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Холодное оружие и доспехи в истории появления и развития рыцарства Западной Европы

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e n?aaeiaai ia?aciaaiey

Aaoee?neee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Iaaeaaiae/aneee Einoeooo

Enoi?e/aneee oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a Anaiauae enoi?ee

Aeieeaae

Oaia: Oieiaeiia i?oaeea e aeiniaoe

a enoi?ee iiyaeaiey e ?acaeoey ?uoea?noaa Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu

Auiieiee: nooaeaio II eo?na

a?oiiu ? 1124

Iaaethoia ?. O.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Eaiiiaa O. A.

Ooa – 1999

Ieai.

Aaaaeaiea.

I. Iniiaiay /anoue:

1) Aeiniaoe e aii?oaeaiea aieiia a?aiai Ea?ieeiaia.

2) I?aaeiinueee e nicaeaieth ?uoea?noaa.

3) Aeiniaoe e aii?oaeaiea a XI –XIII aaeao. Iiuo e?anoiauo iioiaeia.

4) Aii?oaeaiea iaoiou a X – XIII aaeao e “e?anoueyineia” i?oaeea.

Caeeth/aiea

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

Iinea iaaeaiey ?eineie Eiia?ee ia/aeny no?aieoaeueiue iiaeuai
aa?aa?neiai ie?a. A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iniiaiuie aa?aa?neeie ieaiaiaie,
caeiaeeaoeie iniiao a ca?iaeaeaiea aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa, auee
aa?iaioeu. Aieueoeinoai ainoaea?noa nia?aiaiiie Aa?iio iaycaiu naiei
i?ienoiaeaeaieai ?acee/iui aa?iaineei ieaiaiai.

Nouanoaiaaiea ethaie a?oiiu ethaeae, a iniaaiii oeaeuo ieaiai e
ia?iaeia, iaecaaaeii aea/ao ca niaie noieeiiaaiey eae n ie?oaeathuei
ie?ii, oae e n iiaeiaiuie naaa. Aeaiiua noieeiiaaiey, /anoi
ia?a?anoathuea a aiaiiua eiioeeeou, o?aaotho ?acaeoey n?aaenoa aeey
oie/oiaeaiey naaa iiaeiaiuo, a oaeaea n?aaenoa e niiniaia caueou io
i?iyaeaiey aa?annee.

N?aaeiaaaeiaue ia?eiae enoi?ee ia/aeny n iaaeaiey ?eia, eiaaea i?aeu
aa?aa?neeo ieaiai oeuioee ia oa??eoi?ee auaoeo ?eineeo i?iaeioeee,
ia?aciaaa iiaua ainoaea?noaa. E caeai/eaaaony ia/aeii XVI aaea, eiaaea
ao?aeoaciua eaeae ?anoiioaee iieeoe/aneoth iniiao n?aaeiaaaeiauo
ainoaea?noa.

Eco/aiea N?aaeieo aaeia iaaiciiaeii aac eco/aiey aiaiiuo eiioeeeoia
iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie e oaiaeaeaie, niioaaonoaaiii iaiaoiaeeii eco/aoue
n?aaenoaa iaiaaeaiey e caueou, i?eiaiyaiua a aeaiiuo aiaiiuo eiioeeeoao,
o.a. eco/aiea oieiaeiiai i?oaeey ai anai aai iiiaiia?acee a aeaiiue
ia?eiae enoi?ee. Iu oioei cao?iiooue ia?eiae, eioi?ue aini?eieiaaony
aieueoeinoaii ethaeae eae iaeaieaa y?eia a?aiy a n?aaeiaaaeiauea. Yoi
ia?eiae IX –XIII aaeia, o.a. a?aiy ca?iaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey ?uoea?noaa.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iiiyoea N?aaeiea Aaea o aieueoeinoaa ethaeae
iaeciaiii annioeee?oaony n ia?acii ?uoea?y, iaea/aiiiai a eaou n
ia?iiiui ia/ii a ?oea. Aeaaiaea?y iinoiyiiui eiioeeeoai e aieiai
ioiioaiea e oieiaeiiio i?oaeeth a oi a?aiy i?eia?aei aeae naiaia?aciiai
eoeueoa, oiio i?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue iieiaiiaaiea iaeaieaa oeaiiuo e
ciaiaieouo aaeeieoe i?oaeey, a oaeaea nicaeaiea eaaaiae i
naa?ouanoanoaaiiuo naienoaao yoeo eeeieia (Aeth?aiaeaeue, Yneaeeao?,
Iueaeueie?, A?ai, Ooiaie? ae?.)

A aeaiiie ne?iiiie ?aaioa iu oioaee au aeaoue e?aoeee iaci? ?acaeoey
aeaeia oieiaeiiai i?oaeey e aeiniaoia a IX –XIII aaeao, ?anniio?aoue
i?e/eiu iiyaeaiey e ?acaeoey ?uoea?noaa eae aeaea aii?oaeaiiuo nee a
Caiaaeiie

Iniiaiay /anoue

1. Aeiniaoe e aii?oaeaiea aieiia a?aiai Ea?ieeiaia

I?eoiae e aeanoe ai O?aieneii ainoaea?noaa Ea?ea Aaeeeiai iciaiaiiaaeny
e?oiiuie aiaiiuie ia?ii?eyoeyie i?aaei?eiyouie yoei ainoaea?ai e aai
ianeaaeieeaie. Oioy ai a?aiaia Ea?ieeiaia e ia nouanoaiaaei iiiyoea
?uoea?noaa, oai ia iaiaa, Ea?e i?iaae ?aceoth aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie /anoyie aienea. Ii aaae eiiiia aienei, ninoiyaoaa oieueei ec
naiaiaeiuo, e ioaeaeee iaoioo, ninoiyaooth ec no?aeeia e ieeeia?ia.
Oaeei ia?acii iiyaeeinue iiiyoea «aunoee» e «iecoee», o.a. yeeoiay e
aniiiiaaoaeueiay /anoue aienea. E, oioy, a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia aei ia/aea
XIV aaea ia nouanoaiaaei oyaeaeie eaaaea?ee a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa
(aeaiaea?i Iaeneieeueyia I – eaaaea?ey «n?aaeiae» oyaeanoe) iu iiaeai
aiai?eoue i auaeaeaiee eaaaea?ee a eo/ooth /anoue aienea, i?aaenoaaeaiea
i iaiiaaaeeiinoe eioi?ie niiaee ?ac?ooeoue oieueei ia caeaoa N?aaeieo
Aaeia oaaeoea?neay e aa?iaineay iaoioa.

Ea?e i?aaieciaae e i?eaae a ii?yaeie aiaiiua iannu, nenoaiaoece?iaae e
oii?yaei/ee eo aii?oaeaiea. Iicaeiaa anaaeieee ia?aciaaee aeai?yineia
nineiaea e ?uoea?noai. Eiiieoea aeaeaea a naaa ia yae?i aienea, ii naii
aienei. Ni?aoieee Ea?ea e ii nai iaaaee inoaeenue eaeaaeaie ?uoea?noaa,
aaeeeeie aieiaie, ai?oeaie n iaaa?iuie.

Iiyaeaiea eaaaea?ee aea/ao ca niaie iieiia eciaiaiea aeiniaoia e
aii?oaeaiey. Aeeeiiue ia/, ecaanoiue iai aua ii a?aiaiai Ia?iaeiaia,
noaiiaeony iaeciaiiui ao?eaooii eaaeaeiai naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea, iniiaiui
i?oaeeai eiiiiai aieia, i?aaeiaoii ieeoeaoai?ythuei naiaiaeo e /anoue.
Ia/e aeaiiiai oeia auee iacaaiu ea?ieeiaaie, iie eiaee aeeeio eeeiea aei
90 ni, oe?eio eeeiea o aa?aeu 4-5 ni, ?oeiyoue ia iieooi?i?o/iue oaao,
aa?aeo a aeaea i?inoiai ia?ae?anoey. Eeeiee aeaiiiai oeia i?eia?aee
aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai anai Aa?i-Aceaoneii ie?a oiai a?aiaie.
Ecaanoiu eo iaoiaeee io Aieae ia ainoiea aei E?eaiaeee ia caiaaea, io
Ii?aaaee ia naaa?a aei Aaeioa ia THaa. Oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoai yoeo
ia/ae ai a?aiaia Ea?ieeiaia aeinoeaea a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia oaeiai
niaa?oainoaa, /oi iaiaiaea ia iiiai eao ana inoaeueiia iaoaeeo?ae/aneia
i?iecaiaenoai a yoii ?aaeiia. Aeaiiua ia/e n?aaieaaee oieueei n aaeie
eaiaineie noaeueth, eioi?ay oeaieeanue aei?iaea cieioa. Ana yoi aiai?eo
iai i cia/aiee aeaiiiai aeaea i?oaeey a yoi a?aiy.

Aianoa n oai oaaee/eaaaony e cia/aiea eiiuey, aai cia/aiea eae i?oaeey
iaiaaeaiey aeey ia?aiai oaea?a ?anoao n iaiaueiiaaiiie auno?ioie. Eiiuey
i?aaenoaaeyee niaie iaeiia/ieee aeeeiiie aei 40 ni, eaa?iaeaeiie,
eenoiaeaeiie oi?i, oi?iu eaiaiai eenoa, iau/ii i?eiethnioooia
/aou?aoa?aiiia ino?ea naaeaeinue ia /a?ai ec ynaiy n iiii/ueth o?oaee,
ii aeaeeii Caiaaeiay Aa?iia eiaea e ae?oaea aeaeu eiiee, eioi?ua ia
nio?aieeenue a a?oaieiae/aneii iaoa?eaea, ii iienaiu a neacaieyo.
Eiiaeie?iaaiiia ae?aaeiaia i?oaeea aua ia iieo/eei aieueoiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey a yoi a?aiy. Ana enneaaeiaaoaee aaeeiiaeanii noiaeyony a
oii, /oi a aeaiiia a?aiy i?aiaeaaeaei i?oaeea i?inouo oi?i, aua ia
ioyaiuaiiia ?acee/iuie eiiaeie?iaaiiuie yeaiaioaie. I?aiaeaaeaiea
i?yiiai eeeieiaiai i?oaeey n iaithaeiino?ie caoi/eie e aeeeiiie eeeiea
ia aieaa 1 iao?a aiai?eo iai i ianiaa?oainoaa aeiniaoia, a oaeaea iaeuo
iioa?yo ai a?aiy aiei.

Aeeeiiue ueo ieiaeaeaaeaeiie oi?iu aeoeaii eniieueciaaeny eaaaea?eae, a
neaaenoaee ianiaa?oainoaa aeiniaoia. Aeiniaoe i?aaenoaaeyee niaie
iieoe?oaeue oeai, iaaeaaaaiue iiaa?o iaoaeieea. Iaioee?ue, cae?uaathuee
oaei, i?aaenoaaeye niaie eeai a?iith ec aeaeaciuo /aooae iaoeouo ia
eiaeo eee iaoa?eth, eee ii ia?acoaony ec naoe oiieeo eiaeaiuo ?aiiae,
iaeeaaeuaaaiuo ia ieaouea. Oaeie aeiniao aue iaoeiaeaeiie oi?iu e
nioneaeny ii/oe aei eieai. Eiaiii oae auaeyaeaee ia?aiia/aeueii ?uoea?e
O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee, aaea ?uoea?noai neiaeeeinue ?aiueoa ae?oaeo
?aaeiiia. Oioy a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia e auee ecaanoiu eieue/aoua aeiniaoe
aua a VIII – IX aaeao, ii iie auee ainoi/iiai eee neaayineiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e ano?a/aeenue a aaeeie/iuo yecaiiey?ao.

Iiiaeanoai iiaaae naiiai Ea?ea aaeeeiai e aai i?eaiieeia aeaee iniiaaiea
n/eoaoue eiiiia aienei iaiiaaaeeiui e eaeoe a ?acaeoee i?oaeaeiiai aeaea
a noi?iio ooyaeaeaiey n?aaenoa iaiaaeaiey e caueou.

A aii?oaeaiee eiiiiai aieia e iaoioeioea aua iao aieueoie ?acieoeu,
oieueei ueo eiiiiai aieia caino?yaony eieco. No?aeee eniieueciaaee eoee
e i?aue, oyaeaeay iaoioa ia?yaeo n eiiueyie e ieeaie aeeeiiie aei 4 i,
eniieueciaaea naee?u, oiii?u, aoeaau e ae?oaia i?oaeea
oaea?ii-ae?iayoa-?oayuaai oeia eonoa?iiai ecaioiaeaiey.

Aii?oaeaiea aeaiiiai a?aiaie i?ae?anii iienaii Aaoaeiii e oii Aeieea?ii
ia iniiaaiee ecia?aaeaiee Ea?ea Aaeeeiai, e, aeaaiui ia?acii, aeaaiaea?y
ciaiaieoie oaoiaoiie ea?a, i?icaaiiie ea?ie Ea?ea Aaeeeiai, aaea
aii?oaeaiea eaaeaeiai iiaeoey io/aoeeai aeaeii e niaiaaeao n
a?oaieiae/aneei iaoa?eaeii.

2. I?aaeiinueee e nicaeaieth ?uoea?noaa.

A ?acee/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo aiaiiiai aeaea n?aaeiaaaeiauey ii-?aciiio
ii?aaeaeythony oaeoi?u, eioi?ua iineoaeeee iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey
?uoea?noaa eae aiaiiie aaeeieoeu e eae ia?aca aeecie. Oai ia iaiaa iu
iiaeai n iieiie oaa?aiiinoueth aiai?eoue, /oi ?uoea?ue – yoi ia eiiiue
aii?oaeaiiue aiei, eiathuee ia/ e iaoaeee/aneea aeiniaoe, a iaiiiai
aieaa oe?ieia iiiyoea. Iii (?uoea?noai) ia iai?yioth neiaeeeinue ec
aii?oaeaiey, a ninoieo ec aa?aeueaeeee, eoeueoa i?ae?aniie aeaiu e
eo?ooaciie yoeee. Iu iiaeai i?ineaaeeoue aeeyiea i?oaeey ia nicaeaiea
?uoea?noaa: nicaeaiea e auaeaeaiea eiiiiai aienea, eoeueo i?yiiai
eeeieiaiai i?oaeey, o?aaeeoeey oe?aoaiey i?oaeey e aeiniaoia, iinoiyiiua
aieiu o?enoeaineie Aa?iiu n eiiaa?oeaie ia Ainoiea (a?aau e oo?ee) e ia
Naaa?a (neaiaeeiaau) – ana yoi e neiaeeei ninoaaeythuea ?uoea?noaa,
ia?a/eneaiiua auoa.

Eae ioia/aeinue auoa, i?aa?auaiea eiiiiai aienea a iniiaioth oaea?ioth
aaeeieoeo, e XI aaeo nicaeaei onoie/eaia iiaiea i aai iaiiaaaeeiinoe e
eneeth/eoaeueiinoe. E yoiio a?aiaie /aeiaae ia eiia oaea eiaao
aeinoaoi/ii niaa?oaiiue aeiniao, aai aii?oaeaiea nouanoaaiii auaeaeyaony
io iaoioeioea. E, aeaaiia, ii yaeyaony ee/ii naiaiaeiui.

Eoeueo ia/a, neiaeeaoeeny aua a ae?aaiaaa?iaineia a?aiy, e iieo/eaoee
neeueioth iiaeieoeo ai a?aiaia Ea?ieeiaia, e XI aaeo noaiiaeony
ianoieueei neeai, /oi /aeiaae n ia/ii nouanoaaiii auaeaeyaony ec
ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii yaeyaony /ai-oi eneeth/eoaeueiui, ii
n/eoaao naay ianeaaeieeii neaaiuo o?aaeeoeee i?aaeeia. Eeeiie noaiiaeony
ia i?inoi oneiaeai i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e naiaiaeiui ethaeyi, ia i?inoi
neiaieii aieia, ii /anoueth naiiai /aeiaaea. Iaaea?ii a «Iania i
?ieaiaea» ainiaaaaony ciaiaieoue eeeiie ia?aaia n /aeiaaeii, aaaeue
iiiaaeaiea i?oaeey a ?oee a?aaa ?aaiineeueii ieaiaieth aieia. Iaeaieaa
ciaiaieoua eeeiee iieo/atho eiaia. A ?oeiyoe ia/ae eeaaeoo nayoua iiue,
eioi?ui iieeiiythony eaey a aie. Ieaea iu oioei ia?a/eneeoue eeoue
iaiiiaea ec oao iacaaiee e i?icaeu ia/ae, eioi?ua iieo/eee aieueoia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a oi a?aiy, o.e. yoe iacaaiey naycaiu n ycu/aneeie
ia?aaeeoeaie i ia iacuaaiee iaeaieaa «neeueiuo» aauae naieie eiaiaie ec
oaaaeaiey e no?aoa ia?aae ieie. Aio iie: Aaaea, No?iaue, Iiaaeeoaeue,
I?yiie, Aeaaeue, Nia?oue, Aeane ?inu, Auno?ue, Aaeeeee, Ino?ue,
Iiee?iaaiiue, Aeanoyuee, Aeaai?iaeiue, Iineaiaoe nia?oe, Aanoiee aeaaee,
Aaoaue, Iiei?iue, Eacaea, I?ae?aniue, Aiae?noaothuee, Ai?aeaeeaue,
?aoathuee, Iaiaaeathuee, Iineooiue, ?iaiue, ?aaeouee, Eii/eia, Noaeueaa,
*anoiue, Aa?iue, Ia/aei, Eiiaoe, ?acyuee, Aiaa, Iea/ouee e?iaueth,
?annaeaathuee ai?a, Ioaeanoaaiiue, Caeaeaiiue, Ionaeathuee, Neiee,
Oeaaoouee, Aicaaee/eaathuee e o.ae.

O?aaeeoeey oe?aoaiey i?oaeey e aeiniaoia eae aeey e?aniou oae e n
?eooaeueii-iaae/aneeie oeaeyie o ae?aaieo aa?iaioeaa iinoaiaiii
ia?a?inea a aa?aeueaeeeo. Aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiio neoaeao eae
aa?aeueaee/aneea neiaieu, eioi?ua auee i?ecaaiu io?aaeaoue aioo?aiithth
nooue aeaaeaeueoea, caueuaoue aai e iiaa?aaoue a?aaia. Iie iioee io
ae?aaiaai iau/ay oe?aoaiey ueoa nie?aeueii-iaae/aneeie ciaeaie, o.e. ueo
yaeyeny ia?aui, e aeieaia a?aiy aaeeinoaaiiui, yeaiaioii aeiniaoia o
aa?iaioeaa. Ia?aua aa?au iineee iacaaiea «a?in» io o?aioeocneiai neiaa
«i?oaeea». Ia?aue aa?a aue ca?aaeno?e?iaai a 1127 aiaeo, yoi aue aa?a
a?aoa Aiaeoeneiai; ia?aay aa?aiaay ia/aoue auea ca?aaeno?e?iaaia a 1136
aiaeo. Oaeei ia?acii iu iiaeai ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aei 1127 aiaea iiiyoey
?uoea?noaa, a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa, iaoianoii.

Aieiu Ea?ea Aaeeeiai n a?aaaie e i?i/eie eiiaa?oeaie nicaeaee aio i?aie
nayoiai ainoaea?y, a aieiia e niiaeaeaeieeia Ea?ea iacuaaee
«iaeaaeeiaie». Eiaiii Ea?e e aai niiaeaeaeieee auee eaeaaeaie ?uoea?noaa
ia i?ioyaeaiee anae aai enoi?ee. Ai a?aiaia Ea?ieeiaia aaea /anoua aieiu
n «iaaa?iuie» Aecaioey. Aienei Aecaioee auei iaaiiia, ia?iiioth ?ieue a
iai ea?aee i?aaenoaaeoaee Caiaaeiie e Naaa?iie Aa?iiu. Aieueoeinoai
iaaiieeia ec Aa?iiu auee ii?iaiiaie. Iie ia oieueei auianee ana
ia?aaeiaia aeey naay a nenoaia aii?oaeaiey, ii e caeinoaiaaee o Aecaioee
iau/ae noaaeoue aieia ia aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue anee ii o/anoaiaae a
aieiao n iaaa?iuie. Ea?aeeie n/eoaao, /oi io aecaioeeneiai iau/ay
«inayuaoue» aieiia, eioi?ua aiththo i?ioea na?aoeei, i?iecioei naii
yaeaiea ?uoea?noaa, a eioi?ia ii?iaiiu o?ainoi?ie?iaaee aecaioeeneea
iau/ae aeoia n o?aaeeoeeyie Ea?ieeiaia.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia neiaeeeanue ianoaiiaea, eioi?ay eae
iaeuecy eo/oa niinianoaiaaea iiyaeaieth ?uoea?noaa eae yaeaiey. Aieueoia
eiee/anoai aiaiiuo noieeiiaaiee n a?aaaie ia thaa, aaia?aie e neaayiaie
ia ainoiea, neaiaeeiaaaie ia caiaaea niinianoaiaaei iiyaeaieth ia?iiiiai
eiee/aneoaa aii?oaeaiiuo ethaeae. Ii e ia/aeo XI aaea noieeiiaaiey
noieeiiaaiey n yoeie ia?iaeaie i?aeoe/anee i?ae?aoeeenue. Ia?anoaa
auiieiyoue ooieoeee io?aiu ainoaea?noa Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu io aiaoieo
aoi?aeaiee, yoe a?oiiu /anoi caieiaeenue i?iaaaeaieai eieaeueiuo aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee, eioi?ua oi?iiceee ?acaeoea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ainoaea?noaa.
I?iua aiai?y, ia?anoaa io?aiyoue aneaaenoaee ionoonoaey aiaoieo a?aaia,
auaoea io?aiieee noaee a?aaaie aioo?aiieie, e caiyeenue ?acaiai e
ia?iaea?noaii. A iiaeiaiuo oneiaeyo, iie?aynue ia iiuo Aecaioee,
oea?eiaue i?ecaaea yoe iiiai/eneaiiua a?oiiu e e?anoiaui iioiaeai, ai
a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey eioi?uo e noi?ie?iaaeinue ieii/aoaeueii ?uoea?noai a
iieiii iiieiaiee yoiai neiaa.

3. Aeiniaoe e aii?oaeaiea ?uoea?noaa a XI –XIII aaeao.

E XI noieaoeth Caiaaeiay Aa?iia ciaea /aou?a iniiaiuo aeaeia aeiniaoia.
Ia?aua aeaa aeaea yaeythony «iaoeeiiaeueiuie» aeaeaie aeiniaoia
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, aeaa ae?oaeo aeaea, eioi?ua aia?aua ano?a/athony
oieueei ai a?aiy caaiaaaiey Aiaeee, aa?iyoii i?eianaiu n Ainoiea
ii?iaiiaie. Ia?aue aeae aeiniaoia i?aaenoaaeyee niaie iieoe?oaeue
eiaeaiue eee eiiaeie?iaaiiue oeai, iaaeaaaaiue iiaa?o iaoaeieea.
Iaioee?ue, cae?uaathuee oaei, i?aaenoaaeye niaie eeai a?iith ec
aeaeaciuo /aooae iaoeouo ia eiaeo eee iaoa?eth, ii eiae iie?ie oeia
oaeao eee aeeeao e iacuaaaony ?aoao/aoue iaioee?ue. Aoi?ie oei
ia?acoaony ec naoe oiieeo eiaeaiuo ?aiiae, ne?aieyaiuo iaoaeee/aneeie
aaicaeyie, eioi?ua iaeeaaeuaaeenue ia ieaouea. Oaeie aeiniao aue
iaoeiaeaeiie oi?iu e nioneaeny ii/oe aei eieai, ii iineo iacaaiea
nao/aoiai iaioee?y. Eiaiii oae auaeyaeaee ia?aiia/aeueii ?uoea?e
O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee, aaea ?uoea?noai neiaeeeinue ?aiueoa ae?oaeo
?aaeiiia. Oaeea yeaiaiou aeiniaoia eae ia?o/e, iiiiaee, ia?/aoee,
naiiae, iaeieioieee e o.ae. aeaeeii ia iieo/eee aieueoiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey aieioue aei ia/aea e?anoiauo iioiaeia. Aeeeiiue ueo
eaieaaeaeiie e ieiaeaeaaeaeiie oi?i aeoeaii eniieueciaaeny eaaaea?eae, a
neaaenoaee ianiaa?oainoaa aeiniaoia. Oaeie ueo eiae aieueooth ianno, ia
iaai e?aieeenue oiaiiu, iiea oneeeaaeinue iaoaeeii, e?ay ieiauaaeenue.
Eeoue n i?ia?annii caueoiiai nia?yaeaiey, i?iecioaaeoaio aeaaiaea?y
e?anoiaui iioiaeai, ?acia?u ueoa oiaiueoathony, a iaoa?eae aeey
ecaioiaeaiey oeo/oaaony. E XIII aaeo iu iiaeai iaaethaeaoue ia?iiiia
?aciiia?acea oi?i ueoia o eaaaea?ee e iaoiou. O ?uoea?ae i?aiaeaaeatho
o?ao- iyoeoaieueiua e neiaeiioeao?iua oa?/e, eioi?ua ianoo
oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ooieoeee ii caueoa eeoue a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo.

Ai a?aiy caaiaaaiey Aiaeee ia ii?iaiiao ano?a/athony aeaa iiauo oeia
iaioee?ae: eieue/aoue – yoi aaea iaoaeee/aneea eieueoea iaoeaaeenue ia
ieaouea ?yaeaie, e /aooe/aoue – aaea eieueoea i?e iaoeaaiee iie?uaaee
iaeii ae?oaia. Aeiniaoe aeaiiuo oeiia ii?iaeeee, aiineaaenoaee,
aeaaiaeoea aeiniaoe ?uoea?ae aieioue aei ia/aea XIV noieaoey – eieue/oao
e a?iith. Oioy /aooe/aoue oei aeiniaoia i?inouanoaiaae a Caiaaeiie
Aa?iia aei XV aaea.

A?iiy – aeeeiiay ?oaaoa ec oienoie iaoa?ee eee eiaee, ia eioi?oth iaoeou
?yaeu aeaeaciuo eieaoe, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaiecaiiuo ia i?i/iue ?aiaiue
oae, /oi iaeii eieueoei iie?uaaao /anoue ae?oaeo. Eaaeaeia ec eieaoe
i?eoeaaeinue e eiaea, a naii ?aniieiaeaiea ?yaeia niaeaniauaaeinue n
/anoyie oaea, iie?uouie a?iiae. Aeaaea n iiyaeaieai eieue/oae a?iiy
aeieaia a?aiy inoaaony iniiaiui aeaeii aeiniaoia ?uoea?ae a neaaenoaee
naiae aeaoaaaciu.

Eieue/oaa – aeae eieue/aoiai aeiniaoa ec eieaoe e?oaeiai na/aiey,
eioi?ua ne?aieaiu iaaeaeo niaie niiniaii ieaoaiey. A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia
iiae eieue/oaie oaeaea iiieiaee iaioee?ue (?on.) – eieue/aoue aeiniao ec
ieineeo eieaoe ?aciiai na/aiey, e aaeaeaio (?on.) – ieaoaiea ec e?oiiuo
ieineeo eieaoe. Eieueoea aeey eieue/oae eniieuecotho eae ec eiaaiiie
i?iaieiee, oae e na/aiiua ec eenoiaiai aeaeaca. Eieueoea ne?aieytho /aua
anaai niiniaii «y/iaiiia ca?ii», ii ano?a/athony e «aaicaeue», «ocae» e
o.ae. ?acee/atho o?e iniiaiuo aeaea eieue/oa: o?ouaaaoua, ei?ia/aoua,
/a?eanneea. Iie ?acee/aeenue ii oi?ia, eiee/anoao e niiniaai ne?aieaiey
eieaoe. O?ouaaaooa eieue/oae ninoiyee ec e?oiiuo eieaoe aeeaiao?ii aei
20 ii, eioi?ua auee a?oai ne?aieaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Ei?ia/aoua eieue/oae
eiaee aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia , ii ecaioiaeyeenue
oieueei ia ?one, iie ninoiyee ec iaaeueiuo eieaoe ?acee/iiai ?acia?a, ii
i?e niioiioaiee aeeeiu e oe?eiu iaaea 1:1,5, eieueoea ne?aieyeenue ia
«aaicaeue» eee «ocae». Oae iacuaaaiua /a?eanneea oeiu eieue/oa ninoiyee
ec ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa eieaoe aeeaiao?ii aei 10 ii, iiiaea yecaiiey?u
eiatho naa?eo eieaoe iaecaanoiui niiniaii. A Eoaeee iieo/eee
?ani?ino?aiaiea aaooa?aoeu – aeae eiiaeie?iaaiiiai aeiniaoa, ni/aoathuee
ieanoei/aoue (o iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia eaiaey?iue) e eieue/aoue oei
aeiniaoia. Ia/aei e?anoiauo iioiaeia (XI aae) iieacaei ana oycaeiua
ianoa ?uoea?neiai aienea. Yoi aeaei ia/aei aeey aeaeueiaeoaai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?oaeey e aeiniaoia eaaaea?ee e aa ioaeaeaieth io
iaoiou. Aii?oaeaiea ?uoea?y i?aaenoaaeyei niaie oyaeaeue aeaeaciue oeai
a oi?ia ai?oea, eieue/aoue aeiniao (caeinoaiaaiiue ia Ainoiea) /anoi
oneeaiiue noaeueiuie iaeieaiieeaie, iaeieioieeaie, ca?oeaeaie,
iaiea/ieeaie e o.ae., eioi?ue eiiaaea eiiaeie?iaaeny n ieanoei/aoui
aeiniaoaie. Caueoa aieiau a ?anniao?eaaaiii iaie ia?eiaea i?aaenoaaeaia
oyaeaeuie oeaaiie eeai eieue/aouie eee eiiaeie?iaaiiuie aa?ieoeaie,
eioi?ua eniieueciaaee ?aaeei o.e. iie ia caueuaee io ae?iayueo oaea?ia.
N?aaee oeaiia iu iiaeai auaeaeeoue: 1) yeoeaaeaeiue oeai, 2)
ai?oeiaeaeiue ueai, eioi?ue eiae aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe a caaeneiinoe io
niiniaa iioaiey – ia oaa eee ia iea/ao, 3) aaoeeiao eee aaaeiao, eioi?ue
/anoi eiae iiaeaeaeiia caa?aei. Oaeie aeae aeiniaoia i?inouanoaiaae aei
XIV aaea, oioy /aoei i?ineaaeeaaaony aai “ooyaeaeaiea” a noi?iio
ieanoei/aouo e eaoiuo aeaeia aeiniaoia. Aeaaiaea?y aieaa niaa?oaiiui
oi?iai caueou oiaiueoathony ?acia?u ueoia, eioi?ua aeaeathony i?i/iaa e
eiatho ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu. I?oaeea iiaeiaii aeiniaoai, oiaea
oaaee/eaaaony a aana e ?acia?ao. Ia/e aeinoeaatho ?acia?ia aei 1,2
iao?ia, eiatho i?yiie eeeiie, iaithaeioth caoi/eo, e?anoiia?acioth
aa?aeo, ?oeiyoue iiae iieooi?iue eee aeao?o/iue oaao, ianneaiia
iaieiauea, o?aaiiaaoeaathuea eeeiie. Nianoaaiii aeao?o/iua ia/e
iiyaeythony a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia ia ?aiaa XII, eo iiyaeaiea
iaoneaaeeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iaiineoue iia?aaeaeaiey i?ioeaieeo
caueuaiiiio oyaeaeuie aeiniaoaie. Niioaaonoaaiii aiiea ianooiaoaeueiiai
e caueoiiai aii?oaeaiey e i?eaaea e iiyaeaieth oyaeaeyo eaoiuo aeiniaoia
e oyaeaeiai aeao?o/iiai i?oaeey. Eiiuea oaia?ue oi?aaeyaony ia
naiaiaeiie ?oeie, a oie?aaony a auaieo iaiea/ieea. Iaeciaiiui ao?eaooii
eaaeaeiai ?uoea?y yaeyeny eeiaeae eee noeeao, eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue
eae aeey aaeu, oae e aeey aiy. Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a yoi a?aiy
iieo/eee eeiaeaeu ieeina?aeey – ieca?ei?aeu. Eae aniiiiaaoaeueiia
i?oaeea eiiiiai aieia /anoi eniieuecothony ?acee/iua aeaeu
oaea?ii-ae?iayuaai i?oaeey: /aeai, aoeaaa, oanoiia?. Oaeaea iaoiaeyo
i?eiaiaiea oiii?u e naee?u.

N ?acaeoeai aeiniaoia e ii/oe iieiie caueuaiiinoueth anaaeieea,
i?ienoiaeeo ieii/aoaeueiia auaeaeaiea aeai?yineiai nineiaey. Iiyaeythony
aa?au e aa?aeueaeeea (ia?aue aa?a a 1127 aiaeo – aa?a a?aoa
Aiaeoeneiai), i?eia?aoatho oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?uoea?neea oo?ie?u,
eioi?ua ec aiaiiuo oi?aaeiaiee ia?a?inee a oaao?aeeciaaiiia c?aeeua. Aei
XIV aaea ia auei ?acee/ee iaaeaeo aiaaui e oo?ie?iui aii?oaeaieai.
Oaeaea aei yoiai a?aiaie ia auei oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiineiai
aeiniaoa.

A aii?oaeaiee eiiiiai aieia e iaoioeioea aua iao aieueoie ?acieoeu,
oieueei ueo eiiiiai aieia caino?yaony eieco. No?aeee eniieueciaaee eoee
e i?aue, oyaeaeay iaoioa ia?yaeo n eiiueyie eniieueciaaea naee?u,
oiii?u, aoeaau e ae?oaia i?oaeea oaea?ii-ae?iayoa-?oayuaai oeia
eonoa?iiai ecaioiaeaiey.

Aii?oaeaiea iaoiou a X – XIII aaeao e “e?anoueyineia” i?oaeea.

Aeiniaoe e aii?oaeaiea iaoiou aei ia/aea e?anoiauo iioiaeia ia neeueii
ioee/aeenue io eaaaea?ee, oai ia iaiaa neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi iaoioa
aeoeaii o/anoaiaaea a aiaiiuo noieeiiaaieyo e /anoi iiaaaeaeaea ?uoea?ae
eiaiii aeaaiaea?y naiaio i?oaeeth. Iaoioeioeu yoiai a?aiaie eiaee
aeiniaoe ec aeaeaciuo aeyo iaoeouo ia iaoa?eth ia iaia? /a?aieoeu eee
aeiniaoe ec eiaee, e oieueei a eiioea aeaiiiai ia?eiaea noaee
eniieueciaaoueny eieue/aoua e eiiaeie?iaaiiua aeaeu aeiniaoia, ii iie ia
iieo/eee oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey aaeaeo aunieie noieiinoe. Aieiaiie
aeiniao ninoaaeyao oeeeeiae?i-eiie/aneee oeai n iaiinieeii e caueoie
uae, iicaea aaoeeiao aac caa?aea, iiae caueuatho eiaeaiua aao?u.

Aii?oaeaiea aeinoaoi/ii ?aciiia?acii. I?ienoiaeeo ?acaeaeaiea iaoiou ia
no?aeeia e oyaeaeoth iaoioo. No?aeee auee aii?oaeaiu aeeeiiui i?inoui
eoeii eee a?aaeaoii, eiaee aieueoie ueo, eioi?ue i?e no?aeueaa oie?aeny
a caieth e caueuae aieia. A iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa ano?a/aeenue i?aue.
No?aeee eiaee ei?ioeea ia/e, eeiaeaeu e oanaee. Oyaeaeay iaoioa auea
aii?oaeaia eiiueyie, ano?a/aeenue oiii?u, naee?u e aiaeaiaeaee.

E yoiio ia?eiaeo a?aiaie ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny iniaue aeae
aii?oaeaiey, iacaaiiue “e?anoueyineei”. ?acaeoea aeaiiiai aeaea i?oaeey
naycaii n o/anoeaoeieny noieeiiaaieyie iaaeaeo oaiaeaeueiuie a?ieyie e
e?anoueyiaie. I?oaeea aeaiiiai oeia eae i?aaeei i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeaeieciaiaiiua i?oaeey o?oaea e i?aaeiacia/aii aeey ai?ueau n
anaaeieeii. Iii eiaao oneiaioth eeanneoeeaoeeth e eae i?aaeei yaeyaony
eiiaeie?iaaiiui. Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue aii?oaeaiea e?anoueyi e aai ?ieue a
?acaeoee i?oaeaeiiai aeaea, o.e. iaeioi?ua aeaeu aeaiiiai oeia i?oaeey
eniieueciaaeenue e ?uoea?yie, e ec e?anoueyineee iiie/aiee iiyaeeanue
a?iciay iaiiaaaeeiay oaaeoea?neay iaoioa.

E i?oaeeth aeaiiiai oeia iiaeii ioianoe: ii?aaioa?i, aiaaie oeai, aiaaie
ae/, eenoaiue, aiaaua a?aaee, aiaaoth eino, aiaaie na?i, iaieao/a?
(aiaaie ooaao) o. ae. Anaaiciiaeiia eiiaeie?iaaiea eiethuaai, ?aaeouaai,
ae?iayuaai, ae?aaeiaiai i?oaeey, a oaeaea i?oaeey n aeaeei yeaiaioii ia
iniiaa i?oaeee o?oaea e aeaei ie?o iaeaieaa no?aoiua aeaeu oieiaeiiai
i?oaeey.

Caeeth/aiea

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey ia inoaiiaeei ?acaeoey
oieiaeiiai aii?oaeaiey. Oai ia iaiaa oieiaeiia i?oaeea iioa?yei naia
iiiiiieenoe/aneia cia/aiea eae n?aaenoai aeey oie/oiaeaiey naaa
iiaeiaiuo.

Iu iiaee iaaethaeaoue, eae ec i?oaeee o?oaea e ioiou iieo/aaony i?oaeea.
Iioii iii ia?aoiaeeo a eoeueo e ioee/eoaeueioth /a?oo /aeiaaea. Caoai
aii?oaeaiea e aeiniaoe i?eia?aoatho iieacaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. E,
iaeiiaoe, oieiaeiia i?oaeea, a aieueoeinoaa naiai, noaei iineoue noaoai
aeaei?aoeaiue oa?aeoa?.

Eae ioia/aeinue auoa ?acaeoea n?aaenoa iaiaaeaiey e caueou io?aaeaao
nooiaiue nioeeaeueiiai, eoeueoo?iiai e oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa.
Iiyoiio eco/aiea aii?oaeaiey – iaeia ec i?ei?eoaoiuo io?aneae
enoi?e/aneie iaoee.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a

1) I. oii Aeieea? «I?oaeea. ?oeiaiaenoai e enoi?ee, iienaieth e
ecia?aaeaieth ?o/iiai i?oaeey n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei ia/aea XIX aaea»,
Iineaa 1992

2) A. A. O?oaieeia «Aieueoie neiaa?ue i?oaeey», I. Iieeaii 1997

3) Ea?aeeie O?aiei «Enoi?ey N?aaeiaaaeiaiai ?uoea?noaa», I. «I?ia?ann»
1987

4) Aaiaeaeai Aaoaei «Yioeeeeiiaaeey i?oaeey», N.-I. I?eano?, N.-I. 1995

3) “Aeaiueae/Aeiniaoe e i?oaeea”, Dorling Kindersley, Multimedia

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