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Хозяйство Аравии в ранее средневековье

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O?a: OICssENOAI A?AAEE A ?AIIAA N?AAeIAAAEIAUeA

Ieai

1 A?AAEss A ?AIIAA N?AAeIAAAEIAUeA

2 CAIEAAeAEEA E NEIOIAIAeNOAI

3 ?AIANEI E OI?AIAEss

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

1 A?AAEss A ?AIIAA N?AAeIAAAEIAUeA

N??e ???e ?????e ? ???e ??? aei ??? y?yth?y th??????a ???e, ?iy??e
?????? ????, ??????a, ??????y a ??? ???o Ae???i A???, ??u ???? ???a, ???
????? ??o ??ia e E??.

A ??iy?a ??y ???i ??a 5000 ???? a THae?e A??e, ?eth?th?o ???????a e
??????? ????u, ?e??y ???o ???a, ???? ?y?????, ???e ? ???o ??i?o ??? e o.
ae. A??y ?????? ????o ??????? ???? ???a, ???? ?????o ??e ?tho ???ey ?
???, ??ey?? ???? ???e. A???a ??? A???, N???, Ae??? N????? e ??? ???tho i
???a A??e, i ??? e ??ayo ???, i ????i? ????. A???iyy ??ue A??e ??a ??
????a a ??? ??/??a ?????o ?y?a, a ??? ???eyo, ???a a VII—VIII ?. ??
???u, ??n?u e ???? ???? «Ae? ???».

Y? ?iy??e ???tho ??ue ?e ????, ?e e ???? ????y A????? ?????a, ??????ny a
???yo ??? ??????, y??????, ??????? e ????? ?i??? ? ??e ???? ?????e. Y?
???y? ??????? e ?????? ???? ???.

A?? ?? ?? ????y? ?????? ???a ???e ???????e ????, ????i ???? e ????
??????. I? ?a a ????e ???e ?ith ?????? e, ???, ?? ??i ? ??o ????? ???a
?? ???e.

2 CAIEAAeAEEA E NEIOIAIAeNOAI

I???e A????e ?????, ???ue ????i ????o 3 ?i. ?2, ???o a ???? ? ??o ???,
???ue e ?????ue. O??i ??????ay ?i ??ue — E??, E??a, ????a ??? Oe?o???e
A??e, ??? ? ??? e ???, th?? ???e — ???? ?y c????y.

???o A??e — ????a ??, ??i, ??o ?n?? — ???ey? e ? ???. E???ey ?????u
???atho ???o ???? — ? ?????e ?? ??i ? ???a ??e. Ai ??? ???o ??th?th?y
???a ????y ???e e ??? ?????u. A???oue ???a ??a ??i ????ny. A?? ??tho
??th???? ?????ey??e ?y ??i ???. Ii ??i ????i ??u ??atho ??i, ???e
?????ny ???? 50 ?? n ????? ?????, ??a ? ???a ???y?y ???u, ???ay ??? ??a.
A?? ???tho ??i y???? ??? e ?y??e ??ath?y ???ue ? ?? ?? ??e e ??.

?? a ?????i ??? a A??e ?o, ??? a ae???? ??y ???th?y ????a ??e, ???a
??yth?y a ??? e n?? ???tho, ???yy ??a ??a. A ?????e ? ???a a ??? ??y ?
?e ?ay ??ue A????? ?????a ????ue ??y?, ? ?i ??? ?????a ????e ?a ???u, a
???a ?y? ????e ?a?, ?????? ?????oth ???th a ???? ?a. I??i ???i a n?? ???
a ??? ???o ???a ??? ???e ?a ? ??i ??. *a?i ?? ????e ???.

Aeey ??? ???a A??e ????? ??????? ???? ??o, a ?y ???a — ??????? ??a ?????
???a e ??e?a. AE???e ?? ?e ??a ??o e ??????. C?? a ????e e a ?a?????
???? ???, ??e, ??, ??u, ???u, ??u, ??a ??, ??, ???, ??u e ????i ??: ??,
???, ????e e o. ae. A ??yo, i??th?o A????e ?????, ?? ??i ??. A??????a
???y A??e ????? ????? ????y ? ?a ?cy????a ???: ia ???o ?????? e
?????-?????.

I??? ???a ???e a TH?? A??e ?? ? ???? ??? ??? ???????e ????, ?a ?a a
????e (IX—VIII ?. ? i. y.) ????ue ??????? ????y e ???? ??? ???????a
?????y.

A??? ?iy?? ???? ????y A??e ?? ????a ?????. A ???o, ?a ??ey?i ???? ??e,
????a ????? ???? ?????i. A? a ????e a TH?? A??e ?? ????u ?????a ??????
????ey, ???e ???o ??a??? ? ??o ??. C?????? ???ey ???? ??????i ???a, ???,
?? e a ??? ???o.

I?????a ???u ???? e ????ey? ?? ? ???a ???e ??e. A ????o ??? ????? ??u ?y
i????y ??? ?? a ???? ??i e ????y ? ???y. ???o e n????a a ??y?a y?o ???
????e ??a ???? ??a eth?e e i?? ???e. I????, ??? ????e ???u a E??a a ????
VI a. ??ny ??i ae?o ?ny?a.

?????th ?????? ??? ??????ee ??? ????y??y e ????? ???a ???a ???, a ??a
??u e ????y.

A?? ???e ?? ???? ? ?????? ???, ???e ???u, ??a ??, ?e ???e ????? ??????a
????o ????, a ???a ???? ???oth ?? e ???y? ? ???e ?ae. A?a a A??e ????ey?
??? ??? ???, e ????e ?aeu ???i ??iy? n ???i a ??o. I??? ??????o ??? e
?c?u ???a ???? ??th???? ? ???y ????? ???ey e ????? ???a. A????e ?????
??i ???? ??? e ?e ?a??? — ????, ??? a ????y?? ?? ??y ??? ???? ???.
I????a ??? O??u a ???e E??a a Oe????? A??e ??i a ????o.

A E??a ???ue ????o ?y ????e ??eue ???? ??i 5 ?i. ?, ?i ???ey? ??i 80% ??
???. Y? ??e, ?i??i a ??? ???o e ? ???? ???y, ??? ???a ???, e ?y ? ???ey
? ?????ue ???o ???: ????? ?? ????? a? a ???a ?? ???a ????o ???.

I???? ??? ????ey ?? ?????i, ???????, ?????i. A ??? ???o ?? ???i ????a
?????. C????? ????? ???a ??e, ?n, ??i, ???? ?i??e, ?i, ???. A ??? ?? ??e
y? th??????th ???o ???? a ??? ??e ?????a. O??e a A??e ?y??y ???? a III
a. i. y., ???i ???ey ??????i ???? a E??a. N?? ????o ???? ???a ??i ????
???a, ??o, ???, ???, ??, ??a, ??, ?e, ??o, ??oe, ???ue, ????a ?????.
N?????i ????? ? ??ei ??? ???a e ????, ? e ??? ????. A ??????a a A??e
????? ????, ???ue, ???u, ???u, y??e, ??e, ???, ?????, ????, ???e. I??a
??i a ?cy??a ?????? ??i?e ????a ????ey, ???a ????e ?????i ??a, a ??? ???
??c ????i ?o ??a ???e. A ????o ???o ?????a ??? ???e ??a?e ??e ?y ????y.
???????? ?????o ????, ????o ?y???, ?????? ????? ????????i i ?????? ???
???ey ? ??? ????ey, ? e ???e.

N?????? ???????i ????? ?/?? e ?????a ???a, ???a ????e ??eth?a, ???e,
??a, ??a, ??? e ???e ???e ??. I?????? a ??, ????? a o??eyo ????e ???e,
??eth? ???e ????i ????i ??ae???y e ????e ? ?? A??e. I???-??eth??? ?????
? ia ??? ?y ??????ey ??o ??????, ? e ?y ???e ???e. O???a ????, ?????? ?
??i e ?ny/ ??eth?a, ????? ? ??o ????? ???a ?????a, ????? ?? e ????a ???
a ???? ???, ???yy A??e e C??. A??th? ??, ??a ??, ????? ????y iy?, ???,
???.

A??a ??i a ?cy??a ????? ???? e??e, ???i ???i ?e ???? ????. I??y ???
???e, ?a???y a A??e, ??? ???? e ? ????e ?????a. A ???? e ???eyo ?????ue
???ey i ??y???? ???a e ??? ???o e i ?i, ?e ? ?c ??? ???a ?cy?a ? ???.
Aeey ???e ??e? ?????a ???, ???y ? ?ey?? ???. Ae????ay ???ay ?y?y ????o
nth???, ???eyth?? ?????o ??eth?a e ??e.

A E??a ?????? ?? ???????i ???i e ??ue ?????i ????? ???? ???? ??a, ???
????? a ?y? n ?????y? ???o ??? ??i ??????y ???? ???i ???? ??a.

C?y?a ??????i ????i ? ????ia e ??????? ??ey ???th?o ? ???ue e ???,
?????? e???, ???a ????y, ???? e ????o ????? ??. *?? i????ue ????? ????y
??a, ????? ????, ????u ae??u ?? ???? ?????? ??ey?: ??ue ??? ????, ??a??
? y???e, ??iy? ? ??? ??? e ? ????y ???, ?????? ???e a ??? ????o ????.
E?? ??, ??eth?a ??i ?? ???ue ??? ??? e ??u, a ???e — ????ue.

I???? ???? ???a, ??? ? ???i i????, ????? ??? ???. A ???o, a ????? ????yo
e ???yo, ?a ???? ??a ??e e ??, ?? ???a ??a.

A A??e ?????? ???? ??iy ???ee ???th?a ????. Ae???e ??, ??? e ???i,
???????a ??e (????, ??n, ????), ??? ???, ???? ??e ?ae, ??/? ??u, ???u e
????a ???a ???? e o. ae. Ia ??i ? th???a??? ???y?o ???? ?? a V a. i. y.
??i 400 ????? ??e.

3 ?AIANEI E OI?AIAEss

????a ?????? ?????? e ??? nay?? n ????? ?????i ??????i ????ey ??a. A? a
ae???? ????ue ??? ?e ????????, ????a, ???? e ?????? ???. E???i ??i 200
???? ???a, ??? ????? ???o a ????? ????y ? ???e ???i ? ??e y? ?e e ???
??i ??e y?. Ouny???yy ???y ????? ???a ??a ? ??? ???o, ? e y?oe ???,
????ey, ??? ??? ? ???e ??e y? ??? a ???e?o, ??? ????y ???ey ? ?????ue.

A A??e ???? ??? ?? ??????? i?y??a e ????i, ??a ?y y?o ???e a ???? ???ey?
?e ???a ?????u, ?e e ????e-????u. E???ey? ?iy?a, ??oy?a e ???????? ??e
????e ???e, ???, ??u, ??u, ???ey ?y ???e, ????? ?? ?y ????e e ???? ???,
?a? ???. Ia ?th A??th ????ue ????a ????a ????a ??e. I??? ???u ???e ???
??y? e ????. I?? ? ???? ?ae? ?????? a I???a (E??) ?? ?????? ???.

A ???o A????? ?????a ?????? ???? ??iy ???? ????? ??, a ????e ????a
?????????i ??y?. I??i ???a ??i ???? ?????? i?????e ??e, ??e ?y ????
????, ???e ? ??, ???o ??th?a ?y ????e e ???ey ??, ??, ??? e ????o ??a.
Ii ??o ?????o ????ue ??a, ??????a a ??? O?a.

E??? a ???i ????? ?????e ??????th ??? e ?????: ??, ???, ??y, ???? e ????
????, ??u, ??. A??i ???? ????a ??. E??? ?????i? ???? ?????? ? ?????.

A???? ???i ?? ???i ?i, ?a ???ue ?????oth?a ??a. E?????a ???y ?????
??????i, ????y?? ???u, ?????e, ??.

A ?y? n ?i ?i A??y ????y ??y? e ???a ?????? ???a ?y? n ????? ????, ??ue
??????i ?y ??? ???e ??iy ???? ??????. N??? ?e ????a ??e, ?e e ???a ???a
??, ? ???o ????e ????o e ??a ????? ???a.

N?????a ????i ????? ???i ??????i ???. N?????? ?????e ???e ??? ???o, ?o,
??, ???, ???iye, ???y?y ??a ????? ?e ????? ? ??? ???.

A ???e ?????a TH?? A??e ?a-?a ???i ????a y??????? ?ey?a, ??? a ??i
?????a ????? ???a ??a ?? ??ue. A ??????a ??? ??????? ???? ??e ??????i
??y e ???a, ??? ???? ??????? ????a ?e ???iy??a ???u, ????? ? ???e ??u.
Ia ????? ??a ?? E?u a E??a ? ??o ??; ?????ue ??i?a ?y????? ???u ???e ??i
10 ??? ??ay. I???? ? ?o a ????e ?? ????? ????? ???e. I???? ????? ??a
????e e ???? ?????e. C??y ????ue a ????i yo??, a ??? ???o ??a ?? ????ey?
??e ??iy??? ??e.

N?????y ???a, ????i ????e ?iiy, ???a e ??? ????? ?? ???? ? ??????. I
???i ??? ???ey ??????i ????a ???yo ???e ???o ??e???o ???: ???a ??? ??a
100 ???, ????y ? ???? ??y, ???u, ???a ????? ??a ???o ????ny ? 30 ? 60
???, a ??u ???? ??? ??????e ???? ????, ?? e ??y. Ae??yy ????y ???a,
????ay ??e ???? ???e ??e, ???????a ??i 13 ??a. Aeey ???e ??u ?????? ??e
????o ??ae; ? ??????e, a ??i ???y? ??i ????.

A TH?? A??e ?a a ????e ?????ue ????a ????ey, ??u. Y??????a ????e ?????e
???e?th ?????th ?????eth.

I???ey ????i ?cy??a e ?????? ???????? ???? ? ??a ??????, a ???? a ???o.
I????ath?a ???e ???a ?? ?y?? n ???i ????, ???e?i, ??? ????o ???a,
??????i ??a, ????? ??????i ??a ? ?iyi ????o ????, ?????? ??? e o. ae. A
E?a? e a ??? ???yo ????y? ???i ?? ??i ?yiy?a ???e ec ???a, y??y, ??a,
??, ????a e ?th?.

A???i ???ey ???? ?????? ????e. I????? ?? a ?? ??? e ??? ???? ? ?????o
i???a, ???uey ? ???a, ????, ? ???o ???i, ??y?a ???? ??????i e ??????
??????y ?y ???e ?y?, ?a?e, a ??a ?y ??????o ??e: ?????y ?a, ?e, ?a, ??i.
A?a??? ???a n ???i ????? ?????? ?????a e ???????a ??e.

???? ?? ???i e o ???o ???. A? ?i???? ?y ?cy??a ?e ?????? ??: ??? ?y
???e, ???e, ??e, ??oth ???th ???, ??u e o. ae., ????? ????e ???o?e ?ae,
???a ???e ????i ??? n ???i ???????i e ????i ?????. E???? ????y? ??a ??,
???, ??y.

Ai ?? ???yo ?cy??a ?????oth ?? e?? ?? ???. I? ?? ????e ?y????? e ????e,
????? ?????? ???? ????e, ???i ??e ?? e ?? ???a ??th?. A ?????? ???eyo
?????ue ?y ????u, ???y ????y? ?????? ??? ?y ??e.

????a ????ey, ?????? e ???a ????? ??????a ????? ???? ?y?e ??o ????? ????
A??e, ???i e ???i ?????.

E??? ???? e ?????i ???i ?e ??? I??? a ???-????e ??e E??a. I????? ??u ??e
???? ???? ?y? ?e n ???? e ????e A??e, ?e e n ???e ????e. I? ?????
??????e e ???? ???????e ???ey?. A I???a ?? ??u ? A???e, Y???, E??, ? ???
???? A??e, ?i ????i ?o ???? ??????? ????i ??? n ????e ?ycy?. A??ay ???,
???e ???ny y?o ??ae, ?? ??i ? ???o ????a ?????? e ???e ????.

I??, ??????y ? ????i ???? ?oe, ?????i ????y E???i ??y, ?? ?????i ?e ???e
????e n ????e ??????e, ?e e ???? n ????e O??? e ?? A??e.

I????a ???a ??u ???ey? a N?eth, E?? e ??? ?????a ?? ?????a ????, ?????a
???a??y? ???? ???a, ????? ????i ?cy??a, a ? ? ??y ?e ???e ???, ???????y
a ??? ??????. E?? ????, ?e ????? ???? ???????e ???ey?, ??ay ??? ??yi
???, ???? ?????o ????th, e ? y?o ???eyo ???? ???a ???, a??y n ????a ?
200% ???o.

I?? ?????e e ????? ???e ????ue ??? ???a ?y?. *?? E?? I?? ????? ???? ?y?
n Y???e. *?? ??ae ??? a TH?? A??e ???? ???e ????? i?ue ? ??? a I?? — ??i
???? ???? ??o ???????e ?????e ????e. E?? ? TH?? A??e ????e ???? ???e a
????a ???e ?????a, a ??a a E??????? e E?i. I???? ???u ???e a I?? e
ss??a. A ?ith ???ue ??? ???? ??ee a E??a ? ??i ???? ??i.

I?? ? ???a ????ey e ???a a A??e ?e ??ae ss??. C?? ???? th??? ????y?
????a ????y ? ??? e ??? ????. A ?????yo ss??a ???? ???, -?o?? ???y?y a
??????a; ?i ???? e ?y ???e a ??? ???u.

A?? O?o, ??????e a ?????i ???????i ??? e ? ???i ???? ??, ? ???e ??? ???i
a ???? e ???a.

A??a ?? ???oth ???eth. A???? y??? ?????e a 12 ???o A??e: a I??, N?a, A??
e ?. AE??e ????o ????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???a?? ???e. I????, ?
?? A??e ????ue ??, ??????a ?. a. O???; ??e, ??? e ????y, ??????a a ???o
E??a; ??e? ??a; ??, ????? ? ???i ???, a ???e ?? ?-??o, e o. ae.

A??y ?a a ????e ??a ???? ???? ?y? n ????e ??????e. I??? ???? ??, ???y?a
??c tha ?????a, ?y??? A???oth A??o, E?eth e I??ithth A?th. Ii yo? ?oyi
?????? ???? ???? ??????y: ????????a ??i, ???, ???, ?thi, ??, ??a, ??i,
???y ???, ????y, ???, ?????a ??e. Ec E?? ?e ?y??e, ??? ??e, ???ay ??ue,
???, ??? ? ????e ??a. *?? ?? O?o a A???a ? E?? ????ue ??y, ????a ? ??
A??e ?e ?????. I???i ????i ??a ec E?ay ?e ??.

A??? ???? ??e e ???-???? ??o? ???? ????i ??, ? ???o ?? ?????u ??? I??,
Ao?a, I???a e ?. *?? A?? e I?? ?e ????? ?? ??c ???th e I????? ??? e ?
tha e E???o ??th. Ia ??? ???? ????ua ??u E???i ??y E??a e A?, ? e ???
???? y?? ??y ????e ???a ???a a ????? ????. E??? ? ??????o ???a ????e
???a E?ay.

I???a ????a ??? TH?? A??e ? ???a ???e — O??, O??, E?? ??? ? ??, ? ???? a
N????i??a e a I????a ??e ??????a ???? O????a e Ae??a, i?y??e ? E??.
E????a ??? ?e n th? ??c E??o e ????e ??a ??ue ????i ??? A??e.

Ia ??? ???? ???th ?? a ????? ???? ??? I???a.

A??a ??i a ????? ???? ???? ?????ey. E?? E??a e O??? ???ey? ??a ?e ? ??e
???i?e A??e, ?e e a A???th e E?i.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. E??ey ??i A?e e A??e a ???a ??. *.1. I.: E????o? I????? ??????. 1987.

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