ii/aoiue eaaeii.
18.5.1804 aue i?iaicaeaoai Naiaoii eiia?aoi?ii o?aioeocia iiae eiaiai
Iaiieaiia I, yoi ?aoaiea auei ooaa?aeaeaii ieaaenoeeoii, a 2.12.1804
iaia Iee VII ei?iiiaae I. a niai?a Ia?eaeneie Aiaiiaoa?e. A ia?oa 1805
ei?iiiaaeny a Ieeaia ei?iiie eoaeueyineeo ei?ieae. *oiau oe?aieoue
iiaoth iiia?oeth e i?eaeaoue ae aiaoiee aeane, I. nicaeae iiaia
eiia?neia aeai?yinoai, iuoiue eiia?aoi?neee aeai?, anooiee a 1810 a a?ae
n Ia?eae Eoecie — aei/a?ueth aano?eeneiai eiia?aoi?a O?aioea I. A 1805
I. ?aca?iiee aano?i-?onneoth a?ieth a n?aaeaiee i?e Aonoa?eeoea.
12.7.1806 ii iauyaee i nicaeaiee ?aeineiai nithca (eoaea aioei
aieueoeinoai aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa) e noae aai i?ioaeoi?ii.

A 1806—1807 I. ?aca?iiee a?iee I?onnee e ?innee, aeiaeaoenue aeanoyueo
iiaaae i?e Eaia e Aoy?ooaaeoa (1806), O?eaeeaiaea (1807) e o.ae,.A 1809
ii aiiaue iaian ii?aaeaiea Aano?ee, ?aca?iiea aa a?ieth i?e Aaa?a-ia.
Ia?iiiia ?anoe?aiea oa??eoi?ee eiia?ee e i?aa?auaiea I. a oaeoe/aneiai
iiaaeeoaey anae Caiaaeiie (e?iia Aaeeeia?eoaiee) e Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu
niinianoaiaaee iaiau/aeiie aai neaaa. A 1810 e O?aioeee auee
i?eniaaeeiaiu /anoue Eniaiee ia ?. Y?ai, iiaa?aaeuea Naaa?iiai e
Aaeoeeneiai ii?ae aei Ethaaea, e?oiiua oa??eoi?ee a Aa?iaiee. Naieo
?iaenoaaiieeia I. iinaaeee ia i?anoieu Eniaiee, Aieeaiaeee, Aanooaeee,
Iaaiiey, Eoeee e o.ae. Noaeueaa I., aeinoeaoaai ca 10 eao aani?eia?iiai
iiaouanoaa, canoaaeyaoaai n/eoaoueny ni naiae aieae iiia?oia Aa?iiu,
eacaeanue iiiaei aai nia?aiaiieeai iaiauynieiie e aeaea ii/ao aeey
?aciiai ?iaea «iaiieaiiianeeo eaaaiae». Ii iieacae naay caia/aoaeueiui
ianoa?ii no?aoaaee e iaiaa?aiiie oaeoeee. N?aaeaynue i?ioea /eneaiii
i?aainoiaeyuaai i?ioeaieea, I. no?aieeny e ?acuaaeeiaieth aai nee e e
oie/oiaeaieth eo ii /anoyi. Aai i?eioeeiii auei: «/eneaiioth neaainoue
aiciauaoue auno?ioie aeaeaeaiee». Ia ia?oa I. aae aienea
?ann?aaeioi/aiea, ii n oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau eo iiaeii auei nia?aoue a
iaiaoiaeeiue iiiaio a ethaii ioieoa. Oae neeaaeuaaeny i?eioeei «ii?iciue
eaeoe, aianoa n?aaeaoueny». I. niaa?oainoaiaae iiaoth iaiaa?aiioth
oaeoeeo eieiii a ni/aoaiee n ?annuiiui no?iai, iniiaaiioth ia /aoeii
acaeiiaeaenoaee ?acee/iuo ?iaeia aiene. Ii oe?iei i?eiaiye auno?ue
iaiaa? a oeaeyo nicaeaiey i?aainoiaenoaa ia ?aoathueo iai?aaeaieyo, oiae
iaiineoue aiacaiiua oaea?u, inouanoaeyoue iaoiaeu e ioaaou, ia?aueaaoue
oneeey ia ?aoathueo o/anoeao n?aaeaiey.

N/eoay naiae aeaaiie no?aoaae/aneie caaea/ae ?aca?ii nee i?ioeaieea, I.
anaaaea no?aieeny iaeaaeaoue no?aoaae/aneie eieoeeaoeaie. Iniiaiui
niiniaii ?aca?iia i?ioeaieea aeey iaai yaeyeinue aaia?aeueiia n?aaeaiea.
Aeinoeaiooue a aaia?aeueiii n?aaeaiee oniao I. no?aieeny ?acaeoue,
i?aaiecoy ianoie/eaia i?aneaaeiaaiea iai?eyoaey. ?aoaiea ia/aoue aieio
i?ioea ?innee naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i oii, /oi, ineaieaiiue oniaoaie e
no?aieaieai onoaiiaeoue naia ainiiaenoai iaae Aa?iiie, I. ia/ae oa?youe
/oanoai ?aaeueiiai, i?enouaa aio ?aiaa. Ia?aeaey a?aieoeo ?innee, ee/ii
aicaeaaee iniiaioth a?oiio Aaeeeie a?iee, aeaeaaaoaeny ia Aeeueii.
Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1812 ia oieueei oie/oiaeeea Aaeeeoth a?ieth I., ii e
aeaea iiuiue oie/ie iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa i?ioea
ieeoiaioia a Aa?iia.

A eaiiaieth 1813 I. i?eoeinue n?aaeaoueny oaea i?ioea ianeieueeeo a?iee
aioeiaiieaiiianeie eiaeeoeee, eoaea aioee ?inney, I?onney, Aano?ey,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey e o.ae. Iaecaaaeiia a yoeo oneiaeyo ii?aaeaiea II.
caaa?oeeinue anooieaieai nithciuo aiene a Ia?eae (ia?o 1814). Iinea
ia?aoiaea ia?oaea I. Ia?iiia ia noi?iio aai i?ioeaieeia, ia?oaeu I. Iae,
O. Ea-oaa?, O. Oaeeii e Y. Iaeaeiiaeueae oaaaeeee I. io?a/ueny io
i?anoiea (6.4.1814). A ii/ue ia 12 ai?. I. i?eiye yae, ii oio ia
iiaeaenoaiaae. Nithcieee-iiaaaeeoaee nio?aieee I. oeooe eiia?aoi?a e
ioaeaee aio ai aeaaeaiea i. Yeueaa. Aunaaeea I. ai O?aioeee (1.3.1815) e
«Noi aeiae» (20.3— 22.6.1815) aoi?e/iiai aai oea?noaiaaiey niiaa
iieacaee ia oieueei aai oaeaio, ii a aua aieueoae ia?a cia/aiea noiyaoeo
ca iei nioeeaeueiuo nee. Aani?eia?iia «caaiaaaiea» ca 3 iaaeaee aac
aaeeiiai auno?aea O?aioeee noaei aiciiaeiui eeoue iioiio, /oi ia?iae
n/eoae II. niiniaiui ecaiaoue ec O?aioeee iaiaaenoiuo ia?iaeiui iannai
Ao?aiiia e a?enoie?aoia. O?aaaaeey I. caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ii ia
?aoeeny iieiinoueth iia?aoueny ia iiaeaea?aeeaaaoee aai ia?iae. Yoi
i?eaaei e aai ii?aaeaieth i?e Aaoa?eii e aoi?e/iiio io?a/aieth
(22.6.1815). Nineaiiue ia i. Na. Aeaiu, ii oia? /a?ac 6 eao ieaiieeii
aiaee/ai. Ii ioeoeeaeueiie aa?nee nia?oue ianooieea io ?aea aeaeoaeea,
iaeiaei iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee ianoaeaatho ia oii, /oi I. aue io?aaeai.
15.11.1840 i?ao I. aue ia?aaacai a Ia?eae, a Aeii eiaaeeaeia.

Eniieueciaaiu iaoa?eaeu eieae: Caeanneee E.A. Iaiieaiiianeea aieiu
1799-1815. Aeia?aoe/aneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue, Iineaa, 2003

E?aoeay enoi?ey aeecie e aiei

Iaiieaii I Aiiaia?o – o?aioeocneee iieeiaiaeaoe e ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeayoaeue. Eiia?aoi? O?aioeee (1804-1814 e a ia?oa – ethia 1815). A 1799
aiaeo niaa?oee ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io e noae ia?aui eiinoeii; a 1804
aiaeo aue i?iaicaeaoai eiia?aoi?ii. Cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ee oa??eoi?eth
eiia?ee, iinoaaee a caaeneiinoue io O?aioeee aieueoeinoai no?ai
Caiaaeiie e Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu. A 1814 aiaeo io?aeny io i?anoiea.
Aiiaue caiye i?anoie a 1815 aiaeo. Iinea ii?aaeaiey i?e Aaoa?eii (ethiue
1815) aue nineai ia ino?ia Nayoie Aeaiu. Iaiieaii Aoiiaia?oa (Aiiaia?o)
?iaeeeny 15 aaaonoa 1769 aiaea a Ay//i, a naiuea aaeaieaoa Ea?ei
Aoiiaia?oa, i?ienoiaeeaoaai ec iaeeiiiianoiiai ei?neeaineiai
aeai?yinoaa, e Eaoeoeee ?aiieeii, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoae e noa?eiiiio
iao?eoeeaineiio ?iaeo. Ea?ei Aoiiaia?oa, o eioi?iai ec aeaaiaaeoeaoe
aeaoae auaeeei ainaiue, a iaa?aaeo ca eiyeueiinoue e O?aioeee iieo/ee
aiciiaeiinoue ioaeaoue noa?oeo nuiiaae, AEicaoa e Iaiieaiia, a 1779
aiaeo a eieeaaeae. Iaiieaii /a?ac aeaa ianyoea ia?aoae a aiaiioth oeieo
a A?eaia. A 1784 aiaeo, iieo/ea caaiea eaaeaoa, ii i?iaeieaeee iao/aiea
a aiaiiie oeiea a Ia?eaea. *a?ac aiae Iaiieaii aue i?iecaaaeai a
eaeoaiaiou a?oeeea?ee e ioi?aaeai a i?anoeaeiue iiee ea Oa?. Aiiaia?o
neoaeee a Aaeaina e Ieniiia. Aai ?aaioiniiniaiinoue auea oaiiiaiaeueiie:
ia nii aio o?aaiaaeinue ia aieaa 4-5 /ania a nooee. Ii iiiai /eoae,
i?iaeieaeae caieiaoueny naiiia?aciaaieai. Ai a?aiy Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee (1789-1794) Iaiieaii anoae ia noi?iio aee?iiaeenoia.

16 naioya?y 1793 aiaea eiienney Eiiaaioa ii?o/eea Aiiaia?oo
eiiaiaeiaaiea a?oeeea?eae. I?e ooo?ia Ooeiia Iaiieaii, aicaeaaeyaoee
iaeei ec io?yaeia, aue ?aiai. Iinea acyoey ai?iaea eiienney Eiiaaioa
i?iecaaea aai a a?eaaaeiua aaia?aeu. Iaaeaiea aeeeoaoo?u ?iaaniuea?a,
eacaeinue, iinoaaeei ea?uea?o ooeiineiai aa?iy iiae oa?ico. Eae ae?oa
yeiaeioeaa ii aue a?anoiaai, ii anei?a inaiaiaeaeai. A iieneao iiaiai
iacia/aiey ii iiciaeiieeny n aeaiooaoii Aa??anii. Ii aai ii?o/aieth
Iaiieaii ?aca?iiee iyoaae ?iyeenoia 13 aaiaeaiuea?a (5 ieoya?a 1795
aiaea). Iaa?aaea ia canoaaeea naay aeaeaoue. Aa??an noae iaeiei ec
eeaea?ia Aee?aeoi?ee, a Iaiieaii aicaeaaee ia?eaeneee aa?iecii. A yoi
aea a?aiy ii aeaieeny ia aaeiaa aaia?aea i?ae?aniie e?aieea AEicaoeia
Aiaa?iy, eioi?ay auea ia oanoue eao noa?oa aai. A 1796 aiaeo Aee?aeoi?ey
iacia/eea Iaiieaiia aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei Eoaeueyineie a?ieae. Aai iioiae
caaa?oeeny aieueoie e iaiaeeaeaiiie iiaaaeie. Aa?ie eoaeueyineie
eaiiaiee aeaaeaeae neaau ie?ioai?oea, i?ae?anii iiieiay, /oi oai naiui
ii i?eia?aoao iiioey?iinoue ai O?aioeee e oi?i/eo naia iieiaeaiea ia?aae
Aee?aeoi?eae. Iaeiaei aanoe ia?aaiai?u n Aano?eae Aee?aeoi?ey ii?o/eea
o?eaeoeaoeeaoiaio Ai?e Eea?eo. Ii Aiiaia?o ia oioae oioneaoue naiaai
oaina. A oaa?aea 1797 aiaea Aiiaia?o iiaeienae n iaiie Ieai VI ie?iue
aeiaiai?, ii eioi?iio iineaaeiee eeoeeny cia/eoaeueiie /anoe naieo
aeaaeaiee.

7 ai?aey 1797 aiaea a caiea Yaaaiaaeueae, ?aniieiaeaiiii a Ooe?ee,
Iaiieaii ia/ae ia?aaiai?u, caaa?oeaoeany 18 ai?aey iiaeienaieai
i?aeeieia?iiai (i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai) ie?iiai aeiaiai?a n Aano?eae. Eae
ienae Oaeae?ai, i?aeeieia?iue aeiaiai? aue “yaii auaiaeiui aeey aaineiai
aeai?a”. Aano?eeoeu, oa?iaaoea a Eoaeee a 1796-1797 aiaeao aeanoieea
aiaiiua ii?aaeaiey io o?aioeocneeo aiene, iioa?yaoea Aaeueaeth, n iieiui
iniiaaieai n/eoaee /oaeii nio?aiaiea oeaeinoiinoe naiaai ainoaea?noaa.
Ii Aee?aeoi?ey ?ann/eouaaea iieo/eoue aua e ?aeineoth iaeanoue.
Nae?aoiua noaouee aeiaiai?a, i eioi?uo a Ia?eaea aeaaea ia ciaee,
i?aaeoniao?eaaee eeeaeaeaoeeth Aaiaoeeaineie ?anioaeeee. Aiiaia?o caoaye
iianioth ea?o. Ca a?oaia ia?ooaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo eino?oeoeee
Aee?aeoi?ey aeieaeia auea iono?aieoue aai io ?oeiaiaenoaa a?ieae e
i?aaeaoue noaeo. Iaeiaei ianaeaiea Ia?eaea n ainoi?aii ano?aoeei
ecaanoea i iiaeienaiee i?aeeieia?iiai ie?a. Iiaaaeu a Eoaeee, ?aca?ii
Aano?ee i?eianee Aiiaia?oo oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue. “Eaeie /aeiaae iao
Aiiaia?o! Aio aua iao 28 eao, a iaae aai aieiaie ana aeaeu neaau – neaaa
aieiu, neaaa ie?a, neaaa naea?aeaiiinoe, neaaa aeaai?iaenoaa: ii eiaao
ana”. Oae ienae 10 iay 1797 aiaea i iieiaeii aaia?aea Oaeae?ai. Iinea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa 18 o?oeoeaei?a (4 naioya?y 1797 aiaea)
Aa??an e aai noi?iiieee aeaee Aiiaia?oo iieiiii/ey ia iiaeienaiea ie?a n
Aano?eae. Ii aue caeeth/ai 18 ieoya?y 1797 aiaea a Eaiiioi?iei. Ia yoio
?ac aano?eeoeu ioaeaaaee O?aioeee ii/oe aanue eaaue aa?aa ?aeia, a
oaeaea anth Eiiaa?aeeth.

Eiaaea a aeaeaa?a 1797 aiaea Aiiaia?o aa?ioeny a Ia?eae, ii aue oaea
iieeoe/aneie oeao?ie, eiaaoae iaiaeue aan. Aai iiioey?iinoue auea
ia?iiia. 5 ia?oa 1798 aiaea Aee?aeoi?ey aeaea niaeanea Aiiaia?oo ia
aaeiaoneoth yeniaaeeoeeth. Aaeiao ioaeai aue Iaiieaiio eae aaca aeey
nicaeaiey iiaie eieiieaeueiie eiia?ee O?aioeee. ?a/ue oea i iieeoeea,
?ann/eoaiiie ia aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao. Aaeiaoneay eaiiaiey Iaiieaiia
ia eiaea aiaiii-iieeoe/aneiai oniaoa. Oai ia iaiaa aai aica?auaiea a
Ia?eae noaei ianoiyuei o?eoioii. Ianaeaiea, iaioaaiiia oa?iaeathuei
iieiaeaieai O?aioeee, aeaeaei a iai aaeeinoaaiiiai nianeoaey e ano?a/aei
aai eeeiaaieai.

Ainiieueciaaaoenue neaainoueth Aee?aeoi?ee, Iaiieaii 18-19 a?thia?a
(9-10 iiya?y) 1799 aiaea niaa?oee ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io, onoaiiaea
?aaeei aeeeoaoo?u a oi?ia Eiinoeuenoaa. Ai aeaaa ainoaea?noaa noiyee o?e
eiinoea. Ia?aue eiinoe – Aiiaia?o – iieo/ae oaeoe/anee aeeeoaoi?neea
iieiiii/ey. Eae e iaa nieiinoea, ii ecae?aeny Naiaoii ia aeanyoue eao.
I?e auai?a ieieno?a aiaoieo niioaiee o Aiiaia?oa ia auei niiiaiee. Ei
noae Oaeae?ai, aaconeiaii, iaeei ec naiuo auaeathueony aeeieiiaoia
yiioe. Ai?i/ai, i?a?iaaoeao i?eiyoey iniiaiuo aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ?aoaiee,
iniaaiii eiaaoeo i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea, Aiiaia?o inoaaeye ca niaie.
Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao iaeiiai ec aeeaeaeoeo aai nio?oaeieeia ?aaea?a?a, a
oa/aiea anao 15 eao aeanoe Iaiieaiia a aii?inao aeeieiiaoee oieueei aio
iaeiiio i?eiaaeeaaeaea “?aoathuay eieoeeaoeaa”. Anei?a aea iinea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa, i?eaaaeoaai aai e aeanoe, Iaiieaii
Aiiaia?o ia?aoeeny e iiia?oai Aiaeee, Aano?ee e ?innee n i?aaeeiaeaieai
nei?aa i?ae?aoeoue aiaiiua aeaenoaey, ?acoiaaony, ia oneiaeyo nio?aiaiey
ca O?aioeeae anao aa caaiaaaiee, oi anoue “anoanoaaiiuo a?aieoe” –
Aaeueaee, Aieeaiaeee e eaaiai aa?aaa ?aeia. Aiiaia?o a?yae ee iaaeayeny,
/oi aai i?ioeaieee iieaeoo iaano?a/o naeaeaiiui ei ii ioaeaeueiinoe
ie?iui i?aaeeiaeaieyi. Ii ii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny oi?ioi ecaanoiui
aeeieiiaoe/aneei i?eaiii, iiaeneacaiiui aio, aiciiaeii, Oaeae?aiii, –
aioiaynue e i?iaeieaeaieth aieiu, eae iiaeii aieueoa oaa?aeeoue i naieo
ie?iuo iiaoaeaeaieyo. Oaeae?ai aiai?ee: “Anee ?acoeueoaou caaeoiaiiiai
iioiaea aoaeoo oaea/iu, i?aaeeaaaaoee ie? i?eia?aoao i?aai ia no?iaia
iaoiaeaeaiea n iiaaaeaeaiiuie, anee aea, iaiai?io, iineaaeoao iaoaea/a,
i?aaeeaaaaoaio ie? ia i?eaeaony iianaoueny oi?aea a oii, /oi ii nai
iaeeeeae aaaeo”. Oeeueyi Ieoo Ieaaeoee eaoaai?e/anee ioaa?a naeaeaiiua
Aiaeee ie?iua i?aaeeiaeaiey. Aano?ey e ?inney, ni naiae noi?iiu, oaeaea
ioaaoeee ioeacii. Aaniie 1800 aiaea, oaeii nia?aa e?oiioth a?ieth ieiei
oaaeoea?neie a?aieoeu, Aiiaia?o /a?ac Nai-Aa?ia? aeaeioe aa a Naaa?ioth
Eoaeeth e 14 ethiy iaian aano?eeneie a?iee o Ia?aiai ii?aaeaiea.

3 aeaeaa?y 1800 aiaea a Aa?iaiee iaiieaiiianeee aaia?ae Ii?i canoaaee
eaieooee?iaaoue aano?eeneoth e aaaa?neoth a?iee. Aiiaia?o i?eiye
aano?eeneiai eaioeea?a Eiaaioeey a Otheeue?e, a ainoeiie, ?aniieiaeaiiie
o aoiaea a i?aaeiee ei?ieaaneee eaaeiao. Aieueooth /anoue iaaaee ec
naeiia ca?aiaa auianee. A oaeo iinoaaeee iaaieueoie noie, ca eioi?ui
aeieaeai aue neaeaoue Aiiaia?o. A aeoaeia eiiiaou, aeinoaoi/ii aeaeaei
io noiea, iaoiaeeeenue aeaa eee o?e eooaoee. Auei oaea 9 /ania aa/a?a.
Ainoeioth inaauaea eeoue eaiia, noiyaoay ia noiea ia?aiai eiinoea.
Aano?eaoe aioae a nii?iaiaeaeaiee Oaeae?aia. Aiiaia?o, neaeaaoee ni
naieie aoiaaaie ca noieii, auno?i anoae e caoai n?aco aea aiiaue nae. O
Eiaaioeey, ?anoa?yaoaainy io oaeiai i?eaia, inoaaaeenue aeaa
aiciiaeiinoe: eeai ioieoe e aeaeueiei eooaoeai, eeai noiyoue. Ai?i/ai,
auai?a ia auei – inoaaaeinue oieueei iineaaeiaa. Eae ienae Oaeae?ai,
eaaeaeue aue iinoaaeai “ia naia ianoi eee ii e?aeiae ia?a ia ianoi,
i?aaeiacia/aiiia eaaeaeiio ia?aui eiinoeii”. A oio ia niae?aeny
oea?aiiieoueny n iineaioeai aano?eeneiai eiia?aoi?a.

9 oaa?aey 1801 aiaea AEicao Aiiaia?o e Ethaeaea Eiaaioeeue iiaeienaee a
Ethiaaeeea ie?iue aeiaiai?, oneiaey eioi?iai ieacaeenue aeey Aano?ee
aieaa oyaeaeuie, /ai ii niaeaoaieth a Eaiiioi?iei. Aeiaiai? cae?aieye ca
O?aioeeae Aaeueaeth e eaaue aa?aa ?aeia e, e?iia oiai, eeoae Aano?eth
/anoe i?eia?aoaiiuo ath a 1797 aiaeo auaoeo aaiaoeeaineeo aeaaeaiee. Ia
Aiaiieineii iieoino?iaa oaia?ue niiaa aac?acaeaeueii ?anii?yaeaeenue
o?aioeocu. I?aaeoaeuenoai Aiiaia?oa i?eioaeeei iaaiieeoaineeo Ao?aiiia
iiaeienaoue ai Oei?aioeee ie?iue aeiaiai? n O?aioeeae. *a?ac aiae iinea
Ethiaaeeey Aiiaia?o ia?aeiaiiaae Oeecaeueieeneoth ?anioaeeeo a
Eoaeueyineoth e iauyaee naay aa i?aceaeaioii. Iiaaaea i?e Ia?aiai
?acaycaea ?oee ia?aiio eiinoeo. N?aco iinea yoiai n?aaeaiey, a ethia
1800 aiaea, ii ia?aaeae iaia i?aaeeiaeaiea ia/aoue ia?aaiai?u i
ainnoaiiaeaiee eaoieeoeecia ai O?aioeee. Eaeay eiiei?aeaoa
i?eiaaeeaaeaea naiiio ia?aiio eiinoeo. Iia nic?aea o iaai oaea ei
a?aiaie i?eoiaea e aeanoe. “ss acaanee ana cia/aiea ?aeeaee e ?aoee aa
ainnoaiiaeoue. Ii n o?oaeii iiaeii iiaa?eoue, eaeia nii?ioeaeaiea y
auioaeaeai aue i?aiaeieaoue, /oiau ainnoaiiaeoue eaoieeoeeci”.
Eiiei?aeao, ii caiuneo Aiiaia?oa, aeieaeai aue iieiinoueth iiae/eieoue
aio oeaeoth a?ieth neoaeeoaeae eoeueoa, i?enyaathueo i?aaeoaeuenoao e
iiea/eaaaiuo ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.

17 ethey 1801 aiaea eiiei?aeao aue iiaeienai. Noi?iiu aeiaiai?eeenue,
/oi ?aeeaeiciue eoeueo aoaeao ioaee/iui a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie,
“eioi?ua i?aaeoaeuenoai ni/oao iaiaoiaeeiuie a eioa?anao iauanoaaiiiai
niieienoaey”. Aieneiiu aoaeoo iacia/aoueny n iaeia?aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Aiiaia?o onoaiiaee eiio?ieue iaae eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth ai O?aioeee e
iaania/ee naaa aa niaeaenoaea. Oea?aiiiey iaia?iaeiaaiey eiiei?aeaoa
ninoiyeanue a ianoaeueiue aeaiue 18 ai?aey 1802 aiaea a niai?a
Ia?eaeneie aiaiiaoa?e… ?aca?ii Aano?ee niaiae n e?ooie ia?aiaiie a
aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e ?inneae. Aieiaoaeueii
neaaey ca ?aciiaeaneyie iaaeaeo ?inneae e Aiaeeae, Aiiaia?o eaoii 1800
aiaea i?aaei?eiye oe?ieee aeeieiiaoe/aneee iaiaa?, iai?aaeaiiue ia oi,
/oiau aua aieueoa ioaeaeeoue ae?oa io ae?oaa naieo aeaaiuo i?ioeaieeia.
No?aiynue caaiaaaoue ?aniieiaeaiea Iaaea I e neeiieoue aai e ia/aeo
naia?aoiuo ie?iuo ia?aaiai?ia, ia?aue eiinoe ?anii?yaeeeny aica?aoeoue
ia ?iaeeio ?onneeo ieaiiuo, caoaa/aiiuo a eaiiaiee 1799 aiaea. Iinea
oiai eae a naioya?a 1800 aiaea aiaee/aiai oaeaeinue caoaaoeoue Iaeueoo,
Iaaae I iioae ia ?ac?ua n Eiiaeiiii e i?enooiee e nicaeaieth
aioeaiaeeeneie eiaeeoeee, a eioi?oth aeieaeiu auee aieoe Aeaiey,
Oaaoeey, I?onney. Eae a Iaoa?ao?aa, oae e a Ia?eaea o?aiei-?onneiio
nio?oaeie/anoao i?eaeaaaee a yoi a?aiy ?aoathuaa cia/aiea. “ss aeaeath
aeaeaoue nei?ue e iaeciaiiue nithc aeaoo iiaouanoaaiiaeoeo iaoeee a
ie?a”, – ienae Aiiaia?o Iaaeo 21 aeaeaa?y 1800 aiaea. Ii ianoaeaae ia
iiaeienaiee ie?a iaaeaeo ?inneae e O?aioeeae e ia “?ani?aaeaeaiee”
a?aieoe ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa. Aiiaia?o iinoaaee ia?aae niaie caaea/o
eniieueciaaoue nithc n ?inneae, /oiau iaania/eoue O?aioeee ainiiaenoai a
Aa?iaiee, aa?aioe?iaaoue ae a?aieoeu ii ?aeio e, iaeiiaoe, nio?aiea
niia?ie/anoai Aano?ee e I?onnee, eeoeoue eo iieeoe/aneeo e aiaiiuo
i?aeiouanoa. Iaaae oioae “?anii?yaeaoueny anath Iaiaoeeith eiia?eae”.
Iinea aeaaee Iaaea I ia?aaiai?u n O?aioeeae i?iaeieaeee iiaue ?inneeneee
oea?ue Aeaenaiae? I.

8-10 ieoya?y 1801 aiaea auee iiaeienaiu aeaa aaaeiaeoeo aeieoiaioa:
aeiaiai? i ie?a e nae?aoiay eiiaaioeey iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e ?inneae.
Aiiaia?o niaeaoaeny a iae ia ?onneia iin?aaeie/anoai a aii?ina i
aiciaa?aaeaeaiee na?aeeineiai ei?iey e eiycae Aa?iaineie eiia?ee ca
iooi?aiooua o ieo O?aioeeae aeaaeaiey, a oaeaea i?eciaaae nicaeaiioth
aaeie?aeii Ooaeiaui ia Eiie/aneeo ino?iaao “?anioaeeeo naie ino?iaia”,
iaauae ia iieooaoueny a aoaeouai ia oeaeinoiinoue aeaaeaiee
iaaiieeoaineeo Ao?aiiia e niaianoii n ?inneae “iaania/eoue naiaiaeo
ii?ae”. 9 ieoya?y Aiiaia?o iiaeienae e n oo?eaie ie?iue aeiaiai?,
niaeanii eioi?iio O?aioeey iaycaeanue aica?aoeoue Oo?oeee Aaeiao,
eioi?ui oaeoe/anee oaea ia aeaaeaea. Ana yoe onooiee, naeaeaiiua ?innee
e Oo?oeee, iiiiaee Aiiaia?oo caeeth/eoue ie? n Aiaeeae, eeoeaoaeny
oaia?ue naieo iineaaeieo nithcieeia ia eiioeiaioa. Oai aieaa /oi a
oaa?aea 1801 aiaea inoaaee iino i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Aeeueyi Ieoo Ieaaeoee,
y?ue i?ioeaiee o?aioeocneie iieeoeee aaaaiiiee. Niaeaoaiea i i?ae?auaiee
aiaiiuo aeaenoaee auei iiaeienaii a Eiiaeiia 1 ieoya?y 1801 aiaea, a
25-27 ia?oa 1802 aiaea a Aiueaia aue caeeth/ai ie?iue aeiaiai? iaaeaeo
Aiaeeae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e O?aioeeae e aa nithcieeaie – Eniaieae e
Aaoaaneie ?anioaeeeie – n ae?oaie. Iai?aaeyy a Aiueai aeey aaaeaiey
ia?aaiai?ia naiaai a?aoa AEicaoa, Aiiaia?o ca?aiaa ia?aie/eaae ?aiee
aoaeouaai ie?iiai niaeaoaiey.

I?aaenoaaeoaeth a?eoaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, noa?iio aaia?aeo
Ei?ioyeueno, i?eoeinue i?eciaoue ana naeaeaiiua O?aioeeae iinea 1792
aiaea i?eia?aoaiey: e caoaao Aaeueaee e eaaiai aa?aaa ?aeia, e nicaeaiea
“aei/a?ieo” ?anioaeee – Aaoaaneie, Oeecaeueieeneie e Eeao?eeneie. Ino?ia
Iaeueoa ia?aoiaeee e i?aeaio eiaiieoia. Aiaeey iaauaea aa?iooue ii/oe
ana caaiaaaiiua eieiiee O?aioeee, Aaeiao aiiaue iiiaaeae iiae aeanoue
noeoaia, Ieii?ea iooiaeeea e Eniaiee. O?aioeey ni naiae noi?iiu
iaycuaaeanue auaanoe aienea ec Iaaiiey, ?eia e n ino?iaa Yeueau.
Aiueaineee aeiaiai? cae?aieye a eioa?anao O?aioeee ia?ooaiiia ath
iieeoe/aneia ?aaiiaanea e ii nouanoao ioaeaaae caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneee
eiioeiaio a ?oee Aiiaia?oa, noaaoaai a 1802 aiaeo iiaeeciaiiui “ia?aui
eiinoeii”. Iaeiaei Aiiaia?o aiana ia niae?aeny /anoii auiieiyoue acyoua
ia naay iaycaoaeuenoaa e ia iiiuoeye caiueaoueny a a?aieoeao,
onoaiiaeaiiuo Aiueaineei aeiaiai?ii e ?onnei-o?aioeocneie nae?aoiie
eiiaaioeeae. Oaea a aaaonoa 1802 aiaea e O?aioeee auea i?eniaaeeiaia
Yeueaa, a a naioya?a – ieoya?a Iueaiiio e Ia?ia. A oi aea a?aiy auee
oaaee/aiu o?aioeocneea aa?ieciiu a thaeiieoaeueyineeo ii?oao. A ieoya?a
o?aioeocneea aienea ieeoie?iaaee Oaaeoea?eth, i?aa?auaiioth a
“aei/a?ithth” Aaeueaaoe/aneoth ?anioaeeeo.

A Aa?iaiee aeeyiea O?aioeee ?ani?ino?aiyeinue ia ainoie, a ?yae
thaeiiaa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa (Aaaa?ey, Ath?oaiaa?a, Aaaeai, Aannai)
noaee aa iineooiuie aannaeaie. Aiaeey ia niaoeea inoaaeyoue naie aeaaiue
iii?iue ioieo a N?aaeecaiiii ii?a – Iaeueoo. A nayce n yoei ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo Ia?eaeai e Eiiaeiiii aiiaue iaino?eeenue. Aua a na?aaeeia
oaa?aey aiaeeeneee iinie a Ia?eaea ei?ae Oeoai?o niiauae a Eiiaeii i
oii, /oi Iaiieaii iicaieyao naaa a?oai n iei ia?auaoueny, a 13 ia?oa ia
aeeieiiaoe/aneii i?eaia i?yii oa?iaeae Aiaeee aieiie a neo/aa
aeaeueiaeoeo i?iaiei/ae n yaaeoaoeeae n Iaeueou. “Eoae, au oioeoa aieiu,
– e?e/ae ii ia Oeoai?oa, – aiaee/aia oioyo aieiu, ii anee iie ia?aua
iaiaaeao oiaao, ionoue ciatho, /oi y iineaaeiee aeiaeo aa a iiaeiu…
Iaeueoa eee aieia!” Aeaeueiaeoea ia?aaiai?u ieacaeenue
aac?acoeueoaoiuie, oae aea eae e i?aaei?eiyoay ?inneae iiiuoea
i?eie?eoue nii?yuea noi?iiu.

12 iay 1803 aiaea Oeoai?o iieeioe Ia?eae, a 22 iay iaaeaeo Aiaeeae e
O?aioeeae aiciaiiaeeenue aiaiiua aeaenoaey. Aoi?aeaiea o?aioeocneeo
aiene a Aaiiiaa? e iaoaea/a ?onneiai iin?aaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo Aiaeeae e
O?aioeeae eaoii 1803 oaaaeeee ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai a iaaiciiaeiinoe
ia?aie/eoue yeniaineth O?aioeee a N?aaeecaiiiii?uea e a Oeaio?aeueiie
Aa?iia aeeieiiaoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie, a iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue
yoie yeniainee nenoaio iai?iieoaeueiuo nithcia aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa.
Ieii/aoaeueiue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e ?inneae aue onei?ai ?ani?aaie
Aiiaia?oa iaae iaeiei ec ioi?uneia ao?aiineiai aeiia, aa?oeiaii
Yiaeaineei, iaaeiaiiui a iieooaiee ia aeeciue ia?aiai eiinoea e
?anno?aeyiiui 21 ia?oa 1804 aiaea ai ?ao Aainaineiai caiea, iiae
Ia?eaeai. Aa?oeia Yiaeaineee aue iineaaeiei i?aaenoaaeoaeai ioaeneie
eeiee ?iaea Eiiaea.

I?ioei iaiaa aeaoo ianyoeaa, e oeacii io 18 iay 1804 aiaea naiao
i?iaicaeanee Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa eiia?aoi?ii o?aioeocia. Ia
aeiaieuenoaoynue oeooeii eiia?aoi?a O?aioeee, Iaiieaii 18 ia?oa 1805
aiaea iauyaee naay ei?ieai Eoaeee, a a ethia oiai aea aiaea i?eniaaeeiee
e O?aioeee Aaioth e Eoeeo. Aeaceioi?iaoeey auea iaeiei ec aaaeiuo
yeaiaioia iiaeaioiaee caoaaoia Aiiaia?oa a Aa?iia. Oaeae?ai aunooiee a
naiaoa n aeieeaaeii i nicaeaiee Eoaeueyineiai ei?ieaanoaa. Yoi auea
aeeieiiaoe/aneay oaa?oth?a e i/a?aaeiiio niaeoaeeth, eioi?ue ninoiyeny a
ciaiaieoii i?aii?iii Ieeaineii niai?a 26 iay 1805 aiaea – aoi?ie
ei?iiaoeee Iaiieaiia, ia aieiao eioi?iai aiceiaeeee ei?iio Eiiaa?aeneeo
ei?ieae. “Aia iia aa aeae, ian/anouea oiio, eoi aa einiaony!” Ii
noa?eiiie o?aaeeoeee yoe neiaa i?icao/aee iiae naiaeaie enoi?e/aneiai
niai?a. ?ac?ua aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?inneae e O?aioeeae
onei?ee nicaeaiea 3-e eiaeeoeee aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa i?ioea
iaiieaiiianeie O?aioeee.

E naioya?th 1805 aiaea a iaa aoiaeeee ?inney, Aiaeey, Oaaoeey, Aeaiey e
Ei?ieaanoai Iaaeo Neoeeeee, Oo?oeey. A?iee o?aoueae eiaeeoeee
aeaeioeenue e o?aioeocneei a?aieoeai. Iaiieaii ?aoee iia?aaeeoue eo, ia
aeaoue aiciiaeiinoe ?onneei e aano?eeneei neeai iauaaeeieoueny. 20
ieoya?y 1805 aiaea aano?eeoeu, ie?oaeaiiua a Oeueia, eaieooee?iaaee.
Eacaeinue, iiaaaea Iaiieaiia auea iieiie. Ii ia neaaeothuee aeaiue iinea
n?aaeaiey i?e Oeueia, 21 ieoya?y, o iuna O?aoaeueaa?, ?aniieiaeaiiiai ia
naaa?i-caiaaea io Aea?aeoa?neiai i?ieeaa, yneaae?a aaeie?aea Iaeueniia
?aca?iieea iauaaeeiaiiue o?aiei-eniaineee oeio. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
cia/aiea yoiai niauoey auei ia?iiiui. Aiaeey iaaeieai noaea iaoycaeiie
aeey o?aioeocneiai aoi?aeaiey. A iiya?a o?aioeocu caiyee Aaio. 2
aeaeaa?y ieiei naeaiey Aonoa?eeoe a Ii?aaee o?aioeocneea aienea iaianee
nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea niaaeeiaiiui a?ieyi ?innee e Aano?ee,
canoaaea eiia?aoi?a O?aioea iaiaaeeaiii i?ineoue i ie?a. Eiaaea a Aaio
i?eoea aanoue i aeoaa iiae Aonoa?eeoeai, i?onneee ieieno? Aaoaaeoe
a?ineeny a Oaia?oiineee aeai?aoe e Iaiieaiio n iicae?aaeaieyie. “Oi?ooia
ia?aiaieea iai?aaeaiea aaoeo iicae?aaeaiee”, – ianiaoeeai caiaoee
Iaiieaii e iio?aaiaae caeeth/eoue iai?iieoaeueii-ianooiaoaeueiue nithc.

15 aeaeaa?y 1805 aiaea Aaoaaeoe iinoaaee naith iiaeienue iiae n?i/ii
iiaeaioiaeaiiui o?aioeocneie noi?iiie aeieoiaioii. Oaeae?ai ienae
Iaiieaiio, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai o?aioeocneay eiia?ey noaiao
iaeaaeaoaeueieoeae ia oieueei thaa, ii e naaa?a Aa?iaiee. Iaeiaei
Aiiaia?o ia aue neeiiai aeiaa?youe I?onnee. Oaea /a?ac ianeieueei
iaaeaeue iinea ano?a/e n Aaoaaeoeai ii niiauae Oaeae?aio, /oi ia oi/ao
cia/eoaeueiiai oaaee/aiey oa??eoi?ee I?onnee, oae eae yoi naeaeaei au aa
“aieaa iianiie” ia oieueei aeey ?innee, ii e aeey O?aioeee. I?ieaeao
anaai eeoue iieaiaea, e I?onney aiiaue ia?aiaoiaony a eaaa?ue
i?ioeaieeia eiia?aoi?a o?aioeocia, oai naiui iieiinoueth aeieacaa
i?aaioo aai iianaiee. N Aaanao?aaie iinea Aonoa?eeoea iiaeii auei aiiaua
aieueoa ia oea?aiiieoueny: 26 aeaeaa?y 1805 aiaea a I?annao?aa
(A?aoeneaaa) aue iiaeienai iiaue, o?aoee ii n/aoo ie?iue aeiaiai?,
niaeanii eioi?iio Aano?ey i?eciaea ana o?aioeocneea i?eia?aoaiey a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia e, e?iia oiai, onooiaea Iaiieaiio, eae ei?ieth Eoaeee,
Aaiaoeeaineoth iaeanoue, Eno?eth e Aeaeiaoeeth. Aa?iaineei nithcieeai
O?aioeee iia onooiaea Oe?ieue e ?yae ae?oaeo iaeanoae, auiea/eaaea
O?aioeee ni?ieaieeeeiiioth eiio?eaooeeth. Aaaaiiiee Aano?ee a Aa?iaiee
i?eoae eiiaoe. 6 aaaonoa 1806 aiaea O?aioe neiaeee n naay caaiea
aa?iaineiai eiia?aoi?a. Nayuaiiay ?eineay eiia?ey aa?iaineie iaoeee,
oaeei ia?acii, ieii/eea naia iiiaiaaeiaia nouanoaiaaiea iiae oaea?aie
o?aioeocneiai i?oaeey. Iaaeaeo ?aeiii e Yeueaie i?i/ii ooaa?aeaeaeanue
aeanoue Iaiieaiia I. Noa?eiiay ia/oa ?eoaeuea e Iaca?eie, eacaeinue,
aio-aio inouanoaeony.

12 ethey 1806 aiaea ec 16 caiaaeiuo aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa aue nicaeai
?aeineee nithc, ai aeaaa eioi?iai noiye Iaiieaii a ea/anoaa
“i?ioaeoi?a”. Niaeanii nithciui aeiaiai?ai, caeeth/aiiui n O?aioeeae,
eaaeaeue /eai iiaiai nithca iaycuaaeny iinoaaeyoue aieineea eiioeiaaiou
a a?iee o?aioeocneiai eiia?aoi?a. Nicaeaiea Eoaeueyineiai ei?ieaanoaa e
?aeineiai nithca caeiaeeei iniiao iiaie ia?iiiie eiia?ee, iaiiieiaaoae i
a?aiaiao Ea?ea Aaeeeiai. E eiioeo 1805 aiaea iieiia nie?ooaiea aiaiiie
iiue Aano?ee e iooaniaiea ?innee nicaeaaaee i?aaeiinueee aeey iiiuoie
?ani?ino?aiaiey o?aioeocneiai ainiiaenoaa ia Aeeaeiee e aeaaea N?aaeiee
Ainoie. Caoaao Aeaeiaoeineiai iiaa?aaeuey Aae?eaoe/aneiai ii?y iicaieye
oaia?ue Iaiieaiio ieacuaaoue iinoiyiiia aeaaeaiea ia aaeeaineea
i?iaeioeee Oo?oeee. Aianoa n oai iinea ecaiaiey ec Iaaiiey Ao?aiiia
(yiaa?ue 1806 aiaea) O?aioeey iieo/aea oaeaea e ana caiaaeiia
iiaa?aaeuea Aae?eaoeee, io Aaiaoeee aei Io?aioi. E inaie 1806 aiaea
noaei, iaeiaei, i/aaeaeiui, /oi o?aioeocneie aeeieiiaoee ia oaeanony
aeiaiai?eoueny i ie?a ie n ?inneae, ie n Aiaeeae. “ss ia iiao eiaoue
?aaeueiue nithc ie n iaeiie ec aaeeeeo aea?aeaa Aa?iiu; nithc, eioi?ue y
eiath n I?onneae, iniiaai ia no?aoa”. Iaienaa yoe no?iee Oaeae?aio 12
naioya?y 1806 aiaea, Iaiieaii ia iia i?aaeaeaeaoue, /oi /a?ac ianyoe
o?aioeocneea aienea iiia?ythony neeie n i?onneie a?ieae. I?onneee aeai?,
iaioaaiiue nicaeaieai ?aeineiai nithca, aiiaue i?eieioe e
aioeo?aioeocneie eiaeeoeee e 1 ieoya?y iai?aaee a Ia?eae oeueoeiaooi n
o?aaiaaieai a aeanyoeaeiaaiue n?ie ioaanoe aienea O?aioeee ca ?aei.
Iaiieaii ioaaoee no?aieoaeueiui ianooieaieai. 14 ieoya?y a aeaoo
n?aaeaieyo – iiae Eaiie e Aoy?ooaaeoii – i?onneea aienea iioa?iaee
ii?aaeaiea.

27 ieoya?y o?aioeocneay a?iey anooieea a Aa?eei. ?aca?ii I?onnee
i?eaeecee Iaiieaiia e aai iniiaiie oeaee – nie?ooaieth iiaouanoaa
Aiaeee. A Aa?eeia Iaiieaii caaa?oee iiaeaioiaeo ciaiaieoiai aeae?aoa,
iauyaeaoaai eiioeiaioaeueioth aeieaaeo. Yoi auea a?aiaeeiciay iiiuoea
“caaiaaaoue ii?a iiuueth caiee”, – oae ioeaiee Iaiieaii naie ieai a
ienueia a?aoo ei?ieth Aieeaiaeee Ethaeiaeeo. 21 iiya?y ii iiaeienae
aeae?ao, cai?auaaoee anai caaeneiui e iiaeaeanoiui no?aiai eaeea-eeai
niioaiey n Aiaeeae e aa eieiieyie. Iaiieaii ?aoee neiieoue aa
nii?ioeaeaiea, cae?ua aeey aiaeeeneeo oiaa?ia aa?iiaeneea ?uiee. Ioiuia
o?aaiaaiea no?iaeaeoaai niaethaeaiey i?aaee eiioeiaioaeueiie aeieaaeu
Aiaeee anaie caaeneiuie io O?aioeee ainoaea?noaaie noaei iaeiie ec
aeaaiaeoeo caaea/ aeeieiiaoee Iaiieaiia.

Iaeiaei yoio ieai iiae?uaae yeiiiieeo ia oieueei Aiaeee, ii e ae?oaeo
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, a oii /enea naiie O?aioeee. Iiyoiio ieeaeea neeu ia
iiaee caaea?aeaoue aa e?ooaiey. Oai a?aiaiai Iaiieaii i?iaeieaeae
iaaeayoueny ia o?aiei-?onneia naeeaeaiea. “Eiaaea aeaa oaeea aea?aeaau,
eae O?aioeey e ?inney, oioyo ie?a, eo/oei n?aaenoaii aeey aeinoeaeaiey
yoie oeaee yaeythony i?yiua aeaenoaey”, – ienae ii a ia?oa 1807 aiaea
Oaeae?aio. A ia?aie iieiaeia 1807 aiaea Aiiaia?o ianeieueei ?ac noaaee
aii?in i ie?iuo ia?aaiai?ao iaeiia?aiaiii n ?inneae e Aiaeeae. Ii
iiieiaiey ia iaoae. Iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue iinea 14 ethiy 1807 aiaea,
eiaaea a n?aaeaiee i?e O?eaeeaiaea ?onneea aienea iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea e
ionooieee ca Iaiai. I?onney auea ?aca?iieaia, /aoaa?oay eiaeeoeey
?aniaeanue. Aeaenaiae?o I i?eoeinue oaia?ue e?ooi eciaieoue eo?n naiae
aiaoiae iieeoeee e iai?aaeoue e Iaiieaiio naiaai i?aaenoaaeoaey eiycy
Eiaaiiaa-?inoianeiai n i?inueaie i ie?a.

25 ethiy a i?onneii ai?iaeea Oeeueceoa ia/aeenue ia?aaiai?u iaaeaeo
eiia?aoi?aie ?innee e O?aioeee. Naeeaeaiea aeaoo eiia?aoi?ia –
“aeanoyuee yieciae” (neiaa Oaeae?aia) a aeecie Iaiieaiia. Aiiaia?o eae
iiaaaeeoaeue i?aaeeiaeee Aeaenaiae?o I naie oneiaey. Iineaaeiaio ie/aai
ia inoaaaeinue, eae iiaeienaoue 7 ethey aeaa aaaeiaeoeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeieoiaioa: ie?iue aeiaiai? n ioaeaeueiuie e nae?aoiuie noaoueyie e
aeiaiai? i nithca iaaeaeo aeaoiy eiia?eyie, iai?aaeaiiue i?ioea Aiaeee.
A oeaio?a aieiaiey i?e aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ia?aaiai?ao, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo
iiaeienaieth ie?iiai aeiaiai?a, noiye aii?in i noaeueaa I?onnee e aa
iieueneeo aeaaeaiee. Iaiieaii no?aieeny aiiaua oie/oiaeeoue “iiaeeoth
aeeianoeth” Aiaaioeieea?iia e oieueei ii ianoiyieth Aeaenaiae?a I
niaeaneeny ia aica?auaiea /anoe eo auaoeo aeaaeaiee. Ii/oe ana iieueneea
caiee I?onnee iooiaeeee io iaa, e ec ieo ia?aciauaaeinue iiaia Aaeeeia
aa?oeianoai Aa?oaaneia. *a?ac aeaa aeiy iinea iiaeienaiey iniiaiuo
o?aiei-?onneeo aeieoiaioia, 9 ethey, a Oeeueceoa aue caeeth/ai e
o?aiei-i?onneee ie?iue aeiaiai?, eeoaaoee O?eae?eoa Aeeueaaeueia III aai
cayeueaneeo, caiaaeiuo, a oaeaea iieueneeo ainoi/iuo aeaaeaiee. I?onney
oiaiueoaeanue e ii oa??eoi?ee, e ii ianaeaieth ii/oe aaeaia,
iaycuaaeanue i?eieiooue e eiioeiaioaeueiie aeieaaea e oieaoeoue
ia?iiioth eiio?eaooeeth. Ii e?ao caoaaoie/aneie iieeoeee Iaiieaiia aue
oaea ia ca ai?aie.

A iaa 1808 aiaea ia/aeenue ia?iaeiua ainnoaiey a Iaae?eaea, Ea?oaoaia,
Na?aaina, Io?nee, Anoo?ee, A?aiaaea, Aaeaoina, Aaeainee. 6 ethiy ooioa
Naaeeuee io eiaie anae Eniaiee iauyaeea O?aioeee aieio. E anei?a
o?aioeocu iioa?iaee ?yae oyaeaeuo ii?aaeaiee. Ainnoaea Ii?ooaaeey, ia
oa??eoi?ee eioi?ie aunaaeeeenue aiaeeeneea aienea. Ii?aaeaiey
iaiieaiiianeeo aiene a Eniaiee iiaei?aaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iiceoeee
O?aioeee. A Aaia aini?yioee aeooii e ia/aee eeoi?aaei/ii aii?oaeaoueny.
A oaeeo oneiaeyo iiaay aeaiiino?aoeey i?i/iinoe o?aiei-?onneiai nithca
i?eia?aea aeey Iaiieaiia iniaia cia/aiea. Aeey yoiai ii ia aeaeae ie
a?aiaie, ie aeaiaa.

Naeaeaiea aeaoo eiia?aoi?ia ninoiyeinue a eiioea naioya?y 1808 aiaea a
Y?oo?oa a eneeth/eoaeueii oi?aeanoaaiiie ianoaiiaea. Ie/aai ni noi?iiu
Iaiieaiia ia auei oiouaii, /oiau canoaaeoue Aeaenaiae?a iiaa?eoue a naia
iiaouanoai. A aai naeoa iaoiaeeeenue 4 iiaeaeanoiuo aio ei?iey e 34
eiycy. Y?oo?o i?aa?aoeeny a ai?iae aaneiia/iuo i?acaeianoa, c?aeeu e
aaeia. Iaiieaiio oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny i?iaeeaiey o?aiei-?onneiai nithca,
ii oieueei oeaiie i?eciaiey i?aa ?innee ia Iieaeaaeth e Aaeaoeth, a
oaeaea e ia Oeieyiaeeth, eioi?ay oiaaea aua i?eiaaeeaaeaea Oaaoeee.
Iaeiaei a aaaeiaeoai aeey Iaiieaiia aii?ina ia ioiioaiee ?innee e
Aano?ee Aeaenaiae? I i?iyaee oii?noai. Ii aue oi?ioi inaaaeiieai i
cao?oaeiaieyo Iaiieaiia e niaa?oaiii ia aue ?aniieiaeai iiiiaaoue aio
onie?youe Aano?eth. Aeeneonney ii aano?eeneie i?iaeaia i?ioiaeeea a
iai?yaeaiiie ianoaiiaea. Ia aeiaeaoenue onooiie, Iaiieaii cae?e/ae,
a?inee naith o?aoaieeo ia iie, noae oiioaoue aa iiaaie. Aeaenaiae? I,
nio?aiyy niieienoaea, cayaee aio: “Au /aeiaae ai?y/ee, y aea oi?yi: aiaa
ia iaiy ia aeaenoaoao. Aeaaaeoa aanaaeiaaoue, ?annoaeaeaoue, eia/a y
oaaeo” – e iai?aaeeny e auoiaeo. Iaiieaiio i?eoeinue aai oaea?aeaoue e
oniieieoueny. Aeeneonney aiciaiiaeeanue a aieaa oia?aiiii, aeaaea
ae?oaeanoaaiiii oiia. Oioy y?oo?oneia naeaeaiea (27 naioya?y – 14
ieoya?y 1808 aiaea) e caeii/eeinue iiaeienaieai 12 ieoya?y 1808 aiaea
nithciie eiiaaioeee, ieeaeiai aeaenoaeoaeueiiai oe?aieaiey
o?aiei-?onneiai nithca ia i?iecioei. A Y?oo?oa Iaiieaii ieii/aoaeueii
?aoee ?acaanoenue n AEicaoeiie e ii?o/ee Oaeae?aio ia?aaiai?eoue n
oea?ai i aiciiaeiinoe aeaieoueau ia iaeiie ec ?onneeo aaeeeeo eiyaeii.
?a/ue oea ia Aiia, eioi?ie aaeaa eniieieeinue 14 eao.

Aeaenaiae? /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy ioaaoee aaaeeeaui ioeacii. Caeeth/aiea
iiaie eiiaaioeee n ?inneae iicaieeei Iaiieaiio a?ineoue naie neeu i?ioea
iaiiei?iie Eniaiee e niiaa iaeaaeaoue Iaae?eaeii. Ai?ueaa ca Ie?aiayie,
iaeiaei, oieueei aua ?acai?aeanue, eiaaea ecaanoey i aiaiiuo
i?eaioiaeaieyo Aano?ee canoaaeee Iaiieaiia niaoii aica?aoeoueny ec
Eniaiee ai O?aioeeth. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ca?o/eaoenue iiaeaea?aeeie ni
noi?iiu Aiaeee, ia?aciaaaoae iiaoth, 5-th ii n/aoo eiaeeoeeth i?ioea
O?aioeee, Aano?ey ia/aea a ai?aea 1809 aiaea aiaiiua aeaenoaey ia
Aa?oiai Aeoiaa. Ii e ia yoio ?ac aano?eeneoth a?ieth iaeeaeaei oyaeaeia
ii?aaeaiea, iinea eioi?iai O?aioe I auioaeaeai aue ia/aoue ia?aaiai?u i
ie?a.

14 ieoya?y 1809 aiaea a Oaia?oiineii aeai?oea a Aaia aue iiaeienai
ie?iue aeiaiai?, ii eioi?iio Iaiieaii i?eniaaeeiee ii/oe anth Caiaaeioth
Aaeeoeeth e aa?oeianoao Aa?oaaneiio, i?aaeinoaaea ?innee eeoue
n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoie Oa?iiiieueneee ie?oa. Iiieii Caiaaeiie
Aaeeoeee, Aaineee aeiaiai? eeoae Aano?eth ?yaea aa i?iaeioeee
(Caeueoeao?aa, /anoe Aa?oiae Aano?ee e E?aeiu, Ea?eioee, Oi?aaoee), a
oaeaea niaa?oaiii io?acae aa io Aae?eaoe/aneiai ii?y: ec aano?eeneeo
caiaeue ia iiaa?aaeuea (O?eano, Oeoia e ae?.) auee oaia?ue ia?aciaaiu
oae iacuaaaiua Eeee?eeneea aeaia?oaiaiou O?aioeocneie eiia?ee.
Oaia?oiineee ie? 1809 aiaea – naiue e?oiiue oniao aeeieiiaoee Iaiieaiia.
Iinea caeeth/aiey Oaia?oiineiai aeiaiai?a e cia/eoaeueiiai ?anoe?aiey
aa?oeianoaa Aa?oaaneiai ca n/ao Caiaaeiie Aaeeoeee ?onnei-o?aioeocneea
ioiioaiey noaee auno?i oooaeoaoueny. Iieiaeoae iaoaea/ae caeii/eeenue e
ia?aaiai?u ii aii?ino i aoaeouai aa?oeianoaa Aa?oaaneiai iaaeaeo
?oiyioeaaui e Eieaieo?ii. Iiaeienaiiay eie iinea aeieaeo i?iaiei/ae
eiiaaioeey, aiai?eaoay i oii, /oi “Iieueneia ei?ieaanoai ieeiaaea ia
aoaeao ainnoaiiaeaii”, ia auea ?aoeoeoee?iaaia Iaiieaiiii. Ii, iaiai?io,
a 1810-1811 aiaeao, no?aiynue i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio iieueneoth
oeyooo, noeee ae ainnoaiiaeaiea Iieueoe a a?aieoeao 1772 aiaea.

Iaiieaii yaii iaia?aaaeny a iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai nicaeaoue a ainoi/iie
/anoe Aa?iiu iiaia e?oiiia e oeaeeeii caaeneiia io O?aioeee ei?ieaanoai.
Aoi?ui aii?inii, aucuaaaoei iaino?aiea a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ?inneae e
O?aioeeae, aue ainoi/iue. Iaiieaii ia oieueei ia niae?aeny
?aca?aie/eaaoue noa?u aeeyiey ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea, a anaie neeaie
no?aieeny iiae/eieoue naiaio aeeyieth Aaeeaineee iieoino?ia. A ethea
1810 aiaea e O?aioeee auei i?eniaaeeiaii Aieeaiaeneia ei?ieaanoai, a
aeaeaa?a – oaaeoea?neay oa??eoi?ey Aaeeen, a a oaa?aea 1811 aiaea –
aa?oeianoai Ieueaeaiao?aneia, /anoe aa?oeianoaa Aa?a e ei?ieaanoaa
Aaiiiaa?neiai. Ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii eeoeeenue naiae iacaaeneiinoe e o?e
aaicaeneeo ai?iaea – Aaiao?a, A?aiai e Ethaae. O?aioeey noaiiaeeanue
aaeoeeneie aea?aeaaie. Aiaoia ana yoe ii?aceoaeueiua oniaoe au?aceeenue
ia oieueei a aeaieoueaa Iaiieaiia ia aaanao?aneie i?eioeanna, ii e a
i?aa?auaiee ai aeaaeaoaeueiuo inia aai a?aoueaa e nanoa?, ii?iaeieaoeony
ni iiiaeie aa?iiaeneeie oea?noaothueie aeiiaie. Oae, a?aouey Iaiieaiia
AEicao, Eoe e AEa?ii i?aa?aoeeenue a ei?ieae Eniaiee, Aieeaiaeee e
Aanooaeee, aai ianuiie Aaaaiee Aiaa?iy noae noi?oaii aaaa?neie
i?eioeannu, a a?ao AEa?ii – ath?oaiaa?aneie. Iiiaea ni?aoieee Iaiieaiia
oiaea iieo/eee aunieea oeooeu e caaiey. Oae, aai oo?ei Ith?ao iieo/ee
nia?aa oeooe aa?oeiaa aa?aneiai, a caoai ei?iey iaaiieeoaineiai; ia?oae
Aa?ouea – oeooe eiycy iaaoaoaeueneiai.

Aioiaynue e aieia n ?inneae, Iaiieaii no?aieeny i?aaeaea anaai iie?ai/a
i?eaycaoue e O?aioeee I?onneth e Aano?eth. Oi?iaeueii ii aeinoea
iiiaiai: aio oaeaeinue canoaaeoue O?eae?eoa Aeeueaaeueia III caeeth/eoue
n O?aioeeae 24 oaa?aey 1812 aiaea nae?aoioth eiiaaioeeth, ii eioi?ie
I?onney iaycaeanue aunoaaeoue aeey o/anoey a aieia i?ioea ?innee
20-ouny/iue ei?ion. Aano?ey 14 ia?oa 1812 aiaea oaeaea iaycaeanue
i?eiyoue o/anoea a aieia i?ioea ?innee, aunoaaea 30-ouny/iue ei?ion aeey
aeaenoaee ia Oe?aeia. Ii iaa yoe niaeaoaiey auee iiaeienaiu iiae a?oaui
aeaaeaieai ni noi?iiu o?aioeocneeo aeeieiiaoia, a naeaeaiiua a
iaii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia iaauaiey iinea iiaaaeiiiniie aieiu ia?aaeaoue
I?onnee I?eaaeoeeo, a Aano?ee – Aieuiue – auee ia neeoeii
niaeacieoaeueiu. Iieeoe/aneay aoiinoa?a ana aieaa iaeaeyeanue. Iaiieaii,
aiciouaiiue ia?ooaieai ?innee eiioeiaioaeueiie aeieaaeu, o?aaiaae io
Aeaenaiae?a I oi/iiai e iaeiinoi?iiiaai auiieiaiey acyouo ia naay a
Oeeueceoa iaycaoaeuenoa, a oaeaea oe?aieaiey e aeaaea ?anoe?aiey
nithciuo ioiioaiee n O?aioeeae.

27 ai?aey Eo?aeei io eiaie oea?y niiauee Iaiieaiio, /oi
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui oneiaeai aeey yoiai iiaoo yaeoueny eeoue iooiae
o?aioeocneeo aiene ec I?onnee ca Yeueao, inaiaiaeaeaiea oaaaeneie
Iiia?aiee e Aeaioeeaa, niaeanea ia oi?aiaeth ?innee n iaeo?aeueiuie
no?aiaie. “Eae niaaoa au aeaeaoue iia iiaeiaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey! Au
iinooiaaoa, eae I?onney ia?aae Eaiie”, – e?e/ae a ioaao o?aioeocneee
eiia?aoi?, auno?i nin?aaeioi/eaaaoee a yoi a?aiy naie aii?oaeaiiua neeu
a I?onnee e a aa?oeianoaa Aa?oaaneii, o naiuo a?aieoe ?innee. Aoi?aeaiea
Aaeeeie a?iee a ?inneth ia/aeinue 24 ethiy. *a?ac /aou?a aeiy Iaiieaii
aue a ae?aaiae eeoianeie noieeoea. Nthaea i?eaue e iaio i?aaenoaaeoaeue
Aeaenaiae?a Aaeaoia, iiiuoaaoeeny oaaaeeoue Iaiieaiia i?ae?aoeoue
aoi?aeaiea. Iineaaeiee ioaaoee oea?neiio iineaioeo a?oaui e aunieiia?iui
ioeacii. Iinea iouacaea Aaeaoiaa ec Aeeueii aeeieiiaoe/aneea niioaiey
iaaeaeo ?onneei e o?aioeocneei i?aaeoaeuenoaaie i?ae?aoeeenue. Iaeiaei
oaea ia?aua iaoaea/e Iaiieaiia, ia noiaaoaai ?aca?iieoue aienea aaia?aea
Aa?eeay-aea-Oieee a iia?aie/iuo n?aaeaieyo, canoaaeee aai eneaoue
ii/aoiiai ie?a.

Iinea Niieainea Aiiaia?o aia?aua iiiuoaeny ia/aoue ia?aaiai?u n ?onneei
i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Ioioneay ieaiiiai ?onneiai aaia?aea Oo/eiaa, Iaiieaii
i?inee aai ia?aaeaoue oea?th, /oi “ii?ioa niaeaeaii aeinoaoi/ii” e /oi
ii aioia iieoe ia iaeioi?ua onooiee: “Au oioeoa eiaoue eioa e naoa? – au
eo aoaeaoa eiaoue”. Yoio ciiaeaae o?aioeocneiai eiia?aoi?a ia eiae
oniaoa. Caoaaoea Iineao, Iaiieaii i?aaei?eiye aua ianeieueei iiiuoie
anooieoue a ie?iua ia?aaiai?u. ?aiueoa oaeay oaeoeea i?eiineea aio
oniao. Iaeiaei Aeaenaiae? I ia iiaeaeae anooiaoue a niioaiey n
o?aioeocaie. Ionooieaiea a noi?iio Aa?aceiu e Aeeueii i?eaaei a?ieth
Iaiieaiia e ii/oe iieiie aeaaee. E aac oiai eaoano?ioe/aneia iieiaeaiea
o?aioeocneeo aiene auei aua aieaa oooaeoaii ia?aoiaeii i?onneeo aiene ia
noi?iio ?innee. Oai naiui nicaeaaaeanue iiaay, 6-y eiaeeoeey i?ioea
O?aioeee. Iiieii Aiaeee e ?innee, i?ioea Iaiieaiia aunooiaee oaia?ue
I?onney, a caoai e Oaaoeey.

28 ethiy 1813 aiaea a iaeiii ec aeai?oeia Ae?acaeaia Iaooa?ieo
ano?aoeeny n Iaiieaiiii. Ii iineaaeiee ia aeaeae ie/aai neuoaoue aeaaea
i n?aaieoaeueii iacia/eoaeueiuo onooieao: ii ii-i?aaeiaio aa?ee a naith
caacaeo, a n i?eiyoeai i?aaeeiaeaiee nithcieeia ?ooeeanue aeey iaai any
oeo?ioiiay nenoaia eiioeiaioaeueiie aeieaaeu e en/acaea iineaaeiyy
iaaeaaeaea ?ann/eoaoueny n Aiaeeae. E?iia oiai, e ia?anoaiea
iaaeiaieuenoaa aeeeoaeueiie aieiie aioo?e naiie O?aioeee canoaaeyei
Iaiieaiia no?aieoueny e iiaui aiaoiaiieeoe/aneei oniaoai. Ii e?e/ae
Iaooa?ieoo, /oi ia iiaeao “iieacaoueny oieaeaiiui ia?aae naiei
ia?iaeii”: “Au oioeoa ana-oaee aeeeoiaaoue iia caeiiu! Oi?ioi, ionoue
aoaeao aieia. Ii aei naeaeaiey – oaeaeeiny a Aaia!” 10 aaaonoa Aano?ey
anooieea a 6-th eiaeeoeeth a iiiaio, eiaaea a Aa?iaiee i?ioea Iaiieaiia
eiioeaio?e?iaaeanue ia?iiiay a?iey, ninoiyaoay ec ?onneeo, i?onneeo,
oaaaeneeo e aiaeeeneeo eiioeiaaioia. “Aeoaa ia?iaeia” i?iecioea 16-19
ieoya?y 1813 aiaea iiae Eaeioeeaii. ?acaeoua a?iee Iaiieaiia auioaeaeaiu
auee ionooieoue ca ?aei, e anei?a aiaiiua aeaenoaey auee ia?aianaiu ia
oa??eoi?eth naiie O?aioeee.

E oo?o 30 ia?oa nithciua a?iee auoee e oe?aieaieyi Ia?eaea, a ia
neaaeothuee aeaiue, 31 ia?oa, Aeaenaiae? I e O?eae?eo Aeeueaaeuei III ai
aeaaa naieo aiene oi?aeanoaaiii anooieee ia oeeoeu o?aioeocneie
noieeoeu. Iaoiaeeaoeeny a Oiioaiaei, a 90 eeeiiao?ao io Ia?eaea,
Iaiieaii auioaeaeai aue ioeacaoueny io i?iaeieaeaiey ai?ueau e 6 ai?aey
io?aeny io i?anoiea a iieueco naiaai nuia; iicaeiaa ii iiei?ii
iai?aaeeny ia tha O?aioeee, /oiau neaaeiaaoue aeaeueoa ii?ai ia ino?ia
Yeueao, i?aaeinoaaeaiiue aio nithcieeaie a iiaeeciaiiia aeaaeaiea.
Aeeieiiaoe/aneay no?aoaaey Iaiieaiia auea ii?iaeaeaia aai
caaiaaaoaeueiuie aieiaie e ianeoaeeaaea eo. Ca iiaaaeaie neaaeiaaee
iiiuoee ?aaaioa ni noi?iiu iaoaea/ieeia. “A aeacao Aiiaia?oa onooiea
eaeie-eeai caiee, i?enaiaiiie ei e cae?aieaiiie oi?iaeueiui aeiaiai?ii,
auea eae au io?a/aieai io ei?iiu; e aeey iaai ?aoeoaeueii ana ?aaii,
neo/eony ee yoi io neeu ooueia eee io aai neaainoe”. Yoi ienae ?onneee
aeeieiiao I.ss. Oa?e. Iaiieaiio Aiiaia?oo ia oaaoaei auaea?aeee aeey
aaaeaiey aeeeoaeueiuo e o?oaeiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ia?aaiai?ia. N/eoay
iainii?eiui aiaiiia i?aainoiaenoai O?aioeee iaae eiaeeoeeae, ii i?eaaaae
e aeeeoaoo e oeueoeiaoeaiui o?aaiaaieyi.

Iaiieaii i?ae?anii ?acae?aeny a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo. E ana aea a
iaeanoe aeeieiiaoee ii eiiaaea ia?aioeaieaae nianoaaiiua aiciiaeiinoe e
neeu, eaeaye yaii ianauoi/iua ieaiu e o. i. Ii oiaei eniieueciaae
i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie a?aaeaeaaiuie O?aioeee ainoaea?noaaie.
Oae, aua ai a?aiaia 2-e eiaeeoeee i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ?inneae e
Aano?eae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e iaaeaeo ?inneae e Aiaeeae – n ae?oaie,
iicaieeee ia?aiio eiinoeo auno?i eciee?iaaoue Aiaeeth e aeiaeoueny
caeeth/aiey auaiaeiiai aeey O?aioeee Aiueaineiai ie?a. Iicaeiaa, ai
a?aiaia 3-e e 4-e eiaeeoeee, o?aioeocneee eiia?aoi? ia iaiaa eiaei
iieueciaaeny iaaeiaa?eai Aano?ee e iaia?aieyi ?innee, ?innee e Aiaeee
ae?oa e ae?oao, aeey oiai /oiau aaeoue eeei a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
nithcieeaie, ?acuaaeeieoue, a caoai ?aca?iieoue eo. A ia?oa 1815 aiaea
Iaiieaii i?aaei?eiye io/ayiioth iiiuoeo ainnoaiiaeoue naith aeanoue.
Aunaaeeaoenue ia thaa O?aioeee ai aeaaa io?yaea ec 1000 /aeiaae, ii n
o?eoioii i?ioae ca o?e iaaeaee /a?ac anth no?aio e aac aaeeiiai auno?aea
caiye Ia?eae.

A oa/aiea naieo Noa aeiae Iaiieaii iauyaee anaiauoth aiienoeth, ia
?ani?ino?aiea aa oieueei ia 12 aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo aeayoaeae, a oii /enea
e ia Oaeae?aia, ioeacaaoaainy caiyoue iino ieieno?a eiino?aiiuo aeae.
I?aaaea, a eiioea ai?aey ii i?aaei?eiye aua iaeio iiiuoeo iiaeeoieoue
Oaeae?aia e Iaooa?ieoa. A ienueia io 22 ai?aey ii ii?o/aao Eieaieo?o
oaeioth ienneth: “Oiieiiia/eaath Aan i?aaeinoaaeoue eiycth Aaiaaaioneiio
aa?aioee aica?auaiey eiouanoaa, anee ii aoaeao aanoe naay, eae o?aioeoc,
e ieaaeao iia iaeioi?ua oneoae. Ainiiaeei Nai-Eaii iiaeao oaeaea
i?aaeeiaeeoue ainiiaeeio Iaooa?ieoo io 1 aei 10 ieeeeiiia, anee Aano?ey
ioieaeao io eiaeeoeee e ia/iao i?aneaaeiaaoue… naie iiaeeeiiua
eioa?anu…” Iaiieaii cayaee, /oi i?eieiaao oneiaey Ia?eaeneiai ie?a io
30 iay 1814 aiaea, ii ana oaea auei iai?anii. Iiiuoea ?acaeoue
eiaeeoeeth oiaea ia aeaea ?acoeueoaoa. Aiaiiua neeu nithcieeia, /anoe/ii
oaea aeaiiaeeeciaaiiua, n?i/ii i?eaiaeeeenue a ninoiyiea aiaaie
aioiaiinoe. Iinea aiaiiuo e aeeieiiaoe/aneeo i?eaioiaeaiee 26 iay 1815
aiaea nithcieee iauyaeee Iaiieaiio aieio.

O Iaiieaiia aue ?acoiiue caiunae ?acaeoue nithcieeia iiiaeeii/ea,
i?aaeaea /ai niaa?oony aianoa eo iniiaiua neeu. Ii aunooiee i?ioea
Aaeeeiaaiia, e 18 ethiy 1815 aiaea o aea?aaooee Aaoa?eii, iaiiaeaeaeo io
A?thnnaey, i?iea?ae aeaaioth aeoao naiae aeecie. O?aae/aneay ina/ea
ia?oaea A?ooe, aeoaeaeaaoaai ni naiei aieneii aianoi oiai, /oiau a
?aoathuoth ieiooo anooieoue a aie oai, aaea aai n iaoa?iaieai iaeeaeae
eiia?aoi?, e, iaiai?io, iiyaeaiea Aethoa?a n i?onneie eiiieoeae a oio
iiiaio, eiaaea nieaeaou Aaeeeiaoiia oa?yee iineaaeiea neeu iiae
aeiaeaeai ia i?aa?aoeaoainy a aieioi iiea aiy, caaa?oeee eaoano?ioo
Iaiieaiia, iinoaaea e?ano ia aai iineaaeiai aaeeeii aoioa.

22 ethiy ii io?aeaaony io eiia?aoi?noaa ai aoi?ie ?ac a iieueco naiaai
nuia. Iaeiaei yoi oaea ieeiai ia eioa?aniaaei. A ieoya?a 1815 aiaea
aiaeeeneee o?aaao “Ii?ooiaa?eaiae” i?eaac Iaiieaiia e neaeenoiio
ino?iao, ia 300 iao?ia iiaeieiaaoaiony iaae ii?ai, – e ino?iao Nayoie
Aeaiu. Oai iaoiaeeeny aiaiiue aa?iecii e i?iaeeaaei ianeieueei naiae
auaoeo caeeth/aiiuo. Caeanue Iaiieaii inoaiaony aeeoue eae
ainoaea?noaaiiue ociee, caeanue ii aoaeao oa?caoueny, nni?eoueny,
iaieueuaoue aeai ioeoea?ia, ?aciuoeyoue i i?ioeii, iiea ia oi?ao a
auioaeaeaiiii aacaeaenoaee 5 iay 1821 aiaea. Niaeanii aai caaauaieth,
na?eioaa n aai inoaieaie aue iiiauai a /aniaia ia?eaeneiai Aeai?oea
Eiaaeeaeia (1840).

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