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Ф.Ф. Ушаков

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oeeee oeio. Aaeie?ae Aannai – iaoa, iieo/eaoee aeiianaiea i i?eaeeaeaiee
?onneie yneaae?u ec Naaanoiiiey, n?aco aea i?eiye ?aoaiea aeaoue ae
n?aaeaiea.

Eiaaea oo?aoeeee oeio aue caia/ai n ei?aaeae Naaanoiiieueneie yneaae?u,
n ?onneeo ei?aaeae ian/eoaee 45 oo?aoeeeo noaeia; aiineaaenoaee e
i?ioeaieeo i?eauei ia iiaee?aieaiea au? ianeieueei aiaauo ei?aaeae. Ii
ioiioaieth nee iai?eyoaeue eiae ii n?aaiaieth n Naaanoiiieueneie
yneaae?ie i/aiue aieueoia i?aeiouanoai. I?ioea aeaoo ?onneeo eeiaeiuo
ei?aaeae Aannai – iaoa ?aniieaaae 17 eeiaeiuie ei?aaeyie. Aanueia
cia/eoaeueiia i?aainoiaenoai i?ioeaieea auei e a a?oeeea?eeneii
aii?oaeaiee ei?aaeae: oo?ee eiaee aieaa 1500 i?oaeee, a ?onneea – anaai
eeoue 550 i?oaeee.

Eiio? – aaeie?ae Aieiiae/, au? aei ano?a/e n iai?eyoaeai aiyaoeeny
aiaaiai noieeiiaaiey, i?e aeaea aieueoiai oo?aoeeiai oeioa ieacaeny ia a
ninoiyiee aicaeaaeoue oi?aaeaiea aaa?aiiie aio yneaae?ie. A ieiooo
?aoeoaeueiie ano?a/e n i?ioeaieeii ii naiiono?aieeny io ?oeiaiaenoaa
i?aaenoiyuei n?aaeaieai e ia?aaeae oaeoe/aneia eiiaiaeiaaiea naiaio
iiae/ei?iiiio – eiiaiaee?o aaaiaa?aea (ia?aaeiaie /anoe yneaae?u).
Aicaeaaeye ia?aaeiaoth yneaae?o eiiaiaee? eeiaeiiai ei?aaey “Iaaae”
eaieoai a?eaaaee?neiai ?aiaa O. O. Ooaeia.

A oa/aiea o??o aeiae ?onneea e oo?aoeeea ei?aaee iaiaa?e?iaaee a ii?a,
noa?aynue caiyoue iaaao?aiiia iieiaeaiea aeey aiy. Oo?aoeeiio oeioo
oaeaeinue nio?aieoue iaaao?aiiia iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia aeey ia?oniuo
ei?aaeae aeaaaei ?yae i?aeiouanoa.

E /eneo oaeeo i?aeiouanoa ioiineeinue oi, /oi iaaao?aiiue oeio iia
auae?aoue a?aiy iaiaaeaiey e aeenoaioeeth aiy, oi anoue iaeaaeae
eieoeeaoeaie e aiciiaeiinoueth iaaycaoue naith aieth i?ioeaieeo, enoiaey
ec iniaaiiinoae naiaai i?oaeey e noaiaie iiaeaioiaee e aith. Ai a?aiy
n?aaeaiey iaaao?aiiui ei?aaeyi auei cia/eoaeueii i?iua iaiaa?e?iaaoue e
naeeaeaoueny n iai?eyoaeueneeie ei?aaeyie. I?e a?oeeea?eeneie
ia?ano?aeea aonoie ii?ioiaie aeui canoeeae iiaeaao?aiiua ei?aaee e iaoae
eaiiie?ai aanoe i?eoeaeueiue iaiiue; io iaaao?aiiiai oeioa aeui ioiineei
a noi?iio iiaeaao?aiiiai oeioa, /oi iaeaa/aei aaaeaiea iaiy e
iaania/eaaei oi?iooth aeaeeiinoue neaiaeia.

Iieuecoynue /eneaiiui i?aainoiaenoaii e auaiaeie caieiaaiiai iieiaeaiey,
aaeie?ae Aannai – iaoa aei?i 3 ethey iino?iee naie oeio a aeaa eieiiiu e
iia?e eo e ?onneie yneaae?a. Oo?aoeeee eiiaiaeothuee iinoaaee oeaeueth
nin?aaeioi/eoue naie iniiaiua neeu i?ioea ?onneiai aaaiaa?aea,
ninoiyaoaai ec eeiaeiiai ei?aaey “Iaaae” e o?aaaoia “Ai?eneaa” e
“No?aea”.

N naiiai ia/aea n?aaeaiey ia?aay eieiiia oo?aoeeiai oeioa, ninoiyaoay ec
iaeaieaa iiuiuo ei?aaeae, aicaeaaeyaiay naiei Aannai – iaoie,
no?aieeanue naeeceony n aaaiaa?aeii ?onneiai oeioa e iaianoe ii iaio
nin?aaeioi/aiiue oaea?. Iaeiaei Ooaeia n?aco aea ?acaaaeae caiunae
a?aaa. Ii i?eeacae o?aaaoai “Ai?eneaa” e “No?aea” oaaee/eoue oiae e
ia/aoue iaoiae i?eaeeaeaaoaeny aiaaie eeiee i?ioeaieea. Iinoaaea ana
ia?ona, aeaa ia?aaeiauo ?onneeo o?aaaoa, ca eioi?uie neaaeiaae ei?aaeue
“Iaaae”, auno?i iioee aia??ae; ca ieie neaaeiaaea any ?onneay yneaae?a.

Auiieiaiea iai?a?a, caaeoiaiiiai O. O. Ooaeiaui, iicaieyei caiyoue
iaaao?aiiia iieiaeaiea e iinoaaeoue iai?eyoaeueneea ei?aaee “a aeaa
iaiy”, o. a. iano?aeeaaoue eo n iaieo ai?oia. Iaeiaei oo?aoeeee aaeie?ae
iiniaoee i?eiyoue iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u: oo?aoeeea ei?aaee oaeaea oaaee/eee
oiae, ia aeaaay

No?aieoea 2.

aiciiaeiinoe ?onneei ei?aaeyi iaieoe eo e ia?ooeoue aiaaie ii?yaeie.
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio Aannai – iaoa oaeaeinue ecaaaeaoue iaoiaea aai aiaaie
eeiee ?onneeie ei?aaeyie. Ii iai?a? Ooaeiaa ia iicaieee iai?eyoaeth
iaianoe nin?aaeioi/aiiue oaea? ii ?onneiio aaaiaa?aeo a naiii ia/aea
n?aaeaiey. Oiaaea oo?aoeeee aaeie?ae i?aaei?eiye aoi?e/ioth iiiuoeo
nin?aaeioi/eoue iniiaiua neeu i?ioea ?onneiai aaaiaa?aea.

Iinea iaiaa?e?iaaiey oo?aoeeee oeio naeeceeny ia aeenoaioeeth iooa/iiai
auno?aea e ia/ae iano?ae ?onneeo ei?aaeae. Oo?aoeeee aaeie?ae no?aieeny
aua?aoue oaeia ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ei?aaeyie, /oiau iaiiue aieueoeo
oo?aoeeeo i?oaeee iia auoue yooaeoeaiui, a ?onneea ei?aaee, eiaaoea
i?oaeey iaiueoaai eaeea?a e no?aeyaoea ia iaiueoaa ?annoiyiea ia iiaee
i?e/eieoue aieueoiai oua?aa. Oanoue oo?aoeeeo eeiaeiuo ei?aaeae
ii?aaiyeenue n ?onneei aaaiaa?aeii e ia/aee iano?aeeaaoue o?e ?onneeo
ei?aaey.

Aannai – iaoa, ienae O. O. Ooaeia, “i?eaaay ana ia?ona, a?ineeny n
/?acau/aeiie nei?inoueth, eae eaa, aoaeiaaoue ia?aaeiaua iie o?aaaou”.
Ii neaiaeo Ooaeiaa ia ?onneeo ei?aaeyo oaeaea iinoaaeee ana ia?ona,
/oiau ia aeiionoeoue naeeaeaiey iai?eyoaeueneeo ei?aaeae e a oi aea
a?aiy io?acaoue io aaaiaa?aea Aannai – iaoe /anoue aai aiaauo noaeia.
Caiunae Ooaeiaa oaeaeny. Ia?aaeiaua oo?aoeeea ei?aaee oaeaeaee, /oi
inoathony io?acaiiuie; iaeei oo?aoeeee ei?aaeue, oaaeoee aia?aaee, “ia
aeiaeeaeaynue ieeaeiai neaiaea, n aaeeeie oi?iieeainoueth aac aith
iiai?ioee e oo?e”. Ii aoi?iio oo?aoeeiio ei?aaeth n o?aaaoia “Ai?eneaa”
e “No?aea” auei naeaeaii ianeieueei oaea/iuo auno?aeia, e ii oiaea
iiaa?ioe aniyoue. Aannai – iaoa noae iaeeoue yae?aie ii naiei ooiaeyuei
ei?aaeyi, ii iie oai ia iaiaa auoee ec aiaaie eeiee aaaiaa?aea.

Ieacaaoenue aia?aaee Aannai – iaoa “n i?aaaeeeiai aca?oo nionoeeny au?
aeeaea e noae ai?oii i?yii i?ioea aeaoo o?aaaoia”. Oioy “ae?aeny ii n
/?acau/aeiui aea?ii”, ?onneea o?aaaou iaianee aio aieueoea
iia?aaeaeaiey: “…aeaeii auei, eae aieueoea aeinee eaoaee n ei?iu aai
ei?aaey”. Ia iiiiuue oo?aoeeiio aaeie?aeo no?aieeenue iiaeieoe ae?oaea
aai ninaaeiea ei?aaee, ii ana iie auee ioiaiaiu ei?aae?i Ooaeiaa. O
iaeiiai ec yoeo ei?aaeae a?oeeea?enou “Iaaea” naeee oie – ia/oo, o
ae?oaiai oi? – noaiueao, a o?aoee “ca aaeeeie oa/ueth a naiie nei?inoe
iiaei anaie ia?onaie oo?e e noi?iia Aeea?iaia”. A ei?aaea aea Aannai –
iaoe auei “noieueei iooa/iuo i?iaiei, /oi nei?i nin/eoaoue iaeuecy”.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n aaaiaa?aeii n?aaeaeenue e ae?oaea ei?aaee ?onneie
yneaae?u. O?aaao “Eeiao?i” oaea/iuie auno?aeaie aeaaaeaeu caaeeaae
oo?aoeeee aeoea – aaeie?aeueneee ei?aaeue, eioi?ue no?aieeny iiaeieoe ia
au?o/eo Aannai – iaoa. A ?acoeueoaoa iaoeiai iaiy /a?iiii?neeo ii?yeia
iai?eyoaeue ia noae iuoaoueny i?iaeieaeaoue n?aaeaiea. A 5 /ania aa/a?a
oeaaiaineee ei?aaeue auoae ec aiy e noae iooiaeeoue. Yoi iineoaeeei
neaiaeii aeey anaai iai?eyoaeueneiai oeioa. N?aaeaiea caeii/eeinue
ionooieaieai i?ioeaieea.

Ii?neay aaoaeey i?e ino?iaa Oeaeiiene yaeeanue ia?aui aiaaui e?auaieai
Naaanoiiieueneie yneaae?u – iniiaiiai aiaaiai yae?a iieiaeiai
/a?iiii?neiai oeioa. Oniao ?onneiai oeioa a n?aaeaiee aue aeinoeaioo
niaeinoueth e ioaaaie /a?iiii?neeo ii?yeia, eo aunieie aiaaie auo/eie e
ianoa?noaii. “ss nai oaeeaeythnue i?iai?noao e o?aa?inoe iieo ethaeae, –
ienae Ooaeia. – Iie no?aeyee a iai?eyoaeueneea ei?aaee ia /anoi e n
oaeie nii?iaeie, /oi eacaeinue, eaaeaeue o/eony no?aeyoue ii oeaee,
nia?aaeeaaynue /oiau ia iioa?youe naie auno?ae”.

Aunieia ianoa?noai a aith i?iyaeee eiiaiaee?u ei?aaeae, e i?aaeaea anaai
eiiaiaee? aaaiaa?aea O. O. Ooaeia, yaeyaoeeny oaeoe/aneei ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
anae yneaae?u. Anee aei n?aaeaiey i?e Oeaeiiene iiiaea oo?aoeeea
aiaia/aeueieee n/eoaee ?onneeo ii?yeia iaiiuoiuie e ianiiniaiuie aeey
aiy a ioe?uoii

ii?a, oi oniao a yoie ii?neie aaoaeee eo/oa anaai naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae i
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe ?onneiai *a?iiii?neiai oeioa e ?aoaieth neiaeiuo
aiaauo caaea/.

N?aaeaiea i?e Oeaeiiene eiaei aaaeiua iineaaenoaey. Aei neo ii?
oo?aoeeee oeio iaeaaeae ainiiaenoaii ia *??iii ii?a, ia iicaieyy ?onneei
ei?aaeyi niaa?oaoue aeaeueiea iioiaeu. ?aenu ?onneeo ei?aaeae
ia?aie/eaaeenue i?ea?aaeiuie ?aeiiaie , i?aeiouanoaaiii iaaeaeo
Ea?/ueth, Naaanoiiieai, Oa?niiii. Iinea aea n?aaeaiey, eiaaea a?aaeaneee
oeio aia?aua aue auioaeaeai ionooieoue ia?aae ?onneie ia?oniie yneaae?ie
a ioe?uoii ii?a, iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue. A naioya?a 1788a. io?yae
e?aena?neeo noaeia iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai Ae. I. Naiyaeia auoae a ia?aue
aiaaie iioiae e aa?aaai Oo?oeee. ?onneea ei?aaee ia?anaeee an? *a?iia
ii?a, aeinoeaee Neiiia e i?ioee aaeieue oo?aoeeiai iiaa?aaeuey,
iano?aeeaay i?eii?neea iii?iua ioieou.

Anei?a iinea n?aaeaiey i?e Oeaeiiene ai aeaaa Naaanoiiieueneie yneaae?u
aue iinoaaeai eiio? – aaeie?ae O. O. Ooaeia; a ia?oa 1790a. ii aue
iacia/ai eiiaiaeothuei *a?iiii?neei oeioii.

Anooiea a aeieaeiinoue eiiaiaeothuaai, Ooaeia noieeioeny n a?iiaaeiuie
o?oaeiinoyie, inoaaeaiiuie a ianeaaenoai aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie. Ia
ei?aaeyo e a aacao aue aieueoie iaeiiieaeo eiiaiae, iiiai iao?inia
aieaei ec – ca ieioiai ieoaiey e aeanoieiai ia?auaiey ioeoea?ia. A
Aaeie?aeoaenoaa a oa/aiea iiiaeo i?aaeoanoaothueo eao aue “oain
iaiienoaiue, e?aeiyy iaecaanoiinoue ai anao iaee/iinoyo”. A aacao
iuouaeny aieueoie iaaeinoaoie ia?onia, ia/o, oaeaeaaea, yei?ae. Ia
oaaoaei a?oeeea?eeneiai aii?oaeaiey. “Caeanue ai iiiaii iaoiaeyony
aaeeeea iaaeinoaoee”, – aeieeaaeuaae Ooaeia eiycth Iio?ieeio. “?aciuo
i?eiania e iaoa?eaeia, oiae e eania, iniaeeai aeeaeeie e aonoie niieu,
caeanue nianai iao, oaeaea iaaeeeaiaioia ia oieueei ia noaeao, ii e a
ainieoaea ia eiaaony”, – ienae ii aeaaiiio eioaiaeaioo oeioa.

Aaeie?ae Ooaeia aeayoaeueii i?enooiee e iiauoaieth aianiiniaiinoe oeioa
e aai aeoeaiui aeaenoaeyi i?ioea iai?eyoaey. Iaeiaei ie ni noi?iiu
Iio?ieeia, ie ec Iaoa?ao?aa ii ia iieo/ae oiai, /oi auei ino?i
iaiaoiaeeii aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey ana io?aneae oeioneiai oicyenoaa.
O?aoy ia?iiiua noiiu ia ?aciiia?aciua ee/iua ioaeaeu, oea?neia
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?aiaa?aaaei ianouiuie iio?aaiinoyie oeioa. Aeaei
aeioiaeeei aei oiai, /oi “ii iaeiaieth i?e naaanoiiieueneii oeioa
aeaiaaeiie eaciu” Ooaeiao i?eoiaeeeinue aeeaaeuaaoue a no?ieoaeuenoai
oeioa ee/iua n?aaenoaa. “Aeioiaeo aei oaeie e?aeiinoe, – ienae ii eaoii
1790a. – /oi auioaeaeai caeiaeeoue nianoaaiiue aeii”.

O. O. Ooaeia iiieiae, /oi aianiiniaiinoue oeioa caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai
io ?yaeiauo iao?inia. Ii auniei oeaiee aeiaa?ea iao?inia e iaio. “Anyeia
aeiaa?ea eo ei iia niaa?oaao iie oniaoe”, – aiai?ee ii. Iinoiyiiay
caaioa ia yeeiaaeao ei?aaeae yaeyeanue aaaeiaeoei o?aaiaaieai Ooaeiaa,
eioi?ia ii i?aaeuyaeye ei anai eiiaiaee?ai ei?aaeae. Aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeye ii caei?iaueth iao?inia, oeo/oaieth eo ieoaiey e auoiauo oneiaee
ia ei?aaeyo e ia aa?aao. Onoaiiaea iaeiaaeaeu, /oi iaoiaeyueany a
ainieoaea iao?inu ieioi ieoathony, Ooaeia i?aaeienae eiioi?a
naaanoiiieueneiai ii?oa “oiio?aaeoue anaaiciiaeiia noa?aiea, aeaau
eo/oei niaea?aeaieai iiaee?aieoue ethaeae e i?eaanoue a caei?iauea”.
Ioeoea?ia, eioi?ua ia aeaeaee caaioeony i ee/iii ninoaaa, ii no?iai
iaeacuaae.

*oiau iinoiyiii iiauoaoue aiaaia ianoa?noai yeeiaaeae e aioiaeoue eo e
ai?ueaa n neeueiui e iiuoiui i?ioeaieeii ia ii?a, aaeie?ae Ooaeia
aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeye iao/aieth ee/iiai ninoaaa. Aiaaay iiaeaioiaea
no?ieeanue ia iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiuo i?e?iao. Ii ?ac?aaaouaae
eino?oeoeee e ?oeiaiaenoaa, a eioi?uo eceaaae naie o?aaiaaiey e
iao/aieth ii?yeia, i?aaeaea anaai – o/eoue a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo.

Ei?aaee a ethaoth iiaiaeo auoiaeeee a ii?a, i?iaiaeeee oai ia?oniua,

No?aieoea 4.

a?oeeea?eeneea, aai?aeaaeiua e ae?oaea o/aiey. “?aeiiaiaeoth
eiiaiaeothuei, – ienae aaeie?ae Ooaeia a iaeiii ec i?eeacia, – i?eo/aoue
neoaeeoaeae (iao?inia) e nei?ui aaaaiueyi ii nianoyi. Ioaea/o e i?eaaaeo
ia?onia i?eeacaoue aeaeaoue n ioiaiiie nei?inoueth”. Ianoa?noai
/a?iiii?neeo ii?yeia iaoeeiiii ?inei, /oi iiauoaei aianiiniaiinoue oeioa
ia iaiueoa, /ai iiiieiaiea aai iiauie aiaauie ei?aaeyie…

Aaeie?ae O. O. Ooaeia yaeyeny ia?aaeiaui i?aaenoaaeoaeai ?onneie aiaiii
– ii?neie oeieu e ai?n e?oiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea aiaiii – ii?neiai
eneonnoaa. Ca 44 aiaea naiae aiaiiie neoaeau ii iaoiaeeeny a ii?a a
oa/aiee 40 eaiiaiee. Iiae aai eiiaiaeiaaieai ii?yee *a?iiii?neiai oeioa
ia ciaee ii?aaeaiee e iaea?aeaee ?yae caia/aoaeueiuo iiaaae a ii?neeo
n?aaeaieyo. Oae aea eae A. A. Noai?ia a a?iee, O. O. Ooaeia iiiai
naeaeae a ?acaeoee oi?i e iaoiaeia aiaaie iiaeaioiaee ii?yeia, ii iao/ae
eo ia “ieaoe – ia?aaeiui” i?e?iai, a oiio, /oi ioaeii aeey oniaoiiai
aaaeaiey aiy n neeueiui i?ioeaieeii.

Eeoa?aoo?a: A. E. Caa?aa.

“No?aieoeu aiaiii – ii?neie eaoiiene ?innee”

No?aieoea 5.

s t No?aieoea 3.

No?aieoea 4.

ii?a, i?iaiaeeee oai ia?oniua, Aeieeaae

O. O. Ooaeia.

1742 – 1817a.a.

E

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