.

Государства раннего средневековья Казахстана

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 3637
Скачать документ

A????? E???o ???

“E??? ????i-?????? ????i e ??? ?????”

OAIA: “A????? ?i?? ??????y E????a”

A????: E???a E.

101 ???

I????: ____________

A??u 2008a.

IEAI

AAAAeAIEA

AEAAA 1. OTH?ENEEE EAAAIAO (552-603 ?.)

1.1. I????? oth???i ????.

1.2. I????, ?o e ???? oth??.

AEAAA 2. CAIAAeII-OTH?ENEEE EAAAIAO (603-704 ?.)

2.1. I????? e ????ey C???-Oth??? ???o.

2.2. I?????a e ????? ????a.

2.3. E???a e ?o ???? ??ae?o oth??.

AEAAA 3. OTH?AAONEEE EAAAIAO (704-756 ?.)

3.1. O????y e ????a Oth????i ????.

3.2. A????a e ????????? ????a ????.

3.3. E???a e ?o Oth???? ????.

AEAAA 4. EA?EOENEEE EAAAIAO (756-940 ?.)

4.1. N??a E????? ???? e ?i ????ey.

4.2. I?????a ????a ????.

4.3. E???a e ?o ???? E????? ????.

AEAAA 5. IAOCNEIA AINOAeA?NOAI (??oe IX – ??? XI ?.)

5.1. I????? I???? ?????a.

5.2. I???? ??? e ?????? ??e ???.

5.3. I?????a ????a.

5.4. O?y??i, ???u e ???a ???.

AEAAA 6. EEIAENEEE EAAAIAO (??oe IX – ??? XI ?.)

6.1. I???? ??? e ?????a E??n?? ????.

6.2. I?????e ??e ????.

6.3. I?????a ????a ????.

6.4. E???a, ?cy??i e ???a ???a.

Aa???

A ???a ??? ??a oth?iy??? ???a ??? ????a y?? ??????i ?????ey e ???ey.

A ??i, ???y E????a ???o ??a ???y ? ?e ???? ???a. Ia?? ????? ???th E????a
a ??? ???o ??a (VI-IX ?.). A??e – ???th E????a ???? ???o ??a (X-XIV ?.).
O??e – ???th ???ey ???i E?a??? ?????a (XV-XVII ?.).

A ??? ??? ? ?????e ????? ??e ??? ?????? Oth???, C???-Oth???, Oth????,
E????e, I???e e E???? ????. E??a ? y?o ????? ??i ????oth ????, a y?i ?
??i ????y, ??? ? a????a e ???a ?????? ????a, ????i-y?????? e ????? ????.

A?e ?e Oth??? ???? ?? ??i??? ???a ?y? n A???? e I??ae, ? ?e Oth???? ????
?e ?? ???u e n E??i. O?? ?? ???????o i ?i, ?i a ??? ??? ???o ??a ?????
?????a, ??????? ? ????? E????a, ?a ???i ????e ??????a ?y?. I???a ?y?
??????? ? ??? ???eth ??????iey e ??????? ??o ??, ? e ????th ????.

A ??????a e ???ea ????e ??e ???? ???n ???? e ????e ????o oth??? ???, ?i
???i a ?ith ???ue e ?y??eth ?????i ? ????? E????a ????o e ???? ????e. A
??a y? ??a?i ca ??e ???? ????e ????, ? ?? ????, ???e, ??nn?a.

Oth??? ???o (552-603 ?.)

1.1. I????? oth???i ????.

A I ?ny???a ????? ????a y????e ??u a ?????i ???a, ??ue ?a ??a ???tho
????a? oth?iy??? ???a. I?? ? ??? ????? ?????, ??????? a ??? ??????a ?
????? E????a, ?e Oth??? ??iao. Y??? ?th?” a ????o ????? ???nyo ???? n
542 ??. E??? ???e oth?? ????e nth?o. A VI ?? ?????? ?th?” ???? ???a
???????? e ???? ?thc ???, ?????y ? A??.

A ?? ?y??? ????????e oth?? ???? ??nyo e 552 ??. Ia y?i a ???o ???nyo
????y: ? 545 ?? e oth???o ????th ??? ????e e????i ?????”. Oe?ueth ???
?? ?????? ????e ??o ??y ????y?. A y? ??y oth??? ???a ?ee ??? ??? ?????
ae???e (??). Oth??? ??i A??ue ????y ????o?y ? ??? AE????? ???a, ? ??a
???? ?iye ??i A??e. Oth??? ???o ????? ????ny, a ???? VI ?? oth??? ???a,
??th?? ?thc n ????e, ??? ??ae ?y ??u n AE????i ????i. A 552 a?o ??i
Ao?? ???? ??ae ??? ??? e ???? ??? ?i ???. I????? ?????, ??i A??e ????
??ue ??????i. I?? y?e ???e ??? A??th ?e ???? o?? “??i” – “?????e ?i”.
I??i ? ?? a ??a 552 ?? e ?i ??i ?iye ?i ?i E?a-A?a, ???e ??a ??i ???o ?e
????? ??iy????o.

I???y ? ????a, AE????e ???o ?????? ??????e ??? ??? oth??, ? ?a ?e ????e?
?c ?????i.

A ?e oth??? ??? I??a ??ueth 553 ?? ???? ????e ?? ?? ????a. I?? ??
AE????e ???o ??? ??a e ??? a ???. N y?o ?? oth?e ??e ?????? ????ey?
????e ??e A??? ??e. C?? ? ??? ???? ?i? ???o ???i, ??????ny ? Nay??o ??,
a ? ???a – ??? ? ????e ?? O??y, ???? ?? ???a ??a (???a), ???e, ??-??? e
ae?.

A y? ??y ????e N???? E?ay, ??????? ?-? ?????oe ? 2 ?????a – N???a Oee e
N???a *?o, ??e ???ue ?? ??? I??o, ??u ???ue e ?? ?i ?????? e ???ue. O?,
????, ??? ?? ??ue ????i?i E?ay ???? ????? ??? 100 oth?a ???? ??e. Iiy??
??a ??? I??a ??????e ?i ??? ??i O?i n ??? ??y? E?ay ?????e ??? ????y?.
Y? ???????o i ?i, ????i ?e?i ?? ?????? ?ey?a Oth???? ???? ? ???a a
570-580-a ??.

I?? ????y ???? ???i ? ???a oth?e ??e ????ue c??????e ??? ? ??ae. O??
???i, e 555 ?? ?e ????e ??e ? A????i ??y, ? ???? ? ??? ???? ??????y. Ca
???? ??y oth?e ????e ???oth ?????th ? E?ay ? A???e, ? O???a ? N???e.

A 70-a ?? VI ?? Oth??? ???o ???? ?? ???ey ? N???? E??? e ????i ????y
*??? ??y. O?? ???i, ????? Oth???i ???? ? a??e ???? VI ?? a Oe????? A?e e
A??? ???????? ? ???oth ????eth A????i ?????. E Oth??? ???o ? ??? ?? a
?yae ??o ???o ?????, ?e E??, E?i e A???y, ? e ?????y a ?????i?th ???o ii
??? ??????o ????th.

1.2. I????, ?o e ???? oth??.

I???a ????a Oth???i ???? ????ey? oth?iy??? ???a. I??eyth?a ?????i ???ey?
???a ??. Nthaey ? ????i ??i??i ?????, ? ???ey “??”, a ?????a ????i ????
“oth?”. N?? oth?iy??? ???i a ??? ????y Oth??i? ???? ???e ??a 30 ???i ??,
a ?i ??a ???u, ??u, ???, ??, ??? e ?.

I???i ??i ?cy??a oth?? ?? ?????a e ???a ?????ai. C??? ??? ?????ue a
????o ??o ??o ???o ?e, ?e – E?, *o, O??, E?? e N???y. O????? ??u???ue
??? ?? ??a.

A ?????? ?iy??a “I???a E????a” ???ath?y ???ey e i ????o ???ieyo. Y?
??????? ??, ?i n ???a ????y a AE??o (N????) e N??thth A?th oth?e ??? i
???o e ??iy?? ????yo, e ??ue ? ?o ??a ????? e ???e ??e. E?? ?ai, oth???
???a ? ??yo ??o ???e ??ue ???a ???o ?e ????? ?a? ????ny ?????i.
N??????tho ? y?i ????a ?e ???????o ????o a AE??o, A TH?? E??n?? ???e
??iy?? ??u. I???i ??i ?????e??? ???e – ???, a ???o ?? oth?e, ????? ?
????? ?? ?????? ??? O??.

E???a eth?? ??? ??i ?y?? ? ????? ?i ?cy??a. Ia ????, ?i ???e ??c ??e
?cy??i oth??, ?y??? ? ??????i, i????e ??????ue ???ey th?u, ???????e e
???? ??? ??e. I???i ????i ?????ey o oth?? ?? ???. Iiy?? i? ??? ???? ??y?
??????o e ?????o ?????eth ???? ??y??y, ?? ??yo ??y, ??i, ??, ???u, ????e
e ?.

A??????? ???? ????, ?i oth?e a V-VII ??o ?? ???o ???e, a ??, ???othny
??a ???ey ???, ??????, ???a, n VIII a?a, ???o ??? ???? a ????eyo. I??i a
??o ??o ?????y a ??a ????ey ????? ?? e ???ou, ???? ?e ??e ?????? ???a.

I??i ????, ?i ????? ???? ??i ???ey ?? ?y?? n ???i ????ey ?ith. Oth?e
???, ?i ???? ?? ???? ????? ??c ??ue. A ????? ??e n ???i ?? ?y?? n ??e i
?????e ? ??????y a ????i ??.

Ca??i-Oth??? ???o (603-704?.)

2.1. I????? e ????ey C???-Oth??? ???o.

C????e ???oth ????eth, Oth??? ???o ? ?? ?????y a ??? ???????? ?????i.
E??? ???y? ??iy?ay ???ay ?????ay ??? ? ??? ??? ???? ??? e??a. A 581 ?? a
???? ???? ???n??a ??u. N??y? ?????? ??a ????a a ??o ?eyo, E?ae e ???
???? ?????a ????e ??? ??? ??? oth??. Ia ??a i????ue ?? ??? ???o ???,
Oth??? ???o ???ny ? ????a ??u. A 603 ?? ? ????ny ? ?a ??e – C???-Oth???
e A???i-Oth??? ???ou.

I?? ???a Oth???i e???a ? 2 ??e a 603 ?? ???y ???n ?????ey ? a??oe.
C???-Oth??? ???o ???e ????eth ? th?-???a, ???y ? ?e E? e *o, ? ???-??? ?
??? ???e ?? A?? e E??ue, ? ???-???a ? ???o ???e A?? e E??a, ? th?-c??a ?
?e O?? e A???y. N???e e ??? ???e ??? y?y?y ??ae Noya, ??????e ? ??? ??
*o.

I???e y???????e ??ye ???? ???ey? “?ny? ???i” – “? ? ??i”. A ??? “?ny?
???i” ???e oth?e ??a, ???, ??u, oth??e, ???, ???u, ???e, ??u, ??? e
???e.

2.2. I?????a e ????? ????a.

I??i ????? ??? ?e O??o (Ae?i). I?????a ????? C?a?i-Oth???i ???? ????
????ue a i??ae ????y ??? O?o (610-618 ?.) e ??? O?a (618-630 ?.). E??
O?o ???? ???u ? ???a ? A?ay, ? ??? ???? ?? O?? e ????e I??a. E?? O? n
??th ?o?? ??o ??? ???? ???a ??? a ???? ?????a. Ii ??? ????i?e ???o ????y
a N??? A?e, e ???? ec ??a ???o ???e ????a ???a, ????? ? ????ue “??o”.
I???? ?ae n???e ?i ??u. *?? ???ue a ??? ????? ???a ???, ??i ???? e ????i
???i. I????, n ??th ?????y ?ae ??i ?????i ??? N????a, O? ??e ?ith ??
??ae ? ?i ????y e ?uya? ?i ??i ?????? (?????i). I??o ???o ????? ? ????
???? ???i. O?ay ???a ????y ???y? ?????? e y?????? ????a ????.

I? “? ? ??i” ???????y ?????thuay ???a ????y ???i ??? e ??. I???y ???a
????y ? ??? ? ??????? ????eth ???, ? ?? ???y? ?. O? ?e ??? ? ??? ??o
????e ?????ue ?? ???a. I?a ? ??o ?? ??o ????e ???ue ???????a ??y n 640 ?
657 ??. N?????i ???????? ?????i ??i?a ?-? ?????oe, a 659 ?? ????a a??a
????ue a AE??o. A??a , ????a ? oth??? ???i, ?????? ?????ue ? ???o n
????? ?????y? , ? ?y?e ?c ??a? ????y. E?ue a ??a VII ??a ?ae ????????i
??y ???e oth?a?e O??a ?e ???? ?yae ???o ??ae? ??? O??? ???e. Y? ??? ???e
e ?????th ?? ???i oth??? ??e ??? ???i e ???e ?? e ?????th Oth????i ????.

A ????? ??????? ??u n E??i a 682 ?? ????a oth?e ?????? ?? ?????i a
I???e.

N??? ????y ????i ??? ??????i-????? ?????. A??th?ay ??? ????? ? ????? io
??? ??a ???? ??? e ???o. I???y?y ???ue ??? ????? a ??o ??????? ??e,
?????o ???i. O??y ???ue ??? ?? ??????a o ??????? ??e ? ?? na?? ???. Ei
??????ue ??? y?o, ?ae, ????. A ???? ?? ???y? ??? e ???u. In??? ??? ???
y?y?? ??. I??? ?????-????? ???? “?? ???”, ?i ?????i ?iy?th “??????a”. A
??? ?????? ????? “???? ??a”, ? ???? ??ey?? eth? ?y ?????y ?y????? ???e
???. A oth??? ???? ???? ????a “?c ??a ? ??? oth??”, ?ae ??? ???ue ??o
???a ????a AE??o, ??a??? oth??e, ?e ???e? ?????? ?e ?????e eth??. E??
??, a Oth??? ???? ?????? ??????, a ?? ??ae?e eth? ? ??a ??????o.

2.3. E???a e ?o ???? ???? oth??.

C???-Oth??? ???o ?e ?????? n ???? ????e e c??????? ????e. A??? ??i
?cy??a y?y?? ??????, ????? ? ???i ??? ??a. I????a eth?, ? ???a ??a,
????? ????e?. A VI-VII ??o a ???o ?e Oa?n, *o, E? ???? ?ny?e ???a e
?????o ????e. N?? ??i ?????y ??? E???a, O??, A??? e ?. Iiy??? ????i
????e ??? y?o ???? ???????o i ???? ???? ?a??i ??? ??e. Y? ???i e ?????o
???eth ???e.

I??th ?? a ???? ???a ???e ???? – ??iyy ????-???ay ?????, ??ey?ay N??thth
A?th e E????. N???u a ???? ????? ????e, ????e e ?????i. A ??? VII ?ea
oth?? a ???? ????? ??e ????? e ????e.

??? ???a ??????? ????y n ??? ????e ???? Ia?e A?e, ?e E?i e A???y. O??
????y ??? ??i ????? ? ???? ????. A?? A???i O???? I?e a AE??o oth?e ??
????u a a???th ??????th ???eth. I ?i, ???ue? ?? ???a ???ey ??? ? ?????
????, ??i ????? ? ??? ????? ???????a, ??? Nth?ue Oecyiy, ?????i a ???
VII ?? a ??ea ???: “E?? ?e ?? a ??o ? ???? ??a. A? ?????? ??a ???o ????,
??? a ??? ? ??e, n ?????? a ?? ???? ”.

O???y a ?????a ??i ????ey?? ??i ??? ???a. I?a???? ??e ??? ??? e ?????
???a. A ?? ???????o ???? oth??? ?????e ???u ??? ????, ??????a a E?? e
A???e. Y? ???o i ??? y?????? ?ycyo Oth???i ???? n y?? ???? ?? a ???
??????a.

Oth???? ???o (704-756 ?.)

3.1. O????y e ????a Oth?a??? ???oa.

A 699 ??o ??ue oth??? O/-Y?a ???? ?????a ????? ???o?a a C???-Oth??? ????
e ????e ?ith ???.

A 704 ?? ???a oth??? ???e ????? ???? oth?? e ???e ?? ?????i – Oth????
?a??. O????y ???o ????? ??e, ?/?ay n ??? O? (O???) ? th?-???a N??? A?e ?
???a A???e e O??i a A???? Oth????. A???????i ???? ?e ??ae Noya.

I???? ???? ???ey? oth?i-y??? ???a. N?? ?o ???oth ?? ??? ???a oth???.
I??a ???uey i oth??? ???ath?y a ?????? ?iy??a E????a e ????o ???nyo.
A??e ???????e ???a?, ????? a ??? ??? ??a ???? ?? n VI ??, oth??e ??ey?
???oth ????eth a *o-E???i ?????. *?? ??e ? ????ey ????a ???y ??ue ?????
??e a AE??o.

I????ue oth???? ???ee ????ue-??i O?? ???? ???? ???a ? 2 ??, ? A??oth e
I?oth ??. N??a A??? ?? ????? a ??? Noya, a ??? I?? ?? – a ??? E??o,
??????i ? ??? ?? E?. A ??i ??? e ???th?e ?i ????e ?? ??????e ???e ???o.
A? oth?i-y??? ???a, ????a a ??? ????y ???oa, ????? a ????? oth???. N?e
Oth?? ???? ? ??? (??) e ??? (??) oth???. I?? ?? ??? ??iyi?y ?????ay ???
? ??? a ????.

3.2. A????a e a???i????? ????a ????.

I?????y ??? ?? ??????a a ??o ???. E??? ?e ???? ? 22 ???????? ????. E?ae?
? ?o a ??? ??u ?? ?y?? ????ue ? 7 ?n. ??ia. N ???a ??????ey O??a ?a?? ?
??? ???? ??ye ????-??i?????? ????eth ????. I?? ??? ??? a 706 ?? ????a?
?????ay ??? ? ???. Y?i ????y ???????y ??i A???i-Oth???i ???, ? e ??? ???
??i N?o (715-738aa), ?e ?i ????a ???o ??ue ?? ?????y. N???e ???? ?e ???
??ae O?? (O??).

I?? ??? N?o ???i ?? ?i ?i O???i E???. Ii ??? ????i ???? ??y. E y?? ??a?
??????ue ??? ??o ???e e /?i?e oth???e. Ec-? ??? ?????y?y, ????ny 20 ?o,
???o ??? ??a e a ??????, e a y?????? ??a. A???????ue y?i, ?a??? E????
???e ????e ?? ??ea a ??? E? e a AE??o, ??i a 748 ?? ????e ??ae Noya. A
751 ?? o ??? A?? ?? O??a oth???i-???? ??? ???e ??????? ????a ????i ???i.
I?? y?? ????a ???u ???? ?? ? AE??o.

I?? ??o ??y??e, ??i ????y ????thny ????? a ????, a 749-753 ??o oth????
??? AE?? ???? ??? ??? a ?? ??. I??i ?i ??ey ???? ?????? e ye?????a ????a
a ???? ? e ?io ? ???e. A ????? y?? Oth???ee ???o ?????? ??? a ???. A??
????? ???i, ?????a ???a a A???? ???eyo, ???????ue y?i, a 756 ?? ???e
oth??n?? ?? e ????e ??? a ?? ??e.

3.3. E???a e ?o Oth???? ????.

O?y??i oth???? a ???? ?? ???? ? ???i e i????? ??????. I???ay ??ue oth???
?? ???e ??c ??e, ????? ????e, ????e. I?? ? ??o ???? ?y ??????? ??e ??
??????, a aeey ??? ????? ??????y.

Oth???? ???? ???? ??e?a ???? ???ey. I???e ???? y?? ?? ?, ?i ??c ??i ????
A??? O???e ??. Oe???e ???ee y?y?? ??a ???, ?e Noya, A????, O??, E???a.
N?y ? ????, ??????o a ?? ???????o ????, a ???oa ???? ?? ??? (? i???
?ath?y ???e “??? Oth??-???” ?e “??? oth?n?? ?e-??”, ?e ?? ????u ?????e
?????e c???). I???y ? ???? ??????a, ???o i? ?????? ??? ?????o ??o e
???i ???? ??????a ?y?, ?i ????y?i ?????ue ? y?????? e ????? ???? ????.

Ea???? ???o (756-940 ?.)

4.1. N??a E????? ???? e ?i ????ey.

N???y i ????, ??e?? a ??? ???i ???a, ???ath?y a ????? ?iy??? V ?ea i.y.
I ???? ???? e a ????o ???nyo, a ?o ?????, ?i ???a ??y – ??e – i??y?
???ey A???? ??. N???y i ???? ?????o ??? ???? n oth??e ???ath?y a
??i-????? ?????? ?????. A ?o ???? ???tho ???? oth??e. Ii ?????th oth???i
???? ?ue-I??? (XII a.), a ????e ??? ????a ???e 9 ???i, a ??a ???o ?ee
??a ???a, ?e ?e ??e ??e, o? ??e ???ue, ??e, ???i e ??e.

I???? ???e ????ey ????? ???i ?? ????y Ae?????i A??o ? N???e. I???? y?
??e ????? ? ???? Oth????i ????, ???e ?? ???a ?ae ???th oth??ae. E???i,
?i a ??? ??? a O????? ???e ??? n oth???e ????? ?ae ??? ??????i oth????i
??? N?o. C??? ? ?????y E????? ???? ???a ???? ????? a N??thth A?th.

A ????o E????a ?? ??a: “O???? e ???e ????”, ?i ???????o i ????a ???? a
??? A???i-Oth???i ????. I?? y?? ????y ?? ?? ??? ???i ??o?a ?????? a
AE??o. I?? ? ??ei ??? ?????y y??? ????a ? O????i ????. N??i, ???e ?ee
???i ????i ?th?i, ??ey?? ???oth ????eth ? Ae?????i A??o ? n???i ???y
N???e. Eo ??e ?????? ???????ue ???i a Oth???? ??i?a e a 756 ?? ???e ??
?????i.

4.2. I?????a ????a ????.

N???e ???? y?yeny ??ae Noya. N?? ?n? ???a ??? ?ae ????e ???a o??a ????y
? ???u E?ay. E??? e ??a ?????? ????e ????y a ???u ???? e ?????e ??? O?ac
e O???. A ???? ??? ??ia ?ae A??? ???e ?? ????e ???a, ??u ???e ??? ?i
???u E?ay, a 766-775 ??o ???e ????e E???eth, ???? ?i ??i ?? ????a ???u.

I??i a ??? IX ?? ???e ????e ????a ? ??? ???i ??a ? ???a – O????i ????.
A??a ??? ???a ???ue i?? 20 ?o. O??i a ?thca n ????e a 830 ??, ???e ???
???e ????a O????o ????. I?? y?e ??? A??a E? E??-?i – ????ue ??? E???a –
?uy?e ?ay ??i?.

Ii a y? ??y n ??th ????ey e ???????y ????e ???e ???ey N???? ?uy??
“?y??oth ??o ????” e ????a E???a. I???? ??? ????y ? ?y??y ???ue ??.
N???u ????e ?? e ??ae O??, ?a ????e ???.

I???y ? ?????a a????i N???? a E???? e O??a, ??? ????? ????? a ??o ????.
Iiy?? ??? ??? ????a ???a ? ??????. A ??e ????e ??????a ???? ??? ????e?ue
??i 2-o ??a. Y? ??? ??i ????ue ? 2 y?? , ??? – n 712-713 ??a (??? ??? a
?th? n ??ey? N???u, O?a e O???. Ae??? ?a ? 766 ??, ? ?? ???e ??a ???e
????e ??? a ?? ??). A??e y?i ????? a??th ???? VIII ?? ? ??a IX. E??? a
y?o ??? ??i ???e ????y ? ???. Y? ??i ?uy??ue ?i, ?i ??u ??i ??????
????th ???th ?e e??? ???. I??ey? E????e ???o o?? e ????? ??????.
A???????ue ??i ????? ????, oth??? i???? E???e a 940 ?? ????e ??ae A????
e ???o ?e ?????. *?? 2 ?? ??ae ???? ?i A??i-?? N?? A??-?i. A ??? ????y
y?? ?? ????i ???? ??y?a ????e ????e ???e. A??-?i y?y?y ?i???? ?????a
?????a.

O?? ???i ??????? ??i 200 ?o E????e ???o ???ny.

4.3. E???a e ?o ???? E????? ????.

O?y??i ???? a ???? ?????ue ? ?? ?????yi, i??a – ?????a e ?????a ??????,
??? – ?????a ?????.

E???, ?????ny ??????i, ??i ????? ? ??yo a ??o A?ay e O????i A??o, a
??ue e ??? ?i??? o ???uey y?o ??. C?? i??????e a ??? ??e (????a ??) ?
???o ??a A???, ?e E?, *o, O??, N???y.

Ii ???ueyi ??????o ????? ?o???a, ???e ????? ??? ?? ?i?. I??i, ? ????i
????? ?e ? ????y? ??eth?a iy?.

I???? ????? e ???. A?iy? ??? ?? a ??? A??? e A???.

A??a ?????a ?cy??a – ????e? ????? y?y?? ?e ? ?????? ???i. I???a ???th??
??a ???e, ?????ny ? ???o ??????e? ??ueyo, ??i ?????? a ???a ??aea.
I????, ????e ????tho, ?i ??ae O?? ?y??ny ? ??a ?????i ??e?ey. I????i n
?????? nth? ????a ????a ??i ???y?ny e ?????? a ??ae. Iiy?? a E????i
?a??a ??ae O?? ?? ??? ???ae. I????i a ???? ??iy? ? ??e? ???e –
oth??-????. Ia y?i ?e?????tho e ???? ????? ????. O?, ????, ?????e ???
??????i ??a “O?? ?ue-a?i” ??e, ?i ? ???i?yo, ????? ????e, ??i ???a e
???o ????e. O?? ????ny, ?i a ??? ???? ???y 25 ???a e ????i ????e. N?? ?o
E??, I??, A??, A??, A???, O??? e ?. E? ??e ???? ??? ?ue-E??e: “A ??? ???
??i ????y, ??ay ????, ?? ??e e ??ey”.

A ??? ??????y Ea????i ???? ?cy????a ???? ???? e ?????? ?????? e ????ey,
a ??a ???y ??ue a ???o e ????yo ?? ??i ????y??.

E???a ????y ???? y?? ???a ?????? ??y ?????y?. I??a – ?????ay ???? e ???
– ???a ????.

I?????y ???? ???o ? ????a e ???e, ?????yth?o ?????? ?????e ???. E ?e
??ny?y ???, ???, ???? ???y, ???, ???, ????a ?????u e ??? ??a. I?y? n
???c???i th? ???e ???e a ??? ???e ??iy?? ??? ??? ? ??y, ?i?a e ???, ??
??a ??y?e.

A ????? ??? ?y?e ???o ???? n ???i ????? N??? A?e a ? ?????? ???? ????e
?????? ????y. E?? ??, ???a ?ey?a ??? A??? O???e ??, ????o? ??c ????eth
????.

E ???? ???? ??ny?y ?????y?a, ???? ??, ?????a ????y, y?e, ??? e ????,
???th??y ? ????y a ????a. O ???? ?? ??????? ??y ???ey, ??i???? ????
e?ay?y ? ???o ???a.

Ia??? ?????i (??oe IX – ??? XI ?.)

5.1. I????? I???? ?????a.

A ??a IX e ??? X ??a a ???i e ??? ???a N???e ?? ???i I???a ?????i. N???e
?i y?y?y ??ae ss???o.

Oth?iy??? ???? ???a a ??? ??????a ??ey? Oe????oth e N??thth A?th. A XII
?? ???? ???a ??? a ???? AE??o, ???e a ?n?a Oth???i ????. I?? ???y
C???-Oth???i e Oth????i ????a e ???ey E????? ???? ??u ? AE??o ?a?
???ey?ny a I???????e ???. A ??? ??? ????ey a y?o ??? ??u ????e ??????
??????a ???o ???i ??? e ????a. C??, ???? ????a ? ?o?a, ???e ?? ????u
?????? ? ??ae.

I ??????a ??a “??” ?ath?y ????a ??ey. I?e ??atho, ?i ?i ????i ? ??a “?c”
(“???ay ???”), ??? – ? ??a “?” (“???”), ??? – ? ??a “??” (“?e”). A
“I???? E????a” ????y, ?i a ??y? ?????y E????a ??e ???o ???????
oth?i-y??? ??? ????? e “???e ????ue ??? ???? ???aey”. Y? ???????o i
????oe ??? ? ??? ?y??e I???? ?n???? ??e ??? oth?i-y??? ???. A ????o
“I??a?o E????a” ?? ??a “??? ??c-??? ???y?y ?a”, ?i ?????: oth?e e ??u
?ae ???th E????a ????? a ??? ??????? ????yo ??o ??e.

A ???a I??? E??? ?? ???ey i ????? ??? ??? n ???e oth?i-y???e ????e
AE??o, ??o ??? E??-E?ue e ??e *o. E?ue ??a ???ey ???? ?????a ?e ??u
?????? a I???????e ???.

5.2. I???? ??? e ?????? ??e ???.

A ??? ??? ???e ??ue ???i-?????o e ??? ???o ?a?i, ??ey?? ??? N???e,
I??a?y e N???? I???ey. Y? ?? ???a ???????? e ??i-????i ??????y, ??iy??
oth??oth ???? e y?e.

E???? ??????a ????? ????e ????tho, ?i a ??? ??? ???e ???a ?y??, ?? e ??,
???? ??????otho ??a i ????a a ??? ??? ????e ??e ????o ???. I??ae E???
??e, ?i ??u ??????i ??iy? ? 24 ?a?i, ?ue-I??? – ? 12. Ec y?? ??i ???ue
??ae, ?i ??u a ?? ??? ???????i ?????ey ??iy? ? 24 ???, a ? ????,
??????ue ?? n ???, ??a ?a ?e ??? ? ?thc, ????? ??? ????ue ? 12.

A??e I???? ?????a ?e ????e ????ue, ???? ??e ae??o (y?o). A??ue Ae??o
?????? ? ?????. A??u ????ue ?????e ia ???o. Ae??o ??e ??o ?????a, ????
??e ??, ?y ? ????ey ?????ue ?????a ????? – ???e. O ??? e ?? ????y-???
????e ???a a ????? ??????. I? ??? ??e “??i”. I???a ?????i ????ue ? ???th
????eth. Ii y?e ???a a ??n?i ???? ??oth ?? ??? ??????e, ?e ?????
“nth??”. O Ae??o ?? ????e, ?e ????? “??i”. I???a ?a??a o ??? ????? ?c a
?ae. N ????i ???? ????y ??? ????ey ???e ??a ?????? ???? e ??? ???ath.

I?? ???? ? ??? ??? e ??a. I?????y ?e, ?a e ?e. A ?e a ?ith ???ue
????ey?? ? ??e e ???. O??? y?y?? ???a e ???? ??u – i??u. N?y ? “I???a”,
??? ???e ?? ???ey ? 12 a???.

5.3. I?????a ????a.

I???a ?????i ???i ??oth ?? a ?????? e ???e ???e A???. I? ????i ?? ???a
????. A ????? ???? “I???a” ?????ny i ???o ????i ??? ? ??ae. A oth???
???? e ???nyo ??a ??i a???th?y ???ey i ???o i??a a N??thth A?th, A????
Oth???i e ????a ??e.

Ai ???e ???? ??n?a ????e ?????? ?a ??. Ai-???, ????ue ???a ??????? ??e ?
???o ?? Ae?, a I??????, ?? ?? ??u ???e n O???? ????i. Ai-???, ?e ?????
????ue ????a ???? ??, ???yth?a A??o n Ac?e e ?????a ??c I???a, I???? e
O?th?.

I????? ??u, ?a ????th?a ??ae ???? ?????? ???? ???. A ??? ????y ?? A? a
??a X e ??? XI ??a ????? ????a a ???? ??i ?????. A y? ??y ???? ??ae Ae??
????e ????e. I??? ???? ??? ???ue ?.

???? I???? ?????a ???y a ??? ????y ????? ?? A? – O????. Ii a 1041 ??
???? O??i. I???? ????a ????? ???i e ????th ???. N? O???e ??a ?ae O???i.
A I???i ?????a ???? ???u e ??? a ??? ? ???. Y?e ?????e ???????ue ????a
?n?e – ????? ???a. I???a a????? ?? ?ae ???e ????? ???. A XI ?? ???e
?????? ????e ??? n ???a N???e e A????i . A ??? XI ?? I???a ?????i ????i
??????.

5.4. O?y?o?, ???u e ???a ???.

I?? ????? ?????i e ?????i ??????i. O ?????o ??? ??? ?? ?? ??iy?? ????
????. I?? ?????? n ??? ??a a ???, ? ???????o e ???th ???? ? ???o. I?
????? ??? ?? ??a (??, ???e, ??eth?a e ???? ???ai ??a).

I?? ????? ? ??ei ??????i, ??ue ? ?o e ?????i ?????i. ???ey?? ??u ????.
E? ????ue??tho ????? ????e, o ??? ?? ??i ???a, ?e oy??? ?? ? ??? a ????
e ????i ?????yo. A??????? ???? e ????? ??/?? ????th ?????tho ???e ??c
?c? ????e ??e ???, ?i ?e ???e?ue ???? ?????i. Ia ??a y?o ???o ???? ???a
???u n?aeu ???a, ??? e ???, ?????u ??a ??iy?? ????e ???.

I???i, ?????? ???????i, ??i ???? e ???a ?? ?????? ???????? ????e. I????,
? ?? e ?? ??a ??????e ??ue e ???, ??a? ?y ??e, ???th ??th e o.ae. A ?
??? ?? ???, ??? ??u ?y th?, ??u e o.ae.

I?? ???? ??????i ??, a ?i ??a ?????u, ??ey ??a, ??? e ??? ???? ???a
??????e ??. Ii ?????o ??????o ????i ???? ?ue-AE??a, “oth?e ?a ???? ????o
????a ??tho ??… ?????atho ?e e ???, e ???, ??th, ???u ?y ??e, ??y e
???”. N?y ? ???? ??u ????? e ????i ??i. A??a n ?i ?ue-E??e ??e e i ?i,
?i ?e ??????e ? ??? e ??? ???ia th???? ????y.

E???? ???o (??oe IX – ??? XI)

6.1. I???? ??? e ?????a E????i ????.

N?y ? ????i ???nyi, ???a ???i ???????ue e ????e ??a, a ??? VII ??, a
???-???? I???e. E ???e VII ?? ??? ????? a ??? ???? A???? ?? e a I????a.
N 656 ?? ??a ?ae?ey C???-Oth???i ???? ??? ???tho ???ey?ny ? ??? ???. Ii
?????o? ????? ???? N?a Oeyiy, ??e ???a ??? ? ??? I???e, ?? e e???. Y?
??? ??????? ??, ?i oth?iy??? ???a ??i ??????e ?? n ???.

AE??e a XI ?? ????? ???e A??? ??e, ?i a ??? ????y ??? ???a ???e 7 ???.
N?? ?o ???? ???? e ?a????? ?? ??? e ???e.

Ai ??? ???? VIII ?? e ??? IX ??a o oth?iy??? ??? N??? A?e ????e ???a
?????? ????. N y?? ???e ??? ??? ??? ???y?ny ? ????? E????a. Ia y?i ????
??i ???? a ???? ????? ????? IX ??. A 766-840 ??o ??? ?iy? ????eth C????
A?ay, O????y e A????? ????u. I?? ???a a 840 ?? O???i? ???? ??ue ????o a
?? ???: y??, ?y??, ???, ???c, ?ia, ???a, ???? ????e ?????a ????o ???. Y?
7 ?a?i ????e ???? ????a E????i e???a.

O?? ???i, a ??a IX ?? ? ???eth ????o ??? ?e ??? E???? ???o. E??? ???e
????eth N??i-A????i e Oea????? E????a. N???e ???? ?e ??ae E??y. Ii ?e
???i ?????? ???e, ?? ???? ???. A??e ???? y?yeny ??ae E???y ? ????a ??a
A?e?ue.

6.2. I?????e ??e ????.

E????i ????y ???? ???i. Ia ?a ???e ?? ?e ??e ???. O??u ”?? a??” e “??e
???” ??? ??e ????? ???. A?? ???, ???? ?y?? ???e ??e ??e “?ae-??e”. A??a
???e ??? – “???e ??i”, “??e ??i”.

Any ???a a??e ????? a ??o ???. Ii ????? ???? ??? ??? ?e ???, ?ae-???.
O?? ??? ?????y ? ?n???o.

A ?????? ??e E?a??? ???? ??oth ?? ??? ??u. Ca ????oth ??? ????? ???? ??a
???i? ??u.

I???? ???? a ???? ????? ??????i. O ???? ?? ?? ??a ?e ??? ? ???ue, ? ?
????, a ?? ???e ??c ??e. E? ??e I??ae E???, ? ???? “????”

6.3. I?????a ????a ????.

C?e?y ?ith ????eth ? ???o ??? e ???ay ????a??a ??? n ??th ????ey ??? ???
?????a, ???o i??y?i ????y a ??iy?e ??u n ????e ????. I????, ?ath?y
???ey, /? a IX ?? ??? ????e ??ue ??? “?ay? ???”, a a X ?? – ??ae AE???n
a A???? O????a. A??a n ?i ??? ????e ??? e ? ????o ????, ??? ? ???o A??y.
N ????????e ???e ?e i????ue ? a ??????o ????yo, oi ????? a ? ??e. A??i,
yoi ???? ????e ? ???? y??, ??, ????, ???a e ???? ???a, e???a e ???.

I??i ? ??? ???? X ?? ? ????a ??e ??e ??i ???? ??? ?????a E?????. Ii
????? ???ueyi, ???ay ???a ???, ?e ???? ? E??a. O?? ??? a XI ?? ???y??
?????i. A????a ??o ???a E??n?e ???o ????? ??? a ???. Ia??a E????i ????
????i ? ?? ????. Ai-???, ??? ??? ?a ??iy?ay ?????ay ??? n ??y? e????o
???, ?-???, ???y ??? ?o??y ? oth?iy??? ???o ???, ???o?ny ? C?? e ???? ?
??i ?oe ?????? ?? ? ???-????? ????.

6.4. E?ue??, ?cy?o? e ???a ???a.

E??e a ???? ?? ?????e. I????e ???e A??? (XI a) ??e ? y?i : “????e ??e ??
??o ???”, a ??a ???e: “? ?? ?e ????e?? ??i?a iy?, ????, ??? ?e ?ay??,
??? ? ?? ??o ???a ”. Ay??a iy? ? ?? ??? o ???a e ? ??. I?th? ??i, ?i ???
y?y?? ???? ???? ????? ???. N???ue ????a ?cye????y e ????? ??? o
oth?iy??? ??? ????? ? ??a ??????a.

O?, ? ???eyi I??? E???, ?, ?i ? ?? ??a, ?????? a ???a, ??i??ue ????e,
?????? e ???. A?? ?? ???e ???e ?e ???e ??iyi?a ??? ? ??y, ???a e ???.
Ec-? ???? e ???? ?oyi ??a ????y ??a??i ?????? a ???.

E??u e ??????e ????? ??e ?????e ?? ??? ???? ?????? ???e, ????y ? a ????.

E??e ?? ????e ?n??? ???? ????a e ???e. I? e?????? ? ???e ??? ???, ??u,
??? e o.ae. A??a n ?i ?i?e ??????e ?????a ?y ?? ???, ??ey ??a, ???, a ?i
??a ???u ?y ?? e o.ae. E??e ?? ???????? ????e ?????ey ???e ??e. A ?
?????yo ??i ???ath?y e ????a ???y. I? ???u ???th e ? ?ae ? ??ue ???????,
??i ????u. Y? ???o i ?i, ?i ????a ???i ?? ??e? ??ue ??i.

TH???? ???a ????y ??ue ???i ????u, ???? ? ? ???ath?y ? o ??? ?
oth?iyc??o ???.

I?????y ???? eth?? ??? ?????oth?y ??? ?i ?cy??a. Y? a ???? ???? ???? e
????, ?y??? n ????? e ??? ???? ??????, e ?i ??ny?y ?????ey ???, ??ey,
?????? e ??ey ??a, ??? ????a ????i i???, y?yth??y ????? ?????? ??????
????.

I ???? ???? ??e? ??i ??? ? ?? ?????. I??e ? ?o – ????a ???? e ??, ????a
a ?? ???????o ????. A??e – ????? ????e.

O ???a ???? ???a oth??? ?????? ????y, ?????? ??i ??e ???o ???e ??o O??e
(??) e ??o ??a ???a. I? ???y?? ?ith, n??o, ???i, ??i e ??i, ??? a
??????a c????i ??.

I ???e o ???a ?????? ??????otho ????a ????i ???????a A? Ae??a (X a): “o
?o ???o ????, ???i ?e ??o”.

A X ?? ??e ??????? ????e ??e ??e ?????iyo?y ??i. Ae??????i ?? ??o n???
??e ??, ?i e???? ??i ??ye ?y O?? ?ue-E??e. I???? ???o eth?e ??e ???? ?
????i ??y?i.

O?? ???i, ???y ? ?????? ??a E????i ???? IX-XI ??a, ???o ?????ue, ?i ? ?e
??ui ??????i-????? ??????, ???i n?????e ?? ????-??????i ???ey.

Ni?? ?????? ?????.

1…“E??ey ??????? E????? – AE????a N., A??a Ae. (2003 a.)

2…”E??ey E????a” – E? A. (2002 a.)

3…”A????? a y?????? e y???????e ???e Ea????” – A???? E. (1997 a.)

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020