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Евпатория во второй половине XIX века

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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss E IAOEE OE?AEIU

E?UINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE AOIAIEOA?IUE EINOEOOO

AAIAOI?EENEEE IAAeAAIAE*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO

EAOAAe?A ENOI?EE E I?AAIAAAeAIEss

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

Ii aeenoeeieeia: «Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu»

ia oaio:

Aaiaoi?ey ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea

(ia iniiaa aiaeeca a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia e i?annu)

Auiieieea:

nooaeaioea III eo?na

a?oiiu 31 – AEI

Ai?oiee THeey

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Aeieaoeeee A. A.,

noa?oee i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

eaoaae?u enoi?ee e

i?aaiaaaeaiey

Aaiaoi?ey 2004

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

1.Oa?aeoa?enoeea ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?ee aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX aaea.

1.1. *eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey.

1.2. Iaoeeiiaeueiue e ?aeeaeiciue

aiaeec ianaeaiey.

2. Iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiiai ninoaaa.

2.1Oa?aeoa?enoeea nineiaee.

2.2.Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ninoaaa e o?oaeiaie caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey.

3. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Aaiaoi?ee.

3.1. Oi?aiaey.

3.2. I?iiuneu.

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u

I?eeiaeaiey

Aaaaeaiea

Iu – aeeoaee Aaiaoi?ee XXI aaea. A?aiy ia noieo ia ianoa, e aeeciue
ai?iaea eciaiyaony n eaaeaeui aiaeii. Aaiaoi?ey oaea ia oa, /oi auea
aeaaea aiae iacaae. E i/aiue eioa?anii ociaoue, eaeie aea auea aeeciue
ai?iaea aeaa aaea oiio iacaae. Aoi?ay iieiaeia XIX aaea a aeecie
ii?oiaiai oacaeiiai ai?iaea Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee Aaiaoi?ee yaeyaony
i/aiue eioa?aniui ia?eiaeii. A yoi a?aiy i?ienoiaeyo aieueoea
nioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey, yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu, eioi?ua eiaee cia/aiea
e ieacuaaee aeeyiea ia aeeciue anae Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee oiai a?aiaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeooaeueiinoue aeaiiie oaiu iaoneiaeaia iauanoaaiiie e
iao/ii – enoi?e/aneie cia/eiinoueth i?iaeaiu, naaaeaieai a nenoaio
iaoa?eaeia ?aaio enoi?eeia, noaoenoia, e?aaaaaeia, caieiaaoeony aeaiiie
oaiie, a oae aea aiaeecii a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia e i?annu, iaeiaeinooiiuo
aeey oe?ieiai e?oaa /eoaoaeae.

A aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee aaoi? noaaeo neaaeothuoth oeaeue: ?anniio?aoue
aeeciue Aaiaoi?ee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee aaoi? noaaeo neaaeothuea caaea/e:

1. Eco/eoue /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey, aai iaoeeiiaeueiue, ?aeeaeiciue
ninoaa e i?ineaaeeoue aai aeeiaieeo;

2. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue nineiaiue, i?ioanneiiaeueiue ninoaa e o?oaeiaoth
caiyoinoue ianaeaiey ai?iaea;

3. I?iaiaeece?iaaoue yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee ia
i?ioyaeaiee aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX aaea.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiaie aeey aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iineoaeee
n?aaieoaeueiue, oaenoieiae/aneee aiaeec eco/aaiiai iaoa?eaea, neioac e
e?eoe/aneee iaoiae.

Enoi/ieeiaie aacie aeey aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iineoaeeee a?oeaiua
aeieoiaiou OeAA A?E oaeea eae: A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau.
Aeaei «I i?aaeinoaaeaiee Noaoenoe/aneiio Eiieoaoo naaaeaiee ca 1873
aiae»[3], a oaeaea ca 1874 aiae[7]; Aeaei «Ia onoaiiaeaiee oaen ia
aeeciaiiua i?iaeoeou, aeey acaeu ii ai?iaeo ia ae?aeaauo ae?iaeeao,
eeiaeeao ia Iaeiaeneia ica?i e ia oa/a/ieeia ia 1881 aiae»[4]; A?oea
Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau. Aeaei «Ia onoaiiaeaiee ia i?iaeaaeo a
ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey aeeciaiiuo i?eiania. Oaenu ia 1874 aiae»[5]; A?oea
Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau. Aeaei «I auaea/a ?aciui eeoeai
oaeinoiaa?aiey ia i?aai ioe?uoey a ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey a 1874 aiaeo
ieoaeiuo caaaaeaiee, iia?aaia e nie?oiaiaei/iiai caaiaea»[6]; Aeaei
Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau «I eoioeao iauyaeaoeo e ia iauyaeaoeo
eaieoaeu ia1874 aiae»[8]; Aeaei Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau «I
ni?aai/iuo oeaiao ia ?aciua no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, iiae?iioth ?aaioo
ianoa?iauo e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou(1887)»[9]; ?inienue ai?iaea
Aaiaoi?ee ia 18873 aiae[10].

A ?aaioa oaeaea auee eniieueciaaiu oaeea enoi/ieee eae: ?inney. Iieiia
aaia?aoe/aneia iienaiea iaoaai ioa/anoaa. Ianoieueiay e aei?iaeiay
eieaa./Iiae ?aae. A. I. Nai?iiaa – Oyi – Oaineiai. O.14. Iiai?inney e
E?ui[1] e Nai?iee noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaiee ii Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee. O.
9. Iaiyoiay eieaeea Oaa?e/neie aoaa?iee./Iiae ?aae. E. A. Aa?ia?a.
Ecaeaiea Oaa?e/aneie Aoaa?ineie Caineie Oi?aau[2], a oae aea iaoa?eaeu
ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee Aaiaoi?eeneay o?eaoia e Aaiaoi?eeneay
cae?aaieoea ca 1990 – 2003 aiae.

No?oeoo?ii ?aaioa ninoieo ec o??o aeaa, eioi?ua e niioaaonoaotho
iinoaaeaiiui caaea/ai.

A naiae ?aaioa aaoi? io?acee oa?aeoa? /eneaiiinoe, iaoeeiiaeueiiai e
?aeeaeiciiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?ee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea,
aeae i?aaenoaaeaiea i nioeeaeueiii ninoaaa ai?iaeneiai e oacaeiiai
ianaeaiey. Aeey oiai, /oiau oaia auea iieiinoueth ?ane?uoa, a
enneaaeiaaiea caeii/aiiui, auee ?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey Aaiaoi?ee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea, aaea aaoi? inoaiiaeeny
ia oaeeo aniaeoao, eae oi?aiaey e i?iiuneiaay aeayoaeueiinoue aeeoaeae
Aaiaoi?ee aeaiiiai ia?eiaea.

Enoi?eia?aoey

A OeAA A?E iiaeii iaeoe aeieoiaiou, i?aaeinoaaeythuea naaaeaiey ca
aeaiiue ia?eiae.

A oiaea ?aaiou auee eniieueciaaiu oaeea aeieoiaiou, eae Aeaei
Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau «I i?aaeinoaaeaiee Noaoenoe/aneiio
Eiieoaoo naaaeaiee ca 1873 aiae»[3] e Aeaei Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie
Oi?aau «I aeinoaaeaiee Noaoenoe/aneiio Eiieoaoo naaaeaiee ca 1874
aiae»[7]. A yoeo aeieoiaioao iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue naaaeaiey ii
/eneaiiiio, iaoeeiiaeueiiio e nineiaiiio ninoiyieth ianaeaiey ai?iaea;
niaea?aeaony oaaeeoeu /eneaiiinoe ?aianeaiieeia ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee,
aaaeiiinoe i /enea oaa?ee e caaiaeia.

Ec oaeeo aeieoiaioia eae Aeaei Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau «Ia
onoaiiaeaiee ia i?iaeaaeo a ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey aeeciaiiuo i?eiania. Oaenu
ia 1874 aiae»[5] e Aeaei «Ia onoaiiaeaiee oaen ia aeeciaiiua i?iaeoeou,
aeey acaeu ii ai?iaeo ia ae?aeaauo ae?iaeeao, eeiaeeao ia Iaeiaeneia
ica?i e ia oa/a/ieeia ia 1881 aiae»[4] aaoi?ii auee ii/a?iioou naaaeaiey
i oeaiao ia ieuaaua i?iaeoeou, i oaenao ecaic/eeia ii ianyoeai.
Niioaaonoaothuea naaaeaiey iiaeii ociaoue ec Aeaea «I ni?aai/iuo oeaiao
ia ?aciua no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, iiae?iioth ?aaioo ianoa?iauo e
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou(1887)»[9].

Ec «?iniene a. Aaiaoi?ee»[10] auee acyou naaaeaiey i aeioiaeao e
?anoiaeao ai?iaea aeey aieaa aeoaieiai eco/aiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
Aaiaoi?ee.

Iaeaieaa iieiua naaaeaiey ii aeaiiie oaia auee ii/a?iioou aaoi?ii a
«Nai?ieea noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaiee ii Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee. O. 9.
Iaiyoiay eieaeea Oaa?e/neie aoaa?iee./Iiae ?aae. E. A. Aa?ia?a[2]. A
yoie eieaa aaoi? i?aaeeaaaao noaoenoe/aneea naaaeaiey, aeiauoua a 1884 –
1887 aiaeo ioo?i iiaeai?iie ia?aiene, iaoa?eaeu, ecaea/?iiua ec
ioeoeeaeueiuo noaoenoe/aneeo ecaeaiee e iaeioi?uo ni/eiaiee,
iaeiaeinooiiuo aeey oe?ieiai e?oaa /eoaoaeae.

A yoie ?aaioa a ioaeaeueiua aeaau auaeaeaiu oaeea aniaeou ninoiyiey
iauanoaaiiie aeecie Aaiaoi?ee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea, eae:
noaoenoeea ianaeaiey; noaoenoeea naeueneiai oicyenoaa; i?iiuoeaiiinoue e
oi?aiaey e iauanoaaiiia oicyenoai. A eieaa niaea?aeeony aieueoia
eiee/anoai oaaeeoe, noai e a?aoeeia.

Iaaeinoaoeii eieae yaeyaony oi, /oi naaaeaiey i Aaiaoi?ee aeathony ia
iauai oiia Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee, a ia auaeaeaiu ioaeaeueii.

Neaaeothuei enoi/ieeii a aeaiiie ?aaioa iineoaeeei «?inney. Iieiia
aaia?aoe/aneia iienaiea iaoaai ioa/anoaa” iiae ?aae. A. I.Nai?iiaa –
Oyi-Oaineiai[1]. A yoie eieaa niaea?aeaony noaouee ?acee/iuo noaoenoia,
enoi?eeia, e?aaaaaeia. Eie iaienaiu oaeea aeaau eae 1. ?ani?aaeaeaiea
ianaeaiey, yoieeia?aoe/aneee ninoaa, auo e eoeueoo?a; 2.I?iiuneu e
caiyoey ianaeaiey, a a o?aoueai ioaeaea aiai?eony i caia/aoaeueiuo
ianae?iiuo ianoao e ianoiinoyo, a eioi?ie e iienuaaaony oacaeiue e
ii?oiaue ai?iae Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee Aaiaoi?ey.

A ?aaioa ii enneaaeiaaieth aeecie Aaiaoi?ee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea
auee eniieueciaaiu iaoa?eaeu ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee «Aaiaoi?eeneay
O?eaoia» e «Aaiaoi?eeneay cae?aaieoea».

Oaeei ia?acii, iao/iay iiaecia aeaiiie ?aaiou ninoieo a nenoaiaoecaoeee
naaaeaiee e noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo ii Aaiaoi?ee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX
aaea aeey i?eiaiaiey a iao/iie i?aeoeea e eniieueciaaiey oe?ieei e?oaii
/eoaoaeae.

1.Oa?aeoa?enoeea ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?ee aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX aaea

1.1. *eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey

*oiau eo/oa iiiyoue oa?aeoa? ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?eeneiai oacaea, ioaeii
eiaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i iieeoeea canaeaiey Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee aiiaua,
i?iaiaeeiie ?onneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

Eoae, ii Eo/oe – Eaeia?aeaeeeneiio ie?o (1774a) ?inney i?eia?aea
e?aiinoue Ea?/ue, Aieeaea e Eeiao?i, eioi?ua oiaaea aea noaee canaeyony
?onneeie aeeoaeyie. Aneaaenoaea a 1775 aiaeo a ie?anoiinoyo Ea?/e auee
iinaeaiu Aeaaineea a?aee, iiiiaaaoea, a aeaea iiie/aiey, ?onneei aieneai
i?ioea oo?ie ai a?aiy aieiu 1768 – 1774a.

A 1778a iieeoe/aneea aeaeu ?innee canoaaeee ?oiyioeaaa caaioeony i
auaiaea o?enoeai ec E?uia. Auiieiaiea yoie ia?u auei ii?o/aii Noai?iao,
eioi?ue a neaaeothuai 1779aiaeo ia 6000 iiaeaiae ioi?aaee ec E?uia aieaa
30 oun. aeoo iaiaai iiea, iinaeaiiuo aeec Ia?eoiiey e Iaoe/aaaie. Ii
neiaai Neaeueeianeiai, aneaaenoaea yoiai ia?anaeaiey a oainoaa
niaa?oaiii iionoaei 52 naeaiey e ec ieo 36 a iaeiii oieueei
Aao/ena?aeneii Eaeiaeainoaa. Aneaaenoaea i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee
ia/eiaaony yiea?aoeey oaoa?; nia/aea yoi aeaeaeinue oaeii e a iaaieueoeo
?acia?ao, a caoai, eiaaea Iio?ieei cayaee, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai ia eiaao
ie/aai i?ioea auoiaea oaoa?, iie ioe?uoi e aieueoeie ia?oeyie noaee
auoiaeeoue a ?oiaeeth e Aiaoieeth. Ia?anaeaiea i?iaeieaeaeinue,
ii-aeaeeiiio, iiiai eao e auei i?einoaiiaeaii oieueei 1804a. i?e
aa?oeiaa aea-?eoaeuea.

Iaeean iieaaaao, /oi iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee a Oo?oeeth
aunaeeeinue ia iaiaa 80oun. ioae/ei e aeaiuei, a Noia?ieia ii?aaeaeyao
/enei auoiaeoeaa aeaaea a 300oun; ai anyeii neo/aa, i/aaeaeii, /oi
ia?anaeaiea i?eiyei ia?iiiua ?acia?u e i?aaeoaeuenoao i?eoeinue oiaaea
aea i?eiyoue ia?u e canaeaieth iionoaaoaai e?ay. N yoie oeaeueth
Iio?ieei iinaeee ionoaaiuo nieaeao ec ?onneeo ia?anaeaioeaa, yaeaoeony a
E?ui ii auciao i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a Neioa?iiieueneeo e Oaiaeineeneeo
oacaeao. A 1788a. Iio?ieei i?eeacae aica?aoeoueny ec Ia?eoiiey 20
naiaenoaai a?aeia, auaaaeaiiuo ec Aooee e iinaeeee eo aiiaue ia i?aaeiai
ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa aeey eiaee ono?eoe.

Nenoaiaoe/aneia canaeaiea E?uia ia/aeinue n XIXa.

A 1806a. a Aaiaoi?eth i?eauei ec Aiaoieee ianeieueei aieaa?neeo naiae,
eioi?ua auee iinaeaiu a n. Aaeoa-*ie?ae aianoa n a?aeaie, aiaeai?aiiuie
oai ?aiaa.

*oiau iaeaa/eoue canaeaiea iieoino?iaa e niiauaiea n iei, a 1805a. ia
eac?iiue n/?o auei au?uoi a Ia?aeiineii oacaea 29 eieiaeoeaa. Canaeaiea
iieoino?iaa ainoaea?noaaiiuie e?anoueyiaie i?ienoiaeeei a
iacia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oaea iioiio, /oi ca eaciie inoaeenue caiaeueiua
o/anoee, iaoaeiaiua iiae iinaeaiea; oai ia iaiaa, oaeei ioo?i
ia?aciaaeinue ii ianeieueei nae, a oii /enea e a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea. A
iai a 1954 aiaeo ainoaea?noaaiiua e?anoueyia auee iinaeaiu a aea?aaia
Aeiioceaa ia ianoa eieiienoia – aa?aaa, eioi?ua ana ?aca?aeenue ii
ai?iaeai e ianoa/eai. Eiaaea eiaiii auee iinaeaiu yoe aa?ae iai ia
ecaanoii.

A oaeeo aea iacia/eoaeueiuo ?acia?ao i?ienoiaeee e ia?aaiae e e?aiinoiuo
e?anoueyi ia eoieaiiua e iiaeaeiaaiiua caiee. Eae oa, oae e ae?oaea
caiee, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa auee ianaeaiu aaccaiaeueiuie e oaoa?aie,
aeeaoueie ia ieo a ea/anoaa aeanyoeiueeia, a iioiio ia auei i?e/eiu
ia?anaeyoue nthaea e?anoueyi ec ae?oaeo aoaa?iee; yoi aeaeaeinue oieueei
aeey canaeaiey niaa?oaiii ionoothueo caiaeue, iaeii ec ia?auo ia?aciaaii
naei Aeaeaieie-Aaiaeo?oea a 1804 aiaeo e?anoueyiaie ec *a?ieaianeie
aoaa?iee.

N 1856 ii 1862 a. ec E?uia auoei a?iiaaeiia /enei oaoa?. *oi aucaaei yoo
yiea?aoeeth o?oaeii neacaoue, ii anoue iieiia iniiaaiea iieaaaoue, /oi
ooo, aeaaiui ia?acii, eiaao ianoi i?e/eia yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.
Iaeii a?aiy aeoiaee, /oi yoi neaaenoaea iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoaa oo?aoeeeo
aaaioia; ii aiineaaenoaee auynieeinue, /oi yaeaiea iiaeiaiiai ?iaea
eiaei aanueia iaeia cia/aiea e i?e/eio yiea?aoeee ioaeii eneaoue
aeoaaea.

Iieiaeaiea oaoa? ai a?aiy aieiu e anei?a iinea ia? auei aeaeaei ia
caaeaeii. Ai a?aiy aieiu aaeieieno?aoeey eiaea iieiia iniiaaiea ia
aeiaa?youe oaoa?ai e ci?ei neaaeeoue ca ieie; iinea aieiu ?anno?iaiiia
oaoa?neia oicyenoai n o?oaeii iiaei auiineoue iiaeaoioth oyao
au?aceaoothnyny a aeaiaaeiuo nai?ao, a ia a iaoo?aeueiuo e ee/iuo
iiaeiiinoyo, eae yoi auei i?aaeaea. Aeanyoeiueeai, i?iaeeaathuei ia
aeaaeaeue/aneeo caieyo, i?eoiaeeeinue ia eo/oa. Iiae aeeyieai neooia i
iaaeaeaiee e?anoueyi caie?e, iaeie caieaaeaaeaeueoeu iio?aaiaaee io
naieo aeanyoeiueeia, /oiau iie ia?anaeeeenue ec eo eiaiee, ae?oaea
i?iaeaee naie caiee e a ?acoeueoaoa aeanyoeiueee oiaea oa?yee, oae eae
iiaua aeaaeaeueoeu eee a?aiaeaoi?u iiauoaee ?aioo ia caieth. I?e
caiooaiiinoe iicaiaeueiuo ioiioaiee i?iaeaaaeenue /anoi e oaeea caiee,
ia eioi?ua oaoa?u cayaeyee naie i?aaa. An? yoi ii?iaeaeaei iiiai
iaaeiaieuenoaa e aeinoaoi/ii auoue eaeie-eeai iaeeie i?e/eia, /oia
canoaaeoue oaoa? iineaaeiaaoue i?eia?o naieo aaeeiiaa?oeaa, ooaaeoeo
caa?aieoeo aneaae ca oo?aoeeeie aieneaie.

A 1856 aiaeo auei i?aaeienaii aoaa?ineiio ia/aeuenoao ia i?aiyonoaiaaoue
ie oaeiiio, ie yaiiio ia?anaeaieth oaoa? a Oo?oeeth. Aneaae ca oai a
ia?iaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony neoo, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai iaia?aii i/enoeoue
E?ui io aaniieaciiai e aeaaea a?aaeiiai oaoa?neiai ianaeaiey e
ia?anaeeoue aai a Naia?neoth, I?aiao?aneoth e ae?oaea aoaa?iee.

Auoue iiaeao neoo yoio aue ioaieineii ia?u, i?eiyoie ieiei yoiai aea
a?aiaie ioiineoaeueii eaaeacneeo ai?oeaa, auoue iiaeao, ii yaeyaony
ieiaeii aeinoaeae oaioacee, ii, oai ia iaiaa, ii /?acau/aeii ano?aaiaeee
oaoa?, oai aieaa /oi iaeioi?ua oaeou, e ian/anoueth, aai eae au
iiaeoaa?aeaeaee. Oae, a 1858-1859a. aaccaiaeueiui oaoa?ai Oaiaeineeneiai
oacaea auaoae Aeeeoeie aieinoe Ieienoa?noai ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa
ioeacaei a eo oiaeaoaenoaa i iaaeaeaiee caie?e e i?aaeeiaeeei
ia?anaeeoueny ia eac?iiua caiee a I?aiao?aneoth aoaa?ieth. Iiaeiaiua
neooe o?aaiaeeee ianaeaiea; noaee aiai?eoue i aeaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
enei?aieoue eneai e a yoii eiaiii iai?aaeaiee ia?aoieeiauaaee
ia?ii?eyoey i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aaaaeaieth ?onneiai ycuea e oeie n?aaee
oaoa? e iiaaeoeaa (1858-1859a.). Iiae aeeyieai anao yoeo neooia e
oaeoia, ianaeaiea noaei yiea?e?iaaoue. Ia?auie ia?anaeeeenue Aeeeooeu,
ca ieie iineaaeiaaee iiaaeoeu e oaoa?u Oaiaeineeneiai oacaea, aeaeaa
aeaeaeaiea ia?aoei ia THaeiue Aa?aa e Ia?aeiineee oacae. A iineaaeiai
n/eoaeinue 320 oaoa?neeo naeaiee, – ia i?ioei e aiaea eae 300 ec ieo
ia?anoaee canaaaoue naie iiey. O?aaiaeiua neooe oiiiaeaeenue. Noaee
iiaiaa?eaaoue i oii, /oi ianoaei a?aiy aeaeaea?noaa, oi anoue
ia?anaeaiea i?aaiaa?iuo, /oi noeoai aicaeaeaaao iiaua ai?iaea e
i?eaeaoaao ooaea iieeiiieeia i?i?iea e oae aeaeaa. Aoaa?ineia
ia/aeuenoai nia/aea iieaaaei, /oi yoi ia?anaeaiea niioaaonoaoao aeaeai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aeaaea neaaeoy aoeaaeueiiio niuneo i?eeacaiey nauoa,
i?eaeaei yoiio aeaeo oa?aeoa? iauae ia?u e cao?aaiaaei ii oacaeai nienee
aeaeathueo ia?anaeeony a Oo?oeeth. Auee aeaaea ianoiinoe, aaea neeoeii
ona?aeiua eniieieoaee, ia iiieiay iianiinoe oaeiai ?iaea aeaenoaee,
niae?aee ia?iae e /eoaee aio ia ieiuaaeyo i aeicaieaiee inoaaeoue E?ui e
ioi?aaeony a Oo?oeeth. Ae?oaea aea, eae yoi auei a Aaiaoi?ee,
nii?iaiaeaeaee yoi /oaiea aa?aaaiiui aiai.

A ia?oa 1860a. eiaaea aeaeaeaiea naeaeaeinue iianaianoiui e iiyaeeinue
iianaiea, /oi e?ae iionoaao, iineaaeiaae oeac, a neeo eioi?iai
aeicaieyeinue auioneaoue ec eaaeaeiai no?ieoaeueiiai iauanoaa ia aieaa
1/10 /anoe ianaeaiey. Ii auei oaea iicaeii. Ia?a yoa oieueei
ano?aaiaeeea ianaeaiey; eaaeaeue aiyeny iiicaeaoue e aaanoai naeaeae
anaiauei. Oieiu a 1000 naiaenoa ?acii yaeeenue e ia/aeuenoao i?ineoue i
auaea/a ianii?oia. Auee aeie, a eioi?ua Oaa?e/aneee aoaa?iaoi? ii ii/oa
iieo/ae ii 170 i?ioaiee i ianii?oao. Ec Aaiaoi?ee e ae?oaeo e?uineeo
ii?oia oaoa?u i?inoi aaaeaee ia oo?aoeeea «oaeoee», iiyaeaoeany o
e?uineeo aa?aaia iiae i?aaeeiaii ioiou ca aeaeueoeiaie.

Ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui, oaoa?ai Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee a 1860-1862a.
auei auaeaii 29098 caa?aie/iuo ianii?oia e oaeinoiaa?aiee ia 192360 aeoo
iaiaai iiea, ioia?aii e aica?auaii a Eac?iioth Iaeaoo 1542 ianii?oa ia
11183 aeooe, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?anaeeeinue a Oo?oeeth 181177 ioae/ei e
aeaiuei. Ii yoa oeeo?a ia aea?o iai au? iauaai eoiaa aunaeeaoeony oaoa?,
oae eae ia?yaeo n yaiie yiea?aoeeae oea e oaeiay, iniaaiii oneeeaoayny
iinea oiai, eae auaea/a caa?aie/iuo ianii?oia auea cao?oaeiaia;
iaeiiaoe, iiiaeanoai oaoa? ooei au? ?aiaa aneaae ca oo?aoeeeie aieneaie
a 1856a.

*oiau nei?aa canaeeoue iionoaaoee e?ae, i?aaeoaeuenoai iacia/eei iiae
iinaeaiey ana caiee, inaiaiaeeaoeany iinea auoiaea oaoa?, e cia/eoaeueii
aeaei eac?iii ia?i/iuo o/anoeia. Caiee yoe uaae?i ?acaeaaaeenue
aaccaiaeueiui, i?iaeeaaaoei a E?uio e ia?anaeaioeai ec aioo?aiieo
aoaa?iee. A yoi a?aiy ia?aciaaeinue iaeaieueoaa /enei ?onneeo naeaiee a
Oaiaeineeneii, Neioa?iiieueneii e /anoe/ii Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaeao.
Aacaiaeiue Ia?aeiineee oacae e Ea?/aineee iieoino?ia canaeyeenue i/aiue
iaaeeaiii, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iniaay aeae?ioaoie/aneay yeniaaeeoeey
i?eieiaea ia?u ii ono?ienoao cai?oae, aooia e aiiaua ii iaaiaeiaieth
e?ay.

Oiaaea aea ?aoaii auei iinaeeoue a noaiiuo e?ayo oacaeao ynoiioeaa,
/aoia e iaioeaa, eae ethaeae o?oaeiethaeauo e niiniaiuo iiaeiyoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth eoeueoo?o a yoii e?aa. Ynoiioeu iiyaeeenue a
E?uio anei?a iinea e?uineie aieiu, e ia?aia a?aiy i?iaeeaaee a ea/anoaa
a?aiaeaoi?ia e aeanyoeiueeia a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea. A 1862 aiaeo ei
ia?acaee caieth a Ia?aeiineii e Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaeao, ii ia?aue iiuo eo
iinaeaiey ieacaeny ia aiieia oaea/iui: ec Ia?aeiineiai oacaea ynoiioeu
ooee ia Eaaeac, a Aaiaoi?eeneea – a?ineee naie iaaeaeu e i?eoee a
Ia?aeiineee, aaea ei ia?acaee caieth i?e naea Eii/e-Oaaa.

*aoe i?eauee a ?inneth a 1961-1962aa., ii iinea oeaeiai ?yaea iaoaea/
/anoue aica?aoeeanue eo ia?aoii, a 803 aeooe iaieo iiea a 1964a. auee
aiaeai?aiu ia eac?iiuo caieyo Ia?aeiineiai oacaea.

Aaccaiaeueiui iaioeai iaiiieoai a Ia?aeiineii oacaea caiee naeaaaeenue n
ia?i/iui iieueciaaieai ia 10 eao, n i?aaii iinoaiaiiiai aueoia a?. A
1874-1875a iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey iiaiai onoaaa i aiaiiie iiaeiiinoe, iie
?ani?iaeaee naie caiee ethoa?aiai e eaoiee/aneei iaioeai, a naie
ia?anaeeeenue a Aia?eeo.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eieiiecaoeeae, oei oae aea canaeaiea
iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue aeanyoeiueeaie e eoieaiiuo o/anoeia e?anoueyiaie e
eieiienoaie iaoa?eeiauo oacaeia iaoae aoaa?iee. Ieceea i?iaeaaeiua oeaiu
ia caieth i?eaeaeee a E?ui aiaaouo e?anoueyi e eieiienoia iaoa?eeiauo
oacaeia, iie iieoiaee caeanue oiaa?euanoaaie o/anoee caiee e naeeeenue
ia iae ioaeaeueiuie iinaeeaie. *anoi, aeaaea ia caiea, eoieaiiie a
ee/ioth nianoaaiiinoue, iiyaeyeny iinaeie, ninoiyuee ec ?iaee/ae
eieiienoa caieaaeaaeaeueoea. Iiaeiaiuo iinaeeia iniaaiii iiiai a
Ia?aeiineii e Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaeao.[2, ioae.2, n.12 – 17]

*oiau ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee a
eioa?anothuee ian ia?eiae, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue niioiioaiea
ioaeneiai e aeaineiai ianaeaiey, aai aeeiaieeo. Aeey yoiai aaoi?
niae?aao e aiaeece?oao ana eiathueany naaaeaiey i /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey
ai?iaea.

Aiai?y i /enea aeeoaeae Aaiaoi?ee, iu ainiieuecoainy oeeo?aie ca
iaeaieaa aeaeaeia a?aiy, ecaanoiuie iai, eiaiii ca 1845 aiae, a eioi?ii
auei:

Ioaeneiai iiea – 5611 aeoo.

AEaineiai iiea – 4968 aeoo.

Eoiai: 10579 aeoo.

?IAeEEINUe:

Ioaeneiai iiea – 174 aeoo.

AEaineiai iiea – 166 aeoo.

Eoiai: 340 aeoo.

OIA?EI:

Ioaeneiai iiea – 248 aeoo.

AEaineiai iiea – 189 aeoo.

Eoiai: 437 aeoo.

Oeeo?u yoe iieacuaatho, /oi aieueoay nia?oiinoue ia noi?iia ioaeneiai
iiea, e i?eoii aieueoa oie?aao aeaoae ioaeneiai iiea o oaoa?, eioi?ua
oii?ii ioeacuaaeenue io iaaeeoeeineeo iiniaee, eae e io i?eaeaaiey
ei?iaueae iniu, ianiio?y ia ana oneeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Nia?aiaiieee
caia/aee: «I?ioiaey ii aaca?iui oeeoeai ai?iaeia, ianaeaiiuo oaoa?aie,
iu eiiaaea niae?iaaainy i?e acaeyaea ia oaeanioth o?iaeeeainoue,
eaea/anoai e ae?oaea ia/aeueiua c?aeeua, ec eioi?uo aieueoay /anoue
anoue neaaenoaea iaaaaeanoaa, oii?ii neaaeothuaai noa?eia, aii?aee
iieueca iaaeeoeeineeo iiniaee.»[16, n.4]

A 1867 a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea aeeoaeae anaai 17210 aeoo iaiaai iiea.
Oacae iionoae a aiaiiia a?aiy, eiaaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue oaoa?, iinea
caiyoey nithciuie aieneaie Aaiaoi?ee, oaeaeeeanue a yoio ai?iae, ioeoaea
ia noaeao, /anoueth a 1855, a /anoueth a 1856 aiaeo, ioi?aaeaiu a
Oo?oeeth. Inoaaoeany a oacaea e a ai?iaea, ca eneeth/aieai iaiiiaeo, ia
caoioaee iineaaeiaaoue i?eia?o naieo aaeeiiaa?oeaa, ia?anaeeaoeony a
Oo?oeeth n 1860 ii 1863 aiae. Aiaineoaeaaiuo caeaiee a oacaea:
i?aaineaaiuo oea?eaae 2 e iaaiiaoaineeo ia/aoae 170; aeiiia eacaiiuo 28,
aea?aayiiuo 5, /anoiuo eaiaiiuo 2755; iaaaceiia eacaiiuo eaiaiiuo 6,
/anoiuo 116, eaaie /anoiuo 6.[14, n.3]

Aaiaoi?ey a 1875 aiaeo, ianiio?y ia aeaaaeaeu auaoaa aunaeaiea ec ia? n
ia/aea E?uineie aieiu oaoa?, noaey ii nieneai ianaeaiiuo iano ?innee,
eiaao ieiei 7 oun. ia?iaeiianaeaiey, ec eioi?uo aei 2700 aeoo iaiaai
iiea iaeieo oieueei ea?aeiia, iaueiiaaiii naeeaoeony a oaeeo iannao a
oi?aiauo ai?iaeao.[31, n.4]

A 1875 aiaeo Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae aeeth/aao a naay ieiei 500oun. aeanyoei
caiee e ia aieaa 18oun. ia?iaeiianaeaiey, ec eioi?uo aei 10oun. oaoa?, a
inoaeueiua o?enoeaia i?aaineaaiiai eniiaaaeaiey, iaioeu e aei 150 ynoia.
Aei ia?aie yiea?aoeee oaoa? ec E?uia, iineaaeiaaaoae anei?a iinea
i?eniaaeeiaiey aai e ?innee, oacae yoio n/eoaeny iaeiei ec naiuo
ianaeaiiaeoeo, a aei caiyoey oo?eaie Aaiaoi?ee a 1854a. e iineaaeiaaaoae
/a?ac 5 eao iinea iauae yiea?aoeee ec Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee ionoeueiai, a
ionthaea a /enea 196 aea?aaaiue, a i?i iaeoaei aieaa 40oun. oaoa?,
caieiaaoeony eneeth/eoaeueii oeaaiiaoanoaii, neioiaiaenoaii e
aaooaiaie.[32, n.3]

A 1888 aiaeo aeeoaeae a oacaea, eneeth/ay ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee, n/eoaaony
ieiei 30000 aeoo iaiaai iiea. Ianaeaiea e?ay ec aiaea a aiae caiaoii
aic?anoaao, oae, a 1867 aiaeo a oacaea auei 9654 ioae/ei e 7611 aeaiuei,
anao – 17265, a a 1887 aiaeo /enei aeinoeaei 30000 aeoo iaiaai iiea.[13,
n. 4]

Iu ciaai Aaiaoi?eth eae eo?i?oiue ai?iae. Iaeaieaa aeoeaiay aeeciue a
Aaiaoi?ee ia/eiaaony eaoii, n i?eacaeii ioaeuoathueo. *eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey ai iiiai ?ac aic?anoaao, eae?o ao?iay oi?aiaay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Oaeie auea Aaiaoi?ey e ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea.

Aaiaoi?ey eaoii, a ethia, ethea, iinauaaony i?eacaeeie ec naiuo
?acee/iuo ianoiinoae ?innee. I?eacaeatho ethaee anyeiai caaiey e
ninoiyiey, iiea e aic?anoa; iaeie n oai, /oiau inaaaeeoue naie
iaaeeiieaiiua oyaeaeui aeanyoeiany/iui o?oaeii neeu; ae?oaea – /oiau
enoeaeeoue naie canoa?aeua iaaeoae a Aaiaoi?eeneeo ii?neeo eoiaeueiyo,
ia Naeneii eee Iieiaeneii eeiaii-a?ycaea/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo; o?aouee,
eioi?uo ai?i/ai, aanueia iaiiiai i?inoi aeey i?ai?iaiaeaeaiey a?aiaie e
?aciiia?acey.

*enei aeeoaeae a yoi a?aiy neeueii oaaee/eaaaony, aeaeaeaiea
oneeeaaaony, iano?ioa aic?anoaao, iaeeea oi?aiaoeu i?eiaiae?ythony;
iaeiei neiaii, ai anai noaiiaeony caiaoii aieueoa aeecie, yia?aee.
Aaiaoi?eeneea aeeoaee, iniaaiii oi?aiaoeu o?oeoiauo e iaiuiuo eaai/ae,
aacioeai/ii ioee/aee i?eacaeeo io iinoiyiiiai aeeoaey; a iiyoiio anyeea
ec ieo, iieuecoynue iaciaieai i?eacaeeie aaiaoi?eeneeo ?uii/iuo oeai ia
nuanoiua i?eianu, ca/anooth a?aee iieooi?ioth e aeaaea aeaieioth oeaio
ca eaeie-ieaoaeue iaiuiie i?iaeoeo, yaiaeu eee ieiaeu, eioi?uo a yoi
a?aiy auaaao, iaueiiaaiii aanueia iiiai.

A eaoiee eoiaeueiue nacii oeaia ia eaa?oe?u, iniaaiii oa, eioi?ua
iaoiaeyony ia aa?aao ii?y eee iaaeaeaei io iaai, neeueii aic?anoaao.
Ai?i/ai, aeaa naciia (1885-1886) aneaaenoaea iaeioi?uo ianoiyoaeuenoa –
neooia i iaaeaeaeii ninaaenoaa n Aaiaoi?eae no?aoiie aceaoneie oiea?ie e
ioeai/iiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiaeiiai ecaanoey i neeueiii aeeooa?eoa,
aoaeoi nae?ainoaothuai a Aaiaoi?ee, – i?eacaeeo auei, n?aaieoaeueii n
i?aaeuaeoueie aiaeaie, iaiiiai.

I?eacaeea i?eauaatho a Aaiaoi?eth n o?ao noi?ii; ec Neioa?iiiey,
Naaanoiiiey e Iaeannu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaaiue eiioeiaaio oo?enoia
aeinoaaeyao ii?a ia e?aneauo iannaaee?neeo ia?ioiaeao, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo
?onneiio iauanoao ia?ioiaenoaa e oi?aiaee. Aio, aeey i?eia?a, ia?a/aiue
eeoe i?eauaoeo n 15 iay ii 10 aaaonoa 1887 aiaea ia eaoiee nacii aeey
ii?neeo eoiaiee; ia/aeueiee Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee aeaenoaeoaeueiue
noaoneee niaaoiee, eaia?aa? A. I. Anaaieiaeneee n naiaenoaii, ec
Neioa?iiiey ?iiai/aiei O. A. /eiiaiee iniauo ii?o/aiee IAAe n
naiaenoaii, ec N-Iaoa?ao?aa Iiiiaa A. A. aeaiueia-a?a/, ec N. –
Iaoa?ao?aa Ei?ieueeia A.E. ionoaaiie aaia?ae-iaei?, ec Aa?oaau Aiaeia,
aaia?ae-eaeoaiaio, ec Iinea Eaaaaeeineee, aaia?ae-iaei?, ec Eeaaa
Coaa?ia I.I., ai?iue eiaeaia?, ec Ia?ie Ia?eiioei E.E.,
oo?aoeei-iiaeaeaiiue, ec Eiinoaioeiiiiey Oeaeeeia I.E., eaieoai, ec
Ieaeiaai Iiaai?iaea, Oai-Aaia E.A. iioii aeai?yiei ec Y/ieaaeceia Oi?
E., nooaeaio Eiia?aoi?neiai Iineianeiai Oieaa?neoaoa, ec Iineau Oaaoeia
AE, iauaiei, ec Ayoee. Iannaeeoeiia, ?ioieno?, ec Eeoeiaaa Iiiia AE,
nooaeaio eii. Oieaa?neoaoa, ec Oeoeena. Yaeeeueoaiiaa AI, aei/ue
eieeaaeneiai nae?aoa?y ec Ano?aoaie. Aiaioia AA, aaia?ae-iaei?,
Iaeanneee ie?oa, n naiaenoaii, ec Iaeannu. Ei?aoeeee Aeaenaiae?
A?eai?ueaae/, n naiaenoaii, ec Naieo – Iaoa?ao?aa.[16, n.4]

Ii ia?aiene, i?iecaaaeaiiie noaoenoe/aneei ath?i a 1884-1887 aiaeao,
/eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ieacuaaaony neaaeothuay:

Oaaeeoea 1.1.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey(1884 – 1887 a.)

OacaeIoae/eiuAEaiueiuIaiaai iieaAaiaoi?eeneee140381241226450Enoi/iee:
[2, n.12 – 22]

Yoa ia?aienue ia eanaeanue ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, a ia? ia aioee oa aea
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu, /eaiu i?e/o e eeoea, i?iaeeaathuea a naeaieyo ii
iaycaiiinoe neoaeau, a iioiio i?eaaaeaiiua oeeo?u ia aeatho iai ?ua
iiiyoey i /eneaiiinoe anaai ianaeaiey oacaea.

Ioeoeeaeueiua aeaiiua, oi anoue i?eeiaeaiey ei Anaiiaeaeaiiaeoei io/aoai
a. ia/aeueieea aoaa?iee e a.a. a?aaeiia/aeueieeia, aeatho iai
neaaeothuoth /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ca 1886 aiae:

Oaaeeoea 2.1.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey (1886 a.)

Oacaea ai?iaeaa
naeaieyoeoiaiioae/eiaeaiueiioae/eiaeaiueiioae/eiaeaiueiiaiaai
iieaAaiaoi?eeneee906478761537514060244392193646375

Enoi/iee:[2, n.12 – 22]

Neaaeothuay oaaeeoea iieacuaaao aonoioo iaeiiai naeueneiai ianaeaiey ii
aieinoyi, i?e/ai i?eaiaeeony /enei aeoo iaiaai iiea ia ia eaaae?aoioth
aa?noo, a ia 100 aeanyoei caiee, /oi ninoaaeyao iacia/eoaeueioth
?acieoeo.

Oaaeeoea 3. 1.

Aonoioa naeueneiai ianaeaiey ii aieinoyi

Aaiaoi?eeneee

oacaeAieinoeIa 100aean aeoo iaiaai
iieaNaeneay9,2Eo?iai-Aaeaeeineay5,7Aaocea?neay5,0Aethe-Anneay4,4*ioaenea
y4,1

Enoi/iee:[2, n. 12 – 22]

?aciauaiea ianaeaiey iiaeao auoue i?ineaaeaii ii aeaiiui «Noaoenoeee
iicaiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e ianaeaiiuo iano Aa?iiaeneie ?innee»,
nia?aiiuie a 1877-1878 aiaeao iooai ia?aiene caieaaeaaeaiee e iinaeaiee.
Oae eae ?aaioa yoa eiaea oeaeueth iiaeaioiaeoue iaoa?eaeu aeey eiathuae
auoue anaiauae ia?aiene, oi ia oi/ioth ?aaeno?aoeeth ianaeaiiuo iano
auei ia?auaii iniaia aieiaiea, a iioiio iu iiaeai ioianoenue e a?

iieacaieyi n iieiui aeiaa?eai.

Oaaeeoea 4. 1.

Noaoenoeea iicaiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e ianaeaiiuo iano

OacaeI nieioiua iinaeaiey (ai?iaea, naeaiey, e ae?.)

II iaeeii/iua n/oicyenoaaiiua iinaeee(eiaiey, aea/e,oooi?a,
iaeueieoeu)III iaeeii/iua oi?aiai- i?iiuoeaiiua iinaeee(caaiaeu, eaaee,
neeaaeu)IV iaeeii/iua iaoicyenoaaiiua iinaeee (iiianou?e, noaioeee,
iayee)V iauaa /enei iinaeaiee VI ia iaeiiai iinaeyieiai?eoiaeeony ea.
aa?no Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae120 39,815050,061,9258,230316,4

Enoi/iee: [2, n.22]

Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo naiinoiyoaeueiuo iinaeeia i/aiue iaei.

A ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey 16940 aeeoaeae iaiaai iiea (ia n/eoay aienea).[2,
ioae.2, n.12 – 22]

Naaaeaiey ec noaoenoe/aneie oaaeeoeu ii e?anoueyineiio oicyenoao
Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee – I Iioacaeiie e ii?aeiiiie oaaeeoeu.

Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae: /enei aieinoae – 5; /enei naeueneeo iauanoa – 29;
/enei naeaiee – 230; aeoo ioaeneiai iiea ii O ?aaecee e yiaa?th 1887a. –
7282. E?anoueyineia ianaeaiea ii ia?aiene: iauaa /enei aeiiioicyaa –
4589; ioae/ei (anao) – 14038; (io 18 aei 60 eao) – 6573; (ec ieo eaeae e
nieaeao ia neoaeaa) – 174; aeaiuei – 12412. *enei naiae: aac ?aaioieeia
– 200; n 1 ?aai/ei – 2958; n 2 ?aai/eie – 1020; n 3 ?aai/eie ia aieaa –
411.

*enei oicyenoa n ia?iiui ?aai/ei – 693.[2, Oaaeeoea 1,n.2-5]

Iioacaeiay e ii?aeiiiay oaaeeoea aic?anoiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey e
a?aiioiinoe. Oaaeeoea III.(1889)

Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae: /enei naiaenoa: 4589.

ioae. iiea. aeai. iiea.

– aei 7 eao – 3080 – aei 7 eao – 2254

– io 7 aei 13 eao – 2511 – io 7 aei 13 eao – 1715

-io 14 aei 17 eao – 1300 – io 14 aei 17 eao – 875

– io 18 aei 30 eao – 3153 – io 18 aei 30 eao – 2282

– io 31 aei 60 eao – 3420 – io 31 aei 60 eao – 2111

– io 61 e aieaa eao – 636 – io 61 e aieaa eao – 293

– anaai – 14038 – anaai – 9530 iaiaai iiea – 20 063.

[2, Oaaeeoea3,n.60-61]

Ninoaa ianaeaiey.

Ia 100 ioae/ei i?eoiaeeony 88,4 aeaiuei.

Iaeaieueoa i?aiaeaaeaiea ioae/ei iu iaoiaeei, noaey ii aeaiiui ca
i?aaeiea aiaeu, i?aiaeaaeaiea yoi nouanoaoao ecaeaaia e, ii-aeaeeiiio,
i?i/ii onoaiiaeeinue. I?aaeaea iieaaaee, /oi iaiaeeiaeiaia niioiioaiea
iieia anoue yaeaiea a?aiaiiia, iaycaiiia naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai i?e/eiai
ia?oo?aaoeeiiiui, aieiai, yeiiiie/aneei ia?aai?ioai e o. ae.,
i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi /eneaiiinoue iieia ni a?aiaiai i?eoiaeeei
iinoaiaiii a ?aaiiaanea. Iaeiaei aeeeiiay na?ey iaaethaeaiee iieacuaaao,
/oi niioiioaiea iieia i?aaenoaaeyao aanueia aieueooth onoie/eainoue, oi
anoue /oi ?ac onoaiiaeaoeany aeey aeaiiie ianoiinoe niioiioaiea
no?aieony iiaeaea?aeaony aii?aee aeeyieth oao eciaiaiee, eioi?ua eiatho
ianoi a auoo ianaeaiey, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a oa/aiea iuiaoiaai noieaoey. I
i?e/eia oiai eee eiiai iieiaiai ninoaaa iai ie/aai iaecaanoii e a yoii
ioiioaiee iicaieeoaeueii aeaeaoue oieueei i?eaeeceoaeueiua aeiaaaeee.

I?aaeiieaaatho, /oi i?e/eiu yoe ?aniaua, auoiaua e yeiiiie/aneea. I
?aniauo i?e/eiao iicaieytho noaeeoue neaaeothuea aeaiiua: a noaiiii
?aeiia, eoaea ioiineony e Aaiaoi?ey ia 100 ioae/ei i?eoiaeeeinue aeaiuei
n?aaee ianaeaiey: ?onneiai – 90,6; iaiaoeeiai – 98,6; aieaa?neiai – «-»
; oaoa?neiai – 85,0 .

Iaeaieueoaa ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo iieaie iu iaoiaeei o iaioeaa e o aieaa?,
e iaeaieaa iaaei/?o aeaiuei – o oaoa?. Ai?acaei o?oaeii iieacuaaoue, eae
aeeytho yeiiiie/aneea i?e/eiu. Aei iaeioi?ie noaiaie, auoue iiaeao,
aeeyiea yeiiiie/aneeo i?e/ei au?aaeaaony a oie caaeneiinoe, eioi?ay
caia/aaony iaaeaeo ?ac?yaeii iinaeyi e iieiaui ninoaaii.

Oae a noaiiii E?uineii ?aeiia ia 100 ioae/ei i?eoiaeeony aeaiuei : o
eieiienoia – «-»; o auaoeo iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi – 86,0; o auaoeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi – 91,8; o ?aciinineiaiuo eeoe eiathueo
nianoaaiioth caieth – 92,0; o aeanyoeiueeia – 86,7.

Ii ia ioaeii caauaaoue, /oi auaoea eieiienou e iiiaue/uee e?anoueyia
aeaaii oaea aiaeai?eeenue a aoaa?iee, iaaeaeo oai eae n?aaee auaoeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi e a iniaaiiinoe n?aaee aeanyoeiueeia iiiai
ia?anaeaioeaa, aeeaoueo a iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo aanueia iaaeaaii.
Ia ia?anaeaiea, eae yoi naii niaie iiiyoii, nei?aa ?aoathony naiua, ia
ia?aiaiaiiua ia i?iecaiaeeiuie /eaiaie, oi anoue oaeea naiuee, a eioi?uo
i?aiaeaaeatho ioae/eiu, a iioiio aiciiaeii, /oi ?acee/ea iieiaiai
ninoaaa ianaeaiey ii ?ac?yaeai iaoneaaeeaaaony oaeaea iaiaeeiaeiaui
i?eeeaii e iei iinaeaioeaa. [2, ioae.2, n.26-27]

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey: 1889 –

A Aaiaoi?ee – 16940

Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae – 29435 [2, ioae.2, n.48]

Oacae Aaiaoi?eeneee – ianaeaiea:

ioae. aeai. ia. iiea.

14038 12412 26450 [2, ioae.2, n.64]

Aeaoae oeieueiiai aic?anoa: O/aueony:

iaeue/. aeaai/. ia. iiea iaeue/. aeaai/. ia. iiea

2511 2331 4842 1007 655 1662

[2, ioae.2,n.67]

Ec io/aoa aeieoi?a I. E. Eieueneiai iai ecaanoii, /oi aaeaeo oii?ii
aea?aeaaoeony neooia a eiioea naioya?y 1893a., a Aaiaoi?ee iiyaeeanue
oiea?a, aoaa?ineay oi?aaa 2 ieoya?y ni?ineea ii oaeaa?aoo Aaiaoi?eeneoth
oacaeioth caineoth oi?aao, anoue ee oiea?a a Aaiaoi?ee, e anee anoue, oi
ii/aio iao ia yoii niiauaiee. Oi?aaa ioaaoee, /oi 1 ieoya?y a canaaeaiee
naieoa?ii – eniieieoaeueiie eiiennee caaieaaaiea a ai?iaea i?eciaii
a?a/aie ca aceaoneoth oiea?o e /oi a oacaea aeaaiiieo/ii. 4 Ieoya?y
Oaa?e/aneee a?a/aaiue einiaeoi? ii aica?auaiee ec Aaiaoi?ee ee/ii
niiauee aoaa?ineie oi?aaa, /oi oiea?iuo a ai?iaea ai a?aiy aai iinauaiey
auei 50 n eeoiei /aeiaae e /oi /oanoaoaony iio?aaiinoue a iinueea ooaea
oaeueaeoa?ia e nano?? ieeina?aeey.

8 ieoya?y aoaa?ineay oi?aaa iieo/eea 2 oaeaa?aiiu ec Aaiaoi?ee: iaeio –
io caineie oi?aau n ecaanoeai, /oi n 4 ii 7 ieoya?y caaieaei oiea?ie –
58, oia?ei – 31; ae?oaea – io ai?iaeneie oi?aau – a iae niiauaeinue, /oi
n 1 ii 27 naioya?y caaieaei – 8, oia?ei – 1; n 27 naioya?y ii 1 ieoya?y
caaieaei – 26, oia?ei – 9; n 1 ii 7 ieoya?y caaieaei – 103, oia?ei –
47.[21, n.4]

Oiaeyo neooe, /oi, oiea?a i?eaacaia a Aaiaoi?eth ec Aoeaaiaea
Neioa?iiieueneiai oacaea n aaooaia e /oi ia?aue aieueiie oia?, ii ii
ni?aaeai a oiea?iuo ea?oao, o?aiyueony a ath?i i?e oacaeiie naieoa?ii –
eniieieoaeueiie eiiennee, ieacaeinue, /oi ia?aue aieueiie,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue eae oiea?iue, aue ianoiue aeeoaeue Aaiaoi?ee e
caieiaeny a?ocneie niee aeec ae. Naee.

Oiea?a iiaa?aea aeeoaeae Aaiaoi?ee a oaeie oaean, /oi ethaee, eiathuea
iaoa?eaeueiue aeinoaoie, i?aeiouanoaaiii ea?aeiu oacaeaee ec ai?iaea
oeaeuie naiueyie, inoaaeyee naie aeiia ionouie. Ii oaaaaee ia iaeie
aiaa/e, a oae aea ?aianeaiieee e i?eneoaa, oae /oi oeaa, ca ionoonoaeai
iaea?ae, acaei?iaeae a oeaia e iiiaea neaeaee aac ?aai/ae neeu.

Ec 114 aeaaeoe a i?iaeiiaceth ia?anoaei oiaeeoue – 55, i?e/?i
iiia/eoaeth o/aaiiai ie?oaa auei iineaii i a?aiaiiii cae?uoee yoiai
o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey. A ioaeneie i?iaeiiacee ia iinauaee eeannia oieueei
15 o/aieeia.

Aieueiua i?aeiouanoaaiii oaoa?u. [25, n.4]

Au? iaeii ianoiyoaeuenoai, eioi?ia iiaeao iiaeaoue iiaiae e
i?aaeiieiaeaieyi, /oi oiea?a auea aucaaia iac?aeuie o?oeoaie. Aeaei a
oii, /oi a enoaeoaa eaoi a naaeao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a aeieeiao ?ae Aeiu,
Ea/e e Aaeueaae, aue iao?iaeae ia o?oeou, a oi, /oi niae?aee, auei
aieeia, iac?aeia, /a?aeaia. Aio yoa – oi ae?yiue, ii ?anneacai
neoiueeia, e iaoiaeeo naaa nauo ia Aaiaoi?eeneii ?uiea, aeaaiaea?y
neaainoe naieoa?iiai iaaeci?a. Yoi niiauaiea inoaeinue ia i?iaa?aiiui, a
iiyoiio e iaio neaaeoao ioiineoueny n aeieaeiie iniio?eoaeueiinoueth .
[26, n.4]

Ii iieeoeaeneei e ai?iaeneei naaaeaiey ca 1896a. a Aaiaoi?ee cia/eony
aeeeuo aeiiia 1910, a eioi?uo i?iaeeaaao ianaeaiea iaiaai iiea 17947
aeoo: i?aiaeaaeathuee yeaiaio – o?enoeaia – 6516 /aeiaae, iaaiiaoai –
5081, ea?aeiia – 2907 e aa?aaa – 1443.

A /enea ianaeaiey a. Aaiaoi?ee 26-th /anoue aai ninoaaeytho eiino?aioeu,
iiaeaeaiiua: Oo?oeee – 626 aeoo, A?aoeee – 50, Aano?i – Aaia?ee – 14,
Oaaeoea?ee – 12, O?aioeee – 10, ?oiuiee – 10, Aieaa?ee – 8 e Aa?iaiee –
5, a anao 735 aeoo.

Ca 1896a. auei: a?aeia – 245; ?iaeaeaiee: ioae. iiea – 442, aeai. iiea –
432, iaiaai iiea – 874; oia?ei: ioae. iiea – 318, aeai. iiea – 248,
iaiaai iiea – 566; i?eaueue + 308. [28, n.4]

Ieiuaaeue oacaea i?inoe?aaony aei 5.040ea. a??no (aac cia/eoaeueiuo
aioo?aiieo aiae). Iiiai nieaiuo naiinaaei/iuo ic??. *eneaiiinoue anaai
ianaeaiey ii?aaeaeaia ia?aienueth 1897a. a 63,2 oun. /aeiaae, a o. /.
34,1 oun. ioae. iiea e 29,1 oun. aeaineiai iiea, n?aaeiyy ieioiinoue
ianaeaiey – 12 /aeiaae ia 1 ea. aa?noo. Iaiiiaei iaiaa 1/3 anae iannu
ianaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo ai?iaeo Aaiaoi?ee. [1, n.686]

Auaiaeu ii aeaaa

Oa?aeoa? e /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?eeneiai oacaea e ai?iaea ai
iiiaii caaenaei io iieeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie ?onneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii. A
iineaaiaiiua aiaeu iaaethaeaaony oiaiueoaiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.
I?ioaaeoay yieaeaiey oiea?u cia/eoaeueiuo /aeiaa/aneeo iioa?ue ia
aucaaea.

1.2. Iaoeeiiaeueiue e ?aeeaeiciue aiaeec ianaeaiey

E?ui – iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue e?ae. A Aaiaoi?eth iiaeii iacaaoue
aiieiuaieai yoie iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiinoe, oae eae yoi ii?oiaue ai?iae e
caeanue anaaaea aeeee ethaee ?aciuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae e
aa?ieniiaaaeaiee. Aio eae ieoao a nai?i aeiaaieea TH?ee Ieeeoe/ Aa?oaiaa
i ninoaaa ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?ee a 1843a.: «Caeanue aei 3000 ea?aeiia. Yoi
ia?iae aiaaoue e aeaaiaeaeiue, ii iie aeeaoo ioaeaeueii e ia eiatho
niioaiey n o?enoeaiaie, iniaaiii eo ae?iu, eioi?ua aeaaea ii-?onnee
aiai?eoue ia oiatho. Iioii neaaeotho oaoa?u, yoeo, eae iia iiiieony, aei
7000, iioii a?oceiu, iieaeaaaia, oeuaaia, a?iyia, iineaaeiaa – 2 – o
eniiaaaeaiee a?eai?eaineiai e eaoiee/aneiai; iie ia oa?iyo ae?oa ae?oaa
aneaaenoaea ?aaiiaaiey ii aa?a. Oaoa?u, iniaaiii oeuaaia, i/aiue
aaaeiu.»[29, n.3]

Ii aa?ieniiaaaeaieyi /enei iinoiyiiuo aeeoaeae Aaiaoi?ee 1846 aiaea
anoue neaaeothuaa:

I?aaineaaiuo: ioae. iiea – 747 aeoo, aeai. – 639, anaai – 1386,
eaoieeeia – 94 aeooe iaiaai iiea; a?iyii – a?eai?eai – 116; aaaiaaeeea –
ethoa?ai – 9; iaaiiaoai: ioae. iiea – 4344 aeooe, anaai – 8629; aa?aaa –
oaeioaeenoia: ioae. iiea – 45 aeoo, aeai. iiea – 32, anaai – 77 aeoo;
ea?aeiia: ioae. iiea – 1136 aeoo, aeai. iiea –889, anaai – 2025 aeoo.

Eaaeaeia aa?ieniiaaaeaiea eiaao naie ianoa aiaineoaeaiey, a eiaiii:
i?aaineaaiuo oea?eaae – 3; ea?aeineeo neiaaia – 2; ia/aoae –18;
aa?aeneee iieeoaaiiue aeii – 1.[16, n.4]

Ii naaaeaieyi Noaoenoe/aneiai Eiieoaoa ca 1874 aiae ecaanoii, /oi
ea?aeiia auei – 1123, oaoa? – 1217, oeuaai – 513, ?onneeo – 1420, a?aeia
– 259, aa?aaa – 138, a?iyi – 60.[7, eeno 6]

Iueyieia a naiae eieaa oae aiai?eo i aeeoaeyo ?aciuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae a
Aaiaoi?ee 1888a.:

A?AEE. A?aee iiyaeeenue a E?uio a VII aaea aei ?. O. O/aiea Nianeoaey
au? a I aaea naiaai nouanoaiaaiey eiaei iineaaeiaaoaeae – a?aeia a
Oaa?eaea. Na. Aiae?ae Ia?aicaaiiue, aiae?oceaoee e?ano ia Eeaaneie ai?a,
i?io?e ec Neiiia (Aiaoieeeneee aa?aa) /a?ac Oa?niian e aac niiiaiey,
a?inee caeanue ia?aua naiaia o?enoeainoaa. A XIII aaea o?enoeainoai
ioaaoeei aieueooth /anoue E?uia (n thaa).

Aaiaoi?eeneea a?aee ia i?aaeeiaeaiey ?oiyioeaaa aueoe ec E?uia aiai?eee:
«Iu aai naaoeinoueth oaiii e io/eciith naiath aeiaieueiu: io i?aaeeia
naieo ieaoei aeaiue naiaio ainoaea?th e oioue naaeyie ian ?oaeoue
aoaeoo, oi iu an? – oaee ieeoaea ia oeae?i (1778a.)» Anao o?enoeai ai
a?aiy oaoa?neiai aeaaeu/anoaa, eae a?aeia, a?ocei, a?iyi – eaoieeeia,
auoei ec E?uia iaiaai iiea 31386 aeoo: a?aee e a?oceiu – a Ia?eoiieue, a
a?iyia – a Iaoe/aaaiue ia Aeiio, a ionthaea, eae oa, oae e ae?oaea,
ia?aoee io/anoe niiaa a Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae e caeanue caiyeenue
oi?aiaeae e noaeioiaenoaii. Iinaeeaoenue a Aaiaoi?ee, a?aee ia?aiyee io
oaoa? eo ycue e iiiaea iau/ae.

Iaeioi?ua ec a?aeia aei oiai n?iaeieeenue n oaoa?neeie i?aaaie e
iau/ayie, /oi eo aanueia o?oaeii auaaao o?oaeii ioee/eoue io oaoa?; iie
iinyo ieaouea iaeiiai iie?iy n oaoa?aie eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, i/aiue
iioiaeaa; aiai?yo ia oaoa?neii ycuea; neaeyo ii oaoa?neiio iau/ath,
iiaeaeaa iiae naay iiae; ethaeiua eo aethaea – oaoa?neea, ieoue?
oaoa?neia. Oaeea a?aee iacuaathony aeaiaaeaeaie eee aiaoieeeneeie
a?aeaie. Oieueei iaeia i?aaineaaiay ?aeeaey ioee/aao oaeiai a?aea io
oaoa?eia.

Ai?i/ai, aaiaoi?eeneea a?aee ia eiatho ie naiae oea?eae, ie naiaai
i?eo/a; aeooiaiua eo iio?aaiinoe oaeiaeaoai?ythony a yoii neo/aa
?onneith oea?eiaueth. Naieo niaoeeaeueiuo oeie a Aaiaoi?ee a?aee oaeaea
ia eiatho e, e oaeeaeaieth eo i?aaeeia, iaei iaia?oaeeaatho neeiiiinoe
aiiaua e i?inaauaieth.

A?IssIA. A?iyia ia?anaeeeenue a E?ui ec Aaeeeie A?iaiee a 1262a.,
?annaeeeenue ii ai?iaeai e caiyeenue oi?aiaeae; ioee/athony aieeei e
ecai?ioeeaui oiii e oeo?inoueth; a aeooa ai?aeu, ii a ia?auaiee, aaea
ioaeii, iyaee e ethaaciu; nayouo eeii a aeiiao ia eiatho, e?iia oea?eae;
aeiiaoiyy ianoaiiaea iioiaea ia oaoa?neoth. A?iyi a Aaiaoi?ee aeea?o
iaiiiai, anaai 159 /aeiaae, /oi ninoaaeyao 1 i?ioeaio iauaai /enea
ai?iaeneiai ia?iaeiianaeaiey.

AA?AE. Aa?ae ia?anaeeeenue nthaea ii i?eniaaeeiaiee E?uia e Eiia?ee, ec
caiaaeiuo aoaa?iee e auaoaai Oea?noaa Iieueneiai. Iaaeaeo aaiaoi?eeneeie
aa?ayie iao cia/eoaeueiuo eaieoaeenoia, a iiyoiio iie, i?e nai?i
iacia/eoaeueiii /enea, ii/oe iacaiaoiu a ai?iaea; caieiathony iaeeie
oi?aiaeae, ii i?aeiouanoao ii aaeaioa?aeiie e aaeaeaeiie, niaea?aeao
oeiee, ioaee/iua aeiia e ?anieai/iua caaaaeaiey, ii oaeaea caieiathony
ii?oiyaeanoaii, ia?aie?oie/anoaii e /aniauo aeae ianoa?noaii. Anao
aa?aaa 483 /aeiaae, eee 4 i?ioeaioa iauaai /enea aeeoaeae.

OeUAAIA. Oeuaaia i?eoee a E?ui ec Aceaoneie Eiaeee; iie aeieaia a?aiy
ia?aei/?auaaee ec E?uia a Aana?aaeth e ia?aoii. Ii a oea?noaiaaiea
Aeaenaiae?a – Inaiaiaeeoaey iie inoaaeee naie ei/aaie ia?ac aeecie,
i?eienaeenue e aaiaoi?eeneei iauaiai e caiyeenue eocia/anoaii,
eiiiaaeuenoaii, aeaeaieai ?ao?o, iaeeith ?aciiniith oi?aiaeae; aieueoay
/anoue oeuaai iaoiaeyo naaa n?aaenoaa e aeecie, eioi?ay, enoaoe
neacaoue, aanueia ianeiaeia, io ia?aiinee oiaa?ia ia naieo e?aieeo
nieiao – ia noaea e ia?aoii.

Oeuaaia eniiaaaeotho iaaiiaoneoth ?aeeaeth, ii ia?yaeia a? ia
eniieiytho; aiai?yo iie ia enii?/aiiuo oaoa?neii e ?onneii ycueao,
neeiiiinoe e ia?aciaaieth ia i?iyaeytho, e a?aiioiuo iaaeaeo ieie iao,
oae /oi yoio ia?iae noieo ia naiie ieceie nooiaie ia?aciaaiey ec anao
iaoeee, ianaeythueo E?ui; aeeaoo iie a naaa?i – ainoi/iie /anoe ai?iaea
a iecaiueeeo oaniuo eo?iuo iacaieao, ioee/athony iaiaueiiaaiiie
aania/iinoueth e ia/enoiieioiinoueth[21, n.4]

IAIOeU OACAeA. Ninaaeyie oaoa? a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea, e?iia ?onneeo,
yaeythony iaioeu. Iie iinaeeeenue caeanue n 1787a., eiaaea eiino?aiiui
eieiienoai ieacuaaeenue uaae?ua eueaiou e aniiiiuanoaiaaiey.
Aaiaoi?eeneea iaioeu – eieiienou i?aaenoaaeytho auoiaeoeaa ec I?onnee,
Aaaa?ee e ae?oaeo iaiaoeeeo ainoaea?noa Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu; iaaeaeo ieie
anoue e iaiiieo.

Iaiiieou ninoaaeytho a?aonoaa, ?oeiaiaeeiua i?e/oii oea?eiaiui ec
eca?aiiuo aeaeaiia, aeooiaiuo o/eoaeae e noa?oei, eioi?ua no?iai
iaaethaeatho ca i?aanoaaiiinoueth e aeaaininoiyieai i?i/eo /eaiia
i?eoiaea; iiyoiio iaioeu iaiiieou ioee/athony i?aanoaaiiinoueth e
caaeeoi/iinoueth. Iaioeu aea ethoa?aia a yoii aea ioiioaiee cia/eoaeueii
onooiatho ia?aui.

Aiiaua iaioeu – eieiienou – eneoniua caieaaeaeueoeu, iiuoiua iaoeaaiaeu,
iaeiei neiaii, ia?acoeiaua oicyaaa; oai ia iaiaa, ia oicyenoai no?aiu
iie ia eiatho ieeaeiai aeeyiey, oae eae aeeaoo caieiooith aeeciueth, ia
ieacuaatho ieeaeiai naeeaeaiey n ae?oaeie ieaiaiaie e iiiaea aei neo ii?
ia auo/eeenue aiai?eoue ii-?onnee

Oaeei ia?acii, ?anoiaeu ?onneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aeaeaiea, /oiau
iaiaoeeea eieiienou auee ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie e ia?acoeaie a oicyenoaa,
inoaeenue iai?aniuie, a i?eaeeaaee eieiienoia – iaeaeiuie aeey ei?aiiiai
ianaeaiey no?aiu, e yoe iaiaoeeea eieiiee, aa?iyoii, au? iaaeieai
inoaioony i?onneeie, aaaa?neeie, ae?oaiaa?aneeie e eiuie iaiaoeeeie
iacenaie Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay.[13, n.4]

Ioaeii aaeiaaaie neacaoue ia iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ea?aeiia.

O ea?aeiia auei i/aiue ?acaeoa aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue, iie ieacuaaee
iiiiuue ioaeaeathueiny niieaiaiieeai, no?aieeenue oaeiaeaoai?eoue
eoeueoo?iua iio?aaiinoe ia oieueei naiaai ia?iaea, ii e anaai ianaeaiey.

?anoeaao aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoe ea?aeiia aeey Aaiaoi?ee i?eoiaeeony ia
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey XIX – ia/aei XX aaea. Iia inouanoaeyeanue eae
Aaiaoi?eeneie iaueiie a oeaeii, oae e eiaeeaeaeoaeueii a? /eaiaie. Ia
yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaoa?eaeu ec a?oeaia A. N. Aeueyoaae/a, auaoaai
Aaiaoi?eeneiai aaccaia, /eaia ea?aeineiai aeooiaiiai i?aaeaiey, a oae
aea noaouee ec aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeo?iaea «Ea?aeineay aeeciue».

Aeey iiiiue ioaeaeathueiny ea?aeiai i?e Aaiaoi?eeneie iaueia auee
nicaeaiu aeaaioai?eoaeueiua iauanoaa:

1.Iiia/aiea i aaaeiuo ea?aeiao;

2.Iiiiue naiueyi oaeouo e ?aiaiiuo iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu;

3.Iaania/aiey o/aueony ea?aeineeo oeie iaioiaee?iaaieai, o/aaieee e
caao?aeaie;

4.Iieaou ca niaea?aeaiey o/aueony a eac?iiuo n?aaeieo e aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee;

5.Iiiiue ia eiouei iaaanoai – ia i?eaeaiiia. [33, n.3]

Aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaia ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioeaauo
iio?aaeoaeae, oaeoe/anee, anaai ianaeaiey ai?iaea, inouanoaeyynue a
iniiaiii eiaeeaeaeoaeueii – eioueie ea?aeiaie. Aio iaeioi?ua ec
?aaeeciaaiiuo i?ae?aniuo caiuneia e i?iaeoia.

Eiaaiianeia ?aianeaiiia ioaeneia o/eeeua auei nicaeaii a 1895a. e
niaea?aeaeinue noi?oaaie N. A. e A. *. Eiaaiianeeie. Aeey iaai aue
niaoeeaeueii iino?iai aeii (iuia oe. Aieiaea?neiai 13). Caeanue eiaeinue
6 ianoa?neeo (oeaoia) – neana?e, oiea?e ii iaoaeeo, oiea?e ii aea?aao,
noiey?iay, eie?niay, a iicaea e /oaoiii – eeoaeiay, aaea aioiayo
niaoeeaeenoia aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee. Ai aeai?a iaoiaeyony eaa?oe?u aeey
caaaaeothuaai o/eeeua e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae ?ai?nae. O/eeeua iaioeinue aai
nicaeaoaeai a 140 oun. ?oaeae. Iao/aiea a i?i aanieaoiia aeey o/aueony
anao iaoeeiiaeueiinoae.

AEaineia i?ioanneiiaeueiia o/eeeua nicaeaii ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea.
Niaea?aeaeanue ia n?aaenoaa Aaiaoi?eeneiai iauanoaa iiia/aiey i aaaeiuo
ea?aeiao. O/eeeua ?aniieaaaeinue a aeaoo aeiiao, eiaei niioaaonoaaiii 2
ioaeaeaiey: iauaia?aciaaoaeueiia (4 eeanna) e i?ioanneiiaeueiia.
Iineaaeiaa – n o??o eaoiei n?ieii iao/aiey, ec ieo 1 aiae iinayuaaony
aaeioaaeiiio ianoa?noao e 2 – ii?oiyaeiiio ecaioiaeaieth aeaineie
iaeaaeaeu. O/eeeua i?aaeiacia/aeinue aeey ea?aeineeo aeaai/ae. Iao/aiea
auei aanieaoiia. Iioii a iaai noaee i?eieiaoue, oae – aea aanieaoii,
aeaoae ae?oaeo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae. Iiiauaiea o/eeeua noaei oaniui. Ec
n?aaenoa, iiaea?oaiaaaoeo A. I. Aaeaeiae/ai ia ioaeaeu iauanoaa, ca
50oun. ?oaeae a 1912a. aiaeai?eony niaoeeaeueiia caeaiea, caeoiaeinue
iaiaoiaeeiia iai?oaeiaaiea. Aeaaooee, iacaaeneii io iaoeeiiaeueiinoae,
oniaoii ieii/eaoea i?ioanneiiaeueiia o/eeeua, iieo/eee aanieaoii
oaaeioth iaoeio eo/oae oe?iu oiai a?aiaie – «CEIAA?». [34, n.2]

Ii iieeoeaeneei e ai?iaeneei naaaeaiey ca 1896a. a Aaiaoi?ee cia/eony
aeeeuo aeiiia 1910, a eioi?uo i?iaeeaaao ianaeaiea iaiaai iiea 17947
aeoo: i?aiaeaaeathuee yeaiaio – o?enoeaia – 6516 /aeiaae, iaaiiaoai –
5081, ea?aeiia – 2907 e aa?aaa – 1443.

A /enea ianaeaiey a. Aaiaoi?ee 26-th /anoue aai ninoaaeytho
eiino?aioeu, iiaeaeaiiua: Oo?oeee – 626 aeoo, A?aoeee – 50, Aano?i –
Aaia?ee – 14, Oaaeoea?ee – 12, O?aioeee – 10, ?oiuiee – 10, Aieaa?ee – 8
e Aa?iaiee – 5, a anao 735 aeoo.[28, n.4]

Auaiaeu ii aeaaa

A Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea aeeee ethaee
neaaeothueo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae: ?onneea, oaoa?u, ea?aeiu, aa?ae, a?aee,
oeuaaia, iaioeu e a?aaeaeaia ae?oaeo no?ai – eiino?aioeu.

?aeeaeiciue ninoaa ianaeaiey aue neaaeothuee: i?aaineaaiua, eaoieeee,
a?iyii-a?eai?eaineiai, aaaiaaeeei–ethoa?aineiai, iaaiiaoaineiai
aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, oaeioaeenou.

2.Iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiiai ninoaaa

2.1.OA?AEOA?ENOEEA NINEIAEE.

a). A. Nianneee a naieo caiaoeao oae aiai?eo i nineiaiii ninoiyiee
ianaeaiey ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee a 1847 aiaeo.

A noaouea «Iiai?inneeneiai eaeaiaea?y» ia 1847a., aaea iieacaii
aeeoaeae:

I Ii ninoiyieyi.

a)aeai?yi: iioiinoaaiiuo – 83

aeai?yi ee/iuo -132

a) aeooiaainoaa :

i?aaineaaiiai:

nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae e eo naiaenoa – 14

oea?eiaiineoaeeoaeae e eo naiaenoa – 15

?einei–eaoaee/aneiai – 1

a?iyii–a?eai?eaineiai – 2

iooaiiaaeaineiai – 165

neoaeaueo i?e ia/aoyo ?aciiai iaeiaiiaaiey ethaeae – 56

a) a?aaeaeai:

ii/?oiue iioiinoaaiiue a?aaeaeaiei –1

eoioeia aoi?ie aeeueaeee – 5

eoioeia o?aoueae aeeueaeee – 38

iauai – 9,318

a) iinaeyi:

eac?iiuo e?anoueyi iaiaai iiea –763

iiiaue/ueeo – 79

ae) eiino?aioeaa iaiaai iiea – 203

a) aiaiiineoaeaueo:

aioo?aiiae no?aaee – 82

eaioiienoia – 21

ea?aioeiiie, a?aiaeaaooaiiie e eiaaeeaeiie eiiaiaeu – 26

aiaiii-?aai/eo – 7

iieeoeaeneie eiiaiaeu – 12

iaueacae/eeia – 9

aann?i/ii – ioioneiuo – 4

II. Ii aa?ieniiaaaeaieyi.

a) i?aaineaaiuo – 1386

eaoieeeia – 94

a?iyi – 116

aaaiaaeeea – ethoa?ai –9

iooaiiaaeai – 8,629

ea?aeiia – 2,025

aa?aaa – 77

Anao iinoiyiii aeeaoueo e a?aiaiii i?aauaathueo a Aaiaoi?ee – ii 10900
aeoo iaiaai iiea.[18, n.3]

O. Aeiia?ianeee oae ii?aaeaeyao aeeoaeae Aaiaoi?eee ca 1846 aiae:

a) Aeai?yi:

Iioiinoaaiiuo – 83

Ee/iuo – 132

A oii /enea eiathueo i?aai o/anoaiaaoue a aeai?yineeo

auai?ao – 26

a) Aeooiaainoaa:

I?aaineaaiiai – 5

Nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae e eo naiaenoa – 9

Oea?eiaiineoaeeoaeae e eo naiaenoa – 15

?einei – eaoiee/aneiai – 1

Iaaiiaoaineiai aeooiaainoaa e aiiaua eeoe, iieuecothueony i?aaaie
aeooiaiiai caaiey –156

A oii /enea neoaeaueo i?e ia/aoyo a caaiee oaoeaia, ioee, ioyoceiia,
iooaoaeee (noa?ino), eiaiia, aeaa?eooiia (anaaeiaaiuo /oaoeia
aeueei?aia) e ae?oaeo – 56

A?iyii-a?eai?eaineiai – 2

Ana iie, eae e oo?ee, eniiaaaeaiey noiieoneiai. A /enea yoiai
aeooiaainoaa iaoiaeyony e iiiaoanoaothuea, eee aea?aeoe, eioi?ua, e?iia
no?aiiiai ia?yaea aiaineoaeaiey, ie/ai ia ioee/athony io i?i/aai
iaaiiaoaineiai aeooiaainoaa.

a) A?aaeaeai,

Ii/?oiue iioiinoaaiiue a?aaeaeaiei – 1

Eoioeia aoi?ie aeeueaeee – 5

Eoioeia o?aoueae aeeueaeee – 38

Iauai – 9318

A oii /enea ?aianeaiieeia – 495

a) Iinaeyi;

Eac?iiuo e?anoueyi iaiaai iiea – 765

Iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi e aeai?iauo ethaeae – 79

ae) Eiino?aioeaa;

Ioaeneiai iiea – 138

AEaineiai iiea – 65

Eoiai –203 aeooe.

a) Aann?i/ii – ioioneiuo –4 /aeiaaea

Aioo?aiiae no?aaee – 82

Eaioiienoia – 21

Aaiaoi?eeneiai ea?aioeia, a?aiaeaaoou e eiaaeeaeiie

eiiaiaeu – 12

Iauee eoia iinoiyiii aeeaoueo e a?aiaiii i?aauaathueo

a Aaiaoi?ee i?inoe?aaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aei 10900 aeoo

iaiaai iiea.[16, n.4]

E?anoueyia.

Oae eae e?anoueyia Aaiaoi?eeneiai oacaea eee aiana ia eiatho naiae caiee
eee eiatho a? a naiii iacia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa, oi iie aneaaenoaea
yoiai iaoiaeyony a cia/eoaeueiie caaeneiinoe io oao caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa,
ia caieyo eioi?uo aeeaoo. Caaeneiinoue yoa, niio?y ii aieinoyi,
nouanoaoao i?e ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo. Oae, iai?eia?, ii Naeneie aieinoe: 80
aeoo aeeaoo n eiiiu, ioaeaaay iaeio aeanyooth, e ?aaioatho ia iiiaueea –
160 aeiae; 26 aeoo – aeaa aeanyouo, e ?aaioatho 200 aeiae; 35 /aeiaae –
1,1/2 eiiiu n aeanyoeiu e ?aaioatho 150 aeiae; 40 /aeiaae, aeaa aeanyouo
aeatho eiiiu e ?aaioatho – 175 aeiae.[13, n.4]

E?anoueyia Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee i?eiaaeeaaeeo e neaaeothuei ?ac?yaeai:
eieiienoia, ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi, iiiaue/ueeo, iieo/eaoeo iieiue
iaaeae e iiiaue/ueeo n aea?noaaiiui iaaeaeai. N oi?acaeiaieai
eieiieaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, caiaiaieai iiaeooiie iiaeaoe e caiaeueiie
ia?i/iie iiaeaoe aueoiiui ieaoaaeai o ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi,
?ac?yaeu yoe oo?aoeee anyeia th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea. E?anoueyia
?acee/iuo ?ac?yaeia auee iaaeaeaiu caie?e a ?acee/iuo ?acia?ao e ia
?acee/iuo iniiaaieyo, aei naiiai iineaaeiaai a?aiaie iie ianee
?acee/ioth iiaeaoioth oyao, a iioii yeiiiie/aneia ninoiyiea eo aeaeaei
ia iaeeiaeiaia. *anoi iaeii oeacaiea ia ?ac?yae, eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
– a ecaanoiay a?oiia e?anoueyi, neoaeeo oaea aeinoaoi/iui iiyniaieai,
ii/aio iia aeinoeaea oie eee ae?oaie noaiaie yeiiiie/aneiai
aeaaininoiyiey. Iiyoiio a nai?ieeao noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaiee aei neo ii?
au? e?anoueyineia ianaeaiea a?oiie?othony ii ?ac?yaeai, oo?aoeaoei
th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea.[2, ioae.2,n.36]

?aciauaiea ianaeaiey ii aeeeeuai iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue oieueei ii aeaiiui
«Noaoenoeee iicaiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe», a eioi?ie iu iaoiaeei: A
Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea: ai anao iinaeaieyo – 3390; ec ieo a naeaieyo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi – 550; a eieiieyo – 45. Ia
iaeii aeeeia no?iaiea i?eoiaeyony aeoo ioaeneiai iiea: a n?aaeiai aeey
anao iin?eeia – 2,7, a naeaieyo ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi
– 3,5, a eieiieyo – 3,5. Ia 100 no?iaiee i?eoiaeeony eaiaiiuo: ai anao
iin?eeao – 98, 2, o auaoeo iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi – 100,0; o auaoeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi – 88,9; o eieiienoia – 100,0[2, ioae.2, n.25]

A 1874 aiaeo iauai auei:

?inneyi – 1420; oeuaai – 513;

a?aeia – 259; aa?aaa – 138;

ea?aeiia – 1123; a?iyi – 60;

oaoa? – 1217; eiino?aioeaa – 7;

anaai:4780.

eoioeia:

?inneyi – 3; aa?aaa – 8;

a?aeia – 11; ea?aeiia – 39;

a?iyi – 3; oaoa? – 6.

A oa/aiee 1874 aiaea e ai?iaeneiio nineiaeth auei i?e/eneaii 36 ioae/ei,
31 aeaiueia; eneeth/aii 19 ioae/ei, 8 aeaiuei. [7, eeno 2, 3, 6]

Ia iniiaaiee Aeaea Aaiaoi?eeneie ainoaea?noaaiiie Oi?aau «I eoioeao
iauyaeaoeo e ia iauyaeaoeo eaieoaeu ia 1874a.» aaoi? aeaeaao auaiae i
oii, /oi i?e/eneaiea a Aaiaoi?eeneea eoioeu, aoi?ie aeeueaeee ia iiaeao
ninoiyoueny aei iieiie auieaou iiaeiiinoae.

Ii aeaiiiio aeieoiaioo iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eiaaea, neieueei e eaeie
iaoeeiiaeueiinoe aaiaoi?eeoeu auee i?e/eneaiu e eoioeai), enue aea?ony
ii 10 ia?iaeiie ia?aiene e aiiaue i?eauaoea, n naiaenoaaie)

?INNEssIA:

1869a. 15 oaa?aey – Nai?i Eoneia (4 nuia)

1872a. 5 aeaeaa?y – Oaaeinae ?ioai/aiei (5 nuiiaae)

A?AEE:

1859a. ai?aeue – Ieoaee Iaio?ia (2 nuia)

1869a. 13 oaa?aey – Ei?aianee Aooa?a

4 Iaaae Eothoae?e

1872a. 22 aeaeaa?ue – Eeuey Aaneeueaa

1871a. – Aaeiaa Ia?aa?eoa Ea?ayiiaa (2 nuia)

9a – Ia?aneaaa Iaoo?iaa

1877a. ai?aeue – Eiinoaioei Iiiaiaeiioei

1870a. 17 aeaeaa?y – A?eai?ee Aiaaeaoe

1859a. 18 ai?aeue – Eaai Aeaia?aeaee (5 nuiiaae)

A?IssIA:

1863a. 27 ethey – Aaeiaa Eaeia Ineiiaa (4 nuia)

AA?AE:

1872a. 28 iiya?y – Ia?oe Oaeueaeiai (3 nuia)

1872a. iiya?ue – Aaeiaa Aeia?eo Iaaeieueneay (4 nuia)

176 Aa?ai Neaea? (3 nuia)

1869a. iiya?ue – Aa?ai Eaioaa? (3 nuia)

1872a. 31 aeaeaa?ue – Iaiaeaiue Aa?oeiia

1864a. – Aa?ao Eiaai (3 nuia)

1869

13 yiaa?ue – Yc?a Aeoaai (2 nuia)

173 – Aa?aoa Ei?aeic (7 nuia)

1871 iiya?ue – Ia?ooae Na?a/

102 – Aa?ai Oaioeeia

103 1872a. 18 oaa?aey – Naeiiii Aioa

104 1873a. 17 yiaa?y – Eeuey Iaiaiu e au? 13 ea?aeineeo naiae.

OAOA?U:

1864a. 11 ia?oa – Aaeye Io?o iaeo (nui oia?)

1870a. 7 ethey – Aaeiaa Yieia Ea?aiaiiaa (7 nuia) e au? 3naiuee.

A?aiaiii oi?aothueo – 18 /aeiaae

Aiiaue i?e/eneaiiua – 3 naiuee.[6,eenou23-39]

Ia iniiaaiee aeieoiaioa Aaiaoi?eeneie Ai?iaeneie Oi?aau io 9 yiaa?y
1874a.: Ii/aoiuo a?aaeaeai a ai?iaea:

Ea?aeiia – 123; A?aeia –3; Aa?aaa – 6;

Noaiaiiuo A?aaeaeai:

A?aeia – 1 e oaoa? – 1;

Iauai:

?inneyi – 1408, Ea?aeiia – 1130; Aa?aaa – 191; A?iyi – 59; Oaoa? – 1190;
Oeuaai – 513; A?aeia – 258 e eiino?aioeaa – 7.

Eoioeia.

?onneeo – 11; A?aeia – 21; A?iyi – 10; Aa?aaa – 34; Ea?aeiia – 66 e
Oaoa? – 39.E ai?iaeneiio nineiaeth i?e/eneaia 32 aeoo iaiaai iiea. [3,
eeno 2]

Auaiaeu ii aeaaa

A Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea i?iaeeaaei ianaeaiea neaaeothueo nineiaee:
aeai?yia, aeooiaainoai, iinaeyia, iauaia, eoioeu, aiaiiineoaeauea,
e?anoueyia. Iaeaieaa aeoeaiui aue ia?aoiae a nineiaea iauai e eoioeia.

2.2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ninoaaa e o?oaeiaie caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey.

*enei ?aianeaiieeia a Aaiaoi?ee 1846 aiaea (ii eaaeaeiio ?aianeo) anoue
neaaeothuaa: aaoia/ieeia e naiiaeieeia –58, aieei/ieeia – 18, cieiouo e
na?aa?yiuo aeae ianoa?ia – 2, aeanoyiueeia e eoaeeeueueeia – 19,
eaiaiueeia – 54, eociaoeia – 36, iaoiauo ianoa?ia, i?eaioiaeythueo
niooee e iaa/uee eiaee aeey ooeoiia – 48, eieanieeia, noiey?ia,
ieioieeia e aiiaea?ae – 66, ii?oiuo – 34, oeaaieeia – 63, naa/ieeia –
16, iueueieeia –3.

[17, n.3]

?onneea – eee neoaeauea e ionoaaiua /eiiaieee, eee aeai?yia, eiathuea
eaeoth – eeai iaaeaeaeeioth nianoaaiiinoue; ieaeiea aiaiiua /eiu e
/anoueth iauaia e e?anoueyia, caieiathueany ?aciuie i?iiuneaie. Iie
aianoa n a?aeaie eiatho e naith i?aaineaaioth oea?eiaue.

O?aioeocu e eoaeueyioeu, i?aauaay caeanue oieueei ii oi?aiaui aeaeai, e
aei oao ii?, iiea nianoaaiiua eo auaiaeu oiai o?aaotho, iioii
ia?anaeythony, eoaea acaeoiatho, eae ia?ae?oiua ioeoeu.

A?aee – ia?iae oi?aiaue a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa, anoue iaeiaei – aea
iaaeaeo ieie e ?aianeaiieee, eae oi: na?aa?yieee e a iniaaiiinoe iaea?e
e oee?theueieee, noieue iaiaoiaeeiua i?e iaaiiaaeaeaineii ianaeaiee,
aeey a?eouey aieia i?aaiaa?iui, eae /anoyo naay oaoa?u. Iiiaea ec a?aeia
– oo?aoeeea iiaeaeaiiua e aeeaoo caeanue ii ianii?oai eao ii aeaaaeoeaoe
e aieaa, ia iany ieeaeeo ai?iaeneeo iiaeiiinoae.

A?iyia ii oi?aiaea, i?iiuneai e niaoeeainoe – ?iaeiua a?aouey a?aeia.
Iie i?eiaaeeaaeao e aeaoi ?aeeaeiciui naeoai: 1) a?iyia a?eaineiai
eniiaaaeaiey, ia?anaeeaoeany nthaea n aeaaieo a?ai?i ec iuiaoiae
A?iyineie iaeanoe e oa?iaaoea i?e oaiao iiiaea i?eoaniaiey; oaia?ue aea
iie aeeaoo a aeiaieuenoaee e eciaeeee.

A?iyia a?aai?eainei – eaoiee/aneiai eniiaaaeaiey aeeaoo a Aaiaoi?ee ni
a?ai?i aaioycoeaa. Iie caieiaeenue oioy oaie – aea oi?aaie e i?iiuneaie,
eae a?iyia, ii aiaa/a eo e i?aaei?eei/eaaa.

Aa?ae ia ioee/athony ie/ai io naieo nia?aoee a caeaoiai e?ath. Aa?ae
iaueiiaaiii eee ii?oiua e naiiaeieee, eee na?aa?yieee, eociaoeu e o. i.

Ec oaoa? – 2 oieueei eoioea – eaieoaeenoa, i?i/ea aea caieiathony eee
iiaeaiiie ?aaioie, eee iaei/iie ia?aoi?aeeie, aieueoae /anoueth
oo?aoeeie oi?aiaee.

Ea?aeiu ia?iae oi?aiaue e iaaeaeo niaith niaeaniue. Ieueo iaaeaeo ieie
iao, iioiio /oi iie aaaeiuo e ne?io niaea?aeao ia iauanoaaiiii
eaeaeeaaiee.

Ea?aeiu aeaaeatho ii/oe anae e?uineie oi?aiaeae, /aio iiiai
niaeaenoaotho ei ciaiea ianoiinoe, eo eaieoaeu e iaooiieiay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Anyeiio eiino?aioeo o?oaeii i?iecaiaeeoue oi?aiaeth aac
niaeaenoaey ea?aeiia.

Eaaie a Aaiaoi?ee iaoiaeeony aei 400, ec eioi?uo 1/2 i?eiaaeeaaeao
ea?aeiai. Iie eiatho aeiia?aaeiua naaeu e aaaeoo oi?aiaeth aeiii n
Oa?niianii, Ieeieaaaii, Oa?ueeiaii. A 1834a. iaeiiai iai?iaeaiiiai aeia
inoaaaeinue a Aaiaoi?ee aei 60.000 a?aea?.

Iiiaea ec ea?aeiia eiatho caieth e caieiathony caieaiaoanoaii, a
iniaaiiinoe neioiaiaenoaii, ii aieueoei io iaai auaiaeai; eaaeaeay iaoea
o oi?ioaai oicyeia i?eiineo a aiae aei 5 ?oa. anneaiaoeeyie /enoie
i?eauee, i?e naiii iaeii ?anoiaea.[19, n.4]

O?oaeiaia ianaeaiea (1853 – 1856) ia 10 – 12 oun. aeeoaeae Aaiaoi?ee –
3/4 i?eoiaeeony ia aeieth oaoa?, ii yoi au/eneaiea ia ii?aaeaeyao au?
oeeo?u ?onneiai ianaeaiey. E?iia ?onneeo caeanue auee au? a?aee,
ea?aeiu, aa?ae, a?iyia e ae?oaea. Neiaii a Aaiaoi?ee iano?ioa ianaeaiey
auea aeaeia ia eaaeaeii oaao, e naycaee anth yoo ?aciioa?noioth oieio
aianoa, a iaeii oeaeia, ia auei ieeaeie aiciiaeiinoe.

Oaoa?u aeeee niaa?oaiii iainiaeaiiie aeeciueth. Iie caieiaeenue iaeeeie
oi?aiaeyie, ?aianeaiieee, iaiaoiaeeiuie a auoo oaoa?, auaeaeeie eiaee e
eiaeaaaiiuo ecaeaeee, auaeaeeie niooae, ecaioiaeaieai oaeaa, aea?aeaee
eocieoeu, caieiaeenue eiaeie eioaaeae e o. ae. Iiiaea ec ieo oiaeeee
?aaioaoue ia nieyiua ic??a, caieiaeenue ecaicii, iaa?oceie noaeia.
Aieueoay /anoue ec ieo i?aaenoaaeyea aaaeiioo, aeeaouoth eneeth/eoaeueii
oece/aneei o?oaeii, ii eaaeaeue ec ieo eiae naith ea/oao, iau/ii naie
?aaiou, e no?iai aea?aeaeny naieo aaeeiiaa?oeaa. Ana iie, ca i/aiue
iaeui eneeth/aieai, aiai?yo oieueei ia naiai ?iaeiii ycuea, e iiyoiio
anai, eoi aeaeae ecuynieoueny n ieie aac iiiiue ia?aaiae/eea, iaaeiaii
eco/aoue oaoa?neiio ycueo. Oaoa?neee ycue i?eia?aoae i?aai
a?aaeaeaineiai, noae ainiiaenoaothuei, noae naiaai ?iaea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui a Aaiaoi?ee – aio ia eciaiyee aeaaea a iauanoaaiiuo
nia?aieyo.

Inoaeueiua 3000 aeeoaeae ia i?aaenoaaeyee ec naay, eae oaoa?neie
niei/?iiie iannu, a ?aciiaeaeiinoue eee ii iaoeeiiaeueiinoyi, eee ii
?iaeo caiyoee ia iaeeea e?oaeee.

A?aee ii i?aeiouanoao, aa?eanieee, aea?aeaeenue naiaai iauanoaa; iie
oi?ioi nio?aieee naie iaoeeiiaeueiua /a?ou e ?iaeiie ycue.

Ea?aeiu, nieai?iiuoeaiieee, aieaa e?oiiua oi?aiaoeu, oae – aea
aea?aeaony oa??aei naiaai iauanoaa,

*oi eanaaony aa?aaa, oi iie ia ?acae?aee iauanoa, a ii ?iaeo naiaai
caiyoey oaeoi?noaa – aea?aeaeenue ia iauanoaa, a aeaea. ?onneeo a
Aaiaoi?ee auei iaiueoa anao ae?oaeo. Aeaaiui ia?acii oi auee /eiiaieee,
noaeueaie caian?iiua nthaea e neoaeeaoea a ?aciuo o/?aaeaeaieyo;
eiia/ii, auee e e?anoueyia, ii a iauae neiaeiinoe ?onneeo auei an? aea
i/aaeaeii iaei.[27, n.4]

Eaoii ?acei aic?anoaao /enei no?ieoaeae – eo ian/eouaaaony aei
1,5oun(1862). Iie nii?oaeaee e ?aiiioe?iaaee i?aaei?eyoey, ianoa?neea,
i?enoaie, aeaaiono?aeaaee ai?iae, iniaaiii «a?enoie?aoe/aneoth»,
i?eii?neoth /anoue, no?ieee aeey aiaa/ae aea/e, iniaiyee. Ai – aoi?ie
iieiaeia aiaea (n ethiy ii iiya?ue), eiaaea oea aeiau/a niee a
aeeaeaeoai ica?a Nanue – Neaao, ia i?iiunea o?oaeeeenue aei ouny/e e
aieaa ?aai/eo.[36, n.21]

Iiiaea iiiaue/uee oicyenoaa caieiathony oaeei i?eaueueiui aeaeii, eae
?acaaaeaiea iaaoe.

Aaaeiaeoay ianoiinoue Aaiaoi?eeneiai oacaea ecaanoia iiae iauei
iacaaieai «Oa?oaieooa». Caeanue, i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaoe?iuo eiaieyo
eiycy N.I. Ai?iioeiaa («Aoia/aoneay aoooa») e A.I. Iiiiaa(«Ea?aaeaee») e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo, e i?aaeaea (aei aiaiiiai a?aiaie e iionoaiey oacaea)
e a iineaaeothuaa a?aiy naioth i?eaueueioth io?aneue oicyenoaa
ninoaaeyao ?acaaaeaiea i?inouo e?uineeo (iaee/) na?uo iaaoe aeey
iieo/aiey na?uo niooae, ia oieueei ia onooiathuei ecaanoiui
«?aoaoeeianeei», ii aeaaea aeaeaei i?aainoiaeyueo yoe
iineaaeiea(1867a.). Yoeo niooae aaeaaiaeii eae?o a i?iaeaaeo io 7.000
aei 10.000 oooe e aieaa, ioeaieaaaiuo ia ianoa ia aeaoaaea 2 ?oa. 50
eii. e 3 ?oa. na?aa?ii ca oooeo. Eo/oea aei aiaiiiai a?aiaie,
i?iaeaaaeenue ia aeaoaaea 2 ?oaeae na?aa?ii oooea. Na?ua iaoeu, ii
iauaio caeanue oaaaeaeaieth, oieueei a Oa?oaieooa ia ia?a?iaeaeathony e
oieueei a yoie ianoiinoe aiciiaeiu iiaeiaiua i?aainoiaeiua niooee, /oi
i?eienuaathony naienoaa oaiioieo ianoaeu.[14, n3]

Caiyoea noaiiui iai?iaeie/anoaii eee ?acaaaeaieai aaooaiia (ii oaoa?nee
ainoai e iinoai) a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea aei iineaaeiae E?uineie aieia
ninoaaeyea iaiaeiaaaeioth io?aneue ianoiiai naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Iiae
aaooaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii nieiaeenue caiee, ie?oaeathuea Aaiaoi?ee e a??no
ia 20 – 25 io yoiai ai?iaea. Aaooaiueee auee eneeth/eoaeueii oaoa?u,
/anoueth aaiaoi?eeneea iauaia, a au? aieaa ainoaea?noaaiiua e?anoueyia.
Nieiaee eneeth/eoaeueii caieth oeaeeiioth ia o?e aiaea, canaaeeaay a?
ia?aue aiae a?aocaie e aeuiyie, ai aoi?ie – eoeii, a o?aoee canaaay
ioaieoeae: Ca ia?aua aeaa aiaea ieaoeee aeaaeaeueoeo caiee io eaaeaeiai
aaooaia aeaiueaaie (ii 10 e ii 12?oa. na?aa?a), a a o?aoee ioaeaaaee
10-th /anoue nia?aiiiai oeaaa. Eaaeaeue aaooai (2.2/3 oeaci. aeanyo.)
i?eiinee aaooaiueeo 150 aei 210 ?oa. na?aa?ii /enoiai aeioiaea. Eoeo,
ecaanoiiai caeanue iniaaiiith e?aiinoueth, niae?aeinue ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai. E?iia nauoa a Neioa?iiiea, Aaiaoi?ee, Naaanoiiiea e ii
ae?oaei ai?iaeai aoaa?iee cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai ioi?aaeyee ii?ai a
Iaeanno e aeaaea a Eiinoaioeiiiieue. Oaia?ue n oiaiueoaieai iinea aieiu
oaoa?neiai ianaeaiey, yoa io?aneue oicyenoaa i?eoea a oiaaeie, oae eae
2/3 caiaeue, eioi?ua ?acae?aeenue i?aaeaea iiae aaooaiu, ieeai ia
?acae?athony, a ?acae?aaiua ia i?eiinyo caieaaeaeueoeai e iieiaeiu
i?aaeiaai aeioiaea. ?uaieianoai a oacaea, ieeiaaea ai?i/ai ia auaoaa
cia/eoaeueiui, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ie/oiaeii. ?uaiuo caaiaeia 3, ec ieo
iaeei a Aoia/aoneie aoooa (eiaiee eiycy N. I. Ai?iioeiaa) e aeaa a
aea?aaia Ea?aaeaee (eiaiea A.I. Iiiiaa). AEaeiau ia iianaianoiia
oiaiueoaiea ?uau o aa?aaia *??iiai e Acianeiai ii?ae, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
a n ae?oaie iaaeinoaoie a ?aai/eo (ia Aoia/aoneii e Ea?aaeaeeineeo
caaiaeao i?aaeaea ?aai/ea ninoiyee ec e?anoueyi, iuia – ec auoaaeoeo ec
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe) eiaee iineaaenoaeai oi, /oi iacaaiiua caaiaeu
noaee i?eiineoue ie/oiaeiue aeioiae, i?eia?ii aei 1800 ?oa.
na?aa?ii.[14, n.3]

I i?ioanneyo e /enea ?aai/eo iiaeii noaeeoue ec oaaeeoeu « I /enea
?aianeaiieeia a a. Aaiaoi?ee 1873 aiaea».

I. ?aianeaiieeia ecaioaaeeaathueo

i?aaeiaou ieue: ianoa?ia: ?aai/eo: o/aieeia:

oeaaieeia 15 10

aoei/ieeia 15 10

iynieeia 6 5

eiiaeeoa?ia

aocieeia 9 4

II.I?eaioiaeythueo

i?aaeiaou iaeaaeaeu:

ii?oiuo 4 8 4

naiiaeieeia 6 9

iiaeenoie –

oeyiieeia –

oaii/ieeia 5 3 2

aaoia/ieeia 2 1 2

ooaieeia 6 3

III.Ecaioiaeythueo

i?aaeiaou ae/oicyenoaa:

ia/ieeia 2

noiey?ia 2 3 4

ii?ieeia 1

iaaeieeia 2

eociaoeia 2 2

iieiaueeia

iiey?ia 2

aiiaea?ae 3 5

ieioieeia 6 6 4

i?eaioiaeythueo

ee?ie/ e /a?aieoeo

IV.I?i/eo i?iiuoeaiieeia

e ?aianeaiieeia, ia

i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e

yoei ?ac?yaeai

ecaic/eeia 43

iiiiaaeia 1

/aniaueeia 5 4

naa/ieeia 4 3 4

oea?theueieeia 6 9

na?aa?yiieeia 2

eaiaiueeia 6

e?iaaeueueeia

oooeaoo?ia 2

i?eaioiaeythueo

oeii/aooth aoiaao

noaeieueueeia 3

neana?ae

?ac/eeia ia/aoe

eeiiiienoeaa

oiea?ae 2

aeanoyiueeia 2

iaieueeia 2

eieanieeia 4 4

e?aneeueueeia 2

yeeoieeia 20 – –

[3, eeno 7, 10]

A Aaiaoi?ee iiaeii auei aac iniauo i?aiyonoaee ioe?uoue caaiae eee
iaaacei. Ioaeii auei ?ac?aoaiea Ai?iaeneie Oi?aau.

Iai?eia?, a Aeaea Ai?iaeneie Oi?aau «I aeicaieaieth eoioeo Ia?oeo
Oaeueaeiaio ii?aaeaeeoue a a. Aaiaoi?ee caaiae aeey auaeaeaiee ec aeia e
nie?oa ?acee/iuo iaieoeia» i?eaiaeeony I?ioaiea aeaiiiai eoioea aoi?ie
aeeueaeee a Aaiaoi?eeneoth Ai?iaeneoth Oi?aao:

«AEaeay au naiu aiaeo ioe?uoue au ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ie au iiaiu
nianoaaiiiiu aeiia aiaei/iue caaiaeu, oi iinaio i?aaenoaaeyy eenou
Aa?aiaie aoiaae 20 eiiaae a? noieiinoe iiei?iaeoa i?ioo…Oi?aao
?ac?aoeoue iia ni – Ioe?uoia oieiaiai caaiaea e aoiiu aaaaeaoue
oaeinoiaua?aiia.

20 aaaonoa 1873a. Eoiaoeu Ia?aoeu Oaeueaeiai.»

Ia /oi Ai?iaeneie Aieiaa ioaa/aao ni?aaeie:

«Ii?aaeaeeee: Ia oi/iiiu iniiaaiie 115 no.

Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiaai 16 ithiy 1870 a. Ai?iaeiaiai iieiaeaiey e ii
iaeiaaiith au aeaeo ieeaeeo caeiiiuou i?aiyonoaie aeicaieeoue Ainiiaeeio
Oaeueaeiaio ioe?uoue au Ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ei au nianoaaiiiiu aeiia caaiaeu
aeey auaeaeee ecu iiei/aiiiai Aeoeuciiu aeia e nie?oa ?aciuou iaieoeiau
e ia ioe?uoia icia/aiiaai Caaiaea auaeaoue aio i?ineiia oaeinoiaa?aiia.

3 naio. 1873a.

Oaeaea auei oaeiaeaoai?aii i?ioaiea Aaiaoi?eeneiai iauaieia Aai?aey
Oieaeeciaa ia ioe?uoee Ieoaeiiai Aeiia a 1874a., Eoioea Nai?ia Eoneiaa e
ae?.

AEaeathuea ioe?uoue ieoaeiua caaaaeaiey a Aaiaoi?ee auei iiiai. Anoue
naaaeaiey ca 1873a. Iao niunea ia?a/eneyoue oaieeee anao, iiaeaaoeo
i?ioaiea a Ai?iaeneoth Oi?aao, a oae aea oao, /uee i?ioaiey auee
oaeiaeaoai?aiu, a /uee iao. Oi/o oieueei ia iniiaa aiaeeca oeacaiiiai
auoa aeaea neacaoue, /oi ca aeaiiue aiae (1873) iinooieei 62 i?ioaiey, a
27 ec ieo auei ioeacaii. Ia iaeioi?uo ec i?ioaiee nia/aea iaienaii
«Ioeacaoue», a nieco «Ioe?uoue», a neiai «Ioeacaoue» – acyoi a neiaee.
(Iai?eia?, eeno 60). Ia iiiaeo ec i?ioaiee aiiaua ia oeacaii
?anii?yaeaiea.(i – ?, eeno
5,6,11-14,16,17,19,20,22-28,31,33,41-45,47-48,51,56,58,69,71-73,75,76.).
I?e/?i, ioaeii ioiaoeoue, e eiioeo aiaea ioeacia cia/eoaeueii aieueoa,
/ai ?ac?aoaiee.

ss aeoiath, aaaeiie aeaoaeueth a yoie io?inee aeayoaeueiinoe
aaiaoi?eeoeaa, yaeyaony oi, /oi a iniiaiii, yoe ieoaeiua caaaaeaiey
iauaia e eoioeu Aaiaoi?ee niae?aeenue ioe?uaaoue ia a niaoeeaeueii
iino?iaiiii aeey yoiai caeaiey, a a /anoiuo aeiiao, naieo eee
a?aiaeiaaiiuo[.6, eeno 1,2, 6,69]

Ianaeaiea ai?iaea(1888a.), ianiio?y ia aai iacia/eoaeueiinoue, e?aeia
?aciiia?acii, iii ninoieo ec ?onneeo, oaoa?, ea?aeiia, a?aeia, a?iyi,
oeuaai, aa?aaa e a?aiaiii i?iaeeaathueo a naiii iaaieueoii /enea
iieyeia, o?aioeocia, oo?ie, aiaoieeeoeaa. Oaeay iano?ioa ianaeaiey,
eiia/ii, ia iiaeao aeaaii?eyoii aeeyoue ia yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea
aai, oae eae eaaeaeay iaoeey caiyoa eneeth/eoaeueii naiei nianoaaiiui
eioa?anii.

I?aiaeaaeathueie a /eneaiiii ioiioaiee yaeythony oaoa?u e ea?aeiu, a
caoai neaaeotho ?onneea e a?aee: ana yoe ia?iaeiinoe an? aieiaiea
ia?aoeee ia eiiia?/aneea aeaea: e yoie aea eaoaai?ee iiaeii i?e/eneeoue
e a?iyi: aa?ae aea, oieueei ca iaiiiaeie eneeth/aieyie, aeeaoo a
ea/anoaa ianoa?ia e ianoa?iauo – ii?oiuo, naiiaeieeia, aeanoyiueeia,
ianoa?ia /aniauo aeae, thaaee?ia e i?i/eo; oeuaaia eca?aee naiae
niaoeeaeueiinoueth aua?oceo e caa?oceo i?eoiaeyueo e iooiaeyueo
ia?ioiaeia e ae?oaeo noaeia; aaaeiaeoea a?aee caieiathony ia?aaiceith
a?oca e iannaaee?ia ia naieo oethieao e ia?ioiaeo eee noaeio e
ia?aoii.[20, c.4]

OEAAIIAOANOAI. Io?aneue yoa iaei ?acieony a i?aeiouanoaao n?aaieoaeueii
n i?i/eie oacaeaie E?uia e onooiaao a ieiaei?iaeee Oaiaeineeneiio
ie?oao, oae ?aaii e ia i?iecaiaeeo oie neaaiie a?iaooee, eioi?ith
niaaaeaao ian auaoee iaeiaaea *iiaa?neee eaaeueue, ii caoi caeanue
?iaeyony ian?aaiaiii eo/oa ae?oaeo ianoiinoae eueiyiia naiy, eoe e
aaooaiiua iinaau.

Aaiaoi?eeneea a?aocu aaeaa ee ia anoue naiua aeoniua ia iieoino?iaa ii
ecauoeo niea. Iie ia auaatho aaeeee, iiaeiaii ia?aeiineei eee
aeaoeianeei, eiatho niaa?oaiii e?oaeue aeae, iaeeia naiy, ia i?eoi?iu
neaaeinoueth, e oae ooai ia/eiaiu, /oi i?e ?ac?aca auioneatho iiiaeanoai
niea, Oocaioeu ia eia/a aaeyo eo, eae iaeoiea aa?oithth eiaeo e ia?acay
iiaeii iiia?a/iuie eeieyie, /oiau ia i?i?acaoue aaeieue na?aeoeaaeiu,
iaiiaaiii ecaa?aathuae eo/oee nie. Eaaeaeay eaaae?aoiay naaeaiue caiee a
yoii oacaea aea?o a o?iaeaeiue aiae oeaeoth iiaeaiaeeo a?aocia.
Aneaaenoaea /aai onoaiiaeeanue iaueiiaaiea ioaeaaaoue a a?aiaeo caieth
iiae iinaau a?aocia e aeuiue ii eoea/ai, o. a. iiaiiiui naaeaiyi. *oi
eanaaony oeaaiiai ca?ia, oi iii a n/anoeeaua aiaeu i/aiue oi?ioi
aiciaa?aaeaeaao nayoaeae. Oae, iai?eia?, ioaieoea ?iaeeony nai – 15,
y/iaiue – 12, ia?n – 15, e?i aei 18-oe, a i?ini aei nai-80-oe.

NEIOIAIAeNOAI. Aaiaoi?eeneea eioaaee n/eoathony a E?uio ca eo/oeo
neaeoiia, a aa?aethaeu, eioi?uo iuia iaiiiai, ca neeueiaeoeo e
/?acau/aeii auaiaeiuo aeeaioiuo aeey noaiiuo ?aaio e ia?aaicee oyaeanoae
ia iiaeaiaeao, ii ec anao aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo caeanue neaayony oae
iacuaaaiua ia?eooeiaua aa?aiu, eneeth/eoaeueii i?eiaaeeaaeauea yoiio
oacaeo. Eo aei?iaea ia/eiu aeinoaoi/ii oaea ecaanoiu anai. Ae?oaea
ii?iaeu iaaoe, aeaaeainoaothuea caeanue io ecauoea nie?iuo o?aa, eiatho
oi i?aeiouanoai, /oi iyni eo oae iaaeii e i?eyoii, /oi iiiaea
i?aaeii/eoatho aai oaey/ueaio e eo?eiiio.

Aaiaoi?eeneee nu? i?eaioiaeyaiue ea?aeiaiee ecaanoiue iiae eiaiai
a?oneiaiai eee «eaoeaaaea» iiaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i oii, eaeia
i?aainoiaeiia iieiei iieo/aaony io ei?ia e eaeie aaeeeieaiiue nu?
aiciiaeii i?eaioiaeyoue a yoii oacaea i?e ciaiee aeaea e ono?ienoaa
niaoeeaeueiuie ethaeueie nu?iuo caaaaeaiee.[32, c.3]

E eiioeo noieaoey iaaethaeaaony neaaeothuaa ?ani?aaeaeaiea neioa ii
oacaeo.

Eioaaeae: ?aai/eo – 9871; aieia – 11172; aoeaaiai – 2912;

ia?aai/eo – 1422; ei?ia – 6056; oaeyo – 2456;

iaaoe :145634; e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa: ANAAI – 46475

naeiae: 2332; ia aeai? – 10,1

A?oiie?iaea ii neioo:

Ec anaai /enea aeai?ia:

– aac ?aai/aai neioa – 629;

– n 1 aieiaie ?aai/aai neioa – 359;

– n 2 e 3 aieiaaie ?aai/aai neioa – 1031;

– n 4 e aieaa aieiaaie ?aai/aai neioa – 2570;

*enei aeai?ia:

– ia eiathueo ieeaeiai neioa – 390;

– eiathuee 1 iaeeee neio – 47;

– eiathuea aei 25 iaaoe – 741;

– eiathuea aieaa 25 iaaoe – 1069;

Eiaaioa?ue:

– ieoaia e nei?iiaoae – 3370;

– eineeie e aeaoie – 249;

– aeaeeaeaiia – 3899;

*enei aeai?ia:

– ia eiathuea ieoaia – 2141;

– ia eiathuea i?oaeey ia?aaicee – 1258. [2,Oaaeeoea1,c.2-5]

Oa?aeoa?enoeea neioiaiaenoaa .

Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae: ia 100 aeai?ia i?eoiaeeony: eioaaeae; (?aai/eo –
27,5), (ia?aai/eo – 3,1); aieia 22,6; ei?ia 13,2; aoeaaiai ?iaaoiai
–6,4; oaeyo –5,3;iaaoe – 316; naeiae – 5,1.[35, ioae.4, c.6]

Neioiaiaenoai ninoieo ec iaeaieaa iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee aaaeaiey
oicyenoaa. Ioiineoaeueiia eiee/anoai eioaaeae au?anoaao, a ?iaaoiai
neioa oauaaao n ?acia?aie oicyenoa; o naiuo e?oiiuo oicyenoa, ai?i/ai,
/eneaiiinoue eioaaeae niiaa iaaeaao, a ?iaaoiai neioa iiauneeny.
Eiee/anoai neioa, i?eoiaeyuaainy ia aeai?, iaoiaeyony a i?yiie
caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu caiaeueiiai o/anoea, eioi?ui aeaaeaao naiuey.
[35,ioae.4, n.8-9]

IAOeU.

Ia iaeei e?anoueyineee aeai? i?eoiaeeony – 31,7 iaoeu – iaeaieueoaa
eiee/anoai ii aoaa?iee!

A E?uio iniaaiii e?oiiuo iaoeaaiaeia iao. Neaaeoao oiiiyiooue a
Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea eiycy Ai?iioeiaa (9o. aieia), A.A. Iiiiaa,
Eyoaeueneiai (8o.), Iaoianeiai (5200 aieia).[35, ioae.4, n.22]

Oiiei?oiiia iaoeaaiaenoai caeanue iiaay io?aneue naeueneiai oicyenoaa e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.N 1862 ii 1867 aiae caeanue iiyaeeinue 23 ioaeaeueiuo
caaiaea e a ieo 51086 oiiei?oiiuo iaaoe. A1866 aiaeo auei niyoi oa?noe
5, 188 ioaeia, eioi?ie i?iaeaii ia 36, 135 ?oaeae, a iauae neiaeiinoe ii
7 ?oaeae 25 eiiaae.[11, c.3]

Aeaiiua i ninoiyiee iaoeaaiaenoaa a I ia?auo /anoiuo oicyenoaao (e
ia/aeo 80-o a.)

1) Iacaaiea e ianoi iaoiaeyueany eiaiey. Eiy e oaieeey aeaaeaeueoea – I.
E. Na?aeiiaa eiaie Aethe – I?ethe:

2) Naaiiai?io – caeaaeiia oicyenoai:

3) Eiee/anoai caiee: anaai 6000; iaoio – 800;

4) Iauaa eiee/anoai iaaoe – 2500, oiaiueoaii, auei 5000;

5) Ia iaeio aeanyoeio i?eoiaeeony iaaoe: 0,41;

6) A?aiy e niiniau neo/ee – inaiueth; neo/ea aieueiay.

7) Ii?iaea, n eaeiai a?aiaie e enoi/ieea caaacaiu – ia?eiiiniia noaae, n
1861a. – iieoiiie;

8) Aaea, eiaaea, oeaia ii eioi?iio i?eia?aoaee i?iecaiaeeoaee –
iieoiathuea ca a?aieoeae a a. Oaee – Aa?oa e Iicaaaa io 25 ?oa. aei 100
?oa., ii?iaeu aeeeiiioa?noiie.

9) I?iaeathony ieaiaiiua aeeaioiua e ii eaeie oeaia? – iao:

10) No?eaeaony ee oa?noue a?yciay eee iinea ia?aaiia e naaeiee auoiae
oa?noe – a a?yciii aeaea; io 6,5 aei 12,1/4 o. ni oo.;

11) Eai i?iecaiaeeony aieeoe?iaea – iao;

12) Aeaeu oicyaa ia aoaeouaa a?aiy – no?aieaiea e oeo/oaieth.

II

1) E.Ae. Eyoaeueneee, *ioae e ae?. aea?aaie;

2) (7600) (-);

3) Caeaaeiia oicyenoai n o??oiieueiui naaiiai?ioii.

4) 8000, a auei 10000;

5) N ia?aiai iiya?y ieaiaiiay, n8-ai iiya?y a iauai noaaea; aieueiay.

6) Ia?aiiiniay ii?iaea; caaacaiu ec Iaeeoiiieueneiai e
Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai oacaeao.

7) Iieoiaeenue ec Naeniiee e Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai oacaeao, io 25 – 15 o.

8) I?iaeatho oeaiie io 10 – 15 ?oa.

9) A a?yciii aeaea io ieaiaiiuo noaae n/eoaaony io 7,5 – 11,3/4 o.;

10) Aeaaeaeueoeai i?e o/anoee aaoa?eia?ia e ianoooia.

11) Oeo/oeoue ii?iaeo.

III

1) Ianeaaeiee eiycy Ai?iioeiaa, Ae – Ia/aoue;

2) 17 896, 8 322;

3) Caeaaeiia n o?aoiieueiui naaiiai?ioii;

4) 9 162;

5) 0,50;

6) N ia/aea iiya?y; aieueiia;

7) Ia?eiinu;

8) Ec Oa?niineie aoaa?iee io 25 – 200 ?oa.

9) Io 5 – 10 oo. ii 10 ?oa;

10) A a?yciii aeaea ii 6 o.;

11) Naiei oaoiaenoa?ii;

12) Anee aoaeoo iiaoi?youeny ceiu, eae a 1870 e 1880 iaoeaaiaenoai
i?eaeaony i?ae?aoeoue;

IV

1) Ae. E. Iaoianeee, Ee? – Eoea/, ssoiae, Ae – *ie?ae e ae?.

2) 5 700,2 400;

3) Caeaaeiia, ii?aaeaeaiiiai naaiiai?ioa iao;

4) 5 200;

5) 0, 91;

6) A ieaiaiiii noaaea io 20 ieoya?y aei 1 iiya?y, a iauai – n 8 iiya?y,
aieueiay;

7) Ia?eiinu, 50 eao iacaae, Naeniineea;

8) I?iecaiaeeoaee, ii?iaeu ?aiaoeuea, iieo/eee aanieaoii ec ia/a?ai
a?aoueaa Iaoianeeo, a 1877 e 1879 a.a., 99 oooe;

9) iao;

10) A a?yciii aeaea ii 7 o.;

11) Aeaaeaeueoeai;

12) Oi?ioaa aoaeouaa( o?aaiaaiea oa?noe, a?aaeiua aeey caieaaeaeey
ianaeiiua).[2, ioae.4,n.44-47]

A E?uineie noaie, a /anoiinoe a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea, aaccaiaeueiia
ianaeaiea i?eioaeaeaii naeeoueny ia aeaaeaeue/aneeo caieyo, iinaeee
ninoiyo ec eeoe ?aciuo nineiaee, ia naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie e?oaiaie
ii?oeie, ii/oe iieiia ionoonoaea iaueiu e, iaeiiaoe, naii oicyenoai
aaaeaony aieaa eioaineaii e onaaeueaa, iiyoiio, aeieaeia auoue aeeaea e
iinaeeai. Anee ei anaio yoiio i?eaaaeoue, /oi ieaiaiiie ninoaa ianaeaiey
e?uineie noaie ioee/aaony caia/aoaeueiui ?aciiia?aceai, oi noaiao aiieia
iiiyoii, /oi e?oiiua iinaeee a yoie ianoiinoe e ia iiaee aicieeiooue.
?annaeaiea ianaeaiey iaeeeie iinaeeaie, eiathuaa iainii?eiua auaiaeu
aeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa, eiaao oaeaea naith iaauaiaeioth noi?iio:
iauanoaaiiia oicyenoai i?e oaeie nenoaia ?annaeaiey ia iiaeao eaeoe
oniaoii. A iaeeii iinaeea o?oaeiaa ono?ieoue oeieo, eni?aaeoue aei?iao,
ono?ieoue iino e o. ae. Aeaaea cainoao o?oaeiaa i?eaeoe ia iiiiuue
oaeiio iinaeeo. A Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea, iai?eia?, caineia nia?aiea
iinoaiiaeei ioe?uoue oeieu a ianeieueeeo naeaieyo, anee oieueei ia ieo
iaaa?aony 10 o/aueony e yoi iinoaiiaeaiea a oa/aiee ianeieueeeo eao ia
iiaei auoue i?eaaaeaii a eniieiaiea, oae eae o?aaoaiiai /enea o/aueony
ia iaae?aeinue.[2,ioae.2, n.24-25]

Iaeia 19-y /anoue ianaeaiey caieiaaony ?aciuie ?aianeaie, ecaiciui
i?iiuneii e i?i/ei.

A ai?iaea nouanoaoao ai?iaeneia iauanoaaiiia nia?aiea, ian/eouaathuaa
/eaiia naieo 125 /aeiaae, i?e nia?aiee – aeaeeioaea e /eoaeueiy.
A?oenoe/aneee e?oaeie ninoieo ec 150 /eaiia.[28, c.4]

I?ioannee (a?a/e)

Ii aiaeai /enei caineeo a?a/ae iaiyeinue oae:

Oaaeeoea 1.2.

Aeeiaieea /eneaiiinoe a?a/ae

1879a.1880a.1881a.1882a.1883a.1884a.1885a.1886a.—22222

Enoi/iee: [2, n.97 – 102]

*enei a?a/ae a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea auei iinoiyiiui. Ia neieueei caineee
a?a/aaiue ia?niiae, ii naiae /eneaiiinoe, oaeiaeaoai?ye iio?aaiinoe
naeueneiai ianaeaiey oacaea, iiaeii aeaeaoue ec niiinoaaeaiey
aaniethoiiai /enea a?a/ae n aaee/eiie ieiuaaee oacaea, n /eneii naeaiee
a iai, ianaeaiey e o. i.

A 1886 aiaeo ia iaeiiai a?a/a i?eoiaeeeinue: eaaae?aoiuo aa?no: 2520;
ianaeaiiuo ioieoia – 1515; nieioiuo naeaiee – 115;aeai?ia – 2294;
aeeoaeae – 13225; aeaoae – 2981; noa?eeia – 480; oeie – 41; o/aueony –
831; ?iaeeaoeony – 722; oia?oeo – 511; nei?iiinoeaeii oia?oeo – 13.

Ii?aaeaao a?iiaaeiay ieiuaaeue, eioi?ay i?eoiaeeony ia eaaeaeiai a?a/a.
Anee aeiionoeoue, /oi oacae ?acaeo ia ?aaiua ii ieiuaaee o/anoee,
eioi?ua eiatho oi?io e?oaia, oi aeeaiao?u yoeo aiia?aaeaaiuo e?oaiauo
o/anoeia aoaeoo: io 65,6 aei 87,9 a??no.

Ii anae Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee a iaeiaiaa aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo
ioiineoaeueii ieiuaaee a?a/aaiuo o/anoeia iaoiaeeeenue Aaiaoi?eeneee e
Aeiai?ianeee oacaeu, a iniaaiiinoe ia?aue ec ieo, nianai ia?acaeaeeiue
ia o/anoee.

Ii /eneo aeeoaeae ia 1 a?a/a – a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea io 11 832 aei
18379 /aeiaae, io 140 aei 151 ianae?iiuo ioieoia. Neioa?iiieueneee e
Aaiaoi?eeneee oacaeu caieiatho naiia ia auaiaeiia ianoi ni noi?iiu
?aciauaiey ianaeaiey a a?a/aaiuo o/anoeao. Oai aieaa, /oi a
Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea naieoa?iay /anoue anaai oacaea iaoiaeyueony a
aaaeaiee iaeiiai a?a/a.

*enei aieueieoe – 2

*enei e?iaaoae – 30

Iaeia e?iaaoue i?eoiaeeony ia:

*enei eaaae?aoiuo a??no – 164,6

*enei naeaiee – 7,6

Ianae?iiuo ioieoia – 10,1

*enei aeai?ia – 153

*enei aeeoaeae – 881

Ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aieueiuo – 199

Oe?o?ae/aneeo aieueiuo – 35

Aaia?e/aneeo aieueiuo – 6

Eioaeoeeiiiuo aieueiuo – 17,8

Iauaa /enei aieueiuo – 5989

*enei noaoeeiia?iuo aieueiuo – 306

Nienie iieacuaaao, /oi nouanoaaiiiai /enea e i?e?iiuo iieiaa aeaeaei
iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey ianaeaiey.

A Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea iaa caineeo a?a/a aeeaoo a a. Aaiaoi?ee i?e/?i
iaeei caaaaeoao caineie aieueieoeae, ae?oaie, eae noaoeeiia?iue a?a/,
auacaeaao a oacae a neo/ayo yieaeaie/aneeo e aeey eiio?iey aeaenoaee
oaeueaeoa?ia.

I?eaeaoaiea ia neoaeao a?a/ae e oaieueiaiea eo caaeneo io oacaeiuo
caineeo oi?aa; aiciaa?aaeaeaiea caineeo a?a/ae ono?aeaaaony oacaeiuie
caineeie nia?aieyie. Ioione a?a/ae ?ac?aoaaony oacaeiie caineie
oi?aau.[2, ioae.2, n.97-102]

Auaiaeu ii aeaaa

A Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea i?ioanneiiaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey auaeyaeae
neaaeothuei ia?acii: ?aianeaiieee – aaoia/ieee e naiiaeieee, aieei/ieee,
cieiouo e na?aa?yiuo aeae ianoa?a, aeanoyiueee e eoaeeeueueee,
eaiaiueee, eociaoeu, iaoiaua ianoa?a, eieanieee, noiey?a, ieioieee,
aiiaea?e, ii?oiua, oeaaieee, naa/ieee, iueueieee e ae?.; ecaic/eee,
aa?eanieee, iiaeaiueee; /eiiaieee; nieai?iiuoeaiieee, oeaaiiaooeu,
neioiaiaeu, iaoeaaiaeu.

3. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Aaiaoi?ee.

3.1.OI?AIAEss.

Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey.

I oii, /oi Aaiaoi?eeneee ii?o i/aiue iaoaeiaai aeey i?e?ia noaeia,
aiai?yo iiiaea i/aaeaeoeu, aeeoaee e ainoe ai?iaea. Oae, iai?eia?, a
«Iaiyoiie eieaa Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee» aiai?eony, /oi «Aaiaoi?eeneay
aoooa ioe?uoay, iaeeiaiaeiay e iaoaeiaia ie aeey iaa?ocee, ie aeey
noiyiee noaeia; eaiaiiay iaaa?aaeiay eiaao nei?aa oaanaeeoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, /ai oi?aiaue. Iie, ono?iaiiue ia naaa?iie a? eiia/iinoe,
ei?ioie e iiaeao neoaeeoue aeey iaa?ocee iaeeeo eaaioaaeae. Ii?neea
noaea n?aaeieo ?acia?ia noaiiayony a aa?noao o??o io aa?aaa, a aieueoea
– aeaeaa. Iaa?ocea ia ieo i?iecaiaeeony n iiiiuueth aa?eania eee eiaeie,
iiaeieiathueo io 80 aei 100 /aoaa?oae. A inaiiaa ao?iia a?aiy Aaiaoi?ey
?aciauaaony ii/oe n oi?aiaui ie?ii oae eae ia?ioiaeu i?eioaeaeaiu
auaatho ieiiaaoue Aaiaoi?eeneoth aoooo».[35,ioae.6, n.32] A «Iieiii
aaia?aoe/aneii iienaiee iaoaai ioa/anoaa» iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A. I.
Nai?iiaa – Oyi – Oaineiai ii?o iienuaaaony oae: «Iaaeaeo Aaiaoi?eae e
Iaeannie, a oae aea anaie e?uineeie e eaaeacneeie ii?oaie
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iinoiyiiia ia?ioiaeiia niiauaiea. Aaiaoi?eeneee ?aeae,
iaeiaei, i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueiua iaoaeianoaa, eae aneaaenoaea naiaai
n?aaieoaeueiiai iaeeiaiaeuey, oae e aneaaenoaea niaa?oaiiie
iacaueu?iiinoe n ii?y, ii/aio aeaaea iaaieueoea noaea aeieaeiu
?aca?oaeaoueny i?e iiiiue aa?eania ia aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiii
?annoiyiey io aa?aaa (ca 3 aa?nou), a eiaaea, neeueiia aieiaiea, aeaaea
aiana eeoaiu aiciiaeiinoe caoiaeeoue a Aaiaoi?eeneee ii?o caaicy
iannaaee?ia aianoi Aaiaoi?ee a Iaeanno eee Naaanoiiieue, a ai?iae eeoay
ia?aaeei iaiaoiaeeiuo i?eiania, eioi?ua ii iieo/ae ii i?aeiouanoao n
ii?y iaeeea eaaioaaeiua noaea».[1, n.684]

Oi aea aiai?eo e iiauaaaoee a iaoai ai?iaea a 1837a. Aiaoieee Ieeieaaae/
Aeaieaeia (1812 – 1870): «A aaaaiue Eiceiaa anaaaea i?eoiaeeei ec
Eiinoaioeiiiiey iiiaeanoai noaeia, iaa?oaeaiiuo ?aciuie oiaa?aie.
I?aaaea, /oi aaaaiue yoa ooaei oe?uoa, e a iae ei?aaee iiaeaa?aathony
eiiaaea iianiinoe, ii iiaeiaiua iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey ia iiaee
enioaaoue ionoeueiaineeo ii?aoiaeoeaa, eioi?ua ai anyeeo ian/anoeyo
ooaoatho naay neaaeothueie neiaaie: oae auei i?aaeii?aaeaeaii!

Ia yoii aa?aao, noieue neaai caueu?iiii io aiei, iaaeaaii ono?ieee
aea?aayiiia caeaiea aeey neeaaeee oiaa?ia; e yoiio caeaieth iiaoo
iiaeoiaeeoue eeoue aieueoea oethiee e a?aoue a?oc; ii ei?aaee
auioaeaeaiu noiyoue i/aiue aeaeaei io aa?aaa ia yei?a. Oaeia iieiaeaiea
ei?aaeae, aanueia iaoaeiaiia i?e naaa?i – caiaaeiuo aao?ao, noaiiaeony
/?acau/aeii iianiui a oi a?aiy, eiaaea aeoao n iaeioi?ie neeith aao?u
thaeiua e thai – ainoi/iua.»[15, n.6]

Ii aeaaea i?e oaeii iaoaeianoaa yoiai ii?oa a iai eaeao aeoeaiay
oi?aiaey.

Aanue i?eaic e aaiaoi?eeneiio ii?oo 1801 aiaea ninoiye ia 55 ouny/
?oaeae. Ec e?uineeo i?iecaaaeaiee a oii aiaeo auei ioiouaii a
Oea?uea?aae e Aiaoieeth, e?iia iaei/iuo, a iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa aauae,
neaaeothuaa: niee – 250 000 ioaeia, aieeieia – 25 000 ioaeia, oa?noe –
11 000 ioaeia, eiceeiuo aieinueaa – 850 ioaeia e ao?ie iaa/ueeo – 2 500
ioaeia. Aio a /ai caeeth/aaony aiaaonoai ia?aaeoaai a E?uio ii?oa. E
yoiio ioaeii i?eaaaeoue aeinoaaeaiiua ec ?innee oiaa?u: ioaieoeu – 20
000 /aoaa?oae, ia?eooae – 3 150, eiae eioa/ueeo – 6 036, eiae aa?aiueeo
– 600 e i?i/aa, a anaai ioiouaii ia 244 000 ?oaeae. [27, c.4] Oaeei
ia?acii, /a?ac aaiaoi?eeneee ii?o a ?aciua no?aiu auaiceeenue oiaa?u ia
oieueei aaiaoi?eeneiai e oaa?e/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e oiaa?u ni anae
eiia?ee.

Noia?ieia, iinauaaoee Aaiaoi?eth a 1801a., ano?aoee a iae aei 170
eiino?aiiuo noaeia, aeinoaaeaoeo ?aciuo a?ocia ia 55 oun. ?oa. Ii aea
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a oii aea aiaeo auaacaii ionthaea ca a?aieoeo aei 250
oun. ioaeia niee, 25 oun. ioaeia iaa/ueae e eicueae oa?noe e ieiei 2,5
oun. oa?noyiuo ao?ie.

Aa?iyoii, eiee/anoai iiaeiaiuo a?ocia auei cia/eoaeueiaa ai a?aiy
ainiiaenoaa caeanue oo?ie ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi iie aeaenoaiaaee o naay
e naiaiaeiaa e ai?acaei iaiueoa oiea/eaaeinue iioeei, eae ca i?eaiciua,
oae e ca auaiciua i?iaeoeou. I?e yoii iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo e oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi aei iiei?aiey E?uia a i?i ai?acaei aieueoa auei
oaoa?, iieo/aaoeo ec Noaiaoea i?aaeiaou ?ineioe, eioi?ua aiineaaenoaee
ia/aee aaiceoueny nthaea ec ?innee e ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa. [31, n. 3-4]

Aeaaiay io?aneue oi?aiaee a Aaiaoi?ee – ninoaaeyao oeaa, caeoiaaiue a
Aeaoa?eiineaaneie, Iieoaaneie e Ai?iiaaeneie aoaa?ieyo e ioi?aaeyaiie
ionthaea niioaaonoaaiii o?aaiaaieyi e oeaiai: a Eiinoaioeiiiieue,
O?eano, Ia?naeue, Nie?io, ia A?oeiaeaaneea ino?iaa e a Aiaoieeth, n
eioi?uie aaiaoi?eeneia eoia/anoai, iniaaiii – ea?aeiu, aaae?o
cia/eoaeueioth oi?aiaeth.

A aiaeu, iai?eia?, 1817 e 1818, eiaaea a E?uio e ninaaenoaaiiuo
aoaa?ieyo aue oi?ioee o?iaeae oeaaa, ec aaiaoi?eeneiai ii?oa
ioi?aaeyeinue io 120 aei 130 ouny/ /aoaa?oae a iaeio iaaeaaoeeth, ii
oeaiai io 33 aei 35 ?oaeae ca /aoaa?oue. A 1828 e 1829 aiaeao, eiaaea
aieia n Oo?oeeae i?einoaiiaeea /a?iiii?neoth oi?aiaeth, eo/oay ioaieoea
– a?iaooea i?iaeaaaeanue a Aaiaoi?ee io 6 aei 8 ?oaeae ca /aoaa?oue, ii
a aeaiue iauyaeaiey Auni/aeoaai iaieoanoa i ie?a aicauneeanue aae?oa aei
24 ?oaeae, e niaoeeaua oi?aiaoeu /a?ac oi iaiaaoeeenue.

A 1833 e 1834 aiaeao a E?ui, ii i?e/eia iao?iaeaaa a ninaaenoaaiiuo
aoaa?ieyo, /a?ac aaiaoi?eeneee ii?o i?eaacaii ec aeoiaeneeo ii?oia e ec
Eiinoaioeiiiiey oeaaa a aeaa iaaeaaoeee 132 345 /aoaa?oe, aea ec Iaeannu
74345 /aoaa?oe, anaai 206680 /aoaa?oae. Acaiai oiai ec Aaiaoi?ee
ioi?aaeaia n ecauoeii oa?noue, eioi?ie ioione aanueia oneeeeny ni
a?aiaie oie/oiaeaiey ia ia? iioeei, /oi iiaeii aeaeaoue ec neaaeothuaai
iieacaiey:

1831a. – 11,735 ioaeia.

1832a. – 19,970 ioaeia.

1833a. – 34,167 ioaeia.

1834a. – 67,789 ioaeia.

A iineaaeothuai aiaeo – ia noiio 692,844 ?oa.

Aiiaua iio?aaeaiea ?onneie oa?noe a Oo?oeee i/aiue aaeeei: a 1832 aiaeo
auaacaii nu?uo eiae 2985 ioaeia, 1833aiaeo – 5916 ioaeia, 1834aiaeo –
16332 ioaea 30 ooioia a neiaeiinoe oeaiie io 12 aei 14 ?oaeae ca ioae,
oae /oi a 1834 aiaeo i?iaeaii eo ia 179312 ?oaeae 25 eiiaae. Ninaaenoai
Naaanoiiiey, aaea oiio?aaeyaony aieueoaa eiee/anoai nieiieiu aeey oeioa,
a iniaaiiinoe niaeaenoaoao oneeaieth ioionea eiae ec Aaiaoi?eeneiai
ii?oa.

Naa?o oiai a 1834 aiaeo auaacaii ca a?aieoeo: iieioia e iano?yaee 236056
a?oei, oeaiie ia 95966 ?oaeae.

Ei?iaueaai ianea, ianiio?y ia iianaianoioth canooo e iaae?ae neioa, 3447
ioaeia 30 ooioia, oeaiie ia 65999 ?oaeae.

Naea 958 ioaeia 21 ooio ia 13351 ?oaeue 20 eiiaae, e naa/ naeueiuo 670
ioae 3 ooioa ia 9389 ?oaeae.

Niee e?uineie, i?e aieaa iacia/eoaeueiuo oaea iineaaeothueo ioioneao,
100458 ioaeia.

Aieeiea e ao?ee oaeaea oee oi?ioi:

1832aiae 23,407 oo.

1833 35,185 oo.

1834 20,805 oo.

A iineaaeiee aiae oeaiith ia 45,610 ?oa.

Iauee eoia oeaiiinoe oiaa?ia, ioiouaiiuo ec aaiaoi?eeneiai ii?oa a 1834
a.: ca a?aieoeo ia 1 248 892 ?oaey e a ?inneeneea ii?ou ia 376106
?oaeae.

*enea yoe iacia/eoaeueiu a ioiioaiee e i?aaeiei ioioneai oiaa?ia,
i?inoe?aaoeiny aaeaaiaeii ia noiio aei o??o ieeeeiiia ?oaeae
anneaiaoeeyie, eioi?ua aacaea i?eiyou a yoii en/eneaiee. Oiaiueoaiea
ioionea a 1834 a. i?aeiouanoaaiii caaenaei io iaaeinoaoea aeaaiie
noaouee, oeaaa, ii i?e/eia iao?iaeay aai a oii aiaeo.

E aeaaiui noaoueyi i?eaiciuo oiaa?ia i?eiaaeeaaeao: nooea o?oeou,
ianeeiu, aea?aayiiia ianei, eioa, oaaae, aaeiii?neea aeia, ?aciua
aoiaaeiua ecaeaeey, eae oi: eooiy, naiaeiaeaea, eia, iiyna, ieaoee,
auaieee e o.ae.

A naiie Aaiaoi?ee e a oacaea caeoiathony ia?eooee (niooee), eae /??iua,
oae e na?ua; na?ua eo/oae aeia?iou, iieo/athony io iaaoe aiaeyueony ia
iieina aeec ii?y io Aaiaoi?ee aei Oa?oaieooa.

Ia?eooae auaiceony eiiaaea ec Aaiaoi?ee aei 300,000 oooe a aiae: eo
ioi?aaeytho iaeaieaa a Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae, A?oceth e Aa?aee/aa.[19, c.4]

A 1846 aiaeo aaiaoi?eeneea aeeoaee i?iecaiaeyo aiaoithth oi?aiaeth n
Oo?oeeae, i?aeiouanoaaiii ca?iiaui oeaaii, io/anoe ei?iaueei ianeii,
iaa/ueae oa?noueth, eiaeaie e aieeieaie. A 1845a. iauee iai?io aiaoiae
oi?aiaee i?inoe?aeny ia 282433 ?oaey 57 eiiaae na?aa?ii.

*enei noaeia, i?eoaaeoeo e Aaiaoi?eeneiio ii?oo a yoii aiaeo, auei
neaaeothuaa:

1. Ii caa?aie/iiio ii?aieaaaieth:

N a?ocii – 30.

N aaeeanoii – 9.

2. Ii eaaioaaeiiio noaeioiaenoao:

N a?ocii – 39.

N aaeeanoii – 58

Eoiai:136

*enei ioioaaeoeo ec Aaiaoi?eeneiai ii?oa

noaeia auei:

1. Ii caa?aie/iiio ii?aieaaaiueth:

N a?ocii – 36.

2. Ii eaaioaaeiiio noaeioiaenoao:

N a?ocii – 89.

N aaeeanoii – 8.

Eoiai: 133[17, n.3-4]

Aaiaoi?eeneee ii?o aei aiaiiiai a E?uio a?aiaie eee eo/oa neacaoue aei
iiyaeaiey ia?ioiaenoaa ?onneiai iauanoaa, iinauathueo ana i?eii?neea
ai?iaea iieoino?iaa, eneeth/eoaeueii neoaeee ianoii ioieuoey a
Eiinoaioeiiiieue anao ii/oe eiaiia eee neaaeothueo a Iaeeo ia iieeiiaiea
ionoeueiai. Ianoiyoaeuenoai yoi oaeaea niaeaenoaiaaei oi?aiaea ai?iaea e
i?aaeinoaaeyei eiino?aiiui noaeai oieiu iannaaee?ia, eioi?ua i?e
ianoiyueo oaeianoaao ioi?aaeythony n aieaa i?eaeeae?iiuo e iei ai?iaeia.

Aanue iaaeinoaoie Aaiaoi?ee eneiie caeeth/aaony a ionoonoaee
?anoeoaeueiinoe, iiaouae i?aaeio?aieoue aeeoaeae io ciieiuo eaoieo
aea?ia, e aei?iaiaeciu oiieeaa, eioi?ia, eae e i?aaeaea, aei ianoiyuaai
a?aiaie i?eaiceony ec oo?aoeeeo aeaaeaiee e i?iaea?ony ia aan.

Oi?aiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue a Aaiaoi?ee, i?iaeieaeaaoae ii – i?aaeiaio
iieo/aoue a iacia/eoaeueiii oaea eiee/anoaa i?iecaaaeaiey iaaeo Oo?oeee,
ii neo/ath yiea?aoeee aieueoainoaa e?uineeo oaoa? – e nauo oocaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee ca a?aieoeo, ninoiyueo i?aeiouanoaaiii ec oa?noe, oeaaiiai
e eueiyiiai ca?ia, eiae, niee e o. i., iiaeii au?aceoue neaaeothueie
aeaiiuie ca 1866 aiae, a oa/aiee eioi?iai i?eauei: caa?aie/iuo noaeia
237, n oiaa?aie ia noiio ieiei 140 ouny/ ?oaeae, a auaacaii eie iaoeo
i?iaeoeoia ia noiio, ?aaiythuothny 650 ouny/ai ?oaeae, ?inneeneeie aea
noaeaie, eioi?uo auei a i?eoiaea 586, aeinoaaeaii a?ocia ia 553 ouny/e
?oaeae, a auaacaii n eeoeii ia 660 ouny/ ?oaeae. Yoe cia/eoaeueiua
oeeo?u ynii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi Aaiaoi?ey, ia i?aaenoaaeythuay
oaeiaiie noiyiee aeey noaeia, ?aniieiaeaiiay a ianoiinoe aeaeaei ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie ii/au e i?eoii eeoaiiie ia?iaeiianaeaiey, iieuecoaony
auaiaeaie naieie ii aeeaeaeoaio iieiaeaieth e Iaeanna e Eiinoaioeiiiieth
e aeaaiaea?y ona?aeeth ea?aeiia, ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiuo aeaeaaoaeae a E?uio
eiino?aiiie oi?aiaee. [31, c.4]

A 1862a. oi?aiaue iai?io ii?oa ninoaaeye iaiiiaei aieaa 2 iei. ?oa.
Ionthaea ii?neei ioo?i ioi?aaeyee ca?ii, nieue, ianei, oa?noue, ia/eiu e
ae?. oiaa?u ai iiiaea no?aiu ie?a a o. /. ai O?aioeeth, Eoaeeth,
Oo?oeeth, Aaeiao, Eniaieth. Auaic ca?ia, aeaaiui ia?acii,
ioaieoeu.[36,c.20]

Oaaeeoea 1.3.

Aeaeaeaiea eiiia?/aneeo noaeia ca 1883 – 1887 aiaeu Aaiaoi?eeneiai
ii?oa.

Caa?aie/iia ieaaaiueaEaaioaaeiiaI?eoiaeIooiaeI?eoiaeIooiaen oiaa

?iin aaeeanoiin oiaa

?iin aaeean

oiin oiaa

?iin aaeean oiin oiaa

?iin aaeean

oiinoaeianoaeianoaeianoaeianoaeianoaeianoaeianoaeiaaiaeu1883241518183062
715472918843720362930224049629188531425519296352623171886594573312952074
653418876033811432421251319

Enoi/iee: [35, ioae.6, n.34]

Oaaeeoea 2.3.

Yenii?o e eiii?o i?iaeoeoia

Ioaie/iue oeaa?aeaiie oeaaIaanss/iaiueEoeo?o-

caE?oia

ianyiiayEoiai oeaaaioaieoeaioea?iaeueioeaa ouny/ao

ioaeiaauaicaaicauaicaaicauaicaaicauaicaaicauaicaaicauaicaaicauaicaaicaua
icaaicauaicaaic1882331321—-5—1-4348251884-2326-3-21——-93631885–
-37—6-14-42—8-107

Enoi/iee: [35, ioae.6, n.48 – 49]

Eoae, eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu, ca aeaiiua o?e aiaea iaeaieueoee auaic aue
ioaieoeu, oioy oieueei a 1882 aiaeo. Iaeaieaa aea iinoiyiii aaiceeanue
ioaie/iay ioea – aeanyoee ouny/ ioaeia ia i?ioyaeaiee anao o?ao eao.

Oaaeeoea 3.3.

Auaic oeaaa ca a?aieoeo

AiaeuIoa

ieoea?iaeueIaanss/iaiueEoeo

?ocaAi?ioIoaie/iay

ioeaEueiyiia

naiyIane.

naiaiaAnaaia
/aoaa?oyo188025800–110–100–26010188238800——–38800188350280——
9276-59556188481260——7440-887001885115750——2300-118050188671590-
-1330—6064-78984Eoiai383480–1440–10025080-410100

Enoi/iee: [35, ioae.6, n.50]

Aiaeece?oy auaic oeaaa ca a?aieoeo ca 1880 – 1886 aiaeu, iu aeaeei, /oi
iniiaiui yenii?oiui oiaa?ii yaeyaony ioaieoea, eioi?ay auaiceeanue ec
Aaiaoi?ee ia?eiaee/anee ia i?ioyaeaiee anao aiaeece?oaiuo oanoe eao. Ia
aoi?ii ianoa iaoiaeeony eueiyiia naiy, a ia o?aoueai – y/iaiue, eioi?ue
n 1882 ii 1885 aiaeu aiiaua ia auaiceeny.

Oioy Aaiaoi?ey – ii?oiaue ai?iae e a iai oi?ioi ?acaeoa aiaoiyy
oi?aiaey, iiaeii aeaaea neacaoue /oi eiaiii ca n/ao ia? a ai?iaea oae
ao?ii eeieo aeeciue, aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey oae aea eiaao naie iainii?eiue
aan. Eoae, ?anniio?ei aioo?aiithth oi?aiaeth Aaiaoi?ee aoi?ie iieiaeiu
19 aaea.

Aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey

Aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey i?iecaiaeeeanue ai?iaeneeie eaaeaie, iaaaceiaie.
Oiaa?u, i?iecaaaeaiiua ianoiuie i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie,
i?iaeaaaeenue ia ai?iaeneeo ?uieao e y?ia?eao.

E 1838 aiaeo a ai?iaea ian/eouaaeinue 150 oeaaiuo eaaie, ianeieueei
aeanyoeia iaaieueoeo i?iiuoeaiiuo caaaaeaiee: 15 eiaeaaaiiuo, 12
aieei/iuo, 5 iueiaa?aiiuo e o. ae. Iiiaea i/aaeaeoeu oiiieiatho iaeio
oa?aeoa?ioth iniaaiiinoue: aie?oa ai?iaea ?aniieaaaeenue aieaa 200
aao?yiuo iaeueieoe.[36, c.20] Ii ieeoi ia iiyniyao, eiio iie
i?eiaaeeaaeao, eai iino?iaiu, eo aeaeueiaeooth noaeueao.

Ii iiaiaeo aioo?aiiae oi?aiaee iaaethaeaaony iaeioi?ia ianiioaaonoaea.
Iai?eia?, O. Aeiia?ianeee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey a
Aaiaoi?ee cia/eoaeueiaa aiaoiae e /oi naaaeaieyie i iae ii ia
?aniieaaaao. Neeaaeuaaaony eioa?aniay neooaoeey: oi?aiaey cia/eoaeueiay,
a naaaeaiee iao. Oi?aiaey yoa i?iecaiaeeony ?onneeie ecaeaeeyie,
i?eaiceiuie, ii aieueoae /anoe, n Oa?ueeianeie y?ia?ee, a oae aea
eieiieaeueiuie i?iaeoeoaie e ianoiuie ?aianeaiiuie ecaeaeeyie.[17, c.3]

A ioiioaieyo ?aianeaiiii e eiiia?/aneii Aaiaoi?ey eiaao noiaenoai n
Aao/ena?aai. ?aianeaiiua ecaeaeey aaiaoi?eeoeaa, eae e aao/ena?aeoeaa,
ioee/athony naiei iniaaiiui oa?aeoa?ii, iiyoiio, eneeth/ay ia?eooae
(niooae), naaeae, ao?ie, iaeioi?uo neana?iuo ecaeaeee, iaaeaeo ae?oaeie
iaoeeyie – iaoaoa?neeie, ecaeaeey aaiaoi?eeoeaa eiatho nauo ie/oiaeiue.
A naiai ?iaea, iaeiaei aea, Aaiaoi?ey ii ?aianeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a?
aeeoaeae iaaeaeo ionoeueiaineeie ai?iaeaie iiaeao caiyoue ia iineaaeiaa
ianoi.

Ioiineoaeueii oeiainiauo naieo n?aaenoa ai?iae a 1846 aiaeo, ii oai
oeeo?ai, eioi?ua iinoaaeythony i?aaeoaeuenoao ii /anoe ai?iaeneeo
aeioiaeia, ia iiaeao auoue i?e/eneai ie e ai?iaeai eneeth/eoaeueii
i?iecaiaeyuei, ie e eneeth/eoaeueii iio?aaeythuei. Ai?iaeneea aeioiaeu,
i?inoe?athueany anaai aei 5481 ?oaeae 89 eiiaae na?aa?ii, oiio?aaeythony
ia nai aea ai?iae, iiieiay iiae yoei ?anoiae ia niaea?aeaiea ai?iaeneeo
i?enoonoaaiiuo iano e ia ae?oaea iio?aaiinoe, icia/aiiua a niaoa.
Ai?i/ai, iaeuecy i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oiau ai?iae yoio, iieueciaaaoeeny
iaeiaaea a?iieie ecaanoiinoueth, iaanaaaea inoaeny a noieue iacaaeaeiii
iieiaeaiee, eae aeeaia i?ioeai?a/ea iauaio i?aoniaaaieth ai?iaeia
Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee.[16, c. 34]

Iaaeiai?u e iaaeieiee ia 1 aaaonoa 1872 aiaea /eneyony ii nai?ai n
o?aeoe?iuo caaaaeaiee – 30 ?oaeae, n iinoiyeuo aeai?ia – 8 ?oaeae, n
eiaeaaaiiuo caaiaeia – 6 ?oaeae, n iaea?iae – 4 ?oaey, n aocaiue – 6
?oaeae. N eaaie e iaaaceiia, ooaaeoeo ca a?aieoeo oaoa? ca 1865 aiae –
144 ?oaeae 25 eiiaae, ca 1866 aiae – 525 ?oaeae, ca 1867 – 180 ?oaeae,
ca 1868 aiae – 114 ?oaeae 90 eiiaae, ca 1869 aiae – 74 ?oaey 41,5 eiiaae
e 1870 aiae – 12 ?oaeae 80 eiiaae. Eoiai: 1051 ?oaeae 29,5 eiiaae. Oaeei
ia?acii, ooiae oaoa? ca a?aieoeo aeeye ia yeiiiie/aneia ninoiyiea
ai?iaea, oioy e a iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa.

Iaaeiai?u e iaaeieiee n aeiiuo iia?aaia ca 1865 aiae – 65 ?oaeae 50
eiiaae e ca 1867 aiae – 16 ?oaeae 50 eiiaae. Eoiai: 82 ?oaey.

Iaaeiai?u e iaaeieiee n iaea?iae ca 1865 aiae – 72 ?oaey 85 eiiaae, ca
1867 aiae – 43 ?oaey e ca 1868 aiae – 30 ?oaeae. Eoiai: 145 ?oaeae 85
eiiaae. N aocaiue ia 1865 aiae – 3 ?oaey, ca 1867 aiae – 18 ?oaeae e
1868 aiae – 18 ?oaeae. Eoiai: 39 ?oaeae.

Ii o?aoeaoiae neiaeiinoe 1869, 1870 e 1874 aiaeia, aeaenoaeoaeueii
iinooieei n?aaeiei /eneii a ai?iae: n eaaie e iaaaceiia ooaaeoeo ca
a?aieoeo oaoa? – 57 ?oaeae, n ianoiuo eoioeia, oi?aothueo ii
naeaeaoaeuenoaai 1 e 2 ?ac?yaea – 1420 ?oaeae, n eiiai?iaeieo e a?aiaiii
oi?aothueo ii naeaeaoaeuenoaai 1 e 2 ?ac?yaea – 165 ?oaeae, n ii?neeo
ia?aaiciuo n?aaenoa, n iiaeaiciuo eiaeie, aa?eania e yeeeia – 95 ?oaeae,
n o?aeoe?iuo caaaaeaiee – 375 ?oaeae, n oeu?theaiue – 12 ?oaeae, n
aeiiuo iia?aaia – 14 ?oaeae, n eiaeaaaiiuo eaaie – 13 ?oaeae, n iaea?iae
– 78 ?oaeae 7 eiiaae, n aocaiue – 16 ?oaeae.[10, eeno 3, 14, 21, 24, 25,
27, 71, 74, 77, 78]

Ec aaiaoi?eeneeo ieiuaaeae naiay aieueoay oa, ia eioi?ie i?iao?aaeai
a?oaceaineee eieiaeaoe e eioi?ay iineo iacaaiea «Iaeoi –
aaca?»(Ae?iayiie ?uiie), ae?oaea iaiueoea ieiuaaee, eee ?uii/iua ianoa,
iacuaathony «Aoeue – aaca?»(Oeaaiue ?uiie), «Eaeeue – aaca?»(Iaiuiie
?uiie) e o. ae.[16, c.4]

Oi?aiaey ia aeaoo ieiuaaeyo i?iecaiaeeony ?ac a iaaeaeth, ii
aeayoaeueiinoue a aoooa ia i?ae?auaaony n ?aiiae aaniu aei iicaeiae
inaie. [32, c.3](1875)

A 1891 aiaeo a caooaoiie e?ioa/iie oiaaea Aaiaoi?ee aeaenoaiaaei,
iai?eia?, 67 ?acee/iuo ieoaeiuo caaaaeaiee, aea aua 26 – a aeeaeaeoeo
naeao oacaea. A ?anoi?aiao e iaaaceiao ii 35 – 37 eiiaae ca aooueeo
iiaeii auei eoieoue noieiaia aeii, aeana?oiia iaoiaeeeinue 1 ?oaeue,
naiia aei?iaia – 1 ?oaeue 75 eiiaae. Aeia oa auee ec eiaiey Ou?ea?
aeaaeaeueoea A. A. Aaoy?a n THaeiiai aa?aaa E?uia, naea Aethe –
Eaiaaae(iuia Iaeue Iaye aeec Aeooou).

A i?eia?ii oai, aaea iuia iaiyoiee iiaeaoei a 1942 aiaeo ii?yeai –
aeanaioieeai – eaoa? ii oeeoea ?aaiethoeee, eiaaea-oi i?ioiaeeea oeeoea
n aeia?ui iacaaieai Aanaeay. E n iaiaeui /eneii eaaa/eia. Eiaiii ooaea,
iaaeaeo ia/aoueth e ia nio?aieaoaeny ainoeieoeae «Aaeea?» oi?iieeenue oa
ai?iaeaia, o eiai i?e aiae?ii iano?iaiee caaaeyeenue a ea?iaia e
aeaiaaeee.

Ia oeeoea Aeoaaiianeie (Iioii Niaaoneie, ei. Eaieia, ei. Naa?aeeiaa,
iaaeaaii ae aica?auaii i?aaeiaa iacaaiea) aeec ai?oaao?a anaaaea
iaeeaeae iinaoeoaeae aieueoie aeiiue, aaeaeaeiue, aano?iiiie/aneee,
oaaa/iue e iinoaeiue iaaacei Oea/aiei – n aieueoei auai?ii eiioao,
oieieaaea, aei, aiaeie, eieaanu, ee?u…A ia oeeoea Eaca?aaneie (oeeoea
?aaiethoeee) a iaaaceia Iaiaeioiaa iaeciaiii a i?iaeaaea auee
iaoo?aeueiua e?uineea aeia Ea?aaeaeeineeo caaiaeia (iuia naea Ieaiaaea
*a?iiii?neiai ?aeiia) I. A. Iiiiaa, eaia?aa?a eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a.

Ia i?aaenoaaeyei aieueoiai o?oaea ioaaaeaoue e aieae iaienoiai ieaa. Ia
oeeoea Aaca?iie (iuia oeeoea Iaoaaaaa) ?aciauaeny nieeaeiue neeaae
caaiaeia O. Aiie e E. Oai a aeinoaoea eiaeinue ieai oaeeo ni?oia, eae
ieeuecaineia, ia?oianeia, ii?oa?, aaineia, a iiiooii – neae?, eeiiiaae,
ieia?aeueiay aiaea Annaiooee ? 20, eneonnoaaiiua ieia?aeueiua aiaeu. Ia
oieueei iaaaceiu auee a ai?iaea, ii e i?aaei?eyoey oiai, aac /aai ia
iuneeia aeeciue a aea?eii E?uio. Iaa?aaeaeaiiue ?onneeie e eiino?aiiuie
iaaeaeyie caaiae eneonnoaaiiuo ieia?aeueiuo aiae I. E. Iaeeeia
?aciauaeny a nianoaaiiii aeiia oicyeia ii oeeoea Aeaenaiae?ianeie (ei.
Aeieo?ey Oeueyiiaa) e a iaiaeii eiee/anoaa yaei/iue neae?ao, eeiiiaae,
eetheaaiiue e oeaaiue eaan, naeueoa?neoth aiaeo.

A caaioa i caei?iauea aeeoaeae naieoa?ii – eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao
ecaeae a 1892 aiaeo i?aaeea «I ia?ao ia?aaeaeaiey io caiina yieaeaiee e
aa ?ani?ino?aiaiee», eioi?ua o?aaiaaee «a aoaeeao aeey i?iaeaaee
naeueoa?neie aiaeu, eae ?aaii e ia noieao, aaea i?iaeaaony eaan e
ae?oaea iaieoee, a ?aaii i?iaeaaoeai ii?iaeaiiai iaycaoaeueii iinoaeo
i?iiieaneeaaoue iinea eaaeaeiai iio?aaeoaey, i?e/ai aeieaeii auoue
anaaaea /enoia iieioaioea aeey auoe?aiey noaeaiia, a eioi?uo iiaeathony
iio?aaeyaiua iaieoee. Eaan nio?aiyoue a aooueeao eee aea?aayiiuo
ai/iieao, a aeey ioeaaeaeaiey eaana iineaaeiee caa?oaeaoue a
aea?aayiioth iinoaeo ni eueaeii». Ethaiiuoii, a oo ii?o i?aaeea
aeaenoaeoaeueii auiieiyee, eee eae iuia… E aua – aeee ee a «oi/eao»
?oeiiieieee – oiuaaeueieee – a iao i?inaauaiiue aae ?oee niieiniooue
iaaaea aeaaea ai iiiaeo i?anoeaeiuo caaaaeaieyo…

Naiiaaeoeaoeouny/iia ianaeaiea Aaiaoi?ee aae iacaae ca aiae iio?aaeyei
5130,5 oiiiu oeaaa, 71 oiiio ianea e naea, iyna – ieiei 50 ouny/ aieia
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa, iaaoe e naeiae, ieiei 87 ouny/ oooe ioeoeu, 700
ioaeia ?uau, 17, 4 ioaeia naoa?a, 1500 aaaea? aei e iaeeaie, 10 ouny/ –
ieaa, 40 ouny/ aaaea? aiaeee (a n?aaeiai a aeaiue ii ?thii/ea ia
eaaeaeiai aeeoaey, aeeth/ay ieaaeaioeaa).

Iiaen/eoaai iiiooii e eiee/anoai ieue, iiaeiuaaiie ca iaaeaeth iau/iie
oiaaea ?onneie naiueae ec oanoe /aeiaae n?aaeiaai aeinoaoea, iieo/athuae
700 ?oaeae aiaeiaiai aeioiaea (ia 1896 aiae): oeaa – 19 ea.; iyni – 8,
4; naoa? – 2, 2; ea?oioaeue – 8,7 ea.; iieiei – 546 a?aiiia; ?uaa – 900;
?en – 968; ioea – 600 a?aiiia; yeoe – 17 oooe. E aua ooio iiaenieia/iuo
naiyi eae eaeiinoai…

A iaoa a?aiy eaaeaeue aaiaoi?eaoe iiaeao naaa a n?aaeiai iicaieeoue ca
iaaeaeth ia 1, 4 ea. iyna, a eeoue 613 a?aiiia, oeaaa ia 3, 1, a 2, 4
ea… A aio ?uau i?eia?ii noieueei aea, yeoe aeaaea /ooue aieueoa.

A n?aaeiai ia /aeiaaea i?eoiaeeeinue 20, 75 ea. ieue a iaaeaeth. Anee
aeeth/eoue nthaea ?anoiaeu ia i?eia?aoaiea ea?ineia, naa/ae, iuea,
ae?ia, oaey e i?i/aai iaiaoiaeeiiai, eaaei iiaen/eoaoue: niaea?aeaiea
naiuee ec oanoe /aeiaae iaoiaeeeinue a ianyoe a 40 ?oaeae, n ieaoie ca
eaa?oe?o ec aeaoo /enouo eiiiao, eeaaeiaee e eooie – 50 ?oaeae. Oi anoue
ia iaeiiai aaiaoi?eeoea o?aaiaaeinue 8 ?oaeae 33 eiiaeee. I?e
n?aaeiaiany/iii aeioiaea ia eaaeaeiai ii/oe a 10 ?oaeae.[35, c. 4]

Aaiaoi?eeneee aeiiue neeaae ioionoee n 1 ethey – aeiy ioe?uoey aeiiie
iiiiiieee – ii 31 aeaeaa?y 1896 aiaea aiaeee e nie?oa 40 % anaai ai?iaeo
e oacaeo 19700 aaaea?. A iaeiie oieueei Aaiaoi?ee auieaaaony aaeaaeiaaii
ieaa a ceiiea ianyoeu aei 300 aooueie, a a eaoiea – a 4 ?aca aieaa.
Oanoeaeanyoe o?aoouny/iia ianaeaiea ai?iaea e oacaea iieuecoaony ieaii
ec Iaeannu e Neioa?iiiey, aooueea eioi?iai noieo io 7 aei 25 eiiaae aac
iinoaeu; aiaeea aea i?iaeaaony ec aeiiuo eaaie 40 %: noieiaia 1/20
aaae?a n iinoaeie 55 eiiaae, iaueiiaaiiia – 40 eiiaae. Anao eacaiiuo
aeiiuo eaaie a ai?iaea e oacaea – 16. E?iia oiai auienuaaaony
aeiia?aaeiiai aeia aei 1000 ai/ae a aiae. E?oaeue aiae nouanoaothuay ia
aaiaoi?eeneii ?aeaea iaaeaaoeey oaeaea niinianoaoao aieueoiio
eno?aaeaieth ai?y/eoaeueiuo iaieoeia.[28, n.4]

Oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee a Aaiaoi?ee e eiioeo aaea ian/eouaaeinue aieaa 350
n iauei aiaeiaui iai?ioii aieaa 8, 5 iei. ?oaeae.[1, c. 683]

Auaiaeu ii aeaaa

Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey n Aaiaoi?eeneiai ii?oa aaeanue i/aiue aeoeaii, aeaaea
i?e aai iaoaeiaiinoe. *a?ac ii?o ai?iae niaaaeaeny a iniiaiii anaie
iaiaoiaeeiuie oiaa?aie. Aeaaiie noaoue?e yenii?oa yaeyeny oeaa, i?e/?i
ia ioea, a ca?ii. Aioo?aiiyy aea oi?aiaey aaeanue ecaeaeeyie ianoiuo
?aianeaiieeia ii ai?iaeneei iaaaceiai, eaaeai, ia ?uieao e y?ia?eao.

3.2. I?iiuneu

Nieyiie i?iiunae

Aei 1775 a., oi anoue caeeth/aiea Eo/oe – Eaeia?aeaeeeneiai ie?a, ana
nieyiua ica?a Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee, ca eneeth/aieai i?iaiieneeo ica?,
iaoiaeyony ia Eeiao?ineie eina e n/eoathony ecaeaaia nianoaaiiinoueth
caii?iaeoeaa, i?eiaaeeaaeaee Oo?oeee. A ?innee e?uineee nieyiie i?iiunae
aue ecaanoai n aeaaieo a?aiai, i iai ciaee ia oieueei caii?iaeoeu,
aeeaeaeoea ninaaee E?uia, ii e a aieaa ioaeaeaiiuo /anoyo ?innee.
Aeaaiuie aeayoaeyie e iin?aaeieeaie a e?uineie nieyiie oi?aiaea
yaeyeenue caii?iaeoeu, a iioiio n ianooieaieai eaoa, eae oieueei
auyniyeny o?iaeae niee, i?enoaaa eee oaineea eiaiu neaee i?eaeaoaiey ei
ia ica?a aeey nai?a niee. Oae, 1764 a. i?enoaa Ia?aeiineiai i?iiunea
Aaaa – Eiai ienae e eioaaiio caii?iaeneiai aienea: «aeaaiaei?aiea Aiao,
Aai Nayoui i?iecaieaieai, naaiue aiaeo, oaea aunoiyiea naia naeaeaa,
nieue i?iecioea eciaeeueii i?ioeai i?ioeiai aiaeo. I?e/ai i?ioo a ia
caiaaeeaiee /oiaeia i?eneaoue ca nieueth». E?uineee nieyiie i?iiunae
yenieoaoe?iaaeny eee naiei oaiii, eee aea naeaaaeny ei ia ioeoi naiei e
yiu/a?iui /eiiaieeai aianoa n oaiiaeiyie, a iineaaeiai neo/aa oeaia ia
nieue iieaaaeanue i?iecaieueiay, a ia «ii iau/ath». Ii eaca/anoai
anaaaea yia?ae/ii i?ioanoiaaei i?ioea oaeiai ioyaiuaiey e a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa aa?o inoaaaeny ca ieie. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. nieue auea
oaea aeaaiui i?aaeiaoii e?uineie oocaiiie oi?aiaee. Aeiau/a e i?iaeaaea
aa i?iecaiaeeeanue ia Aaiaoi?eeneeo, Ia?aeiineeo e Ea?/aineeo ica?ao.
Ia?aua aeaa i?iiunea i?eiaaeeaaeaee oaio, a iineaaeiee – eaeaa –
noeoaio, ianeaaeieeo i?anoiea. Aaiaoi?eeneee i?iiunae aianoa n oaiiaeiae
yoiai ii?oa naeaaaeny ia ioeoi iaeiiio, a Ia?aeiineee n oaineei iiiaoiui
aeai?ii – ae?oaiio i?iiuoeaiieeo.

Aaiaoi?eeneee i?iiunae aue ai?acaei aaaeiaa nieueth, /ai Ia?aeiineee,
aea e naia nieue n/eoaeanue a oi?aiaea ian?aaiaiii ooaea. Aaiaoi?eeneay
nieue oea, aeaaiui ia?acii, ii?ai ia Eaaeac e a Aiaoieeth ia noaeao
i?eoiaeyueo ca iae a Aaiaoi?eth. Nia?aiiay n ica? nieue iaueiiaaiii
neeaaeuaaeanue a aoa?u «eaaa» ii 100 «naiia» eaaeaeue (nai = 108 ioaeai)
e i?iaeaaaeanue, niio?y ii o?aaiaaieth ia iaa e ii /eneo noaeia,
i?eoaaeoeo a Aaiaoi?eth, io 4 aei 6 ieano?ia ca «nai». Aaeaaiaeii
aeioiae io i?iaeaaee niee i?inoe?aeny aei 70 000 ieano?ia (20 000 ?oaeae
na?aa?ii).

Oaeiaa enoi?ey e?uineiai nieyiiai i?iiunea aei i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e
?innee.

Iinea caiyoey E?uia e o/?aaeaeaiey oai Oaa?e/aneie iaeanoe ?onneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai naeaei E?uineee nieyiie i?iiunae ia ioeoi a. Iaa?iaie,
eioi?iio Iioaieei ii?o/ee e anth oaiiaeaiioth /anoue Iiaie – ?innee.

Ni nia?oueth eiycy Iioaieeia ioeoi i?ae?aoeeny e oi?aaeaiea nieyiuie
ica?aie a 1791 aiaeo ia?aoei a ?oee eaciu, a iioii niiaa oeacii io 4
ia?oa 1794 aiaea i?aaeoaeuenoai naeaei e?uineee i?iiunae ia ioeoi.
Ioeoiiay nenoaia i?iaeieaeaeanue aei 1801 aiaea, eiaaea oeacii io 1 iay
iia auea ioiaiaia, eae a?aaeiay aeey ainoaea?noaa, e oi?aaeaiea nieyiuie
ica?aie aiiaue ia?aoei eacia. Iaaeci? ca nieyiuie ica?aie aue ii?o/ai
ionoaaiiio aaia?ae – iaei?o Ia?oaaai, eioi?ue oioy e aue iacia/ai a 1804
aiaeo Oaa?e/aneei aoaa?iaoi?ii, ana – oaee ia ia?anoaaae caaioeoueny i
e?uineii nieyiii i?iiunea. Ec io/aoia aeaeii, /oi a 1803 aiaeo auei
i?iaeaii niee aieueiii?iiuoeaiieeai 382288 ioaeia ia noiio 516 ouny/
?oaeae anneaiaoeeyie. Aeey oneeaiey i?iaeaaee niee aioo?e e?ay e aeey
?ani?ino?aiaiey aa a thaeiie e caiaaeiie ?innee auee o/?aaeaeaiu
neeaaei/iua iaaaceiu a Iaeanna, Oa?niia, Noaieneaaa, E?theiaa e e?aiinoe
na. Aeieo?ey ia Aeiio. N 1803 aiaea e?uineee nieyiie i?iiunae ia/eiaao
caiaoii ?acaeaaoueny; a 1804 aiaeo ec nieyiuo aeioiaeia ioiouaii oaea
auei 15 ouny/ ?oaeae anneaiaoeeyie. A iiniaea ai?iaeo Oa?niio a 1808
aiaeo o/?aaeaeaiu aieueieoeu aeey neoaeeoaeae i?e aaiaoi?eeneeo,
eeiao?aneeo e ia?aeiineeo nieyiuo ica?ao.

*anoiay nieyiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia auea ?acaeoa e iiiaea aeaaeaeueoeu
oiaeaoaenoaiaaee i iieoiea o ieo ica? eaciie.

Oaeay iiiiiieueiay nenoaia aeiaieuenoaey nieueth ianaeaiey
?anii?yaeaieai eaciu i?iaeieaeaeanue aei 60 – o aiaeia. Nenoaia yoa
eiaea nouanoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee, a eiaiii:1) noieiinoue eacia niee, i?e
aa aeiau/a, iaoiaeeeanue aei?iaea, /ai /anoiui nieai?iiuoeaiieeai; 2)
i?aaeoaeuenoai, anooiay a eiieo?aioeeth n /anoiuie eeoeaie ii i?iaeaaea
niee, eee i?iaeaaaei naith nieue e eeoaeinue a oi aea a?aiy aeoeeca ca
nieue /anoiuo i?iiuoeaiieeia, inoaaoaeny iai?iaeaiiie, eee aea,
iaiai?io, iieo/aei aeoeec n /anoiie niee, a eacaiiay nieue inoaaaeanue
iai?iaeaiiie e a 3) ?ac?aaioea eacaiiuo nieyiuo enoi/ieeia
i?iecaiaeeeanue iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii, /a?ac /oi oeaia ia nieue noiyea
/?acia?ii aunieay. Ana yoi iiaoaeeei i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aeoe e aieueiie
aeiau/a e i?iaeaaea niee, n iieo/aieai a eacio eae a?aiaeiie ieaou ca
naeaaaaiua aeey ?ac?aaioee /anoiui eeoeai eacaiiua enoi/ieee, oae e
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeoeeca n niee.(1858 aiae). Aeoeeciay nenoaia
caeeth/aeanue a neaaeothuai: eacia iinoaiaiii i?ae?auaao nianoaaiioth
nieyioth iia?aoeeth, oi anoue aeiau/o niee, ?acaic aa ii iaaaceiai e
oaeaea iioiaoth e ?acae?iaeoaeueioth i?iaeaaeo e ia?aaeaoue eacaiiua
nieyiua enoi/ieee aeey ?ac?aaioee a /anoiua ?oee. Ana aeaeu aiaeiie aeey
oiio?aaeaiey a ieuo niee, aeiauaaaiie /anoiuie eeoeaie ia eacaiiuo eee
aeaaeaeue/aneeo enoi/ieeao, iiaeeaaeao aeoeeco. Inaiaiaeaeay io aeoeeca
ia oieueei aiaeiua a ieuo anoanoaaiiua ai?ueeea niee, ii e iiaa?aiioth
nieue, eaeouoth a ei?i neioo e aeey oaoie/aneeo oaa?e/iuo i?iecaiaenoa.
Oiaa?iay nieue, iacia/aaiay aeey yoeo oeaeae, ioioneaaony aac aeoeeca ia
eia/a eae n ecaanoiuie i?eianyie, eioi?ua i?aaeoi?aaeaeaee au
oiio?aaeaiea oaeie niee a ieuo /aeiaaeo.

Iioiaay e ae?iaiay i?iaeaaea niee ninoaaeyao i?aaeiao aieueiiai
i?iiunea, aeicaieaiiiai anai ninoiyieyi, e?iia eeoe, neoaeaueo ii
eacaiiiio nieyiiio oi?aaeaieth. Eiino?aiiay i?eaiciay nieue iiaeeaaeeo
iioeeia. Ioaea/a eacaiiuo enoi/ieeia aeey ?ac?aaioee /anoiuie eeoeaie
i?iecaiaeeony ia neaaeothueo oneiaeyo: eacaiiua enoi/ieee naeathony aeey
?ac?aaioee n oi?aia; cia/eoaeueiua enoi/ieee ae?iayony ia o/anoee e
eaaeaeue ia eiaao i?aaa acyoue a niaea?aeaiea aieaa iaeiiai o/anoea.
N?iee ioaea/e ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia eieaaeaony io 1 aei 5 eao. Eacia ca
i?aai aeiau/e niee ec i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ae enoi/ieeia aceiaao iniaoth
iiioaeioth ieaoo, ?acia? eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony oi?aaie. I?e naea/a
enoi/ieeia a ?ac?aaioeo ii?aaeaeyaony ii?yaeie ?ac?aaioee yoeo
enoi/ieeia e ieieioi aeiau/e ec ieo niee. Oaeei ia?acii, n aaaaeaieai
aeoeeciie nieyiie nenoaiu, i?e iinoaiaiiii nie?auaiee aeiau/e niee
n?aaenoaaie eaciu, noaea auno?i ?acaeaaoueny /anoiay nieyiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth. Aeoeeciay nenoaia i?inouanoaiaaea aei 1880 aiaea,
eiaaea Auni/aeoei iiaaeaieai io 23 iiya?y aeoeec, aceiaaiue n niee, aue
ioiaiai e ni?acia?ii oiaiueoaia iioeeia n niee, i?eaiceiie ec – ca
a?aieoeu. Iiaue caeii ia/ae aeaenoaiaaoue n 1 yiaa?y 1881 aiaea. A
aeaiiii ii yoiio i?aaeiaoo I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaio Naiaoo oeaca iaaeaeo
i?i/ei au?aaeaii: « Iu oiiaaai, /oi ioiaia aeoeeca n niee aianoa n
iiieaeaieai iioeeiu, aceiaaiie n iiie ia a?aieoeao Eiia?ee, ia oieueei
oiaiueoeo oyainoe aaaeiaeoaai ianaeaiey, ii e iineoaeeo e ?acaeoeth
neioiaiaenoaa, oeo/oaieth caieaaeaeey, e aeaeueiaeoei oniaoai ?uaiuo
i?iiuneia e iaeioi?uo io?aneae oaa?e/iie e caaiaeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe».

Nieue, aeiauaaaiay ia aaiaoi?eeneeo, eeiao?ineeo, ea?/aineeo e
oaiaeineeneeo ica?ao, oea ii?ai a /a?iiii?neea e acianeea ii?ou.

N canaeaieai thaa ?innee, i?aaeoaeuenoai, aeey iaania/aiey /oiaeia,
ia?acaei nieaaiciua aei?iae. Yoi oioy e noanieei /oia/anoai, ii iii ana
– oaee iiaei nouanoaiaaoue. N oa/aieai a?aiaie nieaaiciua aei?iae
oo?aoeee oe?eio, ianoaie nea?ieeaaeenue ianoiui neioii, a ianoaie aeaaea
e ?aniaoeaaeenue. Ii oaeei aei?iaai i?eoiaeeeinue /oiaeo – nieaaic/eeo
acaeeoue ca nieueth a E?ui e ia?aoii. Iaiayaoenue a iooe aneaaenoaea
iinoiyiiie ai?ueau n aanei?ieoeae e auiiaaoaeuenoaii ianoiuo aeeoaeae
aieueoie ieaou ca aiaeiiie, /oiae aeinoeaae iaeiiaoe nieyiuo ica?. Ii e
caeanue aai ano?a/aao ianna anaaiciiaeiuo iaoaeianoa. Aieueoeinoai ica?
ie?oaeaii eee aeaaeaeue/aneeie caieyie, eee eacaiiuie, iaoiaeyony a
a?aiaeiii iieueciaaiee /anouo eeoe, aneaaenoaea yoiai /oiaeo i?eoiaeeony
ieaoeoue 15 – 25 eii. a nooee io ia?u aieia ca aiaeiiie e auian ia aieie
noaie, ieaoeee ca i?iione aieia /a?ac /anoiua caiee ia eacaiiua ianoaeua
e ca i?inoie iiaeaic i?e aoa?ao, eioi?ua ca iaeiaieai eacaiiuo caiaeue
neeaaeuaaeenue ia /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneeo. Iaeiiaoe, /oiae iaae?ae nieue,
ii aio ioaeii auei caieaoeoue ca iaa eacaiiue aeoeec, a aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeii auei naaneoue iaa?aiioth nieue. Acaaoeaaiea i?iecaiaeeeinue
naiui i?eieoeaiui niiniaii( aeaoeeiaeueiuo aania ia auei): nieue
aua?oaeaeanue ec iiaeaiaeu e a ianeieueei i?eaiia iaeeaaeuaaeanue ia
/aoeo aania naiiai i?inoiai ono?ienoaa. Iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue, neieueei
a?aiaie aeieaeia auoue aieueoay aaeea /oiaeia i?inoiyoue a iaeeaeaiee
ieii/aiey oaeiai acaaoeaaiey. Ana yoi aianoa acyoia ia iiaeao ia
io?aceoueny ia /oiaoeeii i?iiunea, eioi?ue iinoaiaiii nie?auaaony. N
iinoaiaiiui iaaeaieai /oiaoeeiai i?iiunea, oaaee/eaaaony auaic e?uineie
niee ii?neei iooai.

N oneeaieai auaica niee a /a?iiii?neea e acianeea ii?ou, oaaee/eaaaony
aeiau/a niee n i?eii?neeo i?iiuneia e a iniaaiiinoe a aaiaoi?eeneeo. *oi
aea eanaaony i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo nieyiuo enoi/ieeia, oi
oaeiau naaaeaiey iu eiaai oieueei ca 1885 aiaea. Ii aeaiiui Oi?aaeaiey
Ainoaea?noaaiiuie Eiouanoaaie a 1885 aiaeo auei aeiauoi niee:

Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae

A. Eacaiiua ica?a

1. Naeneia ica?i 2567180 ioaeia

Aai canooa 1620000 ioaeia

2. Nanue – Neaaoneia ica?i, o/anoee

? ? 2,3, 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 e 18 158449 ioaeia

3. Noeoai – Yeeeneia ica?i 226000 ioaeia

4. Aaeaea – Aaeeaeueneia ica?i 300000 ioaeia

5. Aaeaeueneia ica?i, o/anoee

? ? 1 e 2 597425 ioaeia 5469054ioaeia

A. Aeaaeaeue/aneea ica?a

1. Ioa? – Iieiaeneia ica?i 58000 ioaeia

2. sseu – Iieiaeneia ica?i 60000 ioaeia

3. Eiyieu – Eaiaaacneia ica?i 20000 ioaeia

4. A. Eaiaaacneia ica?i 80000 ioaeia

5.A. Aaeaee – Aae/eineia ica?i 30000 ioaeia

6. Oa?aeee – Eii?aoneia ica?i 20000 ioaeia

7. Eii?aoneia ica?i 660000 ioaeia

8. Ieao? – Nanueneia ica?i, o/anoee

? ? 1 e 2 372000 ioaeia

9. Naeneia ica?i, o/anoee

? ? 1, 2 e 3 294000 ioaeia

10. Aeoa/eineia ica?i 90000 ioaeia

1684000 ioaeia

Oaaeeoea nai?a niee ca 1869 – 1887 aiaeu Oaaeeoea 4.3.

aiaeeiee/anoaiaiaeeiee/anoai1869 aiae

4939 ioaeia1879 aiae

2003 ioaeia1870 aiae2497 ioaeia1880 aiae976 ioaeia1871 aiae1602
ioaeia1881 aiae2435 ioaeia1872 aiae 2562 ioaeia1882 aiae5348 ioaeia1873
aiae9301 ioaeia1883 aiae5514 ioaeia1874 aiae8840 ioaeia1884 aiae4845
ioaeia1875 aiae2005 ioaeia1885 aiae7153 ioaeia1876 aiae4496 ioaeia1886
aiae8558 ioaeia1877 aiae1233 ioaeia1887 aiae9851 ioaeia1878 aiae3580
ioaeia

Enoi/iee:[2, 19]

Ia Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae ii E?uio iiiaaeaei iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai
aeiauaaaiie niee(36, 2%).[2, n. 4 – 19]

Noa?ua nieaaa?u, aniiieiay iinea ?aaiethoeee i oyaeaeii o?oaea ia
i?iiuneao, n?aaieaaee aai n eaoi?aie. Iienoeia yoi auea «nieyiay
eaoi?aa». ?aai/ee aeaiue aeeeeny n oo?a aei ii/e, aei iieiiai ecio?aiey.
Nieyiay ?aia ?acuaaeaea eiaeo, ainua iiae iie?uaaeenue ycaaie e
no?oiueyie. Iiauaaaoee ia e?uineeo nieyiuo i?iiuneao aoaeouee ienaoaeue
Iaenei Ai?ueeee oae iienae a ?anneaca «Ia niee» iieiaeaiea aeiauo/eeia:
«Eaeay aeeciue iaoa? Eaoi?aeiay! – aeaeiaaeny iaeei ec ?aai/eo. – Oa/ea
– 16 ioae, ?aia iiae ?aao, a aeaiue – iieoeia! Aee yoiai iaei, /oiau
icaa?aoue? ?aaioaaoue, ca?aaioie i?iiueaoue – iiyoue ?aaioaaoue! Aio e
ana. E eae aiaeia n 5 i?iaeeaaoue yoei iaia?ii, oae e oiai… iaeee
/aeiaa/aneee e oo?aoeoue, – caa?thaa, aea e oaaao!»

Ia eo/oa auei iieiaeaiea ethaeae, caiyouo a eaiaiieiiiyo,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeth Aai?o Aieeiao. Eaiaiue – ?aeooa/iee
ieeeee aeoaiei iiae aiaeie i?e neaaii naaoa eaii. A iueueiuo e aeooiuo
aaea?ayo iaaeinoaaaei aicaeooa, eneonnoaaiiay aaioeeyoeey ionoonoaiaaea.
?aai/ee aeaiue e caeanue aeeeeny n oo?a aei ii/e. *oiau eae – oi
i?iei?ieoueny, iaeaoueny, o?oaeeeenue oeaeuie naiueyie. Iiiaea naiuee,
ia eiay eaa?oe?, aeeee a «iiaecaieao», auieeaiiuo a iaua?ao ia aeoaeia 5
– 6 iao?ia. Caoi ia aeanoieie yenieoaoaoeee aiaaoae e ?ineioii aeee
oicyei eaiaiieiiie. A oeaio?a ai?iaea ii aicaae naaa aeaooyoaaeiue aeii,
a eo?i?oiie ciia – aea/o, a oacaea i?eia?ae aieaa ouny/e aeanyoei caiee
e caaae naia yeiiiiii – iiiaue/uea oicyenoai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oeia. Ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo e ianoa?neeo oe?iei i?eiaiyeny aeaoaaue aeaineee e
aeaoneee o?oae. Ionoonoaiaaea naiay yeaiaioa?iay io?aia o?oaea. I eaeeo
– eeai iiea/eaaaiuo ioioneao ia auei e ?a/e. I?aaei?eieiaoaee aeooeee
?aai/eo iaiainiiaaiiuie oo?aoaie, iaoaiaeiui a?iceei oaieueiaiea.

Iinea ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea a noaiioth /anoue E?uia noaee i?aauaaoue iiiaea
aaaeiyee: iaeie ia naciiioth ?aaioo, ae?oaea – ia iinoiyiiia
aeeoaeuenoai. Aiieiua aieiaeii e ioaeaeie, ouny/e iaacaeieaiiuo ethaeae
ec oeaio?aeueiuo aoaa?iee ?innee, n Oe?aeiu iai?aaeyeenue a E?ui,
iniaaiii a ii?oiaua ai?iaea.

Iaeeaeaiea oi?aiaee, iaee/ea aeaoaauo ?aai/eo ?oe, i?ieeaaeea aeaeaciie
aei?iae – ana yoi aeaaii?eyonoaiaaei ?acaeoeth naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, a eioi?ia ana aieueoa i?iieeaee eaieoaeenoe/aneea
ii?yaeee. ?aci?yeenue iaeeea oicyenoaa. Aaaeiioa iiiaaeaea a eaaaeo,
aneaaenoaea /aai ana aieaa i?aaaee?iaae iaaiiue o?oae aao?aeia. *

[36, c.20 – 22]

Aiaaonoaii oacaea ii ni?aaaaeeeainoe n/eoatho nieyiie i?iiunae, eioi?ui
n iniaaiiie yia?aeae caiyeenue aeeoaee ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee, iniaaiii
ea?aeiu, n 1859 aiaea, oi anoue ni a?aiaie i?aaeinoaaeaiey i?aaa aeiau/e
niee ec eacaiiuo ica? e canoo, /anoiui eeoeai. Ia neieueei oaaee/eeanue
aeiau/a niee n 1859 aiaea, aeinoaoi/ii i?eaanoe neaaeothuea, ia
iiaeeaaeauea niiiaieth, aeaiiua. A i?iaeieaeaiea i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo yoiio
a?aiaie ainueie eao eiee/anoai niee, aeiauaaaiie ec aaiaoi?eeneeo
eacaiiuo ica?, aaeaa i?aauoaei 11 000 000 ioaeia; iinea yoiai noaei
aeinoeaaoue 15 000 000 ioaeia, e iaaa?ii i?aauneoue yoi eiee/anoai, n
oaaee/aieai o?aaiaaiey ia nieue ec aioo?aiieo aoaa?iee eiia?ee, eioi?ua
iuia, a n?aaiaiee n iaee/iuie caianaie yoiai i?iaeoeoa, ie/oiaeii.
Caeanue, enoaoe caiaoeoue, /oi a iienaieyo, i?yii eee einaaiii
eanathueony Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee, iieacaii a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea ia
iaiaa 40 nieyiuo ica?. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaeo ec yoeo ica? a iaoo?a
eee aiana iao, eee oioy e nouanoaotho, ii ia?anoaee auoue niea?iaeiuie.
Ia naiii aea aeaea niea?iaeiuo inoaeinue ia aieaa 15 e ec ieo
aeiauaaaony oeacaiiia auoa ia?iiiia eiee/anoai niee.[14, c.3]

?uaiue i?iiunae

Aua iaeiei i?iiuneii aaiaoi?eeoeaa yaeyaony ?uaiay eiaey. Ai?i/ai,
ianiio?y ia ana oaeianoaa a ?acaeoee yoiai iieaciiai i?iiunea, a /a?oa
ai?iaeneie caiee a 1846 aiae ia auei ono?iaii ia iaeiiai caaiaea aeey
i?aaeeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ?uaiuo iia?aoeee, a iioiio eia ?uau, iniaaiii
iaeeueiue aaniie e inaiueth, i?iecaiaeeony n ?ac?aoaiey ea?aioeiiiai
ia/aeuenoaa neo/aeiuie ?uaiuie i?iiuoeaiieeaie. Iieiaiiay ?uaa nauaaaony
/anoueth ia ianoa, a /anoueth aeinoaaeyaony a Neioa?iiieue.

Aiaeiaoth i?eaueue, iieo/aaioth yoeie i?iiuoeaiieeaie, i?eaeeceoaeueii
iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue 500 ?oaeyie na?aa?ii. O aa?aaia Aaiaoi?ee eiaeeanue
?uaa oaeeo ii?iae: eaoaeue, eaiaaea, au/ee e a iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa
einineia.[17, c.3]

Eaoaeue n/eoaaony ii aeono iaeiie ec eo/oeo ?ua, oioy Iaeean e ia
iaeia?yao aa a aeaeaie/aneii ioiioaiee, aiai?y, /oi io iaoia?aiiiai
oiio?aaeaiey yoie ?uau a ieuo eaaei iiaeaa?aathony eeoi?aaeeai.
Eaoaeaaay ee?a oaeaea i/aiue oaaaeaaony e i?iaeaaony eiiaaea ii 5 ?oaeae
na?aa?ii ca ooio e auoa. Iia i?eaioiaeyaony iniaaiiui ia?acii. Iinea
auieiaiey ec ?uau ee?u eeaaeoo aa aianoa n iaiei/eie a e?aieee ?annie,
iioii ayeyo ia nieioea, e eiaaea iiaenioiao, oi aeey eo/oaai naa?aaeaiey
iaeeaatho aineii.[19, c.4]

A?ycaea/aaiue i?iiunae

A aeanyoe ieiooao acaeu io Aaiaoi?ee, ii iai?aaeaieth e Aaiaoi?eeneiio
iayeo, eaaeeo ica?i Iaeiaeneia, ninoaaeythuaa nianoaaiiinoue eaciu.
Ie?oaeathuay aea ica?i caiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo ai?iaeo, ca eneeth/aieai
eeoue /aoaa?oie /anoe aa, eioi?ie aeaaeaao ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
/anoiia eeoei. Iaeiaeneia ica?i i?eiaaeeaaeeo e Aaiaoi?eeneie a?oiia
nieyiuo ica?, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ii caiaaeiiio aa?aao E?uineiai iieoino?iaa.

Ica?i yoi eaaeeo a 2, 5 aa?noao io ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee ii iai?aaeaieth ia
caiaae e eiaao oeao?o iai?aaeeueiiai iyoeoaieueieea, aa?oooeie
ia?auaiiiai ia naaa?i-ainoie, a ieaeiae /anoueth – ia thai – caiaae,
oie?athuaeny a ia?anuiue, eioi?ay neoaeeo ?acuaaeeiaieai ica?a io
ii?y.[21, c.4]

Oeie/aneee aiaeec a?yce e ii?neie aiaeu Iaeiaeneiai ica?a a 1880 aiaeo a
eaai?aoi?ee Ai?iiai aeaia?oaiaioa; ?acoeueoao aiaeeca iiiauai a a?ioth?a
A. A. Iueyieiaa «E?ui – Aaiaoi?ey. Iieiaeneia eeiaii – a?ycaea/aaiia
caaaaeaiea e ii?neea eoiaiey. Aaiaoi?ey. 1886 aiae». Ec aiaeeca yoiai
aeaeii, /oi ?aia Iieiaeneiai ica?a eiaao ii?neie oa?aeoa? e
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeeaeeinoue ianeieueei aeaeoiai iooaiea. Iinea
aeieaiai noiyiey iia noaiiaeony niaa?oaiii i?ic?a/iie. Iia oae ieioia,
/oi aea?aeeo /aeiaaea ia iiaa?oiinoe naiae ai a?aiy aai eoiaiey. Aeon
?aiu i?ioeaiue, nieaii – ai?ueeee, iia neoaeeo aeey i?eaioiaeaiey
?annieueiuo eee oae iacuaaaiuo ?aiiuo aaii.

A?ycue Iaeiaeneiai ica?a i?aaenoaaeyao ieia?aeueiue ee a aeaea iannu
aieaa eee iaiaa oaiiiai eee aeaaea niaa?oaiii /a?iiai oeaaoa, aeiaieueii
aonoie eiinenoaioeee, aanueia iioiaeae ia aaeno, neeueii ioaeathuoth
na?iui aiaei?iaeii. Ee eaaeeo a ?onea eeiaia neiai iaiaeeiaeiaie a
?acee/iuo ianoao oieueiu: io 4 aei 20 aa?oeia e aeaaea aieaa, e aa?aaai
neie iaiaa oieno.

A?ycaea/aaieoea e eoiaeueiy

A?ycaea/aaieoea ia Iaeiaea iieuecoaony a?ycueth ec nieaiiai aannaeia,
iaoiaeyuaainy ?yaeii n iae. Iaoo?aeueiua a?ycaaua aaiiu i?eaioiaeythony
iiae ioe?uoui iaaii, aeey yoiai a?ycue ?aneeaaeuaaaony ia oeaiaioioth
ieiuaaeeo ai noieueei eo/, neieueei i?aaeiieaaaaony naeaeaoue aaii.
?aaioiee, ?acianoea aeinoaoi/ii eiiaoie a?ycue, ?ac?aaieaaao aa a aeaea
neiy iaaeaeueiia aaee/eiith a ?ino /aeiaaea.

A?ycue iaa?aaaaony nieioeai, eo/e eioi?iai noaiiayony ana aieaa e aieaa
aa?oeeaeueiuie. *ania ieiei 11,5 aaiiu iaa?aaathony aei 37 a?aaeonia ii
?aiith?o, /oi n/eoaaony aeinoaoi/iui. Aieueiie niaa?oaiii aieue eiaeeony
ia nieio, i?e yoii ?oee auoyaeaaao. Caoai ?aai/ea – «iacaeueueee»
iie?uaatho ana oaei aei oae a?ycueth. Aaiiu iiae iaaeeoeeineei
i?eniio?ii i?iaeieaeathony 20 ieioo.

A?ycue, anee aieueiie oi?ioi i?iiioae a aaiia, naia niaith niaaeaao n
aieueiiai; caoai i?iecaiaeeony iiuaaiea ?aiith, iinea eioi?iai
iaycaoaeueii iioaiea a oa/aiea 2 /ania. Iaaae ?aeiiaiaeoaony ia iaiaa
eae /a?ac 2,5 /ana iinea aaiiu, i?e/?i eooaiuey ecae?athony
ieoaoaeueiua, ii e?aeea e oaeiaiaa?eiua. Aieueiui aiiaua ?aeiiaiaeoaony
?aaoey?iue ia?ac aeecie.

Oaiia?aoo?a aaii: aeey ?aiiuo 33 a?aaeona, ?acaiaeiuo 35,5 a?aaeonia e
a?ycaauo 37 a?aaeonia R. e aieaa.

Ia?aia aia/aoeaiea i?e oeeaaeuaaiee a a?ycaaoth aaiio aanueia
iai?eyoiia: ai?y/ay a?ycue neeueii ?acae?aaeaao, aeae?o eiaeo. Nionoy 2
– 3 ieioou iinea ia/aea eiaea anaai oaea, a oaeaea e eeoea e?aniaao. Ia
eeoea aunooiaao iaeeueiith ?inith iio. Caia/aaony neeueiay iaoaea?aeeiay
iio?aaiinoue aeoaieeo acaeioia. ssaeyaony oneeaiiia na?aeoeaaeaiea,
ia/eiaao noo/aoue a aeneao, aieiaa ia/eiaao e?oaeeoueny, eiiaaea i?e
yoii ?acaeaaaony neeueiay aieiaiay aieue. Ioeuen aeioiaeeo io 100 aei
120 e 160 ieioo. Iioa?y aana a aaiia e a oa/aiea iineaaeothuae
i?ioeaaeo?u iioaiey auaaao aanueia cia/eoaeueiay; iia, ii iaaethaeaieyi
aeieoi?a A. A. Ei?aoeeiai, n?aaeiei /eneii eieaaeaony ieiei 1,5 aei 6,5
ooioia. Iauee aan oaea aieueiuo iiae aeeyieai ea/aiey iieiaeneeie
aaiiaie o eiuo i?eauaaao, o ae?oaeo, iai?ioea, oiaiueoaaony.

Ii eieoeeaoeaa naiae a?a/e N. I. Oeaoeaiaaneee e N. E. Oiaeaeao a 1885
aiaeo i?iecaiaeeee iiuou ioiineoaeueii iaa?aaaiey a?ycaauo aaii, acyouo
ec Iaeiaeneiai ica?a, – ia ieiuaaeeao ec oeaiaioa e ec ae?oaeo
iaoa?eaeia e i?eoee e oiio caeeth/aieth, /oi a?ycaaua aaiiu ia
oeaiaioiie ieiuaaeea eo/oa e ?aaiiia?iaa iaa?aaathony, /ai ia ono?iaiiuo
ec ae?oaiai iaoa?eaea.

Ana enneaaeiaaiey ioiineoaeueii iaa?aaaiey a?yce e ?acee/ey oaiia?aoo?u
a ?aciuo neiyo aaii (ieaeiai, n?aaeiai e aa?oiai) – i?eiaaeeaaeao
aeieoi?o A. A. Ei?aoeeiio. I?e yoii oeaiaioiay ieiuaaeea eiaao oi
i?aeiouanoai ia?aae caieyiie, eae yoi aeaeii, ii n?aaiaieth n Naeaie,
/oi ii i?eiyoee aaii e oai?ee a?ycaauo iaaeaeueiiia oeaiaioiay ieiuaaeea
niuaaaony, aeaceioeoee?oaony e iiyoue noaiiaeony niaa?oaiii /enoie e
aioiaie e iiaie eeaaeea iaaeaeueiiia.

?aiiuie aaiiaie ia/eiaaony eo?n a?ycaea/aiey, eie aea ii ieai/eaaaony e
ninoaaeyao eae au ia?aoiae e ii?neiio eoiaieth. I?e iia?oaeaiee a aaiio
ii oath /oanoaoaony eaaeia aeaaeaiea ia a?oaeue, e aeuoaiea aeaeaaony
aieaa aeoaieei. O inia n ?acae?aaeeoaeueiie eiaeae /oanoaoaony coae.
Anee aieueiie oi?ioi auaea?aeeo aaiio, aeiaaaeaiioth aei 33 a?aaeonia
R., oi aio iaueiiaaiii ia neaaeothuee aea aeaiue iacia/aaony a?ycaaay
aaiia. Aieueiui, eioi?ua aiana ia iiaoo ia?aiineoue a?ycaauo aaii,
ethaeyi neaaui, ieioiai ieoaiey, aeaoyi iacia/athony ana a?aiy iaeie
?aiiua aaiiu, eioi?ua ai iiiaeo neo/ayo e aac iaoo?aeueiuo a?ycaauo aaii
i?eiinyo caia/aoaeueioth iieueco.

Iinea i?eiyoey ioaeiiai iaoo?aeueiuo a?ycaauo aaii iacia/athony iau/ii
?aiiua, oae iacuaaaiua «iooiaeiua» aaiiu, n iinoaiaiii iiieaeathuaeny
oaiia?aoo?ie. Aaiiu yoe aeathony aaeaaeiaaii 2 ?aca – oo?ii e aa/a?ii,
i?iaeieaeaynue aei 15 ieioo. Iinea aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa aaii
aiciiaeii ia?aeoe e eeiaiiui eoiaieyi e e ii?neei.

Nia/aea ?aeiiaiaeoaony eoiaoueny ia aieaa iaeiiai ?aca a aeaiue e
inoaaaoueny a aiaea iacia/eoaeueiia a?aiy. Caoai iiaeii inoaaaoueny
aeieueoa e eoiaoueny 2 – 3 ?aca a aeaiue, i?e iaeaunoae oaiia?aoo?a
aiaeu.

Eeiaiiay aiaea e a?ycue ieacuaatho nianeoaeueiua aeaenoaey ia oaei
oieueei i?e ia?oaeiii oiio?aaeaiee.[22, c.4]

*anoue Iaeiaeneiai ica?a aeeeiiith 100 e oe?eiith 30 naaeaiae eacia
onooieea ai?iaeo aeey i?iiuneiauo oeaeae. A?a/e N. I. Oeaoeaiaaneee e N.
E. Oiaeaeao aianee oiaeaoaenoai a ai?iaeneoth oi?aao ia onooiea
icia/aiiie iieinu caiee e i i?e?acea e iae noaiiie caiee a iauae
neiaeiinoe aei 34 aeanyoei aeey ono?ienoaa ia iae eeiaii –
a?ycaea/aaiiai caaaaeaiey. Ai?iaeneay oi?aaa, iaoiaey iieaciui aeey
ai?iaea eiaoue iiaeiaiia ea/aaiia caaaaeaiea, onooieea yoo caieth a?a/ai
a a?aiaeiia niaea?aeaiea n?ieii ia 30 eao, /oiau iie a oa/aiea o?ao eao
ni aeiy caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoa (1 naioya?y 1885 aiae) auno?ieee ia
a?aiaeiaaiiie caiea ana iaiaoiaeeiua caeaiey eae aeey eoiaiey a eeiaia,
oae e aeey a?ycaea/aaieoeu e caoai, ii enoa/aiee a?aiaeiiai n?iea ana
aicaeaeaiooua caeaiey ia?aaeaee au a iieueco ai?iaea aanieaoii.

Ia icia/aiiuo oneiaeyo a?a/e Oeaoeaiaaneee e Oiaeaeao n 10 ia?oa 1886
aiaea ono?ieee eeiaii – a?ycaea/aaiia caaaaeaiea ii ieaiai iaeanneiai
a?oeoaeoi?a A. E. Aa?ia?aeaoeoee. A?aiaeiaaiiue o/anoie caiee eiaao
oi?io /aou?aooaieueieea, oie?athuaainy iaeiie noi?iiie a ica?i, ia
aa?aao eioi?iai auno?iaia ia naayo aea?aayiiay eoiaeueiy e ia
ooiaeaiaioa – a?aiaeeiciay eaiaiiay a?ycaea/aaieoea, e?uoay /a?aieoeae.

Eeiaii – a?ycaea/aaiua caaaaeaiey – i/aiue e?aneaua caeaiey, oaeiaiua e
aianoeoaeueiua. Eoiaeueiy aeaeeony ia aeaa ?aaiuo iieiaeiu: ioaeneoth e
aeaineoth, niaa?oaiii eciee?iaaiiua iaeia io ae?oaie. I?e eoiaeueia
ono?iaiu 20 ioaeaeueiuo iiia?ia e iauea caeu. I?e a?ycaea/aaieoea
ono?iai aaioeeyoi? iiaaeoae nenoaiu, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai i/euathony
o?ainie?aoeeiiiua eiiiaou (iioaeueie).

A?ycaea/aaieoea ?acaeaeaia oae aea, eae e eoiaeueiy, ia aeaa iieiaeiu n
niioaaonoaothueie iiia?aie e iaueie caeaie aeey iioaiey. Aeey iaa?aaaiey
?aiu aeey aaii e i?aniie aiaeu aeey iiiaaiey ono?iaii ioaeaeueiia
iiiauaiea, eoaea oaeaea i?iaaaeaiu o?oau aaioeeyoi?a ec
o?ainie?aoeeiiiuo eiiiao e aiiaua ec anaai a?ycaea/aaiiai caaaaeaiey a
oae iacuaaaioth aaioeeyoeeiiioth oaooo.

I?aniay aiaea ia aeoaeia io 4 aei 14 ooioia iaeaeaia a eciaeeee; yoie
aea aiaeie i?ioathony naae e aaciiu, ?acaeoua ia?aae ea/aaiuie
caeaieyie.

Nacii eoiaiey ia Iieiaea e a?ycaea/aaieoea ia/eiaaony n 20 iay e
eii/aaony 20 aaaonoa. A?ycaauie aaiiaie ea/aony ana aieacie
?aaiaoe/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, o?iie/aneea no?aaeaiey einoae e
iaaeeinoieoeu, cieioooa, o?iie/aneea aeaineea aieacie, iiaeaa?a,
iaeioi?ua oi?iu ia?aee/ae, o?iie/aneea nuie.

I?ioeaiiieacaieai ea/aieth a?ycyie neoaeao aieacie na?aeoea e eaaeeo a
neeueiie noaiaie eo ?acaeoey. Eeiaiiuie a?ycyie iieuecothony i?e
iaeie?iaee e nii?yaeaiiuo n iei aieaciyo, iaa?aeaeyo, aiiaua ea/ao oa
aieacie, /oi a?ycyie, oieueei a aieaa eaaeie oi?ia.

A nacii 1886 aiaea a Iaeiaeneie eoiaeueia auei auaeaii aeeaoia 12000, a
a 1887 aiaeo n 20 iay ii 10 aaaonoa – 10868. Ni aeiy ioe?uoey
a?ycaea/aaieoeu, a 1887 aiaeo, iinaoeei aa aieueiuo (n 26 iay ii 10
aaaonoa)343 /aeiaaea.

Noieiinoue aeey i?eaia aaii neaaeothuay: a?ycaauo iaoo?aeueiuo eee
?acaiaeiuo n iiia?ii – 2 ?oaey (a iauae caea – 1 ?oaeue 25 eiiaae),
?aiiuo aaii n iiia?ii – 1 ?oaeue 50 eiiaae (a iauae caea 50 eiiaae) ca
eaaeaeue i?eai.[23, c. 4]

Auaiaeu ii aeaaa

Iniiaiia aiaaonoai Aaiaoi?ee – nieyiie i?iiunae. Aei 60 – o aiaeia
/anoiay nieai?iiuoeaiiinoue ia auea ?acaeoa. N 1860 aiaea Aaiaoi?eeneee
nieyiie i?iiunae ia/ae aeoeaii ?acaeaaoueny, i?e/?i iniiaiuie
nieai?iiuoeaiieeaie noaiiaeeenue ea?aeiu. ?uaiue i?iiunae, oioy e
i?enoonoaiaae a Aaiaoi?ee, ii ia eiae aieueoiai cia/aiey aeey aai
aeeoaeae e oi?aiaee. Neaaeothuei aaaeiui i?iiuneii oacaea yaeyaony
a?ycaea/aaiue i?iiunae. Ii a?eny Iaeiaeneeie a?ycyie. 10 ia?oa 1886
aiaea a?a/e Oeaoeaiaaneee e Oiaeaeao ono?ieee ia ica?a eeiaii –
a?ycaea/aaiia caaaaeaiea.

I?eeiaeaiea ?7

Nienie ?ac?aaioaiiuo nieyiuo enoi/ieeia a Aaiaoi?ee 1885 aiaea

Iacaaiea enoi/ieea e ianoiiaoiaeaeaieaOaieeee a?aiaeaoi?ia,
aeaaeaeueoeaa eacaiiuo e /anoiuo enoi/ieeiaIeiuaaeue, caieiaaiay
enoi/ieeii a aeanyoeiaoIeiuaaeue aannaeia a ea. naaeaiyo*enei ia?iauo
iaoei e eo neea*enei iiaeu?iiuo iaoaieciia e eo ?iaeA.Eac?iiua enoi/ieee

1.Naeneia ica?i.

Canooe Naeneiai ica?a, iaoiaeyueany a aanieaoiii iieueciaaiee:

a)Ainoi/iay

a)Caiaaeiay

a)THai – Caiaaeiay

a)*ie?aeneay

ae) Oth?ai – Aeaeeia

a) Ao?oi/oeneay

ae) THai-Ainoi/iay /anoue *ie?aeneie

A?aiaeaoi? a. Aaeaoaa

a. Aaa

Eaca?aa e Oiiao?

a. Iaeiai

?aeia e

O?aoueyeia

a. Niaaeiie

Oaoeei, Eaca?aa, Othothiaeaee

a. Aonaeia

992,5

228000

122000

19950

25000

56296

16900

19532

12465

1 ai?ec. iaoeia a 20 nee e 1 eieiiioea a 7 nee

2 eieana n /a?iathueie eiianoyie e 2 aeioa

id

id

id

id

id

id

id2.Nanue – Neaaoneia ica?i

Aai o/anoee

?2

?3

?4

?5

?11

?12

?13

?14

?15

?16

?17

?18

?19

?20

?1

A?aiaeaoi?u

Aoaoiae/

Oeoiai

Oaaeaeao

Eooeeay

Eenea/e

Aeaac

Io?eaa

Oiiao?

Oaeaeaeaeiaei

Eaio

Oaiaac

Aaeeaeiae/

Aaeeaeiae/

Oaeoai

Na?aoa

7349,5

36879

21874

12043

20523

16318

26435

63330

51891

50870

43622

37851

33315

11492

40898

2650

1 aeio

id

1 aeio

id

id

2 aeioa

2 aeioa

1 aeio

1 aeio

id

id

id

-3.Noeoai – Yeeeneia ica?iEoeoee75150000-3 aeioa4.Aaeaee – Aae/eeneia
ica?iOaeaeaeaeiaei1481070001 eieiiioea a 8 nee i?e iaeueieoea aeey
?aciiea niee2 aeioa5.Aaeaeueneia ica?i e aai o/anoee:

?1

?2

?3

A?aiaeaoi?u

Yiei

Aaeeaeiae/

Oaaeaeao

Oaeoai

Aia?aiaein

Eiaaoeeee e E.

728,5

57610

110670

28520

2 aeioa

3 aeioa

1 aeio6.Iaeiaeneia ica?i n nieii/aeii

Aeaia?aeaee

188,5

22353

1 aeio7.Aae – iaeo – Eei/aeneia ica?i

Yiei

15,75

22000

id8.Oaaoeaeeineia ica?iO?enoaiiioei4,515000-

idA.Aeaaeaeue/aneea enoi/ieee

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A?aiae. Aeaia?aeaee4742315-1 aeio

Enoi/iee: Nai?iee noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaiee ii Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee. Oii
9. Iaiyoiay eieaeea Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee./Iiae ?aae. Aa?ia?a E. A.
Ecaeaiea Oaa?e/aneie Aoaa?ineie Caineie Oi?aau. – Neioa?iiieue.,
1889,ioaeae 4, n. 11-12

Caeeth/aiea

A oiaea i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey aaoi? i?eoae e neaaeothuei auaiaeai.

1. Oa?aeoa? e /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?eeneiai oacaea e ai?iaea ai
iiiaii caaenaei io iieeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie ?onneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii. N 70 –
o aa. 18 aaea canaeaiea Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee i?ienoiaeeei oaioe/ii, ia
ieaiiai, ia iiae eiio?ieai. I?aaeeueiia canaeaiea E?uia ia/aeinue n 19
aaea. N 1806 aiaea Aaiaoi?eth ia/aee canaeyoue aieaa?neeie naiueyie. A
Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea oaea ia auei caiee, aeaaii?eyoiie aeey aaaeaiey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Iiyoiio canaeaiea E?uia ainoaea?noaaiiuie
e?anoueyiaie ia auei eioaineaiui.

N 1856 ii 1862 aiaea ec E?uia auoei a?iiaaeiia /enei oaoa?. Ia yoi
iiyoue oaee iiaeeyee iao?aaoee?iaaiiua aeaenoaey /eiiaieeia ia ianoao. A
1860 aiaeo aaanoai noaei anaiauei. Aaiaoi?eeneea oaoa?u aeaaea ia
o?aaiaaee auaea/e caa?aiianii?oia, a i?inoi aaaeaee ia oo?aoeeea
ei?aaee, iiyaeyaoeany o aa?aaia.

I?eaeaeaee a E?ui iinaeaioeaa ieceea oeaiu ia caieth. A Aaiaoi?eeneii
oacaea iiyaeeinue iiiai iin?eeia, ninoiyueo ec ?iaee/ae eieiienoa
caieaaeaaeaeueoea.

Niioiioaiea ioae/ei e aeaiuei caaeneo io ?yaea oaeoi?ia. Ai – ia?auo,
yoi ?aniaue oaeoi?. A neeo oao eee eiuo i?e/ei o aeeoaeae Aaiaoi?eeneiai
oacaea ?acee/iuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae iaaethaeaaony ?acee/iia niioiioaiea
iaaeaeo iieaie. Oae, ia 100 ioae/ei i?eoiaeeony aeaiuei: o ?onneeo – 90,
6; o iaioeaa – 98, 6; o oaoa? – 85, 0; o aieaa? – 100. Eoae, iaeaieueoaa
?aaiiaanea iu iaoiaeei o iaioeaa e aieaa?, a iaeiaiueoaa o oaoa?. Ai –
aoi?uo, yoi yeiiiie/aneee oaeoi?. Eae ecaanoii, yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea
ianaeaiey iaoiaeeony a caaeneiinoe io nioeeaeueiiai noaoona. O. i.,
i?ineaaeeaaaony oaeay caaeneiinoue: o eieiienoia ia 100 ioae/ei
i?eoiaeeony 100 aeaiuei, o auaoeo iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi – 86, 0; o
auaoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi – 91,8; o ?aciinineiaiuo eeoe,
eiathueo nianoaaiioth caieth – 92, 0; o aeanyoeiueeia – 86, 7. Eoae,
iaeaieueoaa ?aaiiaanea iu iaoiaeei o eieiienoia e eeoe, eiathueo naith
caieth, a iaeiaiueoaa o aeanyoeiueeia.

Eioa?anii, /oi /eneaiiinoue ioaeneiai ianaeaiey anaaaea aieueoa, oioy
nia?oiinoue n?aaee ioae/ei iaaethaeaaony auoa, /ai o aeaiuei. Iai?eia?,
a 1845 aiaeo:

ioae/ei – 5611 aeoo; oia?ei: ioae/ei – 248 aeoo;

aeaiuei – 4968 aeoo; aeaiuei – 189 aeoo.

a 1896 aiaeo:

oia?ei: ioae/ei – 318 aeoo;

aeaiuei – 248 aeoo.

2. Aaiaoi?eeneea a?aee i/aiue n?iaeieeenue n oaoa?aie, ia?aiyee eo
iau/ae e ycue. Oaeea a?aee iacuaaeenue aeaiaaeaeaie eee aiaoieeeneeie
a?aeaie. Ioee/aea eo io oaoa? oieueei i?aaineaaiay aa?a. O ieo ia auei a
Aaiaoi?ee naiae oea?eae. Aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe iie oaeiaeaoai?yee a
?onneie.

A?iyia n?aaee ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?ee caieiaee ia aieueoie i?ioeaio. A 1874
aiaeo eo auei 60, a 1888 – 159, /oi ninoaaeyei 1%.

Aa?aaa oaeaea eiaeinue iacia/eoaeueiia /enei a ai?iaea. Anee a 1846
aiaeo – 77 aeoo iaiaai iiea, 1874 – 138, 1888 – 483 aeooe iaiaai iiea.
Ii a 1896 aiaeo eo /enei a Aaiaoi?ee caiaoii aic?inei – 1443. N /ai
naycai i?eeea ianaeaiey yoie iaoeeiiaeueiinoe – iaecaanoii. Iiaeii
aeiionoeoue, /oi i?eaeaeaei aa?aaa a Aaiaoi?eth yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea
ai?iaea, /oi auei iniaaiii aaaeii aeee ?iaea eo caiyoey. Eioa?anii, /oi
/enei aa?aaa a aeiaiaiiua aiaeu e iineaaiaiiua aic?anoaao, a ia eae
n?aaee ae?oaeo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae.

Oeuaaia aeeee a naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoe ai?iaea, iniaiai aeeyiey ia
aeeciue e ?acaeoea ai?iaea ia ieacuaaee, noiyee ia naiie ieceie nooiaie
ia?aciaaiey n?aaee anao iaoeee E?uia.

Iaioeu Aaiaoi?eeneiai oacaea – yoi auoiaeoeu ec I?onnee, Aaaa?ee. AEeee
iie caieiooie aeeciueth a naieo iaueiao, ia naeeaeaeenue n ae?oaeie
iaoeeiiaeueiinoyie. Ia ieacuaaee ieeaeiai aeeyiey ia oicyenoai e?ay.

Ea?aeiu eiaee aieaa aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey aeecie ai?iaea. Oioy iie
oaeaea aeeee naieie iaueiaie, ii iiiai aeaeaee e ia aeaai anaai ai?iaea.
N?aaee ea?aeineiai ianaeaiey Aaiaoi?ee iaaethaeaeanue eioa?aniay
oaiaeaioeey: a 1846 aiaeo – 2025 aeoo iaiaai iiea, a 1874 – 1123, 1896 –
2907 aeoo iaiaai iiea. Aiciiaeii, i?e/eia – aieia.

Oaoa?u ninoaaeyee 1/3 /anoue anaai ianaeaiey. Yoio iaoeeiiaeueiue ieano
aeeoaeae Aaiaoi?ee eiae aaniiia cia/aiea, eae ii /eneaiiinoe, oae e ii
aeayoaeueiinoe a aeecie iauanoaa anaai ai?iaea. Ai?iae e oacae iiian
aieueoea yeiiiie/aneea iioa?e, eiaaea a iineaaiaiiia a?aiy iaiaoeeanue
oaiaeaioeey e aunaeaieth oaoa? ec E?uia. Oiaaea iaaiiaoaineia ianaeaiea
nie?aoeeinue n 8629 aeoo iaiaai iiea( 1846 aiae) aei 1217 aeoo iaiaai
iiea( 1874 aiae). Oioy a 1896 aiaeo /enei oaoa? oaaee/eeinue aei 5081,
i?aaeiee o?iaaiue ia aue aeinoeaioo.

I?aaineaaiua ii eiee/anoao a aeiaiaiiia a?aiy iaoiaeeeenue ia o?aoueai
ianoa iinea oaoa? e ea?aeiia: a 1846 aiaeo – 1386 /aeiaae. Ii 1874 aiae
iieacuaaao oaeea aeaiiua: 1420 aeoo iaiaai iiea, aoi?ia ianoi iinea
/eneaiiinoe oaoa?neiai ianaeaiey. I?e/?i, ioaeii caiaoeoue, n?aaieaay
aei – e iineaaiaiiia a?aiy, /eneaiiinoue i?aaineaaiuo ia oiaiueoeeanue,
a aic?inea, oioy e ia ia iiiai. E 1896 aiaeo i?aaineaaiia ianaeaiea
aic?inei aei 6516 aeoo iaiaai iiea.

*oi eanaaony eiino?aioeaa, oi Aaiaoi?eth iinauaee e aeeee a iae
iiaeaeaiiua oaeeo ainoaea?noa, eae Oo?oeey, A?aoeey, Aano?i – Aaia?ey,
Oaaeoea?ey, O?aioeey, ?oiuiey, Aieaa?ey, Aa?iaiey.

Aeey n?aaiaiey aaoi? i?eaiaeeo oaeea aeaiiua: a 1846 aiaeo a Aaiaoi?ee
auei 203 eiino?aioea, a 1874 aiaeo – 7, a a 1896 aiaeo – 735 /aeiaae.
Eae aeaeei, oi?aiaue ii?oiaue ai?iae eioa?anai aeey eiino?aioeaa. Ii
aiaiiia e iineaaiaiiia a?aiy ia auei aeaaii?eyoiui aeey oi?aiaie e eiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a yoii oacaea, /oi e neacaeinue ia /enea eiino?aioeaa a
iineaaiaiiua aiaeu.

3. Aiai?y i o?oaeiaie caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ioaeii oeacaoue, /oi a
Aaiaoi?ee aoi?ie iieiaeiu 19 aaea caiyoey ianaeaiey auee a niioaaonoaee
n ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaoeeiiaeueiinoyie. Oae, ?onneea, a iniiaiii,
/eiiaieee, o?aioeocu e eoaeueyioeu – i?eacaeea oi?aiaoeu, a?aee e a?iyia
– ia?iae oi?aiaue, ii auee iaaeaeo ieie e ?aianeaiieee e aa?eanieee,
aa?ae – ?aianeaiieee e oi?aiaoeu, ea?aeiu – aea?aeao a ?oeao ii/oe anth
oi?aiaeth, iiiai n?aaee ieo nieai?iiuoeaiieeia, oaoa?u caieiathony eee
iiaeaiiie ?aaioie, eee iaeeie oi?aiaeae, eee aaooaiueee.

Ana aaiaoi?eeneia iauanoai ia i?aaenoaaeyei ec naay iaeii?iaeiie
niei/?iiie iannu, a auei ?acaeaeaii eee ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio i?eioeeio,
eee ii i?eioeeio o?oaeiaie caiyoinoe. Ii iineaaeiaio i?eioeeio, a
iniiaiii, i?aaieciauaaeenue aa?ae.

Iiiaea iiiaue/uee oicyenoaa caieiaeenue oaeei i?eaueueiui aeaeii, eae
?acaaaeaiea iaaoe. Eneeth/eoaeueii i?eiaaeeaaeauay yoiio oacaeo ii?iaea
– ia?eooeiaua aa?aiu.

4. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aaaeaony ai?iaeii /a?ac ii?o. Aaiaoi?eneee ii?o,
oioy e ia oaeiaai, ii iieuecoaony auaiaeaie aeeceiai ?aniieiaeaiey e
Iaeanna e Eiinoaioeiiiieth. Iiaeii neacaoue, iniiaiuie aeaeaaoaeyie
eiino?aiiie oi?aiaee a Aaiaoi?ee – ea?aeiu. Iniiaiuie i?eaiciuie
oiaa?aie yaeyeinue: nooea o?oeou, ianeeiu, aea?aayiiia ianei, eioa,
oaaae, aaeiii?neea aeia, ?aciua aoiaaeiua ecaeaeey – eooiy, naiieiaeaea,
eia, iiyna, ieaoee, auaieee. Ioioneiua oiaa?u – niee, aieeiei, oa?noue,
eiaee, iieioii, iano?yaee, ianei, naei, ia?eooee.

Iniiaiay noaouey yenii?oa – ioaieoea.

A 1834 aiaeo iaaethaeaaony oiaiueoaiea ioionea ec Aaiaoi?eeneiai ii?oa.
Yoi caaenaei io iaaeinoaoea aeaaiiai yenii?oiiai oiaa?a – oeaaa, ec – ca
iao?iaeay 1834 aiaea.

Ninaaenoai Naaanoiiiey, aaea oiio?aaeyaony aieueoia eiee/anoai nieiieiu
aeey oeioa, niaeaenoaoao oneeaieth ioionea eiae ec Aaiaoi?eeneiai ii?oa.

Aneaaenoaea oie/oiaeaiey iioeeiu ia oa?noue, a? ioione aanueia oneeeeny
iinea 1831 aiaea. Yoi aeaeii ec n?aaieoaeueiuo aeaiiuo ca 4 aiaea: a
1831 – 11 735 ioaeia; 1832 – 19 970 ioaeia; 1833 – 34 167; 1834 – 67 789
ioaeia.

Eiae auaiceeinue iaiiiai iaiueoa: 1832 – 2 985 ioaeia; 1833 – 5 916
ioaeia; 1834 – 16 332 ioaea 30 ooioia oeaiie 12 – 14 ?oaeae ca ioae.

Eo/oa o?e auaic aieeiea e ao?ie: 1832 – 23 407 oooe; 1833 – 35 185; 1834
– 20 805 oooe. Iauee eoia oeaiiinoe oiaa?ia, ioiouaiiuo ec
Aaiaoi?eeneiai ii?oa a 1834 aiaeo ca a?aieoeo ninoaaee 124889 ?oaeae e a
?inneeneea ii?ou – 376106 ?oaeae.

Aaiaoi?eeneea ei?aaee oi?aiaaee n Eiinoaioeiiiieai, O?eanoii, Ia?naeai,
Nie?iie, A?oeiaeaaneeie ino?iaaie, Aiaoieeae, O?aioeeae, Eoaeeae,
Aaeioii e Eniaieae.

Oeaa caeoiaeny a Aeaoa?eiineaaneie, Iieoaaneie e Ai?iiaaeneie aoaa?ieyo.

A 1846 aiaeo aiaoiyy oi?aiaey auea a iniiaiii n Oo?oeeae ca?iiaui
oeaaii, io/anoe ei?iaueei ianeii, iaa/ueae oa?noueth, eiaeaie e
aieeieaie. Iauee iai?io ia 282433 ?oaey 57 eiiaae na?aa?ii.

A 1862 aiaeo oi?aiaey aaeanue n O?aioeeae, Eoaeeae, Oo?oeeae, Aaeioii,
Eniaieae. Aeaaiui ia?acii auaiceeanue ioaieoea.

A 1866 aiaeo eiino?aiiuie noaeaie auei auaacaii oiaa?ia ia noiio 650
ouny/ ?oaeae; ?inneeneeie – ia 660 ouny/ ?oaeae. Aaacaii eiino?aiiuie
oiaa?aie ia 140 ouny/ ?oaeae; ?onneeie – ia 553 ouny/e ?oaeae.

Aiaeece?oy auaic oeaaa ca a?aieoeo ca 1880 – 1886 aiaeu, aaoi? aeaeaao
auaiae, /oi iniiaiui yenii?oiui oiaa?ii yaeyeanue ioaieoea, eioi?ay
auaiceeanue ec Aaiaoi?ee ia?eiaee/anee ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaeece?oaiuo
oanoe eao. Ia aoi?ii ianoa ii auaico iaoiaeeony eueiyiia naiy, a ia
o?aoueai – y/iaiue, eioi?ue n 1882 ii 1885 aiaeu aiiaua ia auaiceeny.

Aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey i?iecaiaeeeanue ia ieiuaaeyo «Iaeoi – aaca?» – naiie
aieueoie, «Aoeue – aaca?», «Eaeeue – aaca?». Oi?aiaey ia aeaoo ieiuaaeyo
i?iecaiaeeeanue ?ac a iaaeaeth, a aeayoaeueiinoue a aoooa ia
i?ae?auaeanue n ?aiiae aaniu aei iicaeiae inaie. Ii nouanoaoao iaeioi?ia
ianiioaaonoaea ii iiaiaeo aioo?aiiae oi?aiaee. Aeiia?ianeee
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey cia/eoaeueiaa aiaoiae, ii
naaaeaiee i iae iao. Yoi iiaeao iieacaoueny no?aiiui.

Anee aiai?eoue i naiie aioo?aiiae oi?aiaea, oi ecaeaeey aaiaoi?eeneeo
?aianeaiieeia ia eiaee aieueoiai nauoa n?aaee iaoaoa?neiai ianaeaiey,
e?iia n?aeae, ao?ie e iiaeiaiuo aauae.

E 1846 aiaeo Aaiaoi?ey ia iiaea auoue i?e/eneaia ie e ai?iaeai
eneeth/eoaeueii iio?aaeythuei, ie e eneeth/eoaeueii i?iecaiaeyuei.
Ai?iaeneea aeioiaeu oiio?aaeyeenue ia nai ai?iae. A 1846 aiaea iie
aeioiaeeee aei 5481 ?oaey 89 eiiaae na?aa?ii. Aeioiaeu ai?iaea ai iiiaii
ninoiyo ec nai?ia n ?acee/iuo ai?iaeneeo caaaaeaiee. Ia eaaeaeue aiae
iaaethaeaeenue iaaeiai?u e iaaeieiee n iaeioi?uo ec ieo (Oaaeeoea
iaaeiai?ia e iaaeieiie. I?eeiaeaiea? )

E 1891 aiaeo a Aaiaoi?ee ian/eouaaeinue 67 ieoaeiuo caaaaeaiee e 26 a
aeeaeaeoeo naeao oacaea. Aeia i?eaiceeenue ec eiaiey Ou?ea? aeaaeaeueoea
A. A. Aaoy?a n THaeiiai aa?aaa E?uia, naea Aethe – Eaiaaae ( ieiei
Aeooou), ec Ea?aaeaeeineeo caaiaeia (*a?iiii?neee ?aeii). Ia oeeoea
Aeoaaiianeie ?aciauaeny aieueoie aeiiue, aaeaeaeiue, aano?iiiie/aneee,
oaaa/iue e iinoaeiue iaaacei Oea/aiei. Ia oeeoea Eaca?aaneie (oeeoea
?aaiethoeee) – aeiiue iaaacei Iaiaeioiaa. Ia oeeoea Aaca?iie (Iaoaaaaa)
– ?aciauaeny neeaae caaiaeia O.Aiie e E. Oai a aeinoaoea eiaeinue oaeia
ieai eae iaeuecaineia, ia?oianeia, ii?oa?, aaineia, a oae aea neae?,
ieia?aeueiay aiaea Annaiooee ?20, eneonnoaaiiua ieia?aeueiua aiaeu,
eioi?ua i?iecaiaeeeenue iaa?aaeaeaiiui ?onneeie e eiino?aiiuie aeaeyie
caaiaeii eneonnoaaiiuo ieia?aeueiuo aiae I. E. Iaeeeia. Yoio caaiae
?aciauaeny a nianoaaiiii aeiia oicyeia ii oeeoea Aeaenaiae?ianeie (Aei.
Oeueyiiaa).

A 1892 aiaeo naieoa?ii – eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao ecaeae i?aaeea «I ia?ao
ia?aaeaeaiey io caiina yieaeaiee e aa ?ani?ino?aiaiee», eioi?ua
o?aaiaaee «a aoaeeao aeey i?iaeaaee naeueoa?neie aiaeu, eae ?aaii e ia
noieao, aaea i?iaeaaony eaan e ae?oaea iaieoee, a ?aaii i?iaeaaoeai
ii?iaeaiiai iaycaoaeueii iinoaeo i?iiieaneeaaoue iinea eaaeaeiai
iio?aaeoaey, i?e/ai aeieaeii auoue anaaaea /enoia iieioaioea aeey
auoe?aiey noaeaiia, a eioi?uo iiaeathony iio?aaeyaiua iaieoee. Eaan
nio?aiyoue a aooueeao eee aea?aayiiuo ai/iieao, a aeey ioeaaeaeaiey
eaana iineaaeiee caa?oaeaoue a aea?aayiioth iinoaeo ni eueaeii».

1 ethey 1896 aiaea – aeaiue ioe?uoey aeiiie iiiiiieee. Eacaiiuo aeiiuo
eaaie a ai?iaea e oacaea auei 16. E?oaeiaiaee/iay iaaeaaoeey ia
aaiaoi?eeneii ?aeaea niinianoaiaaei aieueoiio iio?aaeaieth nie?oiuo
iaieoeia.

Oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee a Aaiaoi?ee e eiioeo aaea ian/eouaaeinue aieaa 350
n iauei aiaeiaui iai?ioii aieaa 8,5 ieeeeiiia ?oaeae.

5. Ianoiyuei aiaaonoaii Aaiaoi?eeneiai oacaea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea
yaeyeny nieyiie i?iiunae. Aaiaoi?eeneay nieue ninoaaeyea cia/eoaeueioth
noaoueth yenii?oa. Aua ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 18 aaea nieue auea aeaaiui
i?aaeiaoii e?uineie oocaiiie oi?aiaee. Aaiaoi?eeneay nieue auea ooaea,
/ai, iai?eia?, ia?aeiineay. Iia oea, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia Eaaeac e a
Aiaoieeth.

Iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee i?ienoiaeeea iiiaie?aoiay ia?aaea/a
i?iiunea ia ioeoi /anoiui eeoeai e ia?aoii, iiea a 1801 aiaeo 1 iay
ioeoiiay nenoaia auea ioiaiaia e oi?aaeaiea nieyiuie ic??aie ia?aoei e
eacia. Oae auei aei 1859 aiaea. Nenoaia yoa eiaea nouanoaaiiua
iaaeinoaoee, /oi iiaoaeeei i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aeoe e /anoiie
nieai?iiuoeaiiinoe n iieo/aieai a eacio a?aiaeiie ieaou ca naeaaaaiua
eac?iiua enoi/ieee e ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeoeeca. Aieueiue i?iiunae
aeicaieyeny anai ninoiyieyi, e?iia eeoe, neoaeaueo ii eacaiiiio nieyiiio
oi?aaeaieth.

Eiino?aiiay i?eaiciay nieue iiaeeaaeeo iioeeia. Ioaea/a eac?iiuo
enoi/ieeia aeey ?ac?aaioee /anoiuie eeoeaie i?iecaiaeeeanue ia
neaaeothueo oneiaeyo:

1)eac?iiua enoi/ieee naeathony n oi?aia;

2)cia/eoaeueiua enoi/ieee ae?iayony ia o/anoee, e ieeoi ia eiaao i?aaa
acyoue aieaa iaeiiai o/anoea;

3)n?iee ioaea/e ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia eieaaeaony io 1 aei 5 eao;

4)eacia aceiaao iniaoth iiioaeioth ieaoo;

5)i?e naea/a enoi/ieeia a ?ac?aaioeo ii?aaeaeyaony ii?yaeie ?ac?aaioee
yoeo enoi/ieeia, e ieieioi aeiau/e ec ieo niee. Aneaaenoaea yoiai noaea
auno?i ?acaeaaoueny /anoiay nieyiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ianoiyuaa ?acaeoea
yoiai i?iiunea ia/aeinue n 1856 aiaea. A iniiaiii yoei caiyeenue ea?aeiu
Aaiaoi?ee. Aeaaiaea?y oiaeui ?ac?aaioeai yoiai i?iiunea aeiau/a niee
aic?inea n 11 000000 aei 15 000000 ioaeia.

Aeoeeciay nenoaia i?inouanoaiaaea aei 1880 aiaea, eiaaea 23 iiya?y
aeoeec aue ioiai?i. Caeii ia/ae aeaenoaiaaoue n 1 yiaa?y 1881 aiaea.

Ii aeaiiui Oi?aaeaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiuie Eiouanoaaie ca 1885 aiae aieueoa
anaai niee aeiauaaee ec Naeneiai ica?a(2567180 ioaeia) e aai canooe
(1620000 ioaeia) – ec eacaiiuo ic??, e ec Eii?aoneiai ica?a – 660000
ioaeia – ec aeaaeaeue/aneeo ic??.

Ii aeaiiui ca 18 eao(1869 ii 1887 aiaeu) iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai niee
auei aeiauoi a 1887 aiaeo – 9851 ioae e 1873 – 9301 ioae, a iaiueoa
anaai a 1880 – 976 ioaeia.

Ei aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae ian/eouaae 15 niea?iaeiuo
ic??. Ia Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae ii Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee auiaaeaei
iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai aeiauaaaiie niee(36, 2%).

Aua iaeei i?iiunae, eioi?ue eiae ianoi a Aaiaoi?eeneii oacaea ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia 19 aaea – a?ycaea/aaiue.

Ai?iaeneay Oi?aaa 1 naioya?y 1885 aiaea caeeth/eea eiio?aeo ia onooiea a
a?aiaeo ia 30 eao /anoe Iaeiaeneiai ica?a a?a/ai N. I. Oeaoeaiaaneiio e
N. E. Oiaeaeao aeey ono?ienoaa eeiaii – a?ycaea/aaiiai caaaaeaiey. N 10
ia?oa 1886 aiaea eeiaii – a?ycaea/aaiia caaaaeaiea auei ono?iaii.
Eoiaeueiy e a?ycaea/aaieoea aeaeeeenue ia aeaa iieiaeiu – ioaeneoth e
aeaineoth. Nacii 1886 aiaea a Iaeiaeneie eoiaeueia auei auaeaii aeeaoia
12000, a a 1887 aiaeo n 20 iay ii 10 aaaonoa 10 868. Ni aeiy ioe?uoey
a?ycaea/aaieoeu, a 1887 aiaeo, iinaoeei a? aieueiuo(n 26 iay ii 10
aaaonoa) 343 /aeiaaea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eae aeaeii ec i?eaaae?iiuo
aeaiiuo, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a?ycaea/aaiue i?iiunae
iieueciaaeny ia?iiiui oniaoii e iiioey?iinoueth, aue iiiai iinauaai. A
oae eae noieiinoue aeeaoia eieaaaeanue io 50 eiiaae aei 2 ?oaeae, oi
caiyoea yoei i?iiuneii auei e oiio aea e auaiaeiui aeey niaea?aeaiey. Ii
naiay aeaaiay oeaiiinoue Iaeiaeneiai a?ycaea/aaiiai i?iiunea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi, ia/aa ?ac?aaaouaaoueny ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19
aaea, nua?ae aiineaaenoaee ia?iiioth ?ieue aeey ?acaeoey Aaiaoi?ee eae
eo?i?oiiai ai?iaea.

I?eeiaeaiea ?1

Oaaeeoea iaaeiai?ia e iaaeieiie

1865186618671868186918701872EoiaiN iaea?ai72?.85e43?.30?.4?.145?.85e.N
aocaiue3?.18?.18?.6?.39?.N aeiiuo iia?aaia65?.50e.16?.50e.82?.N eaaie e
iaaaceiia144?.25e.525?.180?.114?.90e.74?.41,5e.12?.80e.1051?.29,5eN
o?aeoe?iuo caaaaeaiee30?.30?.N iinoiyeuo aeai?ia8?.8?.N eiaeaaaiiuo
caaiaeia6?.6?.

Enoi/iee: OeAAA?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue
1,aae. o?.10. ?inienue ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee ia 18873 aiae.

Eeno 71, 74,77, 78.

I?eeiaeaiea ?2

Oaaeeoea aeioiaeia ai?iaea ca 1869, 1870 e 1874 aiaeu

N eaaie e iaaaceiia57 ?.N oee?theai12?.N ianoiuo eoioeia 1 e 2 ?ac?yaea

1420?.N aeiiuo iia?aaia14 ?.N eiiai?iaeieo e a?aiaiii – oi?aothueo
eoioeia 1 e 2 ?ac?yaea

165?.N eiaeaaaiiuo eaaie13?.N ii?neeo ia?aaiciuo n?aaenoa, n iiaeaiciuo
eiaeie, aa?eania e yeeeia

95?.N iaea?ai78?.7e.N o?aeoe?iuo caaaaeaiee375?.N aocaiue16?.

Enoi/iee: OeAAA?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue
1,aae. o?.10. ?inienue ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee ia 18873 aiae.

Eeno 3, 14, 21, 24, 25, 27, 29.

I?eeiaeaiea ?3

Oaaeeoea /eneaiiinoe ?aianeaiieeia a a. Aaiaoi?ey ca 1874 aiae

1.?aianeaiieee, i?eaioiaeythuea i?aaeiaou
ieueIanoa?ia?aai/eoO/aieeiaoeaaieeia

aoei/ieeia15iynieeia25-eiiaeeoa?ia1–aoei/ieeia3–2.I?eaioaaeythuea

i?aaeiaou
iaeaaeaeuii?oiuo284naiiaeieeia296iiaeenoie—oeyiieeia—oaii/ieeia132aa
oia/ieeia–2ooaieeia2-33.Ecaioiaeythuea

i?aaeiaou
aeiiioicyenoaaia/ieeia2–noiey?ia234iaaeieeia2–oi?ieeia1–ea?aoieeia141
eociaoeia22-iiaeiaueeia—iieiaueeia—

Enoi/iee: OeAAA?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue
1,aae. o?.56. Aeaei «I aeinoaaeaiee Noaoenoe/aneiio Eiieoaoo naaaeaiee
ca 1874 aiae». Eeno 11, 16.

I?iaeieaeaiea

iaey?ia2–aiiaea?ae35-ieioieeia664i?iecaiaeyueo ee?ie/ e /a?aieoeo

-4.I?i/eo
?aianeaiieeiaecaic/eeia43–eiiiaaeia1–/aniaueeia5-4naa/ieeia23-aieei/ie
eia342oee?theueieeia69-na?aa?yieeia2–eaiaiueeia6–e?iaaeueueeia

naoueyiueeia—oooeaoo?ueeia2–aaeeeueueeia2–ia?aie?o/eeia1–noaeieueue
eia3–aeanoyiueeia2–iaieueeia2–eieanieeia44-e?aneeueueeia2–yee/ieeia2
0–

Enoi/iee: OeAA A?E Aeaei Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau

«I aeinoaaeaiee Noaoenoe/aneiio Eiieoaoo naaaeaiee ca 1874 aiae»,

eeno 11, 16.

I?eeiaeaiea ?4

Oaenu ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania. 1874aiae.

Oaenu ia i?iaeaaeo aiaeu (ia ia?o) Ai/ea aiaeu a 40 a?aea? – 30 eiiaae
Aiaeu i?aniie eiiiaea – 1 eiiaeea.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia ai?aeue): aeaia oieueei ia iyni:

aa?aiuea iieiaeia – 12 eiiaae, aiayaeuea – 1 ni?oa a?oaeeia, oeeaeiay
/anoue, eino?aoe e e?ae – 10 eiiaae; 2 ni?oa iie?ioea io oeeaeiie /anoe,
nnae, na?aaeeia ia?aaeiae eiiaoee e iiae eiiaoeie – 9 eiiaae; 3 ni?oa
ca?ac, ca/enoie io oae – 7 eiiaae. Ia naei aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 14
eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eiiiaea – 1 eiiaeea. Ai/ea – 30 eiiaae. Ia oeaa,
ia ae?oaea aeaeu aa?aiueaai iyna, oaeyoeio, ae?oaea aeaeu naea, naa/e –
oaen ia onoaiiaeaii.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia iae: n 1 – 15): iyni aa?aiuea iieiaeia – 8 eiiaae,
aiayaeuea: 1 ni?oa – 10 eiiaae, 2 – 9 eiiaae, 3 – 7 eiiaae; naei
aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 13 eiiaae; naa/ae naeueiuo iaeaiiuo – 18
eiiaae; aiaeu i?aniie eiiiaea – 1 eiiaeea, ai/ea – 30 eiiaae.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (n 15 iay ii 1 ethiy): iyni aa?aiuea iieiaeia – 8 eiiaae,
aiayaeuea: 1 ni?oa – 10 eiiaae, 2 ni?oa – 8 eiiaae, 3 ni?oa – 6 eiiaae,
aa?aiuee aieiaee: iieiaeay – 3 eiiaeee, noa?ay – iao. Aa?aiuee aonaee:
iieiaeie aac aee?a e eeoae – 3 eiiaeee, noa?ue n aee?ii e eeoeaie – iao.
Eo?aethe – 12 eiiaae; naei aa?aiuea aioo?aiiaa – 10 eiiaae, naei
aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 12 eiiaae. Naa/ae naeueiuo iaeaiiuo – 18
eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eaiaaea – 1 eiiaeea, ai/ea – 25 eiiaae.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia ethiue): iyni aa?aiuea iieiaeia – 8 eiiaae, noa?ia – 6
eiiaae, aiayaeuea: 1 ni?oa – 8 eiiaae, 2 – 7 eiiaae, 3 – 6 eiiaae,
aa?aiuee aieiaee: iieiaeay – 4 eiiaeee. Aa?aiuee aonaee: iieiaeie – 4
eiiaeee. Eo?aethe – 13 eiiaae, naei aa?aiuea aioo?aiiaa – 10 eiiaae,
naei aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 11 eiiaae. Naa/ae naeueiuo iaeaiiuo – 18
eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eaiaaea – 1 eiiaeea, ai/ea – 25 eiiaae.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia etheue): iyni aa?aiuea iieiaeia – 8 eiiaae, noa?ia – 6
eiiaae, aiayaeuea: 1 ni?oa – 8 eiiaae, 2 – 7 eiiaae, 3 – 6 eiiaae,
aa?aiuee aieiaee: iieiaeay e noa?ay – 4 eiiaeee. Aa?aiuee aonaee:
iieiaeie e noa?ue – 4 eiiaeee. Eo?aethe – 13 eiiaae, naei aa?aiuea
aioo?aiiaa – 10 eiiaae, naei aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 11 eiiaae. Naa/ae
naeueiuo iaeaiiuo – 18 eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eaiaaea – 1 eiiaeea, ai/ea
– 25 eiiaae.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia aaaono): oeaa: e?oi/aoiai 1 ni?oa – 7 eiiaae, 2 ni?oa – 4,5
eiiaeee; ioaie/iiai 1 e 2 ni?oa – 3 eiiaeee; oaoa?neiai 1 e 2 ni?oa – 3
eiiaeee; ?aeaiiai – 2 eiiaeee. Iyni aa?aiuea iieiaeia – 7,5 eiiaeee,
noa?ia – 6 eiiaae, oiaineiai – 6 eiiaae, eiceyoeia – 6 eiiaae;
aiayaeuea: 1 ni?oa – 7 eiiaae, 2 – 6 eiiaae, 3 – 5 eiiaae, aa?aiuee
aieiaee: iieiaeay e noa?ay – 3 eiiaeee. Aa?aiuee aonaee: iieiaeie e
noa?ue – 3 eiiaeee. Eo?aethe – 13 eiiaae, naei aa?aiuea aioo?aiiaa – 10
eiiaae, naei aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 10 eiiaae. Naa/ae naeueiuo
iaeaiiuo – 18 eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eaiaaea – 1 eiiaeea, ai/ea – 25
eiiaae.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia aaaono): oeaa: e?oi/aoiai 1 ni?oa – 7 eiiaae, 2 ni?oa – 4,5
eiiaeee; ioaie/iiai 1 e 2 ni?oa – 3 eiiaeee; oaoa?neiai 1 e 2 ni?oa – 3
eiiaeee; ?aeaiiai – 2 eiiaeee. Iyni aa?aiuea iieiaeia – 7,5 eiiaeee,
noa?ia – 6 eiiaae, oiaineiai – 6 eiiaae, eiceyoeia – 6 eiiaae;
aiayaeuea: 1 ni?oa – 8 eiiaae, 2 – 6 eiiaae, 3 – 5 eiiaae, aa?aiuee
aieiaee: iieiaeay e noa?ay – 3 eiiaeee. Aa?aiuee aonaee: iieiaeie e
noa?ue – 3 eiiaeee. Eo?aethe – 13 eiiaae, naei aa?aiuea aioo?aiiaa – 10
eiiaae, naei aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 10 eiiaae. Naa/ae naeueiuo
iaeaiiuo – 18 eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eaiaaea – 1 eiiaeea, ai/ea – 25
eiiaae.

Enoi/iee: OeAA A?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue
1,aae. o?.70. Aeaei «Ia onoaiiaeaiee ia i?iaeaaeo a ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey
aeeciaiiuo i?eiania. Oaenu ia 1874 aiae. Eeno 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 45.

I?eeiaeaiea ?5

Oaenu ia aeeciaiiua i?iaeoeou, aeey acaeu ii ai?iaeo ia ae?aeaauo
ae?iaeeao 1881 aiaea.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia yiaa?ue): oeaa: e?oi/aoiai 1 ni?oa – iao, 2 ni?oa – 6
eiiaeee; ioaie/iiai 1 e 2 ni?oa – 4,5 eiiaeee; oaoa?neiai 1 e 2 ni?oa –
4,5 eiiaeee; ?aeaiiai – 4 eiiaeee. Iyni aa?aiuea – 9 eiiaae, aiayaeuea:
1 ni?oa – 9 eiiaae, 2 – 8 eiiaae, 3 – 7 eiiaae, aa?aiuee aieiaee:
iieiaeay e noa?ay – 4 eiiaeee. Aa?aiuee aonaee: iieiaeie e noa?ue – 4
eiiaeee. Eo?aethe – 16 eiiaae, naei aa?aiuea aioo?aiiaa – 14 eiiaae,
naei aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 14 eiiaae. Naa/ae naeueiuo iaeaiiuo – 18
eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eaiaaea – 1,25 eiiaeea, ai/ea – 30 eiiaae.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia ethiue): oeaa: e?oi/aoiai 1 ni?oa – iao, 2 ni?oa – 5,5
eiiaeee; ioaie/iiai 1 e 2 ni?oa – 4,5 eiiaeee; oaoa?neiai 1 ni?oa – 4,5
eiiaeee; ?aeaiiai – 3,5 eiiaeee. Iyni aa?aiuea – 10 eiiaae, aiayaeuea: 1
ni?oa – 10 eiiaae, 2 – 9 eiiaae, 3 – 7 eiiaae, aa?aiuee aieiaee:
iieiaeay e noa?ay – 3 eiiaeee. Aa?aiuee aonaee: iieiaeie e noa?ue – 4
eiiaeee. Eo?aethe – 16 eiiaae, naei aa?aiuea aioo?aiiaa – 14 eiiaae,
naei aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 15 eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eaiaaea – 1,25
eiiaeea, ai/ea – 30 eiiaae.

Oaena ia i?iaeaaeo aeeciaiiuo i?eiania ii a. Aaiaoi?ee Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee (ia aeaeaa?ue): oeaa o?aicieue – 7 eiiaae, e?oi/aoiai 1 ni?oa –
6 eiiaae, 2 ni?oa – 5 eiiaeee; ioaie/iiai 1 e 2 ni?oa – 4 eiiaeee;
oaoa?neiai 1 – 4 eiiaeee. Iyni aa?aiuea – 10 eiiaae, aiayaeuea: 1 ni?oa
– 10 eiiaae, 2 – 9 eiiaae, 3 – 8 eiiaae, aa?aiuee aieiaee: iieiaeay e
noa?ay – 4 eiiaeee. Aa?aiuee aonaee: iieiaeie e noa?ue – 4 eiiaeee.
Eo?aethe – 16 eiiaae, naei aa?aiuea aioo?aiiaa – 14 eiiaae, naei
aiayaeuea ia oiieaiiia – 14 eiiaae. Naa/ae naeueiuo iaeaiiuo – 18
eiiaae. Aiaeu i?aniie eaiaaea – 1 eiiaeea, ai/ea – 25 eiiaae.

Oaena aeey ae?aeaauo ecaic/eeia a ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey.

ca iiacaeeo ii ai?iaeo a eiiaoe aeiai e ii/ueth20 eiiaaeca eaoaiea ii
ai?iaeo a /an1 ?oaeueca acaeo a /an aeiai e ii/ueth50 eiiaaeca iiacaeeo
ia eeaaeaeua a eiiaoe40 eiiaaeca iie/ana 30 eiiaaeca iiacaeeo a ea?aioei
a eiiaoe20 eiiaae

Enoi/iee: OeAA A?E O.681, iienue 1,aae. o?.149. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie
ai?iaeneie Oi?aau. Aeaei «Ia onoaiiaeaiee oaen ia aeeciaiiua i?iaeoeou,
aeey acaeu ii ai?iaeo ia ae?aeaauo ae?iaeeao, eeiaeeao ia Iaeiaeneia
ica?i e ia oa/a/ieeia ia 1881 aiae». Eeno 2, 16, 24, 33.

I?eeiaeaiea ?6

Aaaeiiinoue i ni?aai/iuo oeaiao ia i?iaeaio, oo?aae, ioiieaiea,
inaauaiea e i?i/ea i?aaeiaou ia oaa?aeue 1887 aiaea.

I?aaeiaou, aan eee ia?a eoOeaiu (?oa.)1./aoaa?oue ?aeaiie ioee eo/oae
aanii 9 ioaeia82.ioaie/iie oiaea 10 ioaeia13,503.eoeue e?oi/aoie a
5ioaeia aana10,504./aoaa?oue ?aee a 9 ioaeia6,305./aoaa?oue ioaieoeu 10
ioaeia126./aoaa?oue y/iaiy 7, 5 ioaeia5,407.iana io 5 o. a
ioae4,208.a?a/iaaie e?oiu a i?iaeaaea iao9.y/iaaie e?oiua i?iaeaaea
iao10.aiayaeeia 1 ni?oa3,8011.aa?aieiaa i?iaeaaea iao12.ioae ia?oea
aiaeeeneiai0,5013.eaa?iaiai eenoa0,3514.eaionoaa i?iaeaaea iao15.eoea
ioaeio 80 eii. aei 1 ?.16.niee e?uineie ioae0,1517.?uaua i?iaeaaea
iao18.ea?oioaey ioae0,8019.naoa?a ioae4,8020.naea ioaeio 7,50 aei 8
?.21.ianea: eiiiieyiiai

aea?aayiiiai

iiaenieia/iiai5,20

11,20

6,4022.ooio /ay: eyooeineiai

eaioiineiai1,40

5,0023.aiaeee aaae?i a 40 %1,5024.oenona aaae?i1425.naia
ioae0,2826.nieiiua i?iaeaaea iao27.iuea ioae3,6028.oaey: aea?aayiiiai

eaiaiiiai0,70

0,2529.?onneiai oaaaea7Noieiinoue ?aaiou:noieiinoue iaoaai ?aai/aai
aeiy0,80 iaeiieiiiiai2 ia?ieiiiiai3 ia?iaieiaiai3Noieiinoue ia?aaicee n
ioaea eeaaee ia 100 a??no:nooei ioo?i

a?yciie aei?iaie0,20

0,30

Aaaeiiinoue i ni?aai/iuo oeaiao ia i?iaeaio, oo?aae, ioiieaiea,
inaauaiea e i?i/ea i?aaeiaou, nouanoaothuea ia etheue 1887 aiaea

I?aaeiaou, aan eee ia?a eoOeaiu (?oa.)1./aoaa?oue ?aeaiie ioee eo/oae
aanii 9 ioaeia8,102.ioaie/iie oiaea 10 ioaeia15,003.eoeue e?oi/aoie a
5ioaeia aana11,304./aoaa?oue ?aee a 9 ioaeia6,55./aoaa?oue ioaieoeu 10
ioaeia11,506./aoaa?oue y/iaiy 7, 5 ioaeia4,507.iana io 5 o. a
ioae4,008.a?a/iaaie e?oiu a i?iaeaaea iao9.y/iaaie e?oiua i?iaeaaea
iao10.aiayaeeia 1 ni?oa411.aa?aieia412.ioae ia?oea
aiaeeeneiai0,5013.eaa?iaiai eenoa0,3514.eaionoa1,4015.eoea
ioae0,8016.niee e?uineie ioae0,1517.?uaua i?iaeaaea iao18.ea?oioaey
ioae0,7519.naoa?a ioae5,0020.naea ioae6,5021.ianea: eiiiieyiiai

aea?aayiiiai

iiaenieia/iiai5,00

11,40

6,00

22.ooio /ay: eyooeineiai

eaioiineiai1,60

1,4023.aiaeee aaae?i a 40 %5,0024.oenona aaae?i1,5025.naia
ioae0,6026.nieiiua i?iaeaaea iao27.iuea ioae3,6028.oaey: aea?aayiiiai

eaiaiiiai0,40

0,2529.?onneiai oaaaea7Noieiinoue ?aaiou:noieiinoue iaoaai ?aai/aai
aeiy1 iaeiieiiiiai2 ia?ieiiiiai3 ia?iaieiaiai3Noieiinoue ia?aaicee n
ioaea eeaaee ia 100 a??no:nooei ioo?i

a?yciie aei?iaie0,20

0,30Aaaeiiinoue i ni?aai/iuo oeaiao ia i?iaeaio, oo?aae, ioiieaiea e
i?i/ea i?aaeiaou, nouanoaothuea ia aeaeaa?ue 1887 aiaea

I?aaeiaou, aan eee ia?a eoOeaiu (?oa.)1./aoaa?oue ?aeaiie ioee eo/oae
aanii 9 ioaeia7,502.ioaie/iie oiaea 10 ioaeia13,003.eoeue e?oi/aoie a
5ioaeia aana9,504./aoaa?oue ?aee a 9 ioaeia6,55./aoaa?oue ioaieoeu 10
ioaeia11,006./aoaa?oue y/iaiy 7, 5 ioaeia5,427.iana io 5 o. a
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iao10.aiayaeeia 1 ni?oa3,2011.aa?aieia2,8012.ioae ia?oea
aiaeeeneiai0,5013.eaa?iaiai eenoa0,3514.eaionoaa i?iaeaaea iao15.eoea
ioae0,1516.niee e?uineie ioae0,1517.?uaua i?iaeaaea iao18.ea?oioaey
ioae0,6519.naoa?a ioae5,8020.naea ioae6,50 e 421.ianea: eiiiieyiiai

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0,2529.?onneiai oaaaea7Noieiinoue ?aaiou:noieiinoue iaoaai ?aai/aai
aeiy0,70 iaeiieiiiiai2 ia?ieiiiiai3 ia?iaieiaiai3Noieiinoue ia?aaicee n
ioaea eeaaee ia 100 a??no:nooei ioo?i

a?yciie aei?iaie0,20

0,30

Ieaoa ca au?aaioaiiue o?ie a aeaiue, niaeanii o?i/iiio iieiaeaieth
Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeae?iiiio 17 ai?aey 1869 aiaea:

?aianeiIaoa?aianeiIeaoaEaiaiio?no1 ?oaeue*a?ii?aai/aio0,70Eaiaiueeo1
?oaeueOooeaoo?o1 ?oaeueE?iaaeueueeo1,20 ?oaeyIaeiieiiiie iiaeaiaea n
i?iaiaeieeii

2 ?oaeyIa/ieeo1,25 ?oaeyAeaoeiiiie3 ?oaeyIeioieeo1,25 ?oaeyAeaoaieiaie3
?oaey

Enoi/iee: OeAA A?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue
1,aae. o?.50. Aeaei Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau «I ni?aai/iuo oeaiao
ia ?aciua no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, iiae?iioth ?aaioo ianoa?iauo e
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou(1887)». Eeno 22, 143, 236, 229.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. ?inney. Iieiia aaia?aoe/aneia iienaiea iaoaai ioa/anoaa. Ianoieueiay
e aei?iaeiay eieaa./Iiae ?aae. A. I. Nai?iiaa – Oyi – Oaineiai. O.14.
Iiai?inney e E?ui. – NIa., Ecaeaiea A. O. Aeaa?eaia, 1910. – 983n.

2. Nai?iee noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaiee ii Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee. O. 9.
Iaiyoiay eieaeea Oaa?e/neie aoaa?iee./Iiae ?aae. E. A. Aa?ia?a. Ecaeaiea
Oaa?e/aneie Aoaa?ineie Caineie Oi?aau. – Neioa?iiieue., 1889. – n.

3. OeAAA?E O.681, iienue 1,aae. o?.24 A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie
Oi?aau. Aeaei «I i?aaeinoaaeaiee Noaoenoe/aneiio Eiieoaoo naaaeaiee ca
1873 aiae».

4. OeAAA?E O.681, iienue 1,aae. o?.149 A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie
Oi?aau. Aeaei «Ia onoaiiaeaiee oaen ia aeeciaiiua i?iaeoeou, aeey acaeu
ii ai?iaeo ia ae?aeaauo ae?iaeeao, eeiaeeao ia Iaeiaeneia ica?i e ia
oa/a/ieeia ia 1881 aiae».

5. OeAAA?E O.681, 70. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue
1,aae. o?. Aeaei «Ia onoaiiaeaiee ia i?iaeaaeo a ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey
aeeciaiiuo i?eiania. Oaenu ia 1874 aiae».

6. OeAAA?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue 1,aae.
o?.26. Aeaei «I auaea/a ?aciui eeoeai oaeinoiaa?aiey ia i?aai ioe?uoey a
ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey a 1874 aiaeo ieoaeiuo caaaaeaiee, iia?aaia e
nie?oiaiaei/iiai caaiaea».

7. OeAAA?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue 1,aae.
o?.56. Aeaei «I aeinoaaeaiee Noaoenoe/aneiio Eiieoaoo naaaeaiee ca 1874
aiae».

8. OeAAA?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue 1,aae.
o?.50. Aeaei Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau «I eoioeao iauyaeaoeo e ia
iauyaeaoeo eaieoaeu ia1874 aiae».

9. OeAAA?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue 1,aae.
o?.50. Aeaei Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau «I ni?aai/iuo oeaiao ia
?aciua no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, iiae?iioth ?aaioo ianoa?iauo e
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou(1887)».

10. OeAAA?E O.681. A?oea Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie Oi?aau, iienue 1,aae.
o?.10. ?inienue ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ee ia 18873 aiae.

11.Ae?a/oe A. N., Nie?iia A. I.,*aeuoaa TH. A. Aaiaoi?ey. –
Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?ey, 1979 – 160 n.

12. Aaiaoi?eeneay eaoiienue//Aaiaoi?eeneay o?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 8. – N.4

13. Aaiaoi?eeneay noa?eia//Aaiaoi?eeneay o?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 28. – N.4

14. Aaiaoi?eeneee oacae//Aaiaoi?eeneay o?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 11. – N.4

15. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae1837//O?eaoia. – 190. – ? 4.- N.4

16. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae 1846//O?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 29. – N.4

17. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae 1846//O?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 30. – N.4

18. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae 1850//O?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 18. – N.4

19. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae 1850//O?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 19. – N.4

20. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae 1888//Aaiaoi?eeneay o?eaoia . – 1993. – ? 14. – N.4

21. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae 1888//Aaiaoi?eeneay o?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 22.- N.4

22. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae 1888//Aaiaoi?eeneay o?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 23.- N.4

23. Aaiaoi?ey: aiae 1888//Aaiaoi?eeneay o?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 24.- N.4

24. Aaiaoi?ey noi eao iacaae//O?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 40. – N.4

25. Aaiaoi?ey noi eao iacaae//O?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 42. – N.4

26. Aaiaoi?ey noi eao iacaae//O?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 43. – N.4

27. Aaiaoi?ey 1853 – 1856 aiaeu// O?eaoia. – 1993. – ? 29. – N.4

28. Aaiaoi?ey 1896 aiae//O?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 5.- N.4

29. Ec aeiaaieea Aa?oaiaaa TH. I. Aaiaoi?ey 1843 aiae//O?eaoia. – 1992.
– ? 13. – N.4

30. Ec eieae Iueyieiaa A. A. «Ni?aai/iay eieaeea a. Aaiaoi?ee e aai
oacaea»//O?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 3. – N.4

31. Eiiaea?aee i Aaiaoi?ee//O?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 20 . – N.3 – 4

32. Eiiaea?aee i Aaiaoi?ee//O?eaoia. – 1992. – ? 21. – N.4

33. Eoooeue N. N ethaiaueth e Aaiaoi?ee//Aaiaoi?eeneay cae?aaieoea. –
1991. – 26 ethey. – N.6

34. Eoooeue N. N ethaiaueth e Aaiaoi?ee//Aaiaoi?eeneay cae?aaieoea. –
1991. – 27 ethey. – N.6

35. I?i aiiaoeou 19 aaea//Aaiaoi?eeneay cae?aaieoea. – 2003 – 23 ethey.
– N.6

36. Naaa?eiia N. N., ssaoiia A. O. Aaiaoi?ey – eo?i?o: Iooaaiaeeoaeue –
ni?aai/iee. – Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?ey, 1985. – 112n., ee.

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