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Франклин Рузвельт как человек и политик

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e?ecen. 9

6. ?ocaaeueo a aoua iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau. 11

7. ?ocaaeueo i?aceaeaio NOA e aai “iiaue eo?n”. 14

8. Iiaay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay neooaoeey – iiaua ?aoaiey 19

9. Aeeieiiaoe/aneia i?eciaiea NNN?. 23

10. “Iiaue eo?n” a eaioi aieiu. 26

11. ?ocaaeueo a eaioi iiauo auai?ia. 28

12. Ia/aei aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. 35

13. Ieaiu iineaaiaiiiai ono?ienoaa. 43

14. Caaa?oaiea aieiu e iiaua i?iaeaiu. 47

15. E?uineay eiioa?aioeey. 49

16. Aa?ineee eioeeaeaio. 53

17. Nia?oue i?aceaeaioa – oo?aoa aeey Aia?eee. 55

18. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. 59

AAOIIOITH?EAe I?aaeeneiaea.

A iaeiii ec naieo ienai a eiioea yiaa?y 1941ai aiaea Oiian Iaii, aaeeeee
iaiaoeeee ienaoaeue – aoiaieno, yiea?e?iaaaoee ec iaoeenoneie Aa?iaiee,
ienae i i?eaia, eioi?ui ii aue oaeinoiai i?aceaeaioii O. ?ocaaeueoii a
Aaeii aeiia: “aeaeueiaeoaa iaoa iooaoanoaea auei eioa?anii e
ooiieoaeueii – eioa?anii, eiia/ii, iniaaiii ia neaaeothuai yoaia, aaea
ian i?eiyee n ii?aceoaeueiui aieiaieai. Aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiie aa?oeiie
aai aue eieoaeeue a ?aai/ai eaaeiaoa, eiaaea ae?oaei i?eaeaoaiiui ia
dinner ainoyi i?eoeinue aeaeaoue aieco. A aaaeue o ian oaea aue n “iei”
ia?aue caao?ae. “Ii” niiaa i?iecaae ia iaiy neeueiia aia/aoeaiea eee,
aa?iaa, iiyoue aucaae o iaiy eioa?an e neiiaoeth: o?oaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue yoo nianue oeo?inoe, nieia/iinoe, ecaaeiaaiiinoe,
eieaonoaa e /anoiie aa?u, ii anoue ia iai eaeay-oi ia/aoue aeaaiaeaoe,
e y i?eaycaeny e iaio eae e i?e?iaeaeaiiiio, ia iie acaeyae, i?ioeaieeo
oiai, /oi aeieaeii ianoue”. A ianoue aeieaeai aue auoue oaoeci.

Yoi caia/aiea ienaoaey-aioeoaoenoa oaeeaeoaeueii oi/ii e y?ei ia?aaeaao
neiaeiue e i?ioeai?a/eaue aioo?aiiee iaeee 28ai i?aceaeaioa NOA,
iiaeaeoe, naiiai ciaiaieoiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey yoie no?aiu.

Ia?eiae, ia/aaoeeny ie?iaui yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii 1929-1933aa. E
caaa?oeaoeeny iiaaaeie nee aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee caieiaao iniaia
ianoi a noaeueaao /aeiaa/anoaa. ?ieue ?ocaaeueoa e aai ie?oaeaiey a
ii?aaeaeaiee i?eioeeiia e ?aaeecaoeee nioeeaeueiie e aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie
no?aoaaee, iai?aaeaiiie ia nio?aiaiea e oi?i/aiea yeiiiie/aneeo e
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo iiceoeee NOA, eneeth/eoaeueii aaeeea. N aai eiaiai
naycaia oaeaea iaeia ec naiuo cia/eoaeueiuo no?aieoe a enoi?ee aiaoiae
iieeoeee e aeeieiiaoee NOA, e a /anoiinoe onoaiiaeaiea ii?iaeecaoeey
aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee n Niaaoneei Nithcii, o/anoea NOA a
aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee.

Eneeth/eoaeueii aaeeea ?ieue ?ocaaeueoa a oi?ie?iaaiee e i?aoai?aiee a
aeeciue oae iacuaaaiiai “iiaiai eo?na” aioo?e no?aiu, eo?na
aeaiie?aoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe, nua?aaoaai auaeathuothny ?ieue a
noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie neooaoeee a no?aia a ia?eiae
iinea aeoaieiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena 1929-1934aa, eo?na, iicaieeaoaai
ecaaaeaoue oyaeeeo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo iio?ynaiee.

?ocaaeueo i?iyaee naay eae iai?aeeia?iue, aeaeee iieeoee, oiiei
/oanoaothuee neooaoeeth, niiniaiue aa?ii oaaaeuaaoue oaiaeaioeee e
naiaa?aiaiii e oi/ii ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiea iano?iaiea anao neiaa
iauanoaa.

Inoaaaynue aa?iui nuiii naiaai eeanna ?ocaaeueo aeaeae ana /oiau
nio?aieoue e ?acaeoue nouanoaothuee iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneee no?ie a
no?aia e oe?aieoue aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea NOA ai anai ie?a. ?ocaaeueo
a ioee/ea io iiiaeo ae?oaeo i?aceaeaioia, anaaaea inoaaaeny o?acaui e
i?aaiaoe/iui iieeoeeii.

*aou?aaeaeu ia?aecae?aeny ia iino i?aceaeaioa no?aiu( /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie naiaia?aciue ?aei?ae a enoi?ee NOA) e caieiae aai aei naiie nia?oe
a 1945 aiaeo.

AAOIIOITH?EAe I?ienoiaeaeaiea. Ia/aei ea?uea?u. Ia?aua oniaoe e
iaoaea/e.

O?aieeei Aeaeaii ?ocaaeueo ?iaeeeny 30ai yiaa?y 1882ai aiaea a
Aaeae-ia?e a ooao a Iueth-Ei?e a naiuea ninoiyoaeueiiai
caieaaeaaeaeueoea e i?aaei?eieiaoaey, eiaaoae oe?ieea nayce a
iieeoe/aneeo e?oaao naaa?i-ainoi/iuo ooaoia. Ii ia?aciaaieth th?eno,
o/eeny a i?eaeeaae?iaaiiie /anoiie oeiea a Ai?oiia, a Aa?aa?aeneii e
Eieoiaeeneii oieaa?neoaoao. A 1905 aiaeo aeaieeny ia naiae aeaeueiae
?iaenoaaiieoea Yeaiii?a ?ocaaeueo, ieaiyiieoea Oaiaei?a ?ocaaeueoa (1858
– 1919) – ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaee e i?aceaeaioa NOA.

A 1907-1910 aiaeao ?aaioae a th?eaee/aneie oe?ia. ?ocaaeueo ?aii
aeeth/eeny a aeoeaioth iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a ?yaeao
Aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee. A 1910ii aiaeo ii eca?ai a naiao ooaoa
Iueth-Ei?e. A 1913-1920 aa – iiiiuiee ii?neiai ieieno?a a i?aaeoaeuenoaa
i?aceaeaioa Aeeueniia, aunooiae ca oneeaiea aiaiii-ii?neie iiue NOA, /oi
auei ianouii iaiaoiaeeii aeey inouanoaeaiey iieeoeee “aieueoie aeoaeiee”
a aeiaaeueiii ianooaaa.

A 1920ii aiaeo – eaiaeeaeao ia iino aeoea-i?aceaeaioa NOA io
Aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee. Iioa?iae ii?aaeaiea e aa?ioeny e /anoiie
th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao. N aaaonoa 1921ai aiaea a
?acoeueoaoa iieeiieaeeoa ia anth aeeciue noae eiaaeeaeii, iioa?ye
niiniaiinoue naiaiaeii ia?aaeaeaaoueny. Aei 1928ai aiaea inoaaaeny “a
oaie”, ia cayaeye i naaa ia iauanoaaiiie eee iieeoe/aneie a?aia, ii
noaiiaeony ana aieaa caiaoiie oeao?ie a ?oeiaiaenoaa Aeaiie?aoe/aneie
ia?oee.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Aioo?aiiyy e aiaoiyy neooaoeey a eaioi i?aceaeaionoaa
?ocaaeueoa.

Iiniio?ei eae neeaaeuaaeanue aiaoiyy e aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea NOA i?e
aeeaeaeoeo i?aaeoanoaaiieeao O. ?ocaaeueoa, i?aceaeaioao NOA.

A oa/aiee anaai a?aiaie noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey NOA eo ioiioaiey n
ninaaeieie no?aiaie aace?iaaeenue ia i?eioeeiao ?acaiy e ianeeey. Iaeiei
ec “e?aaoaieueiuo eaiiae” a ooiaeaiaioa aiaoiae iieeoeee yaeeanue
aeieo?eia Iii?i, aeaeea?aoeey i?eioeeiia aiaoiae iieeoeee NOA
i?iaicaeaoaiiay i?aceaeaioii Aeae. Iii?i a iineaiee eiia?anno. Auaeaeioo
i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey ie?a ia aia?eeaineoth e aa?iiaeneoth nenoaiu e
iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa NOA ai aioo?aiiea aeaea aa?iiaeneeo no?ai e
niioaaonoaaiii iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa iineaaeieo ai aioo?aiiea aeaea no?ai
aia?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa. E?aoei i?eioeei oi?ioee?iaaeny oae: “Aia?eea
aeey aia?eeaioeaa”.

Eaoeineay Aia?eea ieii/aoaeueii inaiaiaeaeaeanue io
eniaii-ii?ooaaeueneiai e eiiai eiicaiiiai ainiiaenoaa. NOA no?aieeenue
onoaiiaeoue aac?acaeaeueiia ainiiaenoai a Eaoeineie Aia?eea. A
aeaeea?aoeee Iii?i aeaeaaony iiiuoea iainiiaaoue i?eioeei, noaaeaoee
?ino iiaouanoaa NOA a caaeneiinoue io i?eniaaeeiaiey iiauo oa??eoi?ee e
ia?aciaaiey iiauo ooaoia /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei ia yeniaineiienoneeo
ono?aieaieyo NOA a ioiioaiee Eaoeineie Aia?eee ( e ia oieueei Eaoeineie
Aia?eee ) . Iiae oeaaii yoie aeieo?eiu NOA a caoaaoie/aneie aieia i?ioea
Iaeneee ( 1846-1848aa ) iooi?aee nauoa iieiaeiu aa oa??eoi?ee. Aeaeaa
yeniaineiienoneea oaiaeaioeee aeieo?eiu Iii?i iieo/eee ?acaeoea a
aeieo?eia Ieie ( 1895a ) e a oae iacuaaaiii aeiaaaeaiee Oaiaei?a
?ocaaeueoa (1904a), a eioi?ii i?yii i?iaicaeaoaeenue i?aoaicee NOA ia
inouanoaeaiea ?iee “iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iieeoeaeneie neeu”. Oaea a ia?aua
aeanyoeeaoey 20ai aaea NOA i?aaei?eiyee eioa?aaioeee ia Eoao, a Iaeneeo,
Aaeoe, Aeiieieeaineoth ?anioaeeeo, Ieea?aaoa, Iaiaio e ae?oaea no?aiu.

*oi eanaaony yeiiiieee e aioo?eiieeoe/aneie e nioeeaeueiie neooaoeee,
oi, anooiea a ia?aoth ie?iaoth aieio n “iiicaeaieai” ia aeaa n iieiaeiie
aiaea, NOA auoee ec iaa ia iiiany ieeaeiai caiaoiiai o?iia. Iai?ioea, eo
yeiiiie/aneia e oeiainiaia iiaouanoai, eo aeeyiea ai anai ie?a
iaecia?eii au?inee. Aiaiiua iinoaaee aithuai no?aiai iaiaaoeee NOA,
niinianoaiaaee ?inoo eo yeiiiieee, a oeiainiaua caeiu i?aa?aoeee no?aiu
Aioaiou a iaiieaoiuo aeieaeieeia. E aeaeaa, aeanyoeeaoiyy iieina
i?aaeaiey ?anioaeeeaioeaa, “yiioa i?aceaeaioa Eyeaeia Eoeeaeaea”,
i?eoaaeoayny ia 20a aiaeu 20ai noieaoey, ioia/aia i?iiuoeaiiui aoiii,
no?aieoaeueiui iaiaauaieai ieeaa?oe/aneie aa?oooee iauanoaa ia
oeiainiauo aoa?ao. A aua aieueoae noaiaie yoi iaiaauaiea i?ienoiaeeei ia
aaca iaania/aiey iiiiiieeyie NOA aaaeoueo iiceoeee a ie?iaie
oicyenoaaiiie nenoaia ca n/ao eiieo?aioia NOA, iaane?iaeaiiuo e
iaanneeaiiuo aieiie, iineaaiaiiie ?ac?ooie, canoiai e aioo?aiieie
iieeoe/aneeie e?ecenaie.

Inouanoaea aeaaiaea?y cieioiio aeiaeaeth aiaiiuo i?eaueae oe?ieoth
oaoiieiae/aneoth iiaea?iecaoeeth, aia?eeaineay yeiiiieea naeaeaea
ia?iiiue ?uaie aia?aae, inoaaea iicaaee aanue iniiaiie ie?.

I?iiaaaiaeenoneea ?oii?u e?oiiiai eaieoaea eoeueoeae?iaaee eeethcee,
ooaa?aeaeay, /oi a yeiiiieea NOA aeaenoaotho iiaua yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu,
eneeth/athuea i?ioeai?a/ey, naienoaaiiua yeiiiieea ae?oaeo no?ai.
Eiioeaioeey ?acaeoey “iiaiai, aia?eeaineiai oeia oeeaeeecaoeee”,
ni/aoaaoaai a naaa aiciiaeiinoe ie/ai ia ia?aie/aiiie eiieo?aioeee,
nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a aeaea
aeciana, eoeueo oaoieoeecia e iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?aainoiaenoaa auee
aicaaaeaiu a ?aia ioeoeeaeueiie eaeaieiaee.

Iiiiiieenoe/aneee eaieoae caoaaoee eiiaiaeiua iiceoeee a yeiiiieea e
iieeoeea. Aai aa?anneaiay ianooiaoaeueiinoue i?eaaea e naa?ouaaieth
iiiaeo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?ecaaiiuo ia?aaeeoue iauanoai io naiaei?unoiuo
iinyaaoaeuenoa ni noi?iiu aeaiaaeiuo iaaiaoia, e ?inoo eiina?aaoeaiuo
iano?iaiee ni noi?iiu oe?ieeo iann, iaeooaiiuo aioe?aaeeeaeueiie
enoa?eae e iiaa?eaoeo ?aeeaia “iiaiai eaieoaeecia”.

I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue eo?n ?anioaeeeaioeaa a 1921-1933 aa ioaa/ae anai
naiui aeaeaei eaeouei aiaeaeaeaieyi aeaeiauo e?oaia. Iieeiiaiea ie/ai ia
ia?aie/aiiie noeoee ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, naiaiaeiie io i?yiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e eiio?iey noaei e?aaoaieueiui
yeaiaioii yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Naiie iiioey?iie a
aaoeiaoiineeo aeaia?oaiaioao auea onoaiiaea: “I?aaeinoaaueoa aecian
naiiio naaa, a ii iicaaioeony i aan”. Aaeeinoaaiii, aaea i?eciaaaeanue
?ieue ainoaea?noaa, oae yoi a noa?a io?aieoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Aecian caeioa?aniaai a aeanoeii i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii eiio?iea ca anaie
oi?iaie naiiaeayoaeueiinoe o?oaeyueony e iaoeeiiii aeiaeaaeny oaeie
iieeoeee a ?aai/ai aii?ina, eioi?ay aeaaaea ana i?aeiouanoaa eaieoaeo e
aaea e iiae?uao i?aaiecaoeee o?oaeyueony, eo ii?aeueiiio ?aci?oaeaieth.

Aeaiie?aou (aeoeaiui aeayoaeai yoie ia?oee e aue O. ?ocaaeueo) oae aea,
eae e i?aayuay ia?oey ?anioaeeeaioeaa, ioiaaeaauaaeenue io ?aaeeeaeecia
(iiae yoei iiieiaeanue anyeay ?aaiethoeeiiiay eaeaieiaey e iieeoeea,
iai?aaeaiiay ia ei?aiioth eiieo iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai e
yeiiiie/aneiai no?iy) e iaauay “ieii/aoaeueii” eeeaeaee?iaaoue
iineaaeiea neaaeu aaaeiinoe, ana aea ia iicaieyee ineaieoue naay
aac?annoaeiie aa?ie ai ananeeea Aia?eee, niiniaiie yeiau a iaeeii/eo, ia
naycuaay naay ieeaeeie iaycaoaeuenoaaie, iie?aynue ia neeo eee oa?ico
i?eiaiaiey neeu, ia oieueei ?aaeeciaaoue naie eiia?neea aiaeoeee ii e
iianthaeo iaania/eoue auaiaeiue NOA aaeain nee.

Nio?aiyy aa?iinoue eicoiao i?aceaeaioa Aoae?i Aeeueniia i ianneaineie
?iee NOA e ia eciaiyy i?eoycaieyi eo ia ie?iaia eeaea?noai, aeaiie?aou
i?ioeaiiinoaaeee aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiio eeethceoeeiiecio ?anioaeeeaioeaa
eiioeaioeeth aeoeaiiai aoi?aeaiey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeaea, ii iiyoue
oaee a eioa?anao ooaa?aeaeaiey aeeyiey Aaoeiaoiia ia oiae ie?iaiai
?acaeoey.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Niiaa ia iieeoe/aneie a?aia.

A ia?oa 1928ai aiaea iinea aeeeoaeueiiai i?aauaaiey a oaie ?ocaaeueo
naeaeae ia?aue oaa a iiaii oo?a ai?ueau ca iaoeeiiaeueiia i?eciaiea.
Yia?ae/iue, ia oiaeo oeaaeeaathuee eciaiaiea ianoaiiaee e eaaei
i?eniinaaeeaathueeny e iae, aaccaaaoii aa?yuee a naith caacaeo ?ocaaeueo
iieueciaaeny iiaeaea?aeeie a oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo e?oaao
Naaa?i-ainoiea e aeeyieai a Aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee.

?ocaaeueo ?aoee iaianoe oaea? ii iaeaieaa neaaie iiceoeee
?anioaeeeaineie aaeieieno?aoeee, ii aa aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiio eo?no. Ii
iaaeiee eo a iiae?uaa “i?eioeeiia ie?a” ca ioeac io nio?oaeie/anoaa n
Eeaie iaoeee e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaeii. ?ocaaeueo cayaee i
iaaiciiaeiinoe aeey NOA, ia n/eoaynue ie n /ai, auiieiyoue i?enaiaiiua
eie naieie aeaiaea?ineea ooieoeee ia eiioeiaioa. I?aaeeiaeee
eniieueciaaoue aieaa niioaaonoaothuea eciaieaoaeny ianoaiiaea iaoiaeu,
/oiau oaea?aeaoue “a?aoneea no?aiu” a aannaeueiie caaeneiinoe.
“Aeeieiiaoey eaiiia?ie” aeieaeia auea noaoue aieaa oeua/eaie, aieaa
eieeaeoeaenoneie.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen.

Iaaeaeo oai a yeiiiieea ia/eiaee iaeaieeaaoueny i?iaeaiu, no?aia
iaoeeiiii niiecaea e aeoai/aeoaio yeiiiie/aneiio e?eceno 1929-1933
aiaeia.

Aeaaea ai a?aiaia iaeaunoae yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe aac?aaioeoea ia
iioneaeanue ieaea 4%. I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi
“i?ioeaaoaiea” nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ia noaeaieai i?iianoe iaaeaeo
aaaeiinoueth e aiaaonoaii, a aa ?anoe?aieai. Aeey iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee
ianaeaiey “i?ioeaaoaiea” oae e inoaeinue iaaeinoeaeeiui oaioiiii. Yoi
ioiineony e ?aai/ei iaeioi?uo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe (aeiau/a oaey,
aieueoeinoai io?aneae eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe), iaeeei i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi,
auoaniyaiui e?oiiui eaieoaeii e e oa?ia?ai. Naeueneia ianaeaiea ieuaei
iiae oaea?aie caoyaeiiai aa?a?iiai e?ecena. “Iiaeieoeu” iaaeaeo oeaiaie
ia i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u e naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth ana a?aiy
?acaeaeaaeenue, /oi aaei e ?aci?aieth e iaaccaiaeeaaieth oa?ia?ia.

Ieacaaoeany a oeneao e?ecena ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa, aieueoa anaai
caeioa?aniaaiiia a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii aiaoaoaeuenoaa, oa?ia?noai e a
oeaeii aa?a?iue naeoi? yeiiiieee auee i?iia?acii i/aiue iaaeaeaeiai
aoaeouaai anae yeiiiieee.

Ouaieaiea i?aa o?oaeyueony, aiiaiey ia eo i?aaiecaoeee, noa/a/ioth e
iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, aacoaea?aeiay i?iiiaaaeue
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia e ?anecia, i?ac?aiea e iaoaea/ieeai e iaacaeieaiiui
ionoeei aeoaieea ei?ie, nicaeaaay oneiaey, eae au?aceeny ?ocaaeueo,
aica?auaiey yiioe “iiaiai yeiiiie/aneiai oaiaeaeecia” – aaniethoiiai,
ie/ai ia ia?aie/aiiiai i?iecaiea ieeaa?oe/aneie aa?oooee iauanoaa.

A 1929 aiaeo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeia aia?eeaineiai ?aai/aai
auea aieueoa, /ai a ae?oaeo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao. Nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey ii aac?aaioeoea ia nouanoaiaaei, a oi a?aiy eae a
aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noaao iii aeaaii oaea auei. Eniieueciaaiea aeaoneiai
o?oaea, aeene?eieiaoeey /a?iuo e aeaiuei noaaeee NOA a?iaaiue n naiuie
ionoaeuie no?aiaie. A Aia?eea a aiaeu “i?ioeaaoaiey” iannu ianaeaiey
inoaaaeenue ai aeanoe aiiethuae ieuaou e aani?aaey, aeoaeia ianooaau
eioi?uo auee iaecaanoiu ca i?aaeaeaie NOA.

A 1929ii aiaeo no?aia auea aaa?aiooa a aiaeiai?io ie?iaiai
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena. Eaaeia aaie?ionoa, iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa (naiay
ieceay ioiaoea – a 1932ii aiaeo), iiiaiieeeeiiiay a?iey aac?aaioiuo
iaiaaeeee i?ioeai?a/ey eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee e aeoaeio
nioeeaeueiiai ia?aaainoaa. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea a nioeeaeueiii
no?aoiaaiee ia i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee au?aaeaeanue oi?ioeie “oaa?aeiai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia”, /oi icia/aao, /oi caaioa i ieeeeiiao aea?oa e?ecena
yaeyaony eo ee/iui aeaeii eee a e?aeiai neo/aa aeaeii ianoiuo aeanoae e
/anoiuo aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo oiiaeia.

Iueth-Ei?e ia?aui eniuoae oaea?u e?ecena. A?iey aac?aaioiuo auno?i
?inea, eaoano?ioe/anee aic?anoaea nioeeaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue. ?inee
i/a?aaee ca aanieaoiui eoneii oeaaa e /aoeie eioa, ia?aiieiyeenue
ii/eaaeee aeey aaaeiyeia.

Aiaaoea a io/ayiea, iceiaeaiiua oieiu aac?aaioiuo ooo?iii a?aee
ioieoeeiaeeoaou oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ociaoue i ionoie eacia e auoue
?annayiiuie n iiiiuueth neacioi/eaiai aaca e aeoaeiie.

AAOIIOITH?EAe ?ocaaeueo a aoua iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau.

A 1928ii aiaeo ?ocaaeueo iaiaeeaeaiii aeey naay e naieo noi?iiieeia
iiaaaeee ia auai?ao e noae aoaa?iaoi?ii ooaoa Iueth-Ei?e, naeaeaa ia?aue
oaa e i?aceaeaionoao. Noaa aoaa?iaoi?ii, ?ocaaeueo ieacaeny eeoeii e
eeoeo n naiui e?oiiui i/aaii iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaaenoaey.

I?aauaaiea ?ocaaeueoa ia iinoo aoaa?iaoi?a ooaoa Iueth-Ei?e ii iiaieth
iiiaeo ia auei iciaiaiiaaii nouanoaaiiuie aeinoeaeaieyie. Yeiiiieea
ooaoa auea a noieue aea iea/aaiii ninoiyiee, eae e iianthaeo, a aeanoue
ooaoa caieiaea oaeoth aea auaeeaeaoaeueioth iiceoeeth, eae e
aaeieieno?aoeey a Aaoeiaoiia. Eeoue a aaaonoa 1931ai aiaea aoaa?iaoi?
nicaeae A?aiaiioth /?acau/aeioth aaeieieno?aoeeth iiiiue OA?A, eioi?ay
aeieaeia auea iaania/eoue iaioeiaeioth iiiiuue aac?aaioiui. Iaeiaei OA?A
ia oiia iieeoeaeneeo aeanoieinoae, /eieiuo i?aaeoaeuenoaii iaae
aac?aaioiuie, aeaaaea ?ocaaeueoo ineoieiae/aneia i?aainoiaenoai iaae
i?aceaeaioii Aoaa?ii, a eioi?ii ii ioaeaeaeny, ia/eiay n iei ai?ueao ca
i?aceaeaioneia e?anei. Iinea aeeeie ?ani?aau iaae i?eoaaeoeie eaoii
1932 aiaea a Aaoeiaoii ca iiiiuueth aaoa?aiaie ie?iaie aieiu, aucaaaoae
ao?ioth ?aaeoeeth ai anae no?aia, ?ocaaeueo aicaeaaiaea?ee nianoaaiiia
aeaai?acoiea, oaea?aeaaoaa aai io i?ecuaa Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee aeey
“onie?aiey” aieiaeiuo aoioia a ooaoa Iueth-Ei?e.

Ia/aei ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee 1932 aiaea niaiaei n ?aceei iiaeuaiii
?aaeeeaeueiuo iano?iaiee oe?ieeo iann ianaeaiey. Oeeoeu i?iiuoeaiiuo
ai?iaeia caiieiaiu aiciouaiiuie ethaeueie, ao?eyo e aioiau iuaoeieoueny
aa??eeaaeaie aea?aaaineea iinaeee, iiaeiyeenue ia aii?oaeaiioth ai?ueao
n iieeoeeae e aaiaeaie oicyeneeo iaaiieeia oaooa?neea ai?iaeee. Ii
no?aia i?ieaoeeanue aieia aieiaeiuo iioiaeia aac?aaioiuo, au?inee
/eneaiiinoue e aeoeaiinoue eo i?aaiecaoeee. A Eiia?anna iinoiyiii
aaeenue aeaaaou ii aii?ino i iaecaaaeiie aniuoea aoioia e ia?a?anoaiee
eo a ia/oi aieaa na?ueaciia.

?ocaaeueo niciaaae aeoaaea e ino?aa, /ai eoi – eeai ae?oaie a
Aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee, iaiaoiaeeiinoue iac?aaoeo ia?aiai. Ianoa?nee
i?iaaaeaiiay ?ocaaeueoii inaiueth 1930 aiaea eaiiaiey ii ia?aeca?aieth
aai ia iino aoaa?iaoi?a ooaoa Iueth-Ei?e oaaaeeea neaioeeia a
?oeiaiaenoaa Aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee, /oi yoio ia?a/aiiue, eae iiiaei
eacaeinue, ia aacaeayoaeueiinoue, oece/anee iaiiuiue iieeoee niiniaai
nianoe naio ia?oeth io aanneaaiiai ?acaaea.

Aaniie 1931 aiaea ?ocaaeueo aiai?eo i “iiauo e ia eniuoaiiuo aua
n?aaenoaao”, i iaiaoiaeeiinoe yenia?eiaioe?iaaoue, aeiaa?eoue no?aio
iiaiio ?oeiaiaenoao a neeo eciaiaiee, i?ienoaaeoeo a “yeiiiie/aneii e
nioeeaeueiii aaeaina no?aiu”. ?ocaaeueo ?aeiiaiaeiaae caeiiiaeaoaeueiiio
nia?aieth ooaoa i?ia?aiio aeaenoaee, aeeth/aaooth anneaiiaaiey ia
iiiiuue aac?aaioiui e i?aaiecaoeeth iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio. Ia oiia oii?iiai
iiaoi?aiey i?aceaeaioii Aoaa?ii oacena i iaaoaiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeaei iiiiue iaeiouei yoe cayaeaiey cao/aee ii/oe
?aaiethoeeiiii. Aaniie 1932 aiaea, aunooiay ii ?aaeei a oiaea
i?aaeauai?iie eaiiaiee, ?ocaaeueo i?iecian naith ciaiaieooth ?a/ue i
“Caauoii /aeiaaea”. Ii iauyniye i?ienoiaeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai aaaenoaey
ieceei o?iaiai iio?aaeaiey iann (ii/oe oi/ii ii Ia?eno) e ia?aian
aieiaiea ia i?iaeaiu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia. Yeiiiie/aneay
iieeoeea Aoaa?a, eaii?e?othuay ioaeaeu ieeeeiiia i?inouo aia?eeaioeaa e
oeaeeeii i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia ieacaiea iiiiue eiouei eeannai, auea
iiaeaa?aiooa e?eoeea eae i?iyaeaiea iaaie?ioeaoaainy yeeoa?iiai
iiaeoiaea. ?a/ue aucaaea iaaeaaeaeu a aeaiie?aoe/aneeo iecao e aiaa
aa?oia.

?ocaaeueo noiae oaaaeeoue ?oeiaiaenoai aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee a oii,
/oi ia?oee iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaoue iiaua /a?ou, neiaieece?othuea aa
aeecinoue e iannai, ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoue ia?oeth a naaoa i?eaeeaeathueony
auai?ia ia caaea/o caaiaaaiey aieueoeinoaa ecae?aoaeae iinea aa
aeaaiaaeoeaoeeaoiaai i?aauaaiey a iiiiceoeee. ?ocaaeueo i?ecaae ia?oeth
oe?aieoue aa ianniaoth aaco ca n/ao i?eaea/aiey iiae ciaiaia ia?oee
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo neiaa ianaeaiey – ?aai/eo, oa?ia?noaa, n?aaeieo
ai?iaeneeo neiaa. Ii cayaee: “A no?aia iao ianoa aeey aeaoo ?aaeoeeiiiuo
ia?oee”. Ia?iae aeaaeaeae aeueoa?iaoeau, iiaiai eo?na. I?aaeeiaeaiiay
?ocaaeueoii i?aaeauai?iay i?ia?aiia, iai?aaeaiiay ia iiene iiau iooae
auoiaea ec e?ecena, i?ia?aiia, ia?auaiiay e i?inoiio /aeiaaeo, iieo/eea
iacaaiea “Iiaue eo?n” (new deal).

?ocaaeueo cayaee, /oi ia?iae Aia?eee aeaaeaeao naeaeaoue ianoiyuee
auai?. “Iu aeieaeiu auoue ia?oeae eeaa?aeueiuo i?eioeeiia,
nieaie?iaaiiuo aeaenoaee, i?inaauaiiiai iiaeoiaea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
aeaeai e o?oaeeoueny n iaeneiaeueiie iieuecie aeey iiaeaaeythuaai
aieueoeinoaa ia?iaea”.

AAOIIOITH?EAe ?ocaaeueo i?aceaeaio NOA e aai “iiaue eo?n”.

?ocaaeueo noae i?aceaeaioii, iiaaaeea n aieueoei i?aeiouanoaii. Ieeeeiiu
?aai/eo, oa?ia?ia, i?aaenoaaeoaeae ai?iaeneeo n?aaeieo neiaa aieiniaaee
ca ia?oeth “iiaiai eo?na”, ia?iae oioae ia?aiai.

Aania 1933 aiaea auioaeeea iiaoth aaeieieno?aoeeth aeaenoaiaaoue
?aoeoaeueii. Noaei ecaanoii, /oi ai iiiaeo ooaoao, iauyaea i
aaie?ionoaa, cae?ueenue ana aaiee. Aeaeiaay aeeciue aaeaa oaieeeanue.
Cae?uoea aaieia a?iceei iieiui yeiiiie/aneei e?aoii. No?ao ia?aae
aoaeouei ioaaoee ieeeeiiu ethaeae. Ia?iiiua oieiu inaaeaeaee aaiee,
o?aaoy aica?aoa aeeaaeia. Cae?uaaeenue i?aaei?eyoey, oeieu,
ioieoeeiaeeoaou.

Ia?aii/a?aaeiie caaea/ae eaaeiaoa aue aaieianeee e?ecen. Aeae?aoii
i?aceaeaioa iauyaeaii i /aou?aoaeiaaiii i?eioaeeoaeueiii cae?uoee
aaieia, cai?aoa auaica ec NOA cieioa, na?aa?a e aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa.
?ocaaeueo aeiaeeny naiaai – /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae noaaeeueiinoue
aaieianeie nenoaiu auea ainnoaiiaeaia.

A ia?oa i?aceaeaio iai?aaee Eiia?anno iineaiea, i?aaeoniao?eaaaoaa ?yae
ia? iiiiue aac?aaioiui, i?aaiecaoeeth niaoeeaeueiuo o?oaeiauo eaaa?ae
aeey aac?aaioiie iieiaeaaee, oe?ieia ?acaeoea iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio ii anae
no?aia, oeiainiaoth iiiiuue ooaoai aeey ieacaiey i?yiie iaoa?eaeueiie
iiaeaea?aeee aieiaeathueo naiae aac?aaioiuo.

*oiau i?aaeoi?aaeeoue ianniaua aunooieaiey oa?ia?ia, aeiaaaeaiiuo aei
io/ayiey ?aci?aieai, ?ani?iaeaaeae ca aeieae eiouanoaa e caiee,
?ocaaeueo ecaeae caeii i ii?aoi?ee ia oa?ia?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue, a
oaeaea caeii i ainnoaiiaeaiee naeueneiai oicyenoaa, ecaanoiue eae caeii
AAA (the Agricultural Adjustment Act). Aeaaiay aai eaeay –
eeeaeaee?iaaoue “iiaeieoeu” iaaeaeo oeaiie, cao?a/eaaaiie oa?ia?ii ia
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, e oie, eioi?oth ii iieo/ae i?e aa
?aaeecaoeee. *oiau naaeaine?iaaoue ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea e iiaeiyoue
oeaio naeueoici?iaeoeoia, /anoue caiee ecuiaeanue ec
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa, ca /oi oa?ia?ai auiea/eaaeenue
noaneaeee.

A ethia i?eiyo caeii i nicaeaiee oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau caiyoinoe e caeii
i ?aoeiaine?iaaiee caaeieaeaiiinoe ii aeeeeuiiio e?aaeeoo. Aeaeaa
iineaaeiaae caeii i e?aaeeoiaaiee oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa, i?eianoee
iaeaa/aiea oa?ia?noao, caaeaaeaiiiio aeieaaie.

Ii naiui aaaeiui e aeaeaei eaeouei ia?ii?eyoeai noae Caeii i
ainnoaiiaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiinoe IE?A (The National Industrial Recovery
Act). Oeaeyie ?aaoee?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe iauyaeyeenue: iaania/aiea
“anaiauaai aeaaiaeainoaey” iooai eiiia?aoeee iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
a?oiiaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, iooai aeinoeaeaiey nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo
?aai/eie e ?aaioiaeaoaeyie i?e niaeaenoaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ono?aiaiey
“?ac?ooeoaeueiie eiieo?aioeee”, aaaeouae e nieaeaieth i?eaueae, iiae?uao
aeaeiaie onoie/eainoe, nie?auaieth eiaanoeoeee e caiyoinoe.

Oii?yaei/eaaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie e a?oiiaie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae auei ?aoaii aeiaeoueny iooai i?eioaeeoaeueiiai
ea?oaee?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aeey oaaee/aiey caiyoinoe, iiauoaiey
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe e noaaeeecaoeee oiaa?iiai ?uiea ?acee/iua
io?anee aeieaeiu auee ia?aie/eoue naay “eiaeaenaie /anoiie
eiieo?aioeee”. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi a eaaeaeie io?anee iiae
iaaethaeaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iiaeii aoaeao inoaiiaeoue i?ioeann
nieaeaiey oeai, au?aaioaa no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiua ii?iu i?iecaiaenoaa e
nauoa, ii?aaeaeea o?iaaiue oeai e oneiaey eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa.
A?oiiai i?iiuoeaiieeia aiaiyeinue a iaycaiiinoue niaeaniaaoue n
i?ionithcaie ieieiaeueiua ?acia?u ca?ieaou e iaeneiaeueioth
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy. Ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea ii yoei
eiaeaenai auei a ?oeao i?aceaeaioa. Eiio?ieue ca ?aaeecaoeeae i?ia?aiiu
IE?A aiceaaaeny ia nicaeaiioth i?aceaeaioii Iaoeeiiaeueioth
aaeieieno?aoeeth ainnoaiiaeaiey.

I?eiyoue a iaa 1933 aiaea *?acau/aeiue caeii i iiiiue (OA?A) aeieaeai
aue cae?uoue iaeio ec naiuo iianiuo i?iaiei. Iieieeeea?aea aeieea?ia
anneaiiauaaeenue ooaoii aeey eeeaeaeaoeee oa?icu aieiaea e ianniaie
iaoia?ecaoeee ianaeaiey.

Iniiaiay ianna caeiiia ia/aeueiiai ia?eiaea “iiaiai eo?na” auea i?eiyoa
a /?acau/aeiie niaoea, ca ia?aua o?e ianyoea i?aauaaiey ?ocaaeueoa o
aeanoe. Yoi auee noi aeiae, eioi?ua iiiiaee aia?eeaineiio eaieoaeecio
ecaaaeaoue naiaai Aaoa?eii. Naiui aaaeiui eoiaii auei oi, /oi yeiiiieea
i?ioea oaco e?ecena, ana i?eciaee ainnoaiiaeaiey auee iaeeoei.

Ii anee a iaeanoe ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe ia?u, i?eiyoua
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, i?eaaee e oeo/oaieth, oi a ieaia i?iaeaiu eanathuaeny
ieeeeiiia ethaeae, – i?iaeaiu caiyoinoe – aeinoeaeaiey auee aieaa
ne?iiiuie. Aieaa oiai a 1940 aiaeo, iacaaeieai aei i/a?aaeiuo
i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ia aac?aaioiuo auei aieueoa, /ai a 1931 aiaeo, a
aiiaaa e?aoa. Oieueei aieia nianea yeiiiieeo NOA io i/a?aaeiiai niaaea e
iiaie ianniaie aac?aaioeoeu.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia?auo “noa aeiae” aii?aee cayaeaieyi i i?aiaeaaeaiee
a iai /enoi yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/, i?ecaaii auei i?aaeaea anaai nicaeaoue
ineoieiae/aneee ia?aeii, aianoe oniieiaiea, auionoeoue ia? ec eioea,
aeaaeaiea a eioi?ii aeinoeaei e?eoe/aneiai i?aaeaea.

?ocaaeueoo aeeaea anaai auea oia?aiiay ?aciiaeaeiinoue ?aoi?iaoi?noaa,
eioi?ay e 1912 aiaeo aue?enoaeeeciaaeanue a iieeoe/aneie oeeinioee
i?aceaeaioia Oaiaei?a ?ocaaeueoa e Aoae?i Aeeueniia, aiieioea a naaa
eaeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee e iiaea?iecaoeee
i?aaiauo einoeoooia a oeaeyo oii?yaei/aiey iiae yaeaeie ainoaea?noaa
nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, ieacaaoeony a ?acoeueoaoa iaeiio?iee?oaiiai
oicyeie/aiuey eaieoaea ia a?aia iianiiai e?ecena.

Oeiaea ?aoeiinoue ieeeeiiia ethaeae aeiaeaaoueny ia?aiai, ?ocaaeueo
aeaeaao oaa ia ano?a/o eo /ayieyi, i?iaicaeaoay ciaiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiie
iieeoeee eo?n ia ?aoi?iu, ii ?aoi?iu iinoaiaiiua, aa?oooa/iua,
ono?aiythuea oieueei naiua aiiethuea i?iyaeaiey nioeeaeueiiai
ia?aaainoaa e nio?aiythuea a iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe onoie.

Iiaue eiioeuen aeey iiai?ioa io nica?oeaoaeueiinoe e i?iaiei/ae e
iiaeaea?aeea naiiai ?aaeeeaeueiiai a enoi?ee aia?eeaineiai ainoaea?noaa
nioeeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, aeeth/ay caeiiu i nioeeaeueiii
no?aoiaaiee, i o?oaeiauo ioiioaieyo, i iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee e?oiiuo
ninoiyiee, i aani?aoeaaeaioiii ?anoe?aiee i?aa i?ionithcia aeaea iiaay
i?aaeauai?iay eaiiaiey 1935 aiaea. “Iiaue eo?n” i?aoa?iae iiaoth
yaiethoeeth, noae aua aieaa ?aaeeeaeueiui. Ioaee/iua aunooieaiey
i?aceaeaioa iieiu iaee/aiee aani?aaeaeueiie ae/iinoe eioueo eeannia e
oeuie/anoaa iiiiiieenoia a aeooa naiiai ieceii?iaiiai iiioeecia. Oai
naiui ?ocaaeueo ?aoae aeaaioth caaea/o ao?aeoaciiai i?ia?annecia –
iiae/eieoue naaa iannu e oaea?aeeaaoue eo iiae eiio?ieai iiaeiiaeaiiie
aeaooia?oeeiie nenoaiu.

Eniuouaay aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu iiiiiieee e eo i?annu, ?ocaaeueo oi?iicee
inouanoaeaiea i?iaicaeaoaiiuo ?aoi?i, i?aaeoniio?eoaeueii ia naycuaae
naay ieeaeeie aeanoeeie iaycaoaeuenoaaie.

E eiioeo o?aoueaai n?iea i?aauaaiey ?ocaaeueoa ia iinoo i?aceaeaioa
?aaeoeey e aeaeaeaiea e eiio? ?aoi?ia iaa?aee neeo. Iaeiie ec i?e/eiie
yoiai aue aa?oooa/iue, yeeoa?iue oa?aeoa? eeaa?aeecia, iiae/eiaiiiai
anaoeaei eeanniaui eioa?anai ao?aeoacee. Niiioaiiinoue,
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auee aai ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie, a aiyciue ii/eia
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo iann – ?iaeiaui aai i?eciaeii.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Iiaay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay neooaoeey – iiaua ?aoaiey

A ia/aea i?aceaeaioneie ea?uea?u ?ocaaeueoa aai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay
iiceoeey auea ecieyoeeiienoneie. A Aa?iia e ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea oaea
nouanoaiaaee i/aae iiaie ie?iaie aieiu. Oaeay iiceoeey i?aceaeaioa auea
ia ?oeo aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee e ieeeoa?enoneie ssiiiee, no?ieaoeo naith
aeiaaeueioth no?aoaaeth a ?an/aoa ia iaeo?aeeoao NOA, ia eo ioeac
iiaeaea?aeaoue oneeey ie?iethaeauo aea?aeaa a nicaeaiee nenoaiu
eieeaeoeaiie aaciianiinoe. A 1935 aiaeo a NOA i?eiyo caeii i
iaeo?aeeoaoa e i/aaeaeiie auaiaea aa?anni?ia. NOA aianoa n Aiaeeae e
O?aioeeae ?acaeaee ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca niaeaenoaea oaoenoneie aa?annee.
A 1937 aiaeo i?eiyo caeii ia yiaa?ai ia iinoaaee i?oaeey a Eniaieth,
aaea oea noaaoea ?anioaeeee n oaoenoneeie iyoaaeieeaie e
aa?iaii-eoaeueyineeie eioa?aaioaie. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea i?iaiaeeiay
i?aceaeaioii iiae/eiaia aeaaiie caaea/a – oe?aieaieth yeiiiie/aneeo e
aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneeo iiceoeee NOA ia ie?iaie a?aia.

Ai?ueaa ca aiaoiea ?uiee ii?aaeaeyea caeioa?aniaaiiinoue
iiiiiieenoe/aneeo e?oaia NOA a iieeoeea “yeiiiie/aneiai iaoeeiiaeecia”,
i?aaeiieaaaaoae “naiaiaeo ?oe”, ia naycaiiinoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
iaycaoaeuenoaaie, oeeiiaiea io eieeaeoeaiuo oneeee ii o?aaoee?iaaieth
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiioeeeoia.

Aea?aeanue a no?aia, eae iieaaaee a yoeo e?oaao, iiaeii auei n /oanoaii
ii?aeueiiai i?aainoiaenoaa iaaethaeaoue ca e?iaaauie ae?aiaie ia
Aa?iiaeneii e Aceaoneii eiioeiaioao e ecaeaeaoue iaiaeua aa?uoe. Ii
?ocaaeueo iiieiae, /oi ecieyoeeiieci a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaaiciiaeai
e iiyoiio aeey nicaeaiey i?eaeaeaoaeueiiai eieaeaea e o/eouaay oe?yuaany
a no?aia aioeaiaiiia iano?iaiea, i?eieiae ia?aie/aiiia o/anoea a
eieeaeoeaiuo oneeeyo ii oe?aieaieth ie?a.

?ocaaeueo ia ioeacuaae naaa a oaeiaieuenoaee i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue, /oi
aai io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e iiiuoeai aci?aaoue ie? inoaaony
iaeciaiiui e /oi aai i?aaeoaeuenoai aioiai niaeaenoaiaaoue oneeeyi Eeae
Iaoeee a aeaea nio?aiaiey ie?a, ii… ia auoiaey ca i?aaeaeu /enoi
ii?aeueiiai au?aaeaiey naieo neiiaoee e aioeiaoee.

I?aceaeaio iaauae ia /eieoue i?aiyonoaee eieeaeoeaiui ia?ai,
iai?aaeaiiui i?ioea no?aiu, eioi?oth NOA e ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa
?anniao?eaatho eae aa?anni?a, iaeiaei aai no?aia ia aoaeao o/anoaiaaoue
a eaeeo-eeai eieeaeoeaiuo naieoeeyo i?ioea no?aiu-aa?anni?a.

Ieaoiie/aneea i?ecuau e ie?o e oeacaiey ia caeioa?aniaaiiinoue NOA
aeaeaoue O?aioeeth aeinoaoi/ii neeueiie ia?aae eeoeii iianiinoe ni
noi?iiu Aa?iaiee ia iiaee iaiaiooue Aeoea?a. Iie ia canoaaeee aai
ioeacaoueny io ?aaecee Aa?naeueneiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a. 14 ieoya?y 1933
aiaea aa?iaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai cayaeei i auoiaea ec Eeae iaoeee ia?aoy
naiaiaeo ?oe a ioiioaiee aiaiiuo noaoae Aa?naeueneiai aeiaiai?a, /oi
i?eaaei e ?anoaouaaieth noaaeeueiinoe a Aa?iia.

Ia eaioia aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu NOA oe?iei eniieueciaaee i?aeoeeo
i?aaeinoaaeaiey “niaaoia”, ioaee/iiai iaeia?aiey aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo
aeoia ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa eee, iaiai?io, iiceoeeth oiae/eaaiey e o. i.
aeey ieacaiey iinoiyiiiai aeaaeaiey ia iieeoeeo ae?oaeo i?aaeoaeuenoa a
aeaeaaiii aeey Aia?eee iai?aaeaiee. A oiaea a?aiy iiaeiaiue niinia
aicaeaenoaey ia ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa aaniethoii ia naycuaae e ie e /aio
ia iaycuaae naieo NOA, eioi?ua inoaaeyee ca niaie iieioth naiaiaeo
aeaenoaee a ethaie ianoaiiaea. Iiaouanoaaiiua neeu – e?oiiua
iiiiiieenoe/aneea iauaaeeiaiey, naycaiiua oaniuie ocaie n aa?iaineie
aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, oneeeaaee aeaaeaiea, aeiaeaaynue io
?ocaaeueoa iieoe ii iooe oi?i/aiey aeeieiiaoe/aneeo naycae n
aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaieae. Iaeiaei, naeeaeaiea n iaoeenoneei ?aaeeiii, oaea
iieacaaoai naie iaea/aneea iaeeiiiinoe, auei iaaiciiaeii a oneiaeyo
iauaai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iiaeuaia a no?aia e ia?anoaiey aioeoaoenoneeo
iano?iaiee a no?aia.

Aia?eeaineea oe?iu i?iaeaaaee aieueoea ia?oee aii?oaeaiey iaoeenoneie
Aa?iaiee, a oii /enea e aiaiiua naiieaou. Ia?aiai ia?oa 1935 aiaea
i?aaeoaeuenoai Aa?iaiee cayaeei, /oi iii n/eoaao naay naiaiaeiui io
iaycaoaeuenoa Aa?naeueneiai aeiaiai?a, cai?auaaoeo aio nicaeaiea aiaiiie
aaeaoeee. 16 ia?oa a Aa?iaiee iioaeeeiaai aeae?ao i anaiauae aieineie
iiaeiiinoe. A yoi auei ia?ooaieai naia?aoiiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a NOA n
Aa?iaieae, i?aaeoniao?eaathuaai ?aci?oaeaiea Aa?iaiee. O?acaua iieeoeee
a ie?oaeaiee ?ocaaeueoa oeacuaaee, /oi iaaiciiaeii a nia?aiaiiii
iaaeaeeiii e acaeiicaaeneiii ie?a ioneaeaoueny ca ieaaiii e aeaaea
iaiaaoeoueny ca n/ao aiaiiuo eaoano?io a Aa?iia.

7 ia?oa 1936 aiaea aa?iaineea aienea anooieee a ?aeineoth iaeanoue,
aeaieeeoa?eciaaiioth ii Aa?naeueneiio aeiaiai?o.

Iyoaae aaia?aea O?aiei i?ioea caeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeeaineie
Eniaiee iaiaaeee nooue ecieyoeeiiecia. Ia?iaeo Eniaiee auei ioeacaii a
iiiiue, eioa?aaiou iieo/eee iieioth naiaiaeo ?oe.

Aeaeiue iieeoee, aeeceee ?ocaaeueoo /aeiaae – Aeiaeae auneacaeny oae:
“Ethaie eoi iaoiaeeeny a Aa?iia aieaa eee iaiaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia
a?aiy, i?eciaao oaeo ia?iiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai aeeyiey
NOA. Anee iu iieiaeei iaoa iiaouanoai ia /aoo aania, oi iaeioi?ua
caeanue a Aa?iia, ?anniao?eaathueany aieio a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa
caaiaaaiey iiauo oa??eoi?ee, aoaeoo aieaa inoi?iaeiuie e, iiaeao auoue,
aeaaea noaioo noi?iiieeaie ie?a. Aeaaea nae/an i?eniaaeeiaiea NOA e
aeaiie?aoe/aneei ainoaea?noaai Aa?iiu iiaei au iieiaeeoue eiiaoe
e?iaii?ieeoeth a Eniaiee. Niaianoiay iiu NOA, Aiaeee e O?aioeee,
iniaaiii anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea eo ia?iiiua aiaiii-aicaeooiua neeu,
iiaea au i?aaeioa?aoeoue eioa?aaioeeth e onoaiiaeaiea aeeeoaoi?neiai
?aaeeia”. ?ocaaeueo auaeaeioe aanieiaeioth eaeath nicuaa
“iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ie?a”. Ii Eoaeey e Aa?iaiey, oaa?aei
neaaeothuea caoaaoie/aneei eo?nii e eniieuecothuea iaoiae caioaeaaiey
ninaaeae, ia oioaee oaeie eiioa?aioeee e ia noaee au n/eoaoueny n aa
?aoaieyie. Aiaoiaiieeoe/aneee eo?n ?ocaaeueoa a yoi a?aiy eiae aeaaiui
naiei niaea?aeaieai aa?ieiiioth e naiioaeenoaaiioth iieeoeeo
“oie?ioai?aiey” aa?anni?ia. Eo?n naiaei?unoiue, aunieiia?ii
i?aiaa?aaathuee eioa?anaie ae?oaeo no?ai.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Aeeieiiaoe/aneia i?eciaiea NNN?.

?ocaaeueo i?eciae ia oieueei aano?aeiinoue neiaeeaoaeny e 1933 aiaeo ia
ii aeia Niaaoneiai Nithca neooaoeee iai?eciaiey, ii e aanieiaeiinoue
?an/aoia aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeia a Aaeii Aeiia aeinoe/ue n iiiiuueth
iai?eciaiey e aeieaaeu NNN? aeaeaei eaeoueo oeaeae, a eiaiii aeiaeoueny
eciaiaiey no?iy e iiae/eiaiey aiaoiae iieeoeee NNN? aeeeoaoo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eaieoaea.

Oaea 10 ieoya?y 1933 aiaea ?ocaaeueo iai?aaee Ieoaeeo Eaaiiae/o Eaeeieio
i?aaeeiaeaiea iineaoue a NOA i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeey ianoaeaeaiey aii?inia,
naycaiiuo n ainnoaiiaeaieai ii?iaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

Aeaeaeaiea aia?eeaineie iauanoaaiiinoe ca i?ae?auaiea eioa?aaioeee ia
niaaoneii naaa?a e Aeaeueiai Ainoiea, a a aeaeueiaeoai e ca
ii?iaeecaoeeth ioiioaiee n NNN? iineei aanueia oe?ieee e
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ia i?eia?a ?innee iiiaea aia?eeaioeu
oaaaeaeaeenue, /oi iiiuoee aia?eeaineie aeeieiiaoee, iia?aynue ia
aiaiioth e yeiiiie/aneoth iiuue iaaycaoue ie?o naith eiioeaioeeth
aeaiie?aoee e naie iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ii?yaeie, iinyo ?aaeoeeiiiue
oa?aeoa? e i?ioeai?a/ao aeaeea?aoeeyi i naiiii?aaeaeaiee ia?iaeia,
oaaaeaiee eo noaa?aiiuo i?aa, iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa e ni/oanoaee ai?oeai
i?ioea aeaniioe/aneeo ?aaeeiia. Aaaeiinoue i?eciaiey NNN? naycuaaeanue
oaeaea n iaeaaeeaaieai aia?eeaii-niaaoneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a eioa?anao
o?aaoee?iaaiey i?iaeai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo. Iniaaiii ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea, aaea oneeeaaeanue iai?yaeaiiinoue, aucaaiiay ?anoouae
aieinoaaiiinoueth ssiiiee e iaino?aieai aia?eeaii-yiiineiai
niia?ie/anoaa.

Iaeiaei naeaeiooue n ianoa aii?in i i?eciaiee NNN?, iiea o aeanoe auee
?anioaeeeaioeu, auei iaaiciiaeii. ?ocaaeueo noiae i?aaeeueii iiiyoue
oaiaeaioeee ia ie?iaie a?aia e aioo?e no?aiu e aa?ii ioeaieoue ei?aiiua
eioa?anu NOA.

Oioy aeaeaeaiea ca i?eciaiea n eaaeaeui aeiai iaae?aei neeu ai anao
neiyo iauanoaa, aaeieieno?aoeey i?aceaeaioa Aoaa?a noiyea ia aai iooe
iai?enooiiui aaeii, nnueaynue ia i?iaeaio aeieaia e ia ecaeoue oacen i
“niaaoneie i?iiaaaiaea”.

?ocaaeueo eo/oa ae?oaeo iiiye, /oi eaeae eeaee?othuae, ianneaineie ?iee
NOA a ie?a ia i?ioeai?a/eo iiaue iiaeoiae e NNN?. AEecianiiniaiinoue
Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa anoue oaeo iauaeoeaiue. I?aaeiee, aei i?aaeaea
eaeeieiaece?iaaiiue eo?n a niaaonei-aia?eeaineeo ioiioaieyo ia
i?eaiaeai.

Aii?in ia eniieueciaaiee NNN? a ea/anoaa iioaioeeaeueiiai nithcieea a
neo/aa iaino?aiey aia?eeaii-aa?iaineeo e aia?eeaii-yiiineeo i?ioeai?a/ee
i?eia?aoae aeey ?ocaaeueoa aaaeiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.

Iaeiaei e iinea onoaiiaeaiey aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee acaeiiaeaenoaea
no?ai ia aaca niaianoiiai ioii?a aa?annee ia iieo/eei ?acaeoey. NOA
oeeiieeenue io caeeth/aiey Oeoiieaaineiai iaeoa, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue
naea?aeeaaoue aa?anneth ssiiiee, eiaiii a ?an/aoa ia oi, /oi ssiiiey
iaiaaeao ia NNN?.

E niiaa aue iiaeiyo aii?in i “?onneeo aeieaao”. ?acaeoea ananoi?iiieo
ioiioaiee, oi?aiauo e a noa?a iaania/aiey acaeiiie aaciianiinoe
iaoaeeeaaeinue ia iano?oeoeeth NOA, no?aieaiea iaania/eoue naaa
iaeiinoi?iiithth auaiaeo e iniaia iieiaeaiea. Ia?aue iinie NOA a NNN?
Aoeeeo, iioa?iaa iaoaea/o a iiiuoeao canoaaeoue NNN? neaaeiaaoue ai
anai a oa?aaoa?a aia?eeaineie iieeoeee, neaoeeny ia iiceoeee
i?eieoeaiiai aioeniaaoecia. ?ocaaeueo caiaiee aai ia Aeyaena. Aeyaen
noiae ?aaeueii ioeaieoue iiceoeeth NNN?. Niaaoneee Nithc a n/eoaiiua
aiaeu i?iaeaeioeny aeaeaei ii iooe i?ia?anna, aeeiaie/iinoue aai
?acaeoey i?aainoiaeeo ana ecaanoiia ?aiaa, eiaiii iiyoiio ii eae ie
iaeia ae?oaay no?aia ioaeaeaaony a i?i/iii ie?a. A ianneaiinoe aea e
onooi/eainoe Caiaaea auea naiy nenoaia naie caiunae, iiae/eiaiiue
no?aieaieth iiaeoieeiooue aa?anneth Aeoea?a ia Ainoie.

I?aaeaoaeueneee eo?n Aiaeee e O?aioeee ii ioiioaieth e iaeui no?aiai
Aa?iiu, e a iniaaiiinoe *aoineiaaeee, i?eaae e Ithioaineiio naiai?o.

Oaoenoneea aea?aeaau iaia?aaathony eciee?iaaoue NNN? e iiaeaa?aiooue aai
ea?aioeio, eniieuecoy aeoiae eiiioienoe/aneie oa?icu. Aeaiie?aoe/aneea
no?aiu Aa?iiu e anaai ie?a ieacuaatho iiaeaea?aeeo oaoenoneei no?aiai a
eo iiiuoea eciee?iaaoue Niaaoneee Nithc, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ii
iaeaaeaao ia?iiiui ie?iui iioaioeeaeii e yeiiiie/anee iaoiaeeony ia iooe
i?aa?auaiey a aeaaioneee oaeoi? iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeecie.

Eiaaea a aaaonoa 1939 aiaea a Iineaa oee aiaei-o?aiei-niaaoneea
ia?aaiai?u, aiaeeeneay e o?aioeocneay noi?iia iaia?aiii caoyaeaaee
ia?aaiai?u e caaaee eo a ooiee. Iie aii?aee anaio iaaeayeenue
eaiaeeciaaoue aa?anneth ia Ainoie. NOA a yoio iiiaio ono?aieeenue io
eaeeo-eeai oaaia, niiniaiuo iiaeeyoue ia Aiaeeth e O?aioeeth. Iie
iiaeoaeeeaaee NNN? e aieia n Aa?iaieae, ia aa?y ia naay ieeaeeo
eiie?aoiuo iaycaoaeuenoa. Aea Aieeue oae ioa?aeoa?eciaae iiceoeeth NOA
a eaioi aieiu: “NOA naiiono?aieeenue io aeaea iaania/aiey aa?iiaeneie
aaciianiinoe aieioue aei ii?aaeaiey O?aioeee”.

AAOIIOITH?EAe “Iiaue eo?n” a eaioi aieiu.

Auai?u 1936 aiaea i?eianee o?eoio aeaiie?aoe/aneie eiaeeoeee “Iiaiai
eo?na”, aii?oiiio aeieo eaai oeaio?enoneeo nee, iie?athuainy ia
aeaeaeaiea ?aai/aai eeanna, oa?ia?noaa, n?aaeiea ai?iaeneea neie,
eioaeeeaaioeeth, iieiaeaaeue, iaoeeiiaeueiua iaiueoeinoaa.

A noaia iiiiceoeee, oao, eoi i?aaaa “iiaiai eo?na” oea?eei ninoiyiea
oiuiey e iaeeaeaiey iiaie eiiee. Ia no?aieoeao ia/aoe, io?aaeaaoae yoe
iano?iaiey, i ?aoi?iao aiai?eeinue oieueei eae ia i?oaeee /oaeacaiiiai
aeeyiey, i “iieco/ai nioeeaeecia”.

?ocaaeueo, iai?ioea, no?aieeny nio?aieoue “iiaiio eo?no” i?aie
iaaeia?oeeiinoe, anaia?iaeiinoe. Nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea
?aciaaeaaaiey a no?aia oaeoaeyeenue. Iaeanoi/aiiua iaiaaeee ia
i?aceaeaioa e aai eo?n ec noaia i?aauo oneeeaaeenue. A ie?oaeaiee
i?aceaeaioa iianaeenue iieooaiey ia aai aeeciue.

I?aaua neeu iiaeiyee aieiao. Iaeiaei e i?aceaeaio aue nai oaaaeaeai, /oi
aai ?aoi?iaoi?noai aeieaeii iineoue no?iai ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa?, ia
cao?aaeaay iniia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu. E 1936 aiaeo “iiaue
eo?n” auaeiony, iiiuoea iiaeiiaeoue yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio aac
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo ia?aiai aeinoeaea naiaai i?aaeaea. Eae i?eciaaae a
1937 aiaeo nai i?aceaeaio: “Ia?iiiia /enei aia?eeaioeaa inoaaaeenue
ieioi iaeaouie, aieiaeiuie, ia eiathueie aeinoieiiai /aeiaaea aeeeeua”.
Ii ?ocaaeueo ia inoaaeye iuneue i aeaeueiaeoeo i?aia?aciaaieyo, /oiau,
eae ii iaeiaaeaeu au?aceeny: “Naeaeaoue NOA nia?aiaiiui ainoaea?noaii
aaea ie aoaeue e eiioeo ni?ieiauo aiaeia”. A i?aaeaeaa?ee iiauo auai?ia
1940 aiaea ?ocaaeueo aiiaue ia?aoeeny e eniuoaiiiio i?iiaaaiaeenoneiio
niiniao – aiaeeyoeee e “caauoiio /aeiaaeo”.

Aaniie e eaoii 1937 aiaea ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea ia/eiaao ?aoeoaeueioth
ai?ueao ca naie i?aaa, i?ioea “ioe?uoiai oeaoa”. Noa/ee nio?ynatho
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Aunoae oi/ee aeinoeaei aeaeaeaiea aac?aaioiuo,
aeoeaece?iaaeanue ai?ueaa /a?iuo aia?eeaioeaa.

?aaeoeey iiaeiyea e?ee i “i?iaieaoeeiiiie ?iee” ?aoi?ienoneie
aeayoaeueiinoe aaeieieno?aoeee “iiaiai eo?na”. Iaaeaeo oai ana ino?aa
anoaaae aii?in i oii, “aiciiaeii ee a oneiaeyo iaoaai iauanoaaiiiai
oeeaaea iaania/eoue eaaeaeie naiuea aaciianiinoue e inaiaiaeeoue aa io
aiaoa ieuaou e ioaeaeu”. I?eoeinue i?eciaoue, /oi aac?aaioeoea – aa/iue
niooiee nia?aiaiiiai eaieoaeecia. Ia/oa eeaa?aeia – caionoeoue ia iieiue
oiae i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaoaieci, ii?aaeaiiue e?ecenii – ieacaeanue
iainouanoaeiie. Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia noaaeo aeanoeea i?aaeaeu
niiniaiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa oi?aaeyoue iaoaieciii iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. A 1937 aiaeo i?iyaeeenue i?eciaee iiaiai iaaeaeaathuaainy
e?ecena.

A oneiaeyo iinoiyiii aunieie aac?aaioeoeu nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio
i?aa?auaeanue a iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuee naeoi? yeiiiieee, oi anoue
/anoe/iia iainoaea?noaeaiea ?uiea iaaiiiai o?oaea. Yoio naeoi? ea?ae
?ieue i?aaeio?aieoaeueiiai eeaiaia aeey nenoaiu e ia ninoaaeye
eiieo?aioeee /anoiiio naeoi?o, oae eae noaaee ca?aaioiie ieaou auee a
aeaa – o?e ?aca ieaea, /ai ia /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Iaeaieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueiua aiieiaaou “iiaiai eo?na” n/eoaee, /oi nianaiea
eaieoaeecia – a aeaeaei eaeouai “i?eniiniaeaiee e ?aaeueiinoe aeecie, ia
eioi?ia /anoiue eaieoae aeieaeai ?aoeoueny eae a naiae iianaaeiaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, oae e a ie?iaicc?aiee”.

?aceia iaino?aiea eeanniaie ai?ueau e aiiaue ia?aoaiiia ao?aeoaceae
/oanoai oaa?aiiinoe a i?i/iinoe aa yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iiceoeee
nicaeaaaee aeaaii?eyoioth n?aaeo aeey ?aaeoeee e naa?ouaaiey “iiaiai
eo?na”.

?ocaaeueo anaaaea aue i?aae?aniieiaeai e eiii?iienno e eio?eaainoao. A
i?aaeaeaa?ee i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ia 1940 aiaea ii no?aieeny oaea?aeaoue
eaaua e i?ia?annenoneea neeu iiae naiei aeeyieai e oe?aieoue a oiaea
a?aiy naie iiceoeee ia i?aaii oeaiaa nioeeaeueiiai niaeo?a.
Ii?aaeaeeeanue iiaay eeiey ia naeeaeaiea aaeieieno?aoeee “iiaiai eo?na”
n e?oiiui eaieoaeii. Auei aeaii iiiyoue, /oi i?aceaeaio ia aoaeao
aieueoa o?aaiaeeoue eaieoae ?aoi?iaie.

AAOIIOITH?EAe ?ocaaeueo a eaioi iiauo auai?ia.

Enoi?eee iiiai ieooo ii iiaiaeo oiai, eiaaea ?ocaaeueo i?eiye ?aoaiea
(iaeii ec naiuo o?oaeiuo a aai iieeoe/aneie ea?uea?a) i auaeaeaeaiee
naiae eaiaeeaeaoo?u ia iino i?aceaeaioa a o?aoee ?ac. Ana noiaeyony ia
oii, /oi yoi neo/eeinue aaea-oi iinea iaiaaeaiey Aeoea?a ia Iieueoo o.
a. iinea 1 naioya?y 1939 aiaea. Anoue ana iniiaaiey, iaeiaei, n/eoaoue
, /oi eiaiii aanaaeu a Oi?i-Ni?eiana a ia?oa – ai?aea 1939 aiaea
ieii/aoaeueii ooaa?aeeee ?ocaaeueoa a iiaiee ia inoaaeyoue iinoa
i?aceaeaioa a e?eoe/aneee iiiaio ia?anoaiey aiaiiie oa?icu, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, e aioo?aiiae ianoaaeeueiinoe, aeoeaecaoeee ?aaeoeeiiiuo
yeaiaioia – n ae?oaie. Eaeoth ?ieue a yoii nua?ae Aa??e Aiieein –
ianinoiyaoeeny eaiaeeaeao a i?aceaeaiou – oae e inoaaony iaecaanoiui: ii
anaaaea ouaoaeueii o?aiee iie/aiea.

Ii eiaiii Aiieein aicaanoee i ia/aea eiio?ianooieaiey eeaa?aeia,
iauyaea, /oi o ieo anoue eeaea?, niiniaiue, eae ieeoi ae?oaie,
nieioeoue iaoeeth e aa?iooue ae aeeiaie/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai, noieue
iaiaoiaeeiia a oneiaeyo ie?iaiai e?ecena. A i?anna auei iiiai
?acaiai?ia ii iiaiaeo ?aneiea a eaaa?a aeaiie?aoia e aaniethoiie
iaaiciiaeiinoe aeey ?ocaaeueoa aaeeioe?iaaoueny a o?aoee ?ac. Oai
aiooeoaeueiaa i?icao/aei cayaeaiea Aiieeina a iiaeaea?aeeo ?ocaaeueoa.
Ii naeaeae aai 17 ethiy 1939 aiaea “Ieii/aoaeueii, aancaaiai?i/ii e
aaniiai?ioii, – neacae ii, – y naeaeae naie auai? a iieueco O?aieeeia
Ae. ?ocaaeueoa, e y aa?th, /oi ia?iiiia aieueoeinoai iaoaai ia?iaea
nieeaea?ii ni iiie”. Yoi icia/aei, /oi aaeeinoaaiiue i?aoaiaeaio ec
noa?ie ieayaeu “iuethaeeeea?ia”, oai?aoe/anee niiniaiue nio?aieoue Aaeue
aeii ca aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oeae e iaeeaeoue iaaeaaeaeu eaeoueo ca iae
ecae?aoaeae ia aica?auaiea eiino?oeoeaiie iieeoeee, aeia?iaieueii
ioeacuaaaony io ai?ueau. Inoaaaeny oieueei O. ?ocaaeueo: eiiai auai?a o
oao, eoi iianaeny iiaaaeu ?aaeoeee ni anaie auoaeathueie ionthaea
iineaaenoaeyie aeey aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee no?aiu, ia auei.

Ioeaiea iauae neooaoeee a nayce n i?iaicaeaoaieai ?anioaeeeaioeaie aieaa
aeaeie eeiee i?eaiaeeea ?ocaaeueoa e auaiaeo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe no?ieoue
anth eaiiaieth ia /aoeii ?aca?aie/aiee iaaeaeo aeinoeaeaieyie
eeaa?aeueiie ?aoi?iu, eeaa?aeeciii e ?aaeoeeae, ioiineony e iae e oao,
eoi iaiaaeae ia “iiaue eo?n”

, enoiaey ec eaeeo-eeai ianoiuo eioa?ania.

Oi/ii oaeie aea i?aaenoaaeyeanue neiaeeaoayny ?annoaiiaea nee e Eeano.
Ii ienae ?iaeino a ia/aea aaaonoa 1939 aiaea: “Eiioeaio?e?iaaiiia
aiaaonoai niae?aaony iaianoe ii?aaeaiea ?ocaaeueoo, anee iii niiaeao,
eiia/ii, ia n/eoaynue n eaoano?ioe/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie aeey no?aiu a
oeaeii. ss iieaaath, /oi eiioeaio?e?iaaiiia aiaaonoai anaaaea, ai ana
a?aiaia auei oaeei. Iii aaniethoii eeoaii /oanoaa cae?aaiai niunea e
ii?aee… Ii, eae Au naie ciaaoa, i?aaei?eieiaoaee, aaiee?u, oaieueiua
ei?iee e no?ieoaeueiua ai?ioeeu, e y iiao a yoio ia?a/aiue aeeth/eoue
iiiaeo ae?oaeo, nae/an iauaaeeieeenue aeey ai?ueau n ?ocaaeueoii. *oi
neo/eoueny a aoaeouai, y ia ciath, ii n/eoath, /oi naiua o?oaeiua
a?aiaia a aia?aaee A eaaa?a aeaiie?aoia, y aeoiath, eo eaiaeeaeaoii
iiaeao auoue oieueei ?ocaaeueo, e ieeoi ae?oaie. ss oaa?aei ciath, /oi
anoue iiiai ethaeae a aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee, eioi?ua nei?aa
i?aaeii/ooo ?anioaeeeaioeaa ?ocaaeueoo, iineieueeo aeaaeaeoo, /oiau
eiaiii oae e auei”. Oa?ica i?aaiecaoeee ianoiyuaai yeiiiie/aneiai
naaioaaea ni noi?iiu iiiaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiiai
eaieoaea, niiauae ?. ?iaein, auea ?aaeueia.

Iaiaaeaiea Aa?iaiee ia Iieueoo 1 naioya?y 1939 aiaea e ia/aei aieiu a
Aa?iia ioe?uee iiaoth oaco ecae?aoaeueiie eiiiaiee. Noaei ynii, /oi
aeaiie?aou a aieueoeinoaa naiai ia eciaiyo eeaea?o, anee ii nai i?eiao
?aoaiea aua ?ac neiiaoue neiaeeaoothny o?aaeeoeeth e a o?aoee ?ac
niaeaneony ia auaeaeaeaiea naiae eaiaeeaeaoo?u. Aeaaea a
iiiiiieenoe/aneie aa?oooea, aaea n iaaeiaa?eai e aac anyeeo neiiaoee
ioiineeenue e ?ocaaeueoo, iano?iaiey ia/aee iaiyoueny a aai iieueco.
Aeaeii Oa?oe ienae ?ocaaeueoo 11 ethiy 1940 aiaea, ca ianyoe aei
ioe?uoey nuacaea aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee a *eeaai: “Iaaeaaii y
aanaaeiaae n a?oiiie /eeaaneeo aecianiaiia, eioi?ua iieeoe/anee
a?aaeaeaaii ioiinyony e Aai, ii nae/an iie ana aei iaeiiai nioeenue ia
oii, /oi a?aiy aeey ia?oeeiuo ?acaei?ia inoaeinue iicaaee e /oi Au
caneoaeeaaaoa e iioiio iieo/eoa iiaeaea?aeeo o anao ianoiyueo
aia?eeaioeaa. Aethaee a *eeaai (ii eiae a aeaeo aeaeiaua e?oae), eioi?uo
y ciath, a eiioea eiioeia i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi ecieyoeeiieci ia?oa e
/oi ana iu aeieaeiu nae/an niio?aoue ia aaue ?aaeueii”. ?ocaaeueo, ia
caauaay iaeae, ia aeae ni?iaioee?iaaoue naay ia ioe?iaaiiinoue, iii?inea
Aiieeina iiaeaioiaeoue ioaaoiia ienueii – eaeiie/iia, ii aiooeoaeueiia.
“ss oaaaeaeai, – ienae i?aceaeaio, – /oi iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
aia?eeaioeaa iieii ?aoeiinoe caueoeoue aeaiie?aoeth ethauie niiniaaie,
eioi?ua aoaeoo i?eciaiu iaiaoiaeeiuie”.

?ocaaeueo inoaeny aa?ai naaa; ii aiai?ee iaei e aieueoa iaiaeaie, anai
iiiyoiuie. Iiaeao auoue, oieueei Aeaeei Oa?ee, ia/oaaoee noaoue
eaiaeeaeaoii aeaiie?aoia e ?ann/eouaathuee ia iiaeaea?aeeo
aioe?ocaaeueoianeie o?aeoeee a ia?oee, ia niaeaoaeny i?eciaoue ca
?ocaaeueoii i?aaa auoue eaiaeeaeaoii a o?aoee ?ac. Iiauaaa eaoii 1940
aiaea, iaeaioia nuacaea aeaiie?aoia, a Aaeae-ia?ea, ii iiniaaoiaae
?ocaaeueoo a neo/aa, anee aai auaeaeioo, iinooieoue oi/ii oae aea, eae
yoi naeaeae iiiai eao iacaae Oa?iai, – aunooieoue n cayaeaieai ia ioeaca
aaeeioe?iaaoueny e auiieiyoue iaycaiiinoe i?aceaeaioa a neo/aa eca?aiey.
?ocaaeueo neacae Oa?ee, /oi ii a neiaeeaoeony oneiaeyo oae iinooieoue ia
iiaeao; anee ia?iae oiai caoi/ao, ii ia niiaeao oeeiieoueny io
auiieiaiey naiaai aeieaa.

E oiio a?aiaie iieiaeaiea Aiieeina a “eooiiiii eaaeiaoa” Aaeiai aeiia
ieii/aoaeueii ii?aaeaeeeinue – aai ianoi aeeaeaeoaai iiiiuieea
i?aceaeaioa, aaia?aoi?a eaeae, eniieieoaey naiuo neiaeiuo ii?o/aiee e
niaaoi?a ?a/ae ieeoi ia iia au inii?eoue. Ana /aua Aiieeino
i?eoiaeeeinue aunooiaoue e a iiaii aeey iaai aiieoa – niaaoieea ii
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneei aii?inai. Ia aoaeao i?aoaaee/aieai neacaoue, /oi
oaeie iiai?io ia i?aaeaeaeae ie ii nai, ie i?aceaeaio, iioiio /oi a
eiioea aaaonoa 1939 aiaea a?a/e, aiiaue oeiaeeaoea Aiieeiny a iinoaeue,
niiaueee i?aceaeaioo, /oi aeie ieieno?a oi?aiaee ni/oaiu. I?ieaaeaa a
eeeieea iyoue ianyoeaa, ecio/aiiue ea/aieai, Aiieein aa?ioeny a yiaa?a
1940 aiaea e iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei i?yiiai ioiioaiey e
iaycaiiinoyi ieieno?a oi?aiaee iia oaea ia eiaea.

A Aa?iia a yoi a?aiy oea ie?iaay aieia, ?acaycaiiay oaoeciii, iueaee
ai?iaea e en/acaee ainoaea?noaa. 9 ai?aey 1940 aiaea aa?iaineea aienea
aoi?aeenue ia oa??eoi?eth Aeaiee e aunaaeeeenue a Ii?aaaee. 10 iay 1940
aiaea ieii/aoaeueii ?ooioee iaaeaaeaeu ithioaioeaa a Eiiaeiia e Ia?eaea
oaea?aeaoue Aeoea?a io ia?aoiaea e “ianoiyuae aieia” ia Caiaaea.

Aeoaean ienae:

“ss ?anniao?eaath neooaoeeth neaaeothuei ia?acii. Anee Aeoea? ni?aaeony
n Aiaeeae (a aai oainu ia yoi ii e?aeia ia?a aeaaii?eyoiu), ii
i?aaeeiaeeo “ie?” iaoae no?aia. Oaeoe/anee i?iiaaaiaea a iieueco yoiai
oaea aaaeaony. Ii naeaeaao ?yae aeanoia, aeaiiino?e?othueo aai aeaeaiea
caeeth/eoue n iaie naeaeeo. Ii aoaeao ecia?aaeaoue aeaei oae, aoaeoi
oi/ao i?eaea/ue ian e ?aeiino?oeoeee Aa?iiu. Ii iieaeao ia ana
aiciiaeiua oeiaee, /oiau ia?aoyiooue ia naith noi?iio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea e?oae iaoae no?aiu, iaauay ei aunieea i?eauee e o.
ae. Iiiaea a iaoae no?aia oaea aiai?yo, /oi iu “iiaeai eiaoue aeaei n
Aeoea?ii”, anee oieueei iai iicaieyo yoi.

Oi, /oi neo/eeinue n Aiaeeae e O?aioeeae e ae?oaeie no?aiaie, iiaeao
neo/eoueny e n iaie, eai iaoe oeiainiaua e i?iiuoeaiiua oocu
aeaenoaiaaee au oi/ii oae aea, eae iinooiae *aiaa?eai a aiaeiae/iuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao. A iaaeaeo oai a neo/aa eiaiii oaeiai ?acaeoey
niauoee, iiea aecian aoaeao caiyo naiae ea?ie ?aaee i?eaueae, Aeoea?
aeaii?aeecoao iaoo no?aio i?iiaaaiaeie, iiaeia?aaay ?aciiaeaney,
ia?aoeoaeueiinoue, oaatheeaaiey i?ecuaaie e aacaeayoaeueiinoe. Anee iu
anoaiai ia yoio iooue, ana iiaeaei, iioiio /oi ieaaeainy a caaeneiinoe
io Aeoea?a ia ie?iauo ?uieao e a iaoeo aeiiaoieo aeaeao. Eae
ainoaea?noai, iu noieeiainy n aaee/aeoae oa?icie a iaoae enoi?ee.
Iaoeenoneay ia/oa e 1944 aiaeo iinoaaeo ian ia eieaie aoaeao aeecea e
inouanoaeaieth”.

Ea?oeia, ia?eniaaiiay Aeoaeanii, i?iecaaea aeoaieia aia/aoeaiea ia
Aiieeina, ia?aui iciaeiieaoaainy n iaii?aiaeoiii noaeuee. N iiiaoeaie
Aiieeiny aeieoiaio eaa ia noie i?aceaeaioa. Eiioeiaea aeieoiaioa auea
ia?auaia iaiin?aaenoaaiii e ?ocaaeueoo: “ss iaaeathnue, /oi a eioa?anao
iaoae no?aiu Au aeaaeeoa niaeanea ia auaeaeaeaiea Aaoae eaiaeeaeaoo?u”.

Oi?iaeueii ?ocaaeueo aua ia aeae niaeaney, ii ?aoaiea ei auei i?eiyoi
aaniiai?ioii. Aeieacaoaeuenoai oiio ana, eoi niiniaai aue o?acai
noaeeoue i oiaea i?aaeauai?iie ai?ueau, oaeaeaee a iacia/aiee
?ocaaeueoii 20 ethiy 1940 aiaea, a eaioi ia/aea ?aaiou nuacaea
?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee, aeaoo aeaeiuo ?anioaeeeaioeaa, Noeiniia e Iiena,
niioaaonoaaiii ia iinou aiaiiiai e aiaiii-ii?neiai ieieno?a. Ainnu
?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee auee acaaoaiu, iaeiaei ?ocaaeueo aeiaeeny
aaaeiiai i?aeiouanoaa. Ii iciaiaiiaae ia/aei naiae ecae?aoaeueiie
eiiiaiee ia neiaaniie a?aaaaeie, a anai iiiyoiui i?ecuaii e ecae?aoaeyi
i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue iaoeeiiaeueiia aaeeinoai aeaaiiio i?ioeaieeo a
eiiiaiee 1940 aiaea – Aeoea?o.

Aeaeaa ana oei oae, eae auei niiaeaee?iaaii a oiaea aeaoaeueiiai
ianoaeaeaiey a Iaaeueiii eaaeiaoa Aaeiai aeiia, a aanaaeao n aeaco ia
aeac iaaeaeo i?aceaeaioii e aai iiiiuieeii, ioi?aaeaoeiny n iniaui
ii?o/aieai a *eeaai iaeaioia ioe?uoey oai nuacaea aeaiie?aoe/aneie
ia?oee. Caaea/a, noiyaoay ia?aae Aiieeinii, auea ia ec eaaeeo, eai
?ocaaeueo iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai auaeaeaeaiey naiae eaiaeeaeaoo?u iinoaaee
iaeia?aiea aa iiaeaaeythuei aieueoeinoaii ( ia aieaa 150 aieinia
i?ioea). E oiio aea ioaeii auei aoeaaeueii ia oiaeo caiyoueny
i?eaaaeaieai a ii?yaeie ?anno?iaiiuo ?yaeia aeaiie?aoia, a caiaeii e
iaeo?aeecaoeeae iianiie a?oiie?iaee Oa?ee, ana aua aeaeaaoaai naay
ainnii ia?oeeiie iaoeiu aeaiie?aoia, aa oaai?eoii. Iainiiaaaoeeny ni
naieie iiiiuieeaie a iiia?a ioaey “Aeyenoioi”, niaaeeiaiiui i?yiie
oaeaoiiiie naycueth n Aaeui aeiiii, Aiineien a n/eoaiiua /anu aeieacae,
/oi eiiaiaeiue ioieo nuacaea iaoiaeeony oai, aaea ?aniieiaeai aai,
Aiineeina, aiia?ao e ocae nayce.

15 ethey 1940 aiaea iy? *eeaai Yaeaa?ae Eaeee, ainn /eeaaneie ia?oeeiie
iaoeiu aeaiie?aoia, aunooiee n ?a/ueth: ii neacae aeaeaaaoai, /oi
“nianaiea iaoeee iaoiaeeony a ?oeao iaeiiai /aeiaaea”. Eiaaea aneaae ca
oai naiaoi? A. Aaeee ia/ae /eoaoue iineaiea ?ocaaeueoa, a eioi?ii
i?aceaeaio cayaeye i naiai iaaeaeaiee inoaaaoueny ia iinoo i?aceaeaioa
o?aoee ?ac, aio ia aeaee caeii/eoue. Cae aci?aaeny oi?ii aieinia: “Iu
oioei oieueei ?ocaaeueoa !”, “Aia?eea oi/ao ?ocaaeueoa !”, “Ana oioyo
?ocaaeueoa !”. Aieiniaaiea, i?iaaaeaiiia aa/a?ii ia neaaeothuee
aeaiue, auei ii/oe aaeeiiaeooiui. Aeaeaaaou nuacaea aeaiie?aoe/aneie
ia?oee eca?aee naiei eaiaeeaeaoii a i?aceaeaiou NOA O?aieeeia
?ocaaeueoa. I?iaeaia o?aoueaai n?iea ooiioea a iao?eioe/aneii ii?uaa.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Ia/aei aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu.

Caoaao Aeoea?ii *aoineiaaeee, a Eoaeeae Aeaaiee auioaeeee ?ocaaeueoa
ia?aoeoueny e Aeoea?o e Ionnieeie n ee/iui iineaieai n i?inueaie aeaoue
caaa?aiey, /oi a oa/aiee 10 eao iie ia iaiaaeoo ie ia iaeio ec 31
ia?a/eneaiiuo a iineaiee no?ai. Ii auei ynii, /oi iiiuoee “i?e?o/eoue”
aa?anni?a e naeaeaoue aai iineooiui i?oaeeai aioeniaaoneie iieeoeee
ouaoiu.

A yoie ianoaiiaea ia?anoaiey aiaiiie oa?icu, aioo?aiiae ianoaaeeueiinoe,
aeoeaecaoeee ?aaeoeeiiiuo yeaiaioia ooaa?aeeeinue iiaiea ?ocaaeueoa – ia
inoaaeyoue iinoa i?aceaeaioa. Ii oioae i?eaeaoue auai?ai oa?aeoa?
?aoa?aiaeoia a ae?aiaoe/anee ?aoathuee aeey noaeaa no?aiu iiiaio.

A. Aeoea?

Aa?iaiey oaea ieeoie?iaaea Iieueoo, Aeaieth, Ii?aaaeth, Aaeueaeth,
aoi?aeanue ai O?aioeeth. Auee neeueiu aieina a iieueco oiai, /oiau
eciee?iaaoueny io aieiu, anooieoue a naeaeeo n Aeoea?ii, iaeaaeeoue
auaiaeiia oe?ieiianooaaiia nio?oaeie/anoai. ?ocaaeueo i?aaeeueii oeiaee
i?aiaeaaeathuea iano?iaiea e ia?aoeeny e ecae?aoaeyi n i?ecuaii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue iaoeeiiaeueiia aaeeinoai aeaaiiio i?ioeaieeo –
Aeoea?o.

Caiunae i?aceaeaioa i?inoe?aeny aanueia aeaeaei e caeeth/aeny a
?aaeecaoeee eiioeaioeee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaeeinoaa a oneiaeyo aiaiiie
iiaeeecaoeee, a aiciiaeii e o/anoey a aieia. Ii ii oaeaea ia iioae ia
iiaiaeo o aaoi?ia ?aaeoeeiiiuo aioe?aai/eo caeiiia, aiieoaeae
?aaeeeaeecia. ?ocaaeueo aaae a i?aaeoaeuenoai aeaoo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
i?ionithcia, /oi neiaieece?iaaei i?eciaiea oiai cia/aiey, eioi?ia
?ocaaeueo i?eaeaaae ainnoaiiaeaieth eiioaeoia n ?aai/ei aeaeaeaieai.

Aieiniaaiea ia i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ao iieacaei, /oi i?i/iia aieueoeinoai
ana aua iiaeaea?aeeaaao i?aceaeaioa n /ueei eiaiai naycaiu ?aoi?iu
“iiaiai eo?na”. ?aai/ee eeann e aaaeiaeoea neie iiaeaea?aeaee
?ocaaeueoa. O?oaeyueany aieiniaaee ca i?iaeieaeaiea e oaeoaeaiea ?aoi?i.
Aieiniaaiea icia/aei oaeaea ii?aaeaiea “ecieyoeeiienoia”, i?iiaoeenoneeo
a?oiie?iaie, iuoaaoeony iiiaoaoue oaiaeaioeee e ioii?ai aa?anni?ai.

Anee aei 1940 aiaea a NOA nouanoaiaae caeii i iaeo?aeeoaoa e auei oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaii oaaaeaeaiea i oii, /oi aieia ia einiaony no?aiu, oi iinea
iaaeaiey O?aioeee noaei ynii, /oi ioneaeaoueny ia oaeanony. ?ocaaeueo
aunooiaao ca ioiaio yiaa?ai ia iinoaaeo i?oaeey aiththuei no?aiai e ca
ioiaio caeiia i iaeo?aeeoaoa.

Iineaiea *a?/eeey io 10 iay 1940 aiaea n iieueaie i iiiiue e caeeeiaieai
inoaaeoue yaienoe/aneea ?an/aou ecaea/aiey auaiaeu ec aa?iiaeneie
noaaoee iiaeoieeioee e ?yaeo aaaeiuo oaaia. Ia?aui auea i?iaeaaea
O?aioeee naiieaoia. Oaeoe/anee aanue 1940 aiae aei e iinea auai?ia
?ocaaeueo ecaaaae auneacuaaoueny ii aii?ino i anooieaiee a aieio,
ia?aie/eaaynue iieoia?aie. Aiaeee auei ia?aaeaii 50 noa?uo ynieioeaa e
oi?iaaeiuo eaoa?ia. E?aieea iiceoeee “ecieyoeeiienoia” e oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiua iaoeeoenoneea iano?iaiey ia?aeeciaaee aieth ?ocaaeueoa.
9 aeaeaa?y 1940 aiaea iinooieei ee/iia iineaiea *a?/eeey oaaaeiieyaoaa i
aacauoiaeiii iieiaeaiee Aiaeee, n i?inueaie i iiiiue.

Ecaeaaony caeii i eaiae-eeca, eioi?ue aeieaeai iiii/ue Aiaeee iooai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey acaeiu eee a a?aiaeo, n oai /oiau ia auoue aoyioouie a
aieio. E oai ia iaiaa ia auei ieacaii nouanoaaiiie iiiiue. AEaeaee,
eiaaea anooieo a aieio Niaaoneee Nithc. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo NOA e NNN?
auee a yoi a?aiy aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiu. Iinea onoaiiaeaiey
aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee NOA ia naeaeaee ie/aai aeey iiaeeeiiiai
naeeaeaiey. Ioaa?aee ana iiiuoee onoaiiaeoue nio?oaeie/anoai aeey
i?aaiecaoeee ioii?a aa?annee. A eiioea 1940-ia/aea 1941 aiaea a Iineaa e
Aaoeiaoiia aiciaiiaeeenue iiiuoee onoaiiaeoue aieaa oaniua eiioaeou, ia
/ai iaiaeiie?aoii ianoaeaae NNN?. Iaeiaei yoe ia?aaiai?u ie e eaeiio
naeeaeaieth ia i?eaaee, neacuaaeinue iiuiia aeaaeaiea aioeniaaoneiai
aeiea a eiia?anna.

Aiaeey oai a?aiaiai oa?iaea ii?aaeaiea ca ii?aaeaieai (inoaaeee E?eo,
aiaeeeneee oeio oa?iae a Aoeaioeea o?ii io iiaeaiaeiuo eiaeie,
niaaaeaiea Aiaeee i?iaeiaieuenoaeai e nia?yaeaieai auei iiae oa?icie.
?ocaaeueo cai?aoee aiaiii-ii?neiio oeioo eiiaie?iaaoue o?ainii?ou.

Iaiaaeaiea ia Niaaoneee Nithc 21 ethiy 1941 aiaea icia/aei, /oi oa?ica
nia?oaeueiiai oaea?a ii Aiaeee, yoie ia?aaeiaie eeiee iai?iiu NOA –
ieiiaaea. Iiiaei a i?aayuae aa?oooea iauanoaa ii?aaeaiea Niaaoneiai
Nithca i?aaenoaaeyeinue naa?oaeaeaiiui. Naiaoi?u Oaoo e O?oiai cayaeee,
/oi iiaaaea “eiiioienoia” aeey aia?eeaineiai ia?iaea aieaa iianii, /ai
caaiaaaiea ?innee Aeoea?ii.

I?aceaeaio aunooiee n cayaeaieai oieueei 24 ethiy. I/aiue eaeiie/ii. “Iu
iaia?aiu ieacaoue ?innee anth iiiiuue, eaeoth oieueei niiaeai,” ia
oeacaa eaeea oi?iu yoa iiiiuue iiaeao i?eiyoue, a oaeaea ia neacaa i
aiciiaeiinoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey eaiae-eeca ia NNN?.

Aeey auyniaiey neooaoeee e onoaiiaeaiey eiioaeoia n Niaaoneei
?oeiaiaenoaii ?ocaaeueo iai?aaee a Iineao naiaai ee/iiai i?aaenoaaeoaey
Aiieeina. 30 e 31 ethey ninoiyeenue ano?a/e Aiieeina ni Noaeeiui. 12
aaaonoa a aoooa A?aeaeaioaey (Iuethoaoiaeeaiae) i?iecioea ano?a/a
*a?/eeey e ?ocaaeueoa, aaea auynieeinue, /oi ie Aiaeey ie NOA ia aioiau
iiii/ue E?aniie A?iee. ?ocaaeueo aua ?ac auneacaeny i?ioea anooieaiey
NOA a aieio, ianiio?y ia ianoie/eaua i?inueau *a?/eeey. Caeanue auea
iiaeienaia Aoeaioe/aneay oa?oey – aeaeea?aoeey i oeaeyo a aieia e
i?eioeeiao iineaaiaiiiai ono?ienoaa. ?ocaaeueo e *a?/eeeue cayaeee
oaeaea i aioiaiinoe ieacaoue iiiiuue NNN? iinoaaeaie iaoa?eaeia.

30 ieoya?y 1941 aiaea, eiaaea noaei ynii, /oi aeeoee?ea i?iaaeeeny,
?ocaaeueo niiauee a Iineao i ?aoaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aaeinoaaeoue NNN?
aani?ioeaioiue caai ia iaeei ieeeea?ae aeieea?ia. A 1941 aiaeo *a?/eeeue
niiauee ?ocaaeueoo a iaeiie ec naieo oaeaa?aii, /oi a neo/aa nio?aiaiey
NOA e aeaeaa iieiaeaiey iaaiththuae noi?iiu ii ia iiaeao ii?o/eoueny ca
oi, aoaeao ee Aiaeey i?iaeieaeaoue aieio a 1942 aiaeo.

11 naioya?y 1941 aiaea a Aoeaioeea i?iecioae eioeeaeaio n aa?iaineie
iiaeaiaeiie eiaeeie e aia?eeaineei ynieioeai “A?ea?”. ?ocaaeueo
aunooiee ii ?aaeei n cayaeaieai ia eciaiaiee iieeoeee NOA “a aiaeao,
eioi?ua iu (NOA) ?anniao?eaaai eae eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiua aeey iaoae
iai?iiu”.

Aia?eeaineea ei?aaee e naiieaou iieo/eee i?eeac aac i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
aoaeiaaoue eoaeueyineea e aa?iaineea noaea, aeaaiia aea – ei
?ac?aoaeinue eiiaie?iaaoue noaea ae?oaeo no?ai. Oaeoe/anee
aiaiii-ii?neie oeio iieo/ee i?eeac i ia/aea iaiauyaeaiiie aieiu i?ioea
Aa?iaiee a Aoeaioeea.

A naiuo ?aciuo e?oaao iauanoaaiiinoe ?acei eciaieeinue a
iieiaeeoaeueioth noi?iio ioiioaiea e aiaiiiio nio?oaeie/anoao n
Niaaoneei Nithcii.

7 aeaeaa?y 1941 aiaea iinea aiacaiiiai iaiaaeaiey yiiineie aaeaoeee ia
aia?eeaineoth aiaiii-ii?neoth aaco Ia?e-Oa?ai? ia Aaaaeyo NOA
i?aa?aoeeenue a no?aio aiththuoth, i?e oii /enei eo a?aaia n?aco
oo?ieeinue: 11 aeaeaa?y 1941 aiaea Eoaeey e Aa?iaiey iauyaeee aieio
Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai. Iiiuoee i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?ocaaeueoa ia i?ioyaeaiee
oeaeiai ?yaea eao iooyiooue iaecaaaeioth aieio n ssiiieae iooai
o?aaoee?iaaiey ?aciiaeanee, a oii /enea e ca n/ao o?aoueeo no?ai,
ie/aai ia aeaee. “Oie?ioai?aiea” aa?anni?a e caeanue caaa?oeeinue
oeanei. Oe?ieea iannu ianaeaiey o?aaiaaee ieacaoue naioth aeaenoaaiioth
iiiiuue E?aniie A?iee e yoi ieacuaaei i?yiia e iiin?aaenoaiaaiiia
aeeyiea ia aiaoithth iieeoeeo ?ocaaeueoa. A ii?aaeaeaiee eiaeeoeeiiiie
no?aoaaee ?ocaaeueo eieaaaeny, eniuouaay aeaaeaiea n ?aciuo noi?ii.
Iniaaiii ?aoeoaeueii a iieueco caoyaeaaiey ioe?uoey aoi?iai o?iioa a
Aa?iia aunooiaee *a?/eeeue e aai eaaeiao, a oaeaea aieueoay /anoue
eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa NOA. Aaniie 1942 aiaea iiae aeeyieai ia?anoaaoeo
o?aaiaaiee aia?eeaineie iauanoaaiiinoe aeoeaece?iaaoue aiaiiua oneeey
NOA e Aiaeee ?ocaaeueo ia/ae neeiiyoueny e eaeaa oi?ne?iaaiiiai ioe?uoey
aoi?iai o?iioa, aeey /aai ii iineae a ai?aea 1942 aiaea Aiieeina e
Ia?oaeea aeey ia?aaiai?ia n *a?/eeeai. Ii ia iieo/ee a Eiiaeiia
iiaeaea?aeee. Iiieii yoiai ?ocaaeueo i?eaeanee Iieioiaa aeey
ia?aaiai?ia ii yoiio aea aii?ino e caaa?ee aai, /oi aoi?ie o?iio a
Aa?iia aoaeao ioe?uo a 1942 aiaeo a Naaa?iie O?aioeee. Ii ana yoi
ieacaeinue ienoeoeeaoeeae, ieeoi e ia niae?aeny auiieieoue
aeiaiai?aiiinoe.

Noi?iiieee aeieo?eiu “aiaeinaenu aeieaeiu oi?aaeyoue ie?ii” a
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aiaiiuo e oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo e?oaao n/eoatho eo?n
?ocaaeueoa a ioiioaiee NNN? ia aeinoaoi/ii aeanoeei, eceeoia
aeaai?iaeiui. Yoei iauyniyaony aeaienoaaiiinoue e ia?aoeoaeueiinoue
iieeoeee ?ocaaeueoa.

I?aaeoaeuenoaa Aiaeee e NOA niiaa oeeiieeenue io auiieiaiey naieo
iaycaoaeuenoa e a ethea 1942 aiaea niaeaniaaee ioe?uoea (a aoaeouai)
aoi?iai o?iioa a Naaa?iie Ao?eea, /oi niaa?oaiii iacia/eoaeueii aeeyei
ia oiae aeae ia aeaaiii oaao?a aiaiiuo aeaenoaee, ii auei auaiaeii
Aiaeee e NOA iineieueeo oe?aieyei eo iiceoeee ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea e a
N?aaeecaiiiii?uea, a ciiao eioa?ania eo iiiiiieee. A NOA aeaenoaiaaee
ii?aaeaeaiiua neeu, eioi?ua ii ia?a ?acaeoey oniaoa E?aniie A?iee
neeiiyeenue e iunee, /oi naia?aoiue ie? Aa?iaiee n Aiaeeae e NOA ia
oieueei aiciiaeai, ii e iaithaeii auaiaeai a ieaia “nianaiey caiaaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeee” e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey “niaaoneie oa?ica”. Iaeiaei
?ocaaeueo aa?ii o/ae ainiiaenoaiaaaoea a oe?ieie iauanoaaiiinoe
iano?iaiey ia aaneiii?iiennioth ai?ueao n oaoeciii. ?ocaaeueo no?aieeny
i?ioeainoiyoue ia?anoaaoaio iaaeeio naia?aoenoia. Yoo oeaeue
i?aneaaeiaaea e eiioa?aioeey a Eanaaeaiea, aaea ii i?aaeeiaeee a yiaa?a
1943 aiaea /aoeoth oi?ioeo “aaccaaiai?i/iay eaieooeyoeey Aa?iaiee”. A
?yaea iineaaeothueo aunooieaiee i?aceaeaio ioaee/ii ioiaaeaaaeny io oao
yeaiaioia, eioi?ua iuoaeenue aianoe ?aneie a Iauaaeeiaiiua Iaoeee.

?ocaaeueo ia oieueei ia niae?aeny eaeoe ia iiaiaeo o ?aaeoeee,
i?iaioee?othuae aai ia i?iaaaeaiea aeanoeie eeiee a “?onneii aii?ina”,
Ii e ieaie?iaae na?ueacii caiyoueny niaianoii n Niaaoneei ?oeiaiaenoaii
nicaeaieai iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee aeey oaniiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoo no?ai
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeeeoaeueiiai e i?i/iiai ie?a iinea aieiu.

A 1943 aiaeo aicieeee na?ueaciua ineiaeiaiey a aia?eeaii-niaaoneeo
ioiioaieyo, /aio i?e/eiie auee iinoiyiiua iooyaeee n ioe?uoeai aoi?iai
o?iioa, ioeac Aiaeee e NOA io iinoaaie aiaiiuo a?ocia naaa?iui
ia?o?ooii, iooyaeee a auiieiaiee oaea niaeaniaaiiuo ieaiia ii eaiae-eeco
e oio oaeo, /oi Aiaeey e NOA i?eieiaee ana ?aoaiey i aoi?ii o?iioa aac
o/anoey Niaaoneiai Nithca e aac eiinoeueoaoeee n iei. Yoi oooaeoaiea
ioiioaiee a Aaoeiaoiia aini?eieiaeinue ii-?aciiio, o iaeieo iii aucuaaei
iaeia?aiea e aeaaea eeeiaaiea, o ae?oaeo iaaniieiaiiinoue. ?ocaaeueo aue
ano?aaiaeai. Ii ?aoee ia?aai?ioue yoio iaaeaeaoaeueiue e?ai,
i?ioeaiiinoaaea aio iieeoe/aneoth aieth e nio?oaeie/anoao a eioa?anao
iiaaaeu iaae oaoeciii. Aoi?iai aeaeaa?y 1942 aiaea ?ocaaeueo iai?aaeyao
iineaiea Noaeeio n i?aaeeiaeaieai i aeaonoi?iiiae ano?a/a. A eioa?anao
eiaeeoeee iiceoeey Niaaoneiai Nithca auea eiie – i?iaanoe
o?aonoi?iiithth ano?a/o, oaa?aei noiyoue ca nio?aiaiea e oaeoaeaiea
iaaenithcia/aneo ioiioaiee ia iniiaa iieiiai ?aaainoaa noi?ii. Iiea
aaeny iaiai iiaieyie i ano?a/a, ia Aaoeiaoiineie eiioa?aioeee *a?/eeey
e ?ocaaeueoa n?iee ioe?uoey aoi?iai o?iioa auee ioiaeaeioou ia aanio
1944 aiaea.

E inaie 1943 aiaea a aunoeo aiaiiuo e?oaao NOA ia inoaaaeinue niiiaiee a
oii, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc niiniaai naiinoiyoaeueii aeiaa?oeoue ?aca?ii
iaoeenoia e inaiaiaeeoue Aa?iio. N?aaeecaiiiii?neee aa?eaio aoi?iai
o?iioa, i?aaeeaaaaiue *a?/eeeai aucuaae ana aieueoea niiiaiey. Ia
Eaaaaeneie eiioa?aioeee (aaaono 1943 aiaea) ?ocaaeueo auaeaeioe caaea/o
“aeinoe/ue Aa?eeia ?aiueoa ?onneeo”. Iaa ?oeiaiaeeoaey iiieiaee, /oi
caoyaeee n ioe?uoeai aoi?iai o?iioa noaayo iiae aii?in aoaeouea
ioiioaiey n NNN?. Iinea Noaeeia?aaea ethaua ?aoaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea
ecieyoeeth Niaaoneiai Nithca, eae oiai oioae *a?/eeeue noaiiaeeenue
ia?aaeueiuie. Aaaeiaeoei ?aoaieai Eaaaaeneie eiioa?aioeee auei ?aoaiea
i?enooieoue e i?aeoe/aneie iiaeaioiaea aoi?iai o?iioa a Aa?iia 1 iay
1944 aiaea (iia?aoeey “Iaa?ei?ae”). *a?/eeeue aeae niaeanea iiae
ianoie/eaui iaaeeiii ?ocaaeueoa.

Iinoiyiiia e ana aieaa oa?iaeathuaa aioeniaaoneia a?thcaeaiea *a?/eeey,
aai ianoie/eaua “i?aaeinoa?aaeaiey” ia “iianiinoyo” oe?aieaiey
nio?oaeie/anoaa n NNN? ia iiaee iieieaaaoue ?ocaaeueoa a oii, /oi
“iiaeaea?aeaiea e ?acaeoea ae?oaeanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo NOA e NNN?”
yaeyaony aaniethoii iaiaoiaeeiui.

28 iiya?y – 1 aeaeaa?y 1943 aiaea ninoiyeanue ano?a/a a Oaaa?aia.
Aeaaiui aue aii?in i aoi?ii o?iioa. Aeaaiaea?y oaa?aeie iiceoeee
niaaoneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae eiioa?aioeey i?eoea e niaeaniaaiiui ?aoaieyi
(a aei ioe?uoey eiioa?aioeee ?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo *a?/eeeai e ?ocaaeueoii
ii yoiio aii?ino oae e ia auee i?aiaeieaiu). A aeaeea?aoeee aeaau
ainoaea?noa au?aceee ?aoeiinoue, /oi o?e noi?iiu “aoaeoo ?aaioaoue
niaianoii eae ai a?aiy aieiu, oae e a iineaaeothuaa ie?iia a?aiy”.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Ieaiu iineaaiaiiiai ono?ienoaa.

A 1943 aiaeo iinea Noaeeia?aaea e Eo?nea ia/aeanue aunaaeea nithcieeia
a THaeiie Eoaeee. ?ocaaeueo iiiye, /oi ii aeieaeai caaeyiooue a aieaa
aeaeaeia aoaeouaa e caiyoueny ?anniio?aieai aii?inia iineaaiaiiiai ie?a.
Iaaei auei inouanoaeoue eaeath i ia?ano?ieea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee
ia iniiaa nio?oaeie/anoaa no?ai n ?aciuie nioeeaeueiuie nenoaiaie, ia
iniiaa o/aoa eo caeiiiuo eioa?ania e aeinoeaeaiey niaeaney ii nii?iui
aii?inai ie?iui iooai. AEaeaiea nio?aieoue iinea aieiu aeia?ua ioiioaiey
n Niaaoneei Nithcii i?aiaeaaeaei a aia?eeaineii iauanoaa. Aia?aua
?ocaaeueo aunooiee n i?iaeoii aeaeea?aoeee i nicaeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
i?aaiecaoeee, ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe /aou?ao aea?aeaa (NOA, Aiaeee, NNN?,
Eeoay) ca nio?aiaiea ie?a iinea aieiu ia Eaaaaeneie ano?a/a n *a?/eeeai
a aaaonoa 1943 aiaea.

Oaiiu e ianooaau yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a aiaeu aieiu, iineaaeiaaaoaai ca
aeanyoeeaoeai aeoai/aeoaai e?ecena, auee aani?aoeaaeaioiuie. A
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ana io?inee ?aaioaee n iieiie iaa?oceie, aac?aaioeoea
en/acea, ?acei oeo/oeeinue iieiaeaiea a naeueneii oicyenoaa.

Aicieeea eaeay nio?aieoue yoo ia?niaeoeao aaneiia/iiai i?ioeaaoaiey,
oe?aieyy nithc aeciana e aiaiiuo e?oaia n oeaeueth iiaeaea?aeaiey ia
oiaeo “iinoiyiiie aiaiiie yeiiiieee”. Yoi iieiinoueth niaiaaeaei n
aeaeaieyie aiaiiuo e?oaia inouanoaeyoue iieeoeaeneea ooieoeee a ie?a.
Oaea a 1943 aiaeo caianoeoaeue aiaiii-ii?neiai ieieno?a Oi??anoie
i?ecuaae e oneeaieth aiaiiie iiue n oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiey iieiiai
eiio?iey iaae ie?ii: “O ian oaia?ue a ?oeao nin?aaeioi/aia ia?iiiay
neea e iu aeieaeiu iai?aiaiii nio?aieoue aa”. Ieaiu iineaaiaiiiai
o?aaoee?iaaiey e nio?oaeie/anoaa i?eoiaeeee ii yoiio a yaiia
i?ioeai?a/ea n oaeeie ono?aieaieyie. Iano?iaiey a iieueco nio?aiaiey
i?eaioaoeee anae iineaaiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ia
aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneea oeaee n o/aoii aeiaaeueiuo i?eoycaiee
aia?eeaineiai eiia?eaeecia auee niaa?oaiii ia aeaoniuneaiii au?aaeaiu a
oi?ioea “aiaiiay aioiaiinoue iethn yeiiiie/aneay aioiaiinoue”.

Iacuaaeenue iioa?e a ca?aaioeao, eioi?ua iaecaaaeii aeieaeiu
iineaaeiaaoue ca nie?auaieai aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e cae?uoeai
caaiaeia. Oeao?e?iaaee oeeo?u iaeeaeaaiie a ia?aua aea aiaeu iinea aieiu
aac?aaioeoeu (12 – 16 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae) . I?yii oeacuaaeinue ia
aiciiaeiinoue iiaoi?aiey n?aco aea ca aiaiiui aoiii iiaiai 1929 aiaea. A
NOA aieio anee aeaaea ia i?eaaonoaiaaee eae ecaaaeaiea io o?iie/aneie
aeai?annee e aac?aaioeoeu, oi aini?eieiaee ai anyeii neo/aa eae ii?io.

Cia/eoaeueiua naeaeae a nioeeaeueii – eeanniaie no?oeoo?a iauanoaa,
i?ienoiaeeaoea ia oiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, ia iiaee ia aucaaoue
y?iceth oie ianniaie aacu, ia eioi?oth iie?aeanue aaeieieno?aoeey
?ocaaeueoa.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?ionithciuo eeaea?ia i?ioeaaeii ioiineeanue e
ia?niaeoeaa oaniiai nio?oaeie/anoaa NNN? e NOA a eioa?anao iineaaiaiiiai
ie?iiai o?aaoee?iaaiey. I?y/anue ca oacenii nei?aeoaai ieii/aiey aieiu,
yoa a?oiia ianoaeaaea ia naia?aoiii ie?a n Aa?iaieae ia oneiaeyo, i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo oai, eioi?ua auee i?iaicaeaoaiu ?ocaaeueoii a
Eanaaeaiea. Oi?ioea “?aaeenoe/aneiai ie?a” auaeaeiooa a i?ioeaiaan
eiioeaioeee “aaccaaiai?i/iie eaieooeyoeee”. A oaeie ianoaiiaea
iiaeoiaeeea Aia?eea a 1944 aiaeo e i?aceaeaioneei auai?ai.

Ecae?aoaeueiay eaiiaiey 1944 aiaea, ?acaa?ioaoayny a ?acaa? ?aoathueo
n?aaeaiee ia oaao?ao aiaiiuo aeaenoaee, iaa?ioeinue aeey i?aceaeaioii
oyaeeei eniuoaieai. I?aaenoiyei eca?aiea ia /aoaa?oue n?ie. *oiau
i?aiaeieaoue yoio ?oaaae, ioaeii auei auaeaeiooue iiaua eaeae,
niiniaiua i?eaea/ue iannu ecae?aoaeae. I?aceaeaio cayaee, /oi ii
iaaeoiuaaao i?ia?aiio nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, eioi?ay
i?ecaaia i?iaeieaeeoue y?o ?aoi?i. 11 yiaa?y 1944 aiaea a iineaiee
eiia?anno i?aceaeaio iacaae ?yae ia?, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee
niinianoaiaaoue yeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee, yoi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee, eiio?iey iaae oeaiaie e o. ae.

Aeaaiia ianoi a iineaiee auei oaeaeaii oae iacuaaaiiio aoi?iio aeeeth i
i?aaao, a eioi?ii i?iaicaeaoaeinue aeinoeaeaiea “iiaiai aacena
iaania/aiey e i?ioeaaoaiey” aeey anao aia?eeaioeaa “aac ?acee/ey
iieiaeaiey, ?aniaie e ?aeeaeiciie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe “. Ii oaaaeaeaieth
?ocaaeueoa, yoio aacen aeeth/ae i?aai ia iieaciue o?oae, i?aai
ca?aaaouaaoue ia i?iieoaiea, iaeaaeaeo, ioaeuo, i?aai oa?ia?ia eiaoue
aeinoaoi/iua aeioiaeu, i?aai eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey ia eiiia?/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue a oneiaeyo, ia ia?aie/aiiuo aeeeoaoii iiiiiieee, i?aai
ia “i?eee/iia aeeeeua”, ia ia?aciaaiea, ia iaaeeoeeineoth iiiiuue, ia
nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea a noa?inoe, ii aieacie, a nayce n aac?aaioeoeae
e o.ae.

Eceiaeaiiue a oi?ia iaueo iiaeaeaiee aoi?ie aeeeue i i?aaao i?aaenoaaeye
niaie ia?a/aiue aeaeaeeo oeaeae, ii aannii?ii iia noaoue ciaiaiai
oe?ieiai aeaeaeaiey ca nioeeaeueiia iaiiaeaiea, /oi n?aco ii/oanoaiaaea
?aaeoeey, iacaaa yoi “iianiie oeia?ie”. I?aceaeaio iiaeeee ianea a
iaiiue cayaea, /oi oa?ica aaciianiinoe iaoeee iaoiaeeony ni?aaa. “Anee
?aaeoeey aicueiao aa?o, oi iiaeii aoaeao ii?aaeaeaiii neacaoue: oioy iu
e ?aca?iieee a?aaia ia iieyo n?aaeaiee ca ?oaaaeaie iaoae no?aiu,
caeanue iu aeaee iaea?aeaoue aa?o aeooo oaoecia”.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Caaa?oaiea aieiu e iiaua i?iaeaiu.

Aunaaeea a Naaa?iie O?aioeee 6 ethiy 1944 aiaea aucaaea aeoeaecaoeeth
oao nee a i?aayuai eeanna, eioi?ua ia/oaee caeii/eoue aieio
“aia?eeaineei ie?ii” e aioiau auee iieoe ia naiai? n aeoea?iaoeaie ia
iauae ieaooi?ia ai?ueau n “ie?iaui eiiioieciii”.

Aoi?ay Eaaaaeneay eiioa?aioeey (11 – 16 naioya?y 1944 aiaea )
auaeyaeaea eae i/a?aaeiay onooiea neeai, caeioa?aniaaiiui a ?aneiea
aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee. I i?eiyoii a Eaaaaea niaeaoaieyo ii
iieeoe/aneei aii?inai Niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ia iieo/eei oaeoe/anee
ieeaeie eioi?iaoeee. Aieaa oiai, iaiyoiay caienea ano?a/e 18 – 19
naioya?y 1944 aiaea a Aaeae-Ia?ea, aaea ?ocaaeueo e *a?/eeeue
ianoaeaeaee aoaeouaa aoiiiiai i?oaeey, i?aaeoniao?eaaea nio?aiaiea a
nae?aoa io Niaaoneiai Nithca naiiai oaeoa ?aaio ii “Iiioaooaineiio
i?iaeoo”.

Aia?eeaineee enoi?ee Eeiaaee n/eoaao, /oi aanue oiae eiioa?aioeee
(eaaaaeneie) e aa ?aoaiey i?iiecaiu aeeceie *a?/eeeth eaeaae
aiaei-aia?eeaineiai nithca e aaaaiiieae a ie?a. Eiaiii yoa eaeay
aeaaeaea oaie iauanoaaiiuie neeaie NOA, eioi?ua naeaeaee eicoia ai?ueau
n “eiiioienoe/aneie iianiinoueth” oeaio?aeueiui eicoiaii “iieeoe/aneiai
aiaea”.

Ana a?ii/a auee ?a/e, i?ecuaathuea aaeieieno?aoeeth ?anniao?eaaoue
Niaaoneee Nithc eae aoaeouaai aiaiiiai i?ioeaieea. Oneeeeanue e?eoeea ni
noi?iiu eeaa?aeueiuo a?oii ieaiia ?ocaaeueoa, i?aaeoniao?eaathueo oaniia
nio?oaeie/anoai /aou?ao aaeeeeo aea?aeaa (NNN?, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, NOA,
Eeoay) a oeaeyo nio?aiaiey ie?a iinea iiaaaeu. A ioaee/iuo aunooieaieyo
aioe?ocaaeueoianeeo nee aiiaue neuoaeny iiaeoaeno: Aa?iaiey aeieaeia
noaoue nithcieeii a aoaeoueo iieeoe/aneeo eiiaeiaoeeyo, i?ecaaiiuo
neoaeeoue i?ioeaiaanii Niaaoneiio Nithco.

?ocaaeueo iiieiae, /oi ana yoe i?iaeou oyioo no?aio iacaae e
aeaaaeoeaoui aiaeai. Naith caaea/o ii aeaeae a ?acaai/aiee eaiiaiee ca
ioeac io o/anoey NOA a aoaeouae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee
aaciianiinoe. *oi eanaaony aoaeouaai Aa?iaiee, oi i?ecuau e “iyaeiio
ia?auaieth” n iae iiaeoieeioee i?aceaeaioa i?aaei?eiyoue ?yae oaaia n
oeaeueth aeiaeoueny niaianoii n NNN? ono?aiaiey aiaiiie oa?icu ni
noi?iiu Aa?iaiee. ?ocaaeueo cayaee i iaia?aiee NOA niaianoii n ae?oaeie
aea?aeaaaie ieeoie?iaaoue Aa?iaieth, aeaau ia iiaoi?eoue ioeaeo 1918
aiaea.

Ianooiaea ?aoeoaeueiay oaca ecae?aoaeueiie eiiiaiee. Ii?inu
iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey iieacuaaee, /oi ianiio?y ia caiaoiia iaaeaiea
aeeyiey aeaiie?aoia, ee/iue aaoi?eoao i?aceaeaioa inoaaaeny auoa
aaoi?eoaoa aai niia?ieea – ?anioaeeeaioea Aeuethe.

N oeaeueth aeinoeaiooue ia?aeiia a iano?iaieyo ecae?aoaeae ?ocaaeueo
i?eaaaioe e eniuoaiiiio i?eaio: ia?aeeth/eoue aieiaiea iaoeee ia
e?eoe/aneee, iiai?ioiue oa?aeoa? ie?iaiai ?acaeoey, o?aaothuee o/aoa
o?aae/aneiai iiuoa i?aaeaiaiiuo eao e iai?aeeia?iuo niaeuo ?aoaiee,
io?a/aiey io noa?uo aeiai. Ii iunee i?aceaeaioa i?aaeaiaiiay iieeoeea
NOA auea ioeai/ia, ioeai/ii naiiono?aiaiea iinea 1918 aiaea io
iaania/aiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaciianiinoe eieeaeoeaiuie oneeeyie anao
caeioa?aniaaiiuo no?ai. Iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue iinea aieiu Iauaaeeiaiiui
Iaoeeyi iiaiai yooaeoeaiiai iaoaiecia iiaeaea?aeaiey ie?a. Ana yoi oanii
oaycuaaeinue n iniaui cia/aieai aeey aoaeouaai ie?a aeia?ininaaeneeo
niaaonei-aia?eeaineeo ioiioaiee.

AAOIIOITH?EAe E?uineay eiioa?aioeey.

I?aaeeiaeaiea i ano?a/a a aa?oao n oeaeueth ianoaeaeaiey i?iaeai,
anoaaoeo ia caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia aieiu, naeaeaii ?ocaaeueoii a
iineaiee Noaeeio 19 ethey 1944 aiaea.

E. Noaeei

A 1944 aiaeo neeueii aeoeaece?iaaeenue oaeiua eiioaeou aunoeo /eiia
Aa?iaiee n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie niaoeneoaea Aiaeee e NOA, eiaaoea oeaeueth
i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaoue oe?aieaieth aia?eeaii-niaaoneeo ioiioaiee e
niinianoaiaaoue caeeth/aieth naia?aoiie naeaeee. Iieooaiea ia Aeoea?a
20 ethey 1944 aiaea e nae?aoiay eioi?iaoeey i aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
oaaaeaeaieyo ?yaea aai o/anoieeia (e i?aaeaea anaai iieeiaieea oii
Ooaooaiaa?aa) oneeeaaee caeioa?aniaaiiinoue aiaiiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae NOA
a onoaiiaeaiee eiioaeoia n iiiiceoeeiiiuie Aeoea?o aaia?aeaie Aa?iaooa,
neeiiythueieny e naia?aoiiio ie?o n caiaaeiuie nithcieeaie ia oneiaeyo
?ac?uaa n Niaaoneei Nithcii e i?aaeioa?auaiey “aieueoaaecaoeee Aa?iiu”.

Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia aeoeaecaoeeth nee, i?ioeaiaeaenoaothueo
oe?aieaieth niaaoneith – aia?eeaineeo ioiioaiee, ieacuaaea aiaeeeneay
aeeieiiaoey. Iieiaa anaai a ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee sseoeineie eiioa?aioeee
ieeoeaoai?yaoay eeieth ia ineaaeaiea eiaeeoeeiiiuo oneeee e ia ?aaeceth
?aiaa niaeaniaaiiuo ?aoaiee.

Caiaoii aic?inei aeaaeaiea ia Aaeue aeii ni noi?iiu i?aaiai e?uea
eiia?anna e eiina?aaoeaiuo i?aaiia ia/aoe, iaeciaiii ?anniao?eaaaoeo
Niaaoneee Nithc a ea/anoaa iioaioeeaeueiiai a?aaa. Ii ia?a i?eaeeaeaiey
auai?ia a iiya?a 1944 aiaea eaiiaiey ca ia?aniio? aiaoiae iieeoeee
iaae?aea neeo. Iiyoiio a oaeaa?aiia e Noaeeio ?ocaaeueo auneacuaaeny ca
nei?aeooth ano?a/o a aa?oao. Aaaeii auei cae?aieoue ai
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneii eo?na NOA iiceoeaiua naeaeae a ioiioaieyo n NNN?,
aeinoeaiooua n iiiaioa eo ainnoaiiaeaiey a 1933 aiaeo e iieo/eaoea
?acaeoea a aiaeu aieiu.

I?enoaeueii neaaey ca ?anoouae ianooiaoaeueiie iiuueth niaaoneeo aiene,
ca oai eae oe?eony iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?eciaiea ?aoathuaai aeeaaea eo a
iiaaaeo, oeaaeeaay iano?iaiey aieueoeinoaa aia?eeaineiai ia?iaea,
no?aieaoaainy e i?i/iiio ie?o, ?ocaaeueo iinoaiaiii e ia aac aioo?aiieo
eieaaaiee i?eoiaeee e auaiaeo i iac?aaoae ia?ano?ieea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
ioiioaiee ia iniiaa nio?oaeie/anoaa no?ai n ?acee/iui iauanoaaiiui
no?iai.

?aaeeci ?ocaaeueoa iieiaeeoaeueii neacaeny ia eoiaao eiioa?aioeee ii
nicaeaieth “Anaiauae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee aaciianiinoe”,
eioi?ay i?ioiaeeea a Aeoiaa?oii-Iena a aaaonoa – naioya?a 1944 aiaea e
aaea i?eioeei aaeeiiaeaney aaeeeeo aea?aeaa iieo/ee naia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea.

I?iyaeyy aeaienoaaiiinoue, ?ocaaeueo ieeae ia iia iieiinoueth
?annoaoueny n eaeaae eeaea?noaa a iineaaiaiiii ie?a, iiieiay aianoa n
oai, /oi ioiioaiey NNN? e NOA aeieaeiu iieieony ia aeinoaoi/ii i?i/iuo
iniiaao, iiiuoee ?anoaoaoue eioi?ua iaieaeoony aei?iai a ieaia
aeeaeaeoeo e aeieaia?aiaiiuo oeaeae nithcieeia.

Eiioo?u ?aoaiee ia i?aaenoiyuae E?uineie eiioa?aioeee au?eniauaaeenue
aeey ?ocaaeueoa eae i?iecaiaeiia io o?acaiai o/aoa iaiythuaeny
ianoaiiaee – aiaiiie, no?aoaae/aneie, iieeoe/aneie, aeeieiiaoe/aneie,
ii?aeueiie. Oaeoi? iaee/ey Niaaoneiai Nithca, iaea?aeaiiua ei ?aoathuea
iiaaaeu eiaee aeiieie?othuaa cia/aiea a yoii aiaeeca. Ie i eaeie
“iiniaoiinoe” a iiaeaioiaea Aaeiai aeiia e E?uineie eiioa?aioeee eee ia
“eioaeeaeooaeueiie iaiiue” ii?aaeaiiiai iaaeoaii i?aceaeaioa,
ieacaaoaainy yeiau aea?oaie “?onneiai eiaa?noaa” a sseoa, i /ai oaa?aeyo
noi?iiieee ?aaecee i?eiyouo oai ?aoaiee, e ?a/e auoue ia iiaeao. Iniaua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa ia i?aaenoiyuae eiioa?aioeee i?aaenoaaeye niaie aeey
?ocaaeueoa “oaeoi? *a?/eeey” eee “o?oaeiinoe n *a?/eeeai”, eioi?ue eae
n/eoae ?ocaaeueo ana aieaa e aieaa niiecae e iuoeaieth aeaayoiaaeoeaoiai
aaea, aianoi oiai /oiau aeaeaoue ie? oaeei, eaeei ii aue e eiioeo aieiu.

O?aieeei ?ocaaeueo – iieeoee-?aaeeno, e noi?iiieee ?ocaaeueoianeie
eeiee ia E?uineie eiioa?aioeee aua ?ac iiaee oaaaeeoueny, /oi
aaeeinoaaiiue iooue e iiaaaeiiiniiio caaa?oaieth aieiu e iaania/aieth
i?i/iuo iniia iineaaiaiiiai ie?iiai o?aaoee?iaaiey – yoi a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue i?iaeieaeaiea e ?acaeoea niaaonei-aia?eeaineiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa.

Ia E?uineie eiioa?aioeee aue aeinoeaioo o?aonoi?iiiee eiinainon –
?aae/aeoaa yaeaiea aeey eiioa?aioeee iiaeiaiiai ?iaea. Aeaaiui
niaea?aeaieai eiioa?aioeee auee aii?inu i iineaaiaiiii ono?ienoaa ie?a
ia I?aaiecaoeee Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee, i niaianoiuo aeaenoaeyo i?ioea
ssiiiee, aac /aai aieia ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea iiaea caoyiooueny ia 2 – 3
aiaea e i?eaanoe e ia?iiiui ethaeneei e iaoa?eaeueiui iioa?yi.

Iineaaeiaa aunooieaiea ?ocaaeueoa ia?aae eiia?annii ninoiyeinue 1 ia?oa
1945 aiaea. Yoi aue io/ao i E?uineie eiioa?aioeee e ?aciuoeaiey i
oeaeyo aiaoiae iieeoeee NOA. Yoi aunooieaiea auei aua e
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieai i?ioea noieaoeyie eoeueoeae?oaiiai neaiiai niaeacia,
i?eaaaay e neea e aiaiii-aeieiaie iieeoeea, ?aoaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
eiioeeeou aac o/aoa eioa?ania ie?iaiai niiauanoaa a oeaeii. “Ie?,
eioi?ue iu no?iei, ia iiaeao auoue aia?eeaineei eee a?eoaineei ie?ii,
?onneei, o?aioeocneei eee eeoaeneei ie?ii. Ii ia iiaeao auoue ie?ii
aieueoeo eee ie?ii iaeuo no?ai. Ii aeieaeai auoue ie?ii, aace?othueiny
ia niaianoiii oneeee anao no?ai. E?uineay eiioa?aioeey i?ecaaia
iaicia/eoue eiiaoe iaeiinoi?iiieo aeaenoaee, caieioouo aeieia, noa?
aeeyiey, aaeaina nee e anao ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo iaoiaeia, eioi?ua
eniieueciaaeenue aaeaie e anaaaea aaconiaoii. Iu i?aaeeaaaai iinoaaeoue
ia eo ianoi anaie?ioth i?aaiecaoeeth, eioi?ay a eiia/iii n/aoa
iauaaeeieea au ana ie?iethaeaua iaoeee”. Eaeay ni?aaaaeeeaiai ie?a
“aeey anao” oaeeaaeanue o ?ocaaeueoa n i?eciaieai eeaee?othuae ?iee NOA
a ie?iauo aeaeao. Ca enoiaeiue i?eieiaeny oaeo ?aceiai yeiiiie/aneiai
ineaaeaiey anao no?ai e i?aa?auaiey NOA a “ia?acaoe”
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey inoaeueiiai ie?a, a naiaai ?iaea
yoaeii aeey iiae?aaeaiey, /oi iiae?acoiaaaei iaeiia?aiaiii e ioiioaiey
caaeneiinoe. Ana yoi aeieaeiu auee aai/aoue iiiai/eneaiiua aiaiiua aacu
NOA, a oaeaea oi?aiaay e oeiainiaay yeniainey.

E aania 1945 aiaea aoiiiue “Iaioaooaineee i?iaeo” oniae i?eia?anoe /a?ou
ceiaauae ?aaeueiinoe. Aua a 1944 aiaeo ii eieoeeaoeaa aeaoneiai oeceea
Ieeuena Ai?a aicieeea eaeay: ?aaee nio?aiaiey aeiaa?ey iaaeaeo
nithcieeaie eioi?ie?iaaoue Niaaoneee Nithc i aaaeoueony ?aaioao ii
nicaeaieth aoiiiie aiiau. Oai ia iaiaa ?ocaaeueo aeae naay oaiai?eoue
*a?/eeeth ia eioi?ie?iaaoue Niaaoneee Nithc, /oi e auei caoeene?iaaii a
iaiyoiie caienea, iiaeienaiiie *a?/eeeai e ?ocaaeueoii 19 naioya?y 1944
aiaea a Aaeae-Ia?ea. Neaaeoao n/eoaoue, /oi ?ocaaeueo, oaeaea eae e
*a?/eeeue i?eaea?aeeaaeny aeanoeie eeiee, ioaa?aay eaeath
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiio?iey iaae aoiiiui i?oaeeai ia iniiaa ?aaiii?aaiiai
o/anoey a iai anao no?ai aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee.

Aiaoiaiieeoe/aneee eo?n ?ocaaeueoa e “aeoo sseou” iiaeaa?aaeenue
iai?a?uaiui iaiaaeeai.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Aa?ineee eioeeaeaio.

Aaniie 1945 aiaea ia aeieth /anoiuo nithcie/aneeo ioiioaiee auiaee iiaua
eniuoaiey. Iaeiei ec ieo noae oae iacuaaaiue “Aa?ineee eioeeaeaio”. A
Aa?ia aaeenue oaeiua ia?aaiai?u aaia?aea NN Ea?ea Aieueoa e ?aceaeaioa
?acaaaeuaaoaeueiuo neoaea NOA Aeeaia Aeaeeana. Yoei ia?aaiai?ai
i?aaeoanoaiaaea n yiaa?y 1945 aiaea aeeeoaeueiay enoi?ey oaeiuo
eiioaeoia yienna?ia aia?eeaineie e aiaeeeneie ?acaaaeie n
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie “o?aoueaai ?aeoa” a Eoaeee. A oiaea yoeo eiioaeoia
?a/ue oea i “nianaiee Caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee” iooai ioe?uoey aoi?iai
o?iioa. Ni noii?ioeaioiie oaa?aiiinoueth iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
i?aceaeaio ?ocaaeueo ciae ia yoii. Ia yoeo ia?aaiai?ao noaei ecaanoii e
a Iineaa. A ia?oa 1945 aiaea iineaaeiaae ii yoiio iiaiaeo eioaineaiue
iaiai iineaieyie iaaeaeo Noaeeiui e ?ocaaeueoii. Noaeei ?anoeaieaae yoe
aeaenoaey eae oyaeeia ia?ooaiea nithcie/aneiai aeieaa. ?ocaaeueo a
naith i/a?aaeue iuoaeny eae-oi nieceoue yooaeo yoeo ?aciaea/aiee,
nnueaynue ia “iaeicia/eoaeueiinoue” eioeeaeaioa eee i?aaeiieaaay
i?iaieaoeee aeoea?ianeie ?acaaaeee, iuoaaoaeny oaeei ia?acii aianoe
?acaei? iaaeaeo nithcieeaie. Yoa oaeiay eio?eaa aia?eeaineie e
aiaeeeneie niaoeneoaea auea caoayia a ?an/aoa ia iieeoe/aneoth auaiaeo,
eioi?oth caiaaeiua nithcieee iaaeayeenue ecaea/ue, aiiaue i?eaaaay e
“aeueoa?iaoeaiie aiaiiie no?aoaaee”. Oaeaea eae e ?aiueoa, aa nooue
ninoiyea a oii, /oiau n iaeiaiueoeie ecaea?aeeaie, eniieuecoy
aioiaiinoue ecaa?eaoeony a iiaaaea Aeoea?a aiaiiuo e iieeoe/aneeo
aeayoaeae “o?aoueaai ?aeoa” ioe?uoue caiaaeiue o?iio, i?iaeaeiooueny
aeaeaei aia?aae ia ainoie e acyoue iiae naie eiio?ieue anth oa??eoi?eth
oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu.

A yoi a?aiy n 29 ia?oa ?ocaaeueo iaoiaeeeny a Oi?ei-Ni?eian (ooao
Aeaei?aeey), ii oai ioaeuoae e aioiaeeny e aunooieaieth ia
o/?aaeeoaeueiie eiioa?aioeee I?aaiecaoeee Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee a
Nai-O?aioeenei.

Ii iiaiaeo yoiai eioeeaeaioa ?ocaaeueo ioi?aaee Noaeeio neaaeothuoth
oaeaa?aiio: “Aeaaiaea?th Aan ca Aaoa ene?aiiaa iiyniaiea niaaoneie oi/ee
c?aiey a ioiioaiee aa?ineiai eioeeaeaioa, eioi?ue, eae nae/an
i?aaenoaaeyaony, iiaeae e ioioae a i?ioeia, ia i?eiany eaeie-eeai
iieuecu. Ai anyeii neo/aa ia aeieaeii auoue acaeiiiai iaaeiaa?ey e
iacia/eoaeueiua iaaei?acoiaiey oaeiai oa?aeoa?a ia aeieaeiu aicieeaoue a
aoaeouai. ss oaa?ai, /oi, eiaaea iaoe a?iee onoaiiayo eiioaeo a Aa?iaiee
e iauaaeeiyony a iieiinoueth eii?aeeie?iaaiiii ianooieaiee, iaoeenoneea
a?iee ?aniaaeoony”.

Oaeaa?aiia auea iineaia 12 ai?aey ec Aaeiai aeiia a Iineao Aa??eiaio e
iaeiia?aiaiii a Eiiaeii *a?/eeeth. *a?ac ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, a
oio aea aeaiue, i?eoea oeo?iaea io Aa??eiaia n i?aaeeiaeaieai iionoeoue
neiai “iacia/eoaeueiua”. ?ocaaeueo ioaaoee aac i?iiaaeeaiey e a oiia,
ia oa?iyuai aic?aaeaiee: “ss i?ioea oiai, /oiau au/a?eiooue neiai
“iacia/eoaeueiua”, iioiio /oi y n/eoath aa?ineia iaaei?acoiaiea
iacia/eoaeueiui eioeeaeaioii”.

Yoi auee iineaaeiea iineaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey ?ocaaeueoa.

AAOIIOITH?EAe Nia?oue i?aceaeaioa – oo?aoa aeey Aia?eee.

11 ai?aey iaiaeeaeaiii ieacaeinue ianuuaiiui niauoeyie. Iiieii /oaiey
i?eauaoeo n ii/oie aeaeiauo aoiaa, iaaeoiuaaiey ?a/e ii neo/ath Aeiy
iaiyoe Aeaeaooa?niia e iiaeaioiaee aeeieiiaoe/aneeo aeaiao ii aue
caiieiai aei ioeaca “iaei/aie”, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo auea aaaeia naia ii
naaa. Ia i?inoui aeaeii auei oo?ynoe n i?ann-nae?aoa?ai Oannaoii
?aai/ee eaeaiaea?ue aei eiioea ai?aey (i?aceaeaio i?aaeiieaaae oaoaoue
ec Oi?i-Ni?eiana a n?aaeo, 18 ai?aey, i?iauoue aeaiue a Aaoeiaoiia, a
caoai ioi?aaeoueny iiacaeii a Nai-O?aioeenei). Ia oo?i neaaeothuaai
aeiy ?ocaaeueo iacia/ee noaiia?aoe?iaaiea naiae ?a/e ia?aae o/anoieeaie
o/?aaeeoaeueiie eiioa?aioeee I?aaiecaoeee Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee. Aa/a?ii
a iaeii Aaeii aeiia iiyaeeny ieieno? oeiainia Aai?e Ii?aaioao, caiyaoee
i?aceaeaioa o?oaeiui ?acaiai?ii i aoaeouai Aa?iaiee. Aiacaiii iai?aaa
aanaaeo a oii ianoa, aaea Ii?aaioao aa?ioe aai e ieaio ?an/eaiaiey
Aa?iaiee, i?aceaeaio ia?aaae aa a eiia ?onei, a iaeanoue ainiiieiaiee.
?annoaaaynue ?ocaaeueo ae?oaeanee ecaeieeny ca e?aoeinoue aanaaeu,
nineaaoenue ia i?aaenoiyuea caao?a ano?a/e. Aio oioaeinue auniaoueny
ia?aae oai, eae oo?ii neaaeothuaai aeiy aai ?acaoaeyo nae?aoa?e n
anaaaeaoiae ii?oeeae oo?aiiae ii/ou.

12 ai?aey ia/aeinue, eae iau/ii, /oaieai aacao. Iie niiauaee i acyoee
Aaiu ?onneeie e i aiyo ia?oaea AEoeiaa a 40 ieeyo io Aa?eeia, i
aeia?iaieueiie naea/a a ieai nioai ouny/ aa?iaineeo nieaeao ia Caiaaeiii
o?iioa e i aiyo aiaei-aia?eeaioeaa a ie?anoiinoyo Aieiiuee. Caoai naain
n ooaeiaeieoeae Ooiaoiaie, caeai/eaathuae ii?o?ao i?aceaeaioa. Ana a?aiy
nio?aiyoue iaiiaeaeaeioth iico auei aeaeii ooiieoaeueiui. A ei?ioeea
i?iiaaeooee ?ocaaeueo iiaeienuaae aeaeiaua aoiaae e ia?aa?anuaaeny
aeaoie-o?aiy neiaaie n ie?oaeathueie. Ana aini?eiyee eae oooeo aai
?aieeeo i aeaeaiee iiaeaoue a ionoaaeo n iinoa i?aceaeaioa. Aii?in
i?enoonoaiaaaoae ooo aea aai ?iaenoaaiieoeu Eao?u Aeaeaii: “Au yoi
na?ueacii ? E /oi aea Au aoaeaoa aeaeaoue ?” – ia canoae aai a?anieio.
“ss au oioae aicaeaaeoue I?aaiecaoeeth Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee”, – ioaaoee
?ocaaeueo.

Aaea-oi n?aco iinea 1 /ana aeiy 12 ai?aey 1945 aiaea ii aiacaiii
ii/oanoaiaae “oaeanioth aieiaioth aieue”, a caoai iioa?ye niciaiea. A 3
/ana i?aceaeaio NOA oia?. Ooiae ec aeecie ?ocaaeueoa iaeaioia
enoi?e/aneeo niauoee ?aoathuaai cia/aiey aue aini?eiyo eae oyaeaeay
oo?aoa i?aaeaea anaai aeey o?oaeiiai aeaea au?aaioee iiaie oeeinioee
aaciianiinoe a oneiaeyo aeaenoaey oaea i?iyaeaoeony, ii aua ia iiciaiiuo
aei eiioea aeiaaeueiuo oaeoi?ia ?acaeoey – nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo,
iieeoe/aneeo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo, aiaiiuo, iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo. Ieioue io
iieoe naiaai eeanna – eeanna aia?eeaineie ao?aeoacee, ii a oiaea a?aiy
aue e i?iaeoeoii naiaai a?aiaie, ioia/aiiiai aeeiaie/aneeie eciaiaieyie,
iiae?uaii iiceoeee ie?iaiai eaieoaeecia, e?ooie eiieie iieeoe/aneeo
no?oeoo?, oaeoaeaieai ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, aicieeoae oa?icie aeey
/aeiaa/anoaa ni noi?iiu eiia?eaeenoe/aneie ?aaeoeee e aieinoaothuaai
ieeeoa?ecia.

Oi, /oi aian O?aieeei ?ocaaeueo eae aeaeueiiaeaeiue ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeayoaeue e aeeieiiao a aia?eeaineoth iieeoeeo (eiay a aeaeo aa
i?aeoe/aneee e eaeaieiae/aneee aniaeou), i?e anae iaiaeiicia/iinoe
yoiai aeeaaea iaania/eee aio iniaia ianoi a iaoeeiiaeueiie enoi?ee
?yaeii n Aaoeiaoiiii, Aeaeaooa?niiii e Eeieieueiii. I ?iee aea
?ocaaeueoa a noaiiaeaiee iiceoeaiie o?aaeeoeee a niaaonei-aia?eeaineeo
ioiioaieyo iiaeii neacaoue neiaaie A. Aiieeina. “?ocaaeueo… – aiai?ee
ii ia ano?a/a n niaaoneeie ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie a Iineaa a iaa 1945 aiaea, –
ia oioneae ec aeaeo oiai oaeoa, /oi yeiiiie/aneea e aaia?aoe/aneea
eioa?anu Niaaoneiai Nithca e NOA ia noaeeeaathony. Eacaeinue, /oi iaa
no?aiu i?i/ii anoaee ia iooue, e ii, Aiieein, oaa?ai, /oi ?ocaaeueo aue
a yoii oaaaeaeai, eioi?ue aaaeao e ?ac?aoaieth iiiaeo o?oaeiuo e
neiaeiuo i?iaeai, eanathueony iaoeo iaaeo no?ai e inoaeueiiai ie?a. Oea
ee ?a/ue i oii, eae iinooieoue n Aa?iaieae eee n ssiiieae, eee i
eiie?aoiuo eioa?anao iaaeo no?ai ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea, eee i
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee aaciianiinoe, eee, e yoi ia a iineaaeithth
i/a?aaeue, i aeeeoaeueiuo acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo Niaaeeiaiiuie Ooaoaie
e Niaaoneei Nithcii – ?ocaaeueo aue oaaaeaeai, /oi ana yoe aii?inu iiaoo
auoue ?ac?aoaiu e /oi a yoii aai iiaeaea?aeeo aia?eeaineee ia?iae.”

AAOIIOITH?EAe Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

1) Iaeueeia A. E. “O?aieeei ?ocaaeueo”. -Iineaa: “Iuneue”, 1988. – 350
n.

NO? 3

NO? 1

I?aaeeneiaea

I?aaeeneiaea

O. Ae. ?ocaaeueo

NO? 2

Ia/aei ea?uea?u

NO? 48

Ia?aua iieeoe/aneea oniaoe

Ia?aua iieeoe/aneea oniaoe

Iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa

Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen

Iiaua oniaoe

“Iiaue eo?n”

Iiaay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay ianoaiiaea

?ocaaeueo e NNN?

I?aaeaiaiiay ianoaiiaea

Iiaua auai?u

?ocaaeueo ai a?aiy aieiu

?acaeae ie?a

E?uineay eiioa?aioeey

Aa?ineee eioeaaeaio

Nia?oue i?aceaeaioa

NO?

?

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